WorldWideScience

Sample records for proposed invisible fragile

  1. Digital Image Authentication Algorithm Based on Fragile Invisible Watermark and MD-5 Function in the DWT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad Hameed Hussein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using watermarking techniques and digital signatures can better solve the problems of digital images transmitted on the Internet like forgery, tampering, altering, etc. In this paper we proposed invisible fragile watermark and MD-5 based algorithm for digital image authenticating and tampers detecting in the Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT domain. The digital image is decomposed using 2-level DWT and the middle and high frequency sub-bands are used for watermark and digital signature embedding. The authentication data are embedded in number of the coefficients of these sub-bands according to the adaptive threshold based on the watermark length and the coefficients of each DWT level. These sub-bands are used because they are less sensitive to the Human Visual System (HVS and preserve high image fidelity. MD-5 and RSA algorithms are used for generating the digital signature from the watermark data that is also embedded in the medical image. We apply the algorithm on number of medical images. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR is used as watermark data. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness, invisibility, and fragility. Watermark and digital signature can be extracted without the need to the original image.

  2. Thermalization as an Invisibility Cloak for Fragile Quantum Superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Walter; Fine, Boris V.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for protecting fragile quantum superpositions in many-particle systems from dephasing by external classical noise. We call superpositions "fragile" if dephasing occurs particularly fast, because the noise couples very differently to the superposed states. The method consists of letting a quantum superposition evolve under the internal thermalization dynamics of the system, followed by a time reversal manipulation known as Loschmidt echo. The thermalization dynamics makes t...

  3. Thermalization as an invisibility cloak for fragile quantum superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Walter; Fine, Boris V.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method for protecting fragile quantum superpositions in many-particle systems from dephasing by external classical noise. We call superpositions "fragile" if dephasing occurs particularly fast, because the noise couples very differently to the superposed states. The method consists of letting a quantum superposition evolve under the internal thermalization dynamics of the system, followed by a time-reversal manipulation known as Loschmidt echo. The thermalization dynamics makes the superposed states almost indistinguishable during most of the above procedure. We validate the method by applying it to a cluster of spins ½.

  4. Invisibility & Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHerzog

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility is often thought to occur because of the low-level limitations of the visual system. For example, it is often assumed that backward masking renders a target invisible because the visual system is simply too slow to resolve the target and the mask separately. Here, we propose an alternative explanation in which invisibility is a goal rather than a limitation and occurs naturally when making sense out of the plethora of incoming information. For example, we present evidence that (invisibility of an element can strongly depend on how it groups with other elements. Changing grouping changes visibility. In addition, we will show that features often just appear to be invisible but are in fact visible in a way the experimenter is not aware of.

  5. Invisibility and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Hermens, Frouke; Oğmen, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Invisibility is often thought to occur because of the low-level limitations of the visual system. For example, it is often assumed that backward masking renders a target invisible because the visual system is simply too slow to resolve the target and the mask separately. Here, we propose an alternative explanation in which invisibility is a goal rather than a limitation and occurs naturally when making sense out of the plethora of incoming information. For example, we present evidence that (in)visibility of an element can strongly depend on how it groups with other elements. Changing grouping changes visibility. In addition, we will show that features often just appear to be invisible but are in fact visible in a way the experimenter is not aware of.

  6. Cloaks with multiple invisible regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Zhu, Shouzheng; He, Lianxing; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells

  7. Hiding the interior region of core-shell nanoparticles with quantum invisible cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    Based on the scattering cancellation, we provide a method not only making a nanoparticle nearly invisible, but also hiding its interior region from the outside probing matter wave. By applying the interplay among the nodal points of partial waves along with the concept of streamline in fluid dynamics for probability flux, a quantum invisible cloak to the electron transport in a host semiconductor is demonstrated by simultaneously guiding the probability flux outside a hidden region and keeping the total scattering cross section negligible. As the probability flux vanishes in the interior region, one can embed any materials inside a multiple core-shell nanoparticle without affecting physical observables from the outside. Our results reveal the possibility to design a protection shield layer for fragile interior parts from the impact of transport electrons.

  8. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

    2009-01-02

    Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

  9. Invisibility Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance of these de......Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance...... conditioned by physical and social settings that create certain possibilities for visibility and visuality, yet exclude others. The richness and complexity of this cultural framework means that no single discipline or interdisciplinary approach could capture it single-handedly. Invisibility Studies begins...

  10. Invisible marker based augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2005-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has recently gained significant attention. The previous AR techniques usually need a fiducial marker with known geometry or objects of which the structure can be easily estimated such as cube. Placing a marker in the workspace of the user can be intrusive. To overcome this limitation, we present an AR system using invisible markers which are created/drawn with an infrared (IR) fluorescent pen. Two cameras are used: an IR camera and a visible camera, which are positioned in each side of a cold mirror so that their optical centers coincide with each other. We track the invisible markers using IR camera and visualize AR in the view of visible camera. Additional algorithms are employed for the system to have a reliable performance in the cluttered background. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. As an application of the proposed system, the invisible marker can act as a Vision-Based Identity and Geometry (VBIG) tag, which can significantly extend the functionality of RFID. The invisible tag is the same as RFID in that it is not perceivable while more powerful in that the tag information can be presented to the user by direct projection using a mobile projector or by visualizing AR on the screen of mobile PDA.

  11. Design of invisibility cloaks with an open tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Thomas; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min

    2010-12-20

    In this paper we apply the methodology of transformation optics for design of a novel invisibility cloak which can possess an open tunnel. Such a cloak facilitates the insertion (retrieval) of matter into (from) the cloak's interior without significantly affecting the cloak's performance, overcoming the matter exchange bottleneck inherent to most previously proposed cloak designs.We achieve this by applying a transformation which expands a point at the origin in electromagnetic space to a finite area in physical space in a highly anisotropic manner. The invisibility performance of the proposed cloak is verified by using full-wave finite-element simulations.

  12. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  13. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  14. Fragility correlates thermodynamic and kinetic properties of glass forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.Narayana [Maharani’s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560001 (India); Viswanatha, R.; Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gowda, V.C.Veeranna [Government First Grade College, Jayanagara, Bangalore 560070 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The suggested new fragility parameter correlates viscosity and configurational entropy. - Highlights: • A new fragility function, F=ΔT/ΔC{sub p}×C{sub p}{sup l}/T{sub g} has been proposed. • A three parameter viscosity function using the new F reproduces Angell fragility plot. • A new ΔC{sub p} function is derived which directly relates Adam–Gibbs function with the fragility based viscosity function. - Abstract: In our earlier communication we proposed a simple fragility determining function, ([NBO]/V{sub m}{sup 3}T{sub g}), which we have now used to analyze several glass systems using available thermal data. A comparison with similar fragility determining function, ΔC{sub p}/C{sub p}{sup l}, introduced by Chryssikos et al. in their investigation of lithium borate glasses has also been performed and found to be more convenient quantity for discussing fragilities. We now propose a new function which uses both ΔC{sub p} and ΔT and which gives a numerical fragility parameter, F whose value lies between 0 and 1 for glass forming liquids. F can be calculated through the use of measured thermal parameters ΔC{sub p}, C{sub p}{sup l}, T{sub g} and T{sub m}. Use of the new fragility values in reduced viscosity equation reproduces the whole range of viscosity curves of the Angell plot. The reduced viscosity equation can be directly compared with the Adam–Gibbs viscosity equation and a heat capacity function can be formulated which reproduces satisfactorily the ΔC{sub p} versus ln(T{sub r}) curves and hence the configurational entropy.

  15. Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu-Qi; Zhang Min; Yue Jian-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  17. In/visible Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, John

    2011-01-01

    This article offers two approaches to the question of "invisible punctuation," theoretical and critical. The first is a taxonomy of modes of punctuational invisibility, identifying "denial, repression, habituation, error" and "absence." Each is briefly discussed and some relations with technologies of reading are considered. The second considers…

  18. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...... invisibility. Meanwhile, other celebrations are consciously relegated to the invisible confines of the Serbian homeland. This article analyses celebrations in Denmark and in Serbia and shows how visible displays of ethnicity and difference tend to turn into easily palatable heritage versions of Serbian culture...... when performed in a Danish context. In turn, the visibility acquired through celebrations of migrants’ belonging in their homeland is inclined to render invisible those who did not take part in the migration experience....

  19. The strong CP problem and the visibility of invisible axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1986-12-01

    The main subject of these lectures are general properties of axions and recent suggestions of how to detect invisible axions. After a brief review of the strong CP problem and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in sects. 2 and 3, we discuss axion properties by means of an effective lagrangian approach in sect. 4. Experimental bounds on axion production and decays are reviewed in sect. 5. Sect. 6 deals briefly with the recently proposed variant axion models, and in sect. 7 we discuss the possible relevance of supersymmetry to the strong CP problem. In sect. 8 we then review the different proposals for the detection of invisible axions. Some conclusions are given in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)

  20. Effective updating process of seismic fragilities using Bayesian method and information entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaaki; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (SPSA) is an effective method for evaluating overall performance of seismic safety of a plant. Seismic fragilities are estimated to quantify the seismically induced accident sequences. It is a great concern that the SPSA results involve uncertainties, a part of which comes from the uncertainty in the seismic fragility of equipment and systems. A straightforward approach to reduce the uncertainty is to perform a seismic qualification test and to reflect the results on the seismic fragility estimate. In this paper, we propose a figure-of-merit to find the most cost-effective condition of the seismic qualification tests about the acceleration level and number of components tested. Then a mathematical method to reflect the test results on the fragility update is developed. A Bayesian method is used for the fragility update procedure. Since a lognormal distribution that is used for the fragility model does not have a Bayes conjugate function, a parameterization method is proposed so that the posterior distribution expresses the characteristics of the fragility. The information entropy is used as the figure-of-merit to express importance of obtained evidence. It is found that the information entropy is strongly associated with the uncertainty of the fragility. (author)

  1. L’ICÔNE : L’IMAGE ET L’INVISIBLE (Icon: The Image and the Invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Cibotaru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An icon is part of the visible world, moreover, of things that are visible in a second degree. It is not only a sensitive thing, but a sensitive image of a sensitive entity. As an eikon, it is located in a platonic sense among the lowest degree of the doxa, and within the lowest degree of the scale of being. However it is not a simple sensitive and illusory representation of God, such as one criticized from a Kantian point of view. The profound sense of an icon lies in its opening towards the invisible. An icon tries to capture the invisible. How is this meeting point of the visible and the invisible entangled? Can an icon really allow us to “see” the invisible or is it only a profanation of the invisible? It is my aim to analyze those questions in the following article.

  2. Fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy. Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency also occurs in premutation carrier women and manifests with infertility and early menopause. The diseases constituting fragile X-associated disorders differ mechanistically, due to the distinct molecular properties of premutation versus full mutations. Fragile X syndrome occurs when there is a lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to FMR1 methylation and silencing. In fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, a toxic gain of function is postulated with the production of excess CGG repeat-containing FMR1 mRNA, abnormal translation of the repeat sequence leading to production of polyglycine, polyalanine, and other polypeptides and to outright deficits in translation leading to reduced FMRP at larger premutation sizes. The changes in underlying brain chemistry due to FMR1 mutations have led to therapeutic studies in these disorders, with some progress being made in fragile X syndrome. This paper also summarizes indications for testing, genetic counseling issues, and what the future holds for these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Invisible-hand explanations: From blindness to lack of we-ness

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer-Tieffenbach, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The unintendedness of the phenomenon that is to be explained is a constraint visible in the various applications and clarifications of invisible hand explanations. The article casts doubt on such a requirement and proposes a revised account. To have a role in an invisible hand process it is argued agents may very well act with a view to contributing to the occurrence of the social outcome that is to be explained provided they see what they do as an aggregation of their individual actions rath...

  4. Invisible data matrix detection with smart phone using geometric correction and Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Halit; Uysalturk, Mahir C.; Karakaya, Mahmut

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional data matrices are used in many different areas that provide quick and automatic data entry to the computer system. Their most common usage is to automatically read labeled products (books, medicines, food, etc.) and recognize them. In Turkey, alcohol beverages and tobacco products are labeled and tracked with the invisible data matrices for public safety and tax purposes. In this application, since data matrixes are printed on a special paper with a pigmented ink, it cannot be seen under daylight. When red LEDs are utilized for illumination and reflected light is filtered, invisible data matrices become visible and decoded by special barcode readers. Owing to their physical dimensions, price and requirement of special training to use; cheap, small sized and easily carried domestic mobile invisible data matrix reader systems are required to be delivered to every inspector in the law enforcement units. In this paper, we first developed an apparatus attached to the smartphone including a red LED light and a high pass filter. Then, we promoted an algorithm to process captured images by smartphones and to decode all information stored in the invisible data matrix images. The proposed algorithm mainly involves four stages. In the first step, data matrix code is processed by Hough transform processing to find "L" shaped pattern. In the second step, borders of the data matrix are found by using the convex hull and corner detection methods. Afterwards, distortion of invisible data matrix corrected by geometric correction technique and the size of every module is fixed in rectangular shape. Finally, the invisible data matrix is scanned line by line in the horizontal axis to decode it. Based on the results obtained from the real test images of invisible data matrix captured with a smartphone, the proposed algorithm indicates high accuracy and low error rate.

  5. Invertible chaotic fragile watermarking for robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Nikolaidis, Nikos; Pitas, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Fragile watermarking is a popular method for image authentication. In such schemes, a fragile signal that is sensitive to manipulations is embedded in the image, so that it becomes undetectable after any modification of the original work. Most algorithms focus either on the ability to retrieve the original work after watermark detection (invertibility) or on detecting which image parts have been altered (localization). Furthermore, the majority of fragile watermarking schemes suffer from robustness flaws. We propose a new technique that combines localization and invertibility. Moreover, watermark dependency on the original image and the non-linear watermark embedding procedure guarantees that no malicious attacks will manage to create information leaks.

  6. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  7. Seismic fragilities for nuclear power plant risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic fragilities of critical structures and equipment are developed as families of conditional failure frequency curves plotted against peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on available data combined with judicious extrapolation of design information on plant structures and equipment. Representative values of fragility parameters for typical modern nuclear power plants are provided. Based on the fragility evaluation for about a dozen nuclear power plants, it is proposed that unnecessary conservatism existing in current seismic design practice could be removed by properly accounting for inelastic energy absorption capabilities of structures. The paper discusses the key contributors to seismic risk and the significance of possible correlation between component failures and potential design and construction errors

  8. Equipment fragility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.; Cummings, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize component fragilities which are for the most part based on a limited data base and engineering judgement. The seismic design of components is based on code limits and NRC requirements that do not reflect the actual capacity of a component to resist failure. In order to improve the present component fragility data base and establish component seismic design margins, the NRC has commissioned a projected three-year program to compile existing fragilities data and at the same time independently perform fragilities tests on selected mechanical and electrical components. This paper presents the planning and technical approach being taken by LLNL in the NRC Component Fragility Program

  9. The scattering of a cylindrical invisibility cloak: reduced parameters and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Ran, L.; Mortensen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of 2D cylindrical invisibility cloaks with simplified constitutive parameters with the assistance of scattering coefficients. We show that the scattering of the cloaks originates not only from the boundary conditions but also from the spatial variation of the component...... of permittivity/permeability. According to our formulation, we propose some restrictions to the invisibility cloak in order to minimize its scattering after the simplification has taken place. With our theoretical analysis, it is possible to design a simplified cloak using some peculiar composites...

  10. Exploring the academic invisible web

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk; Mayr, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a critical review of Bergman’s 2001 study on the Deep Web. In addition, we bring a new concept into the discussion, the Academic Invisible Web (AIW). We define the Academic Invisible Web as consisting of all databases and collections relevant to academia but not searchable by the general-purpose internet search engines. Indexing this part of the Invisible Web is central to scientific search engines. We provide an overview of approaches followed thus far. Design/methodol...

  11. Exploring the academic invisible web

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The Invisible Web is often discussed in the academic context, where its contents (mainly in the form of databases) are of great importance. But this discussion is mainly based on some seminal research done by Sherman and Price (2001) and Bergman (2001), respectively. We focus on the types of Invisible Web content relevant for academics and the improvements made by search engines to deal with these content types. In addition, we question the volume of the Invisible Web as stated by Bergman. Ou...

  12. Invisible Axions and Large-Radius Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R.; Gherghetta, Tony; Dienes, Keith R.; Dudas, Emilian; Gherghetta, Tony

    2000-01-01

    We study some of the novel effects that arise when the QCD axion is placed in the ``bulk'' of large extra spacetime dimensions. First, we find that the mass of the axion can become independent of the energy scale associated with the breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry. This implies that the mass of the axion can be adjusted independently of its couplings to ordinary matter, thereby providing a new method of rendering the axion invisible. Second, we discuss the new phenomenon of laboratory axion oscillations (analogous to neutrino oscillations), and show that these oscillations cause laboratory axions to ``decohere'' extremely rapidly as a result of Kaluza-Klein mixing. This decoherence may also be a contributing factor to axion invisibility. Third, we discuss the role of Kaluza-Klein axions in axion-mediated processes and decays, and propose several experimental tests of the higher-dimensional nature of the axion. Finally, we show that under certain circumstances, the presence of an infinite tower of Kaluza...

  13. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyu [State Key Laboratory of Magnetics Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institution of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)]. E-mail: qycai@wipm.ac.cn

    2006-02-20

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed00.

  14. Eavesdropping on the two-way quantum communication protocols with invisible photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyu

    2006-01-01

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this Letter, we show that all the deterministic and direct two-way quantum communication protocols, sometimes called ping-pong (PP) protocols, are insecure when an eavesdropper uses the invisible photon to eavesdrop on the communication. With our invisible photon eavesdropping (IPE) scheme, the eavesdropper can obtain full information of the communication with zero risk of being detected. We show that this IPE scheme can be implemented experimentally with current technology. Finally, a possible improvement of PP communication protocols security is proposed

  15. Non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral dynamic systems with time-varying delays in state and control input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers non-fragile guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain neutral system with time-varying delays in both state and control input. Delay-dependent criteria are proposed to guarantee the robust stabilization of systems. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization approach is used to solve the non-fragile guaranteed cost control problem. Non-fragile guaranteed cost control for unperturbed neutral system is considered in the first step. Robust non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral system is designed directly from the unperturbed condition. An efficient approach is proposed to design the non-fragile guaranteed cost control for uncertain neutral systems. LMI toolbox of Matlab is used to implement the proposed results. Finally, a numerical example is illustrated to show the usefulness of the proposed results

  16. In seach of the invisible (audiences)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The paper shows need to distinguish between: ignored audiences (invisible in the literature, in our case very young children and ) and post-communist audiences Literally or actual invisible (online lurking and unintended) audiences the unintended or lurking audiences are invisible in a two-fold way...... : both as cases of study, but also as actual audiences. a lack of historical contextualization in the studies...

  17. Signatures de l'invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    "Signatures of the Invisible" is an unique collaboration between contemporary artists and contemporary physicists which has the potential to help redefine the relationship between science and art. "Signatures of the Invisible" is jointly organised by the London Institute - the world's largest college of art and design and CERN*, the world's leading particle physics laboratory. 12 leading visual artists:

  18. Diffusive-light invisibility cloak for transient illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B.; Beruete, M.; Martínez, A.; García-Meca, C.

    2016-12-01

    Invisibility in a diffusive-light-scattering medium has been recently demonstrated by employing a scattering-cancellation core-shell cloak. Unlike nondiffusive cloaks, such a device can be simultaneously macroscopic, broadband, passive, polarization independent, and omnidirectional. Unfortunately, it has been verified that this cloak, as well as more sophisticated ones based on transformation optics, fail under pulsed illumination, invalidating their use for a variety of applications. Here, we introduce a different approach based on unimodular transformations that enables the construction of unidirectional diffusive-light cloaks exhibiting a perfect invisibility effect, even under transient conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that a polygonal cloak can extend this functionality to multiple directions with a nearly ideal behavior, while preserving all other features. We propose and numerically verify a simple cloak realization based on a layered stack of two isotropic materials. The studied devices have several applications not addressable by any of the other cloaks proposed to date, including shielding from pulse-based detection techniques, cloaking undesired scattering elements in time-of-flight imaging or high-speed communication systems for diffusive environments, and building extreme optical security features. The discussed cloaking strategy could also be applied to simplify the implementation of thermal cloaks.

  19. Invisible magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach-Batlle, Rosa; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2018-04-01

    Sensing magnetic fields is essential in many applications in biomedicine, transportation, or smart cities. The distortion magnetic sensors create in response to the field they are detecting may hinder their use, for example, in applications requiring dense packaging of sensors or accurately shaped field distributions. For sensing electromagnetic waves, cloaking shells that reduce the scattering of sensors have been introduced. However, the problem of making a magnetic sensor undetectable remains unsolved. Here, we present a general strategy on how to make a sensor magnetically invisible while keeping its ability to sense. The sensor is rendered undetectable by surrounding it with a spherical shell having a tailored magnetic permeability. Our method can be applied to arbitrary shaped magnetic sensors in arbitrary magnetic fields. The invisibility can be made exact when the sensor is spherical and the probed field is uniform. A metasurface composed of superconducting pieces is presented as a practical realization of the ideal invisibility shell.

  20. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation...

  1. A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al that are based on the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first-order transformations. In recent papers, Hendi et al and Cai et al considered invisibility cloaks with high-order transformations. In this paper, we study high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high-order transformations from general anisotropic media. We consider the case where there is a finite number of spherical cloaks located in different points in space. We prove that for any incident plane wave, at any frequency, the scattered wave is identically zero. We also consider the scattering of finite-energy wave packets. We prove that the scattering matrix is the identity, i.e., that for any incoming wave packet the outgoing wave packet is the same as the incoming one. This proves that the invisibility cloaks cannot be detected in any scattering experiment with electromagnetic waves in high-order transformation media, and in particular in the first-order transformation media of Pendry et al. We also prove that the high-order invisibility cloaks, as well as the first-order ones, cloak passive and active devices. The cloaked objects completely decouple from the exterior. Actually, the cloaking outside is independent of what is inside the cloaked objects. The electromagnetic waves inside the cloaked objects cannot leave the concealed regions and vice versa, the electromagnetic waves outside the cloaked objects cannot go inside the concealed regions. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic materials, we prove that it is possible to cloak objects inside general crystals

  2. Making the Invisible Visible: Negotiating (In)Visibility and Transparency for LGBT Issues in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Cole

    2007-01-01

    Historically, schooling has been a point of contention and restless agitation for many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in North America who may feel trapped in prisons of invisibility. Traditionally, queer people's existence in educational settings has been denied or made invisible, not just physically (in school…

  3. Design, implementation, and extension of thermal invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    A thermal invisibility cloak, as inspired by optical invisibility cloaks, is a device which can steer the conductive heat flux around an isolated object without changing the ambient temperature distribution so that the object can be "invisible" to external thermal environment. While designs of thermal invisibility cloaks inherit previous theories from optical cloaks, the uniqueness of heat diffusion leads to more achievable implementations. Thermal invisibility cloaks, as well as the variations including thermal concentrator, rotator, and illusion devices, have potentials to be applied in thermal management, sensing and imaging applications. Here, we review the current knowledge of thermal invisibility cloaks in terms of their design and implementation in cloaking studies, and their extension as other functional devices.

  4. Invisible watermarking optical camera communication and compatibility issues of IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan

    2017-05-01

    Copyright protection and information security are two most considered issues of digital data following the development of internet and computer network. As an important solution for protection, watermarking technology has become one of the challenged roles in industry and academic research. The watermarking technology can be classified by two categories: visible watermarking and invisible watermarking. With invisible technique, there is an advantage on user interaction because of the visibility. By applying watermarking for communication, it will be a challenge and a new direction for communication technology. In this paper we will propose one new research on communication technology using optical camera communications (OCC) based invisible watermarking. Beside the analysis on performance of proposed system, we also suggest the frame structure of PHY and MAC layer for IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification which is a revision of visible light communication (VLC) standardization.

  5. Retrospectives: Ethics and the Invisible Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Evensky

    1993-01-01

    As modern economists, we use Adam Smith's "invisible hand" metaphor confident that we all know what it means in our discourse: it reflects our admiration for the elegant and smooth functioning of the market system as a coordinator of autonomous individual choices in an interdependent world. But in Adam Smith's moral philosophy, the invisible hand has a much broader responsibility: if individuals are to enjoy the fruits of a classical liberal society, the invisible hand must not only coordinat...

  6. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak. (paper)

  7. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.

  8. Signals for invisible matter from solar-terrestrial observations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We observe a strong correlation between the orbital position of the planets with solar phenomena like flares or the variation of EUV irradiance. Similarly, a correlation is found in the study of the ionization content of the Earth atmosphere. Planetary gravitational lensing of one (or more) streams of slow moving invisible matter is proposed as an explanation of such a behaviour.

  9. Invisible Colleges: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassoul Zavaraqi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation and consumption of information are among the functions unique to higher education. Scholarly communication plays an essential role in this process to such a degree that some consider it as being the cornerstone of science. Thus it could be said that no education could be realized without communication. Scientometrists analyze and assess formal scientific communications by studying the level of citation of such scientific outputs as books, journals and etc. Nevertheless, there is a special type of communication that lacks any external manifestation such as citations. Informal learning and education are indebted to such communication. This kind of informal communication for generating knowledge leads to an informal association among the scholars, which is called as "The invisible college". There are various definitions and interpretations concerning an invisible college. According to Price’s opinion, an invisible college is comprised of over a hundred colleagues that are engaged in communication with one another. He believed that members in such an association are reasonably in touch with and could consult and influence one another. The present paper, by reacquainting with the concept of invisible college, would review the role of informal links in the production of knowledge and higher education system, various assessment methods and critical notes, as well as the impact of modern ICT tools on the concept of invisible college.

  10. From Nonradiating Sources to Directionally Invisible Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Elisa

    The goal of this dissertation is to extend the understanding of invisible objects, in particular nonradiating sources and directional nonscattering scatterers. First, variations of null-field nonradiating sources are derived from Maxwell's equations. Next, it is shown how to design a nonscattering scatterer by applying the boundary conditions for nonradiating sources to the scalar wave equation, referred to here as the "field cloak method". This technique is used to demonstrate directionally invisible scatterers for an incident field with one direction of incidence, and the influence of symmetry on the directionality is explored. This technique, when applied to the scalar wave equation, is extended to show that a directionally invisible object may be invisible for multiple directions of incidence simultaneously. This opens the door to the creation of optically switchable, directionally invisible objects which could be implemented in couplers and other novel optical devices. Next, a version of the "field cloak method" is extended to the Maxwell's electro-magnetic vector equations, allowing more flexibility in the variety of directionally invisible objects that can be designed. This thesis concludes with examples of such objects and future applications.

  11. Group study of an "undercover" test for visuospatial neglect: invisible cancellation can reveal more neglect than standard cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciulik, E; Rorden, C; Clarke, K; Husain, M; Driver, J

    2004-09-01

    Visual neglect is a relatively common deficit after brain damage, particularly strokes. Cancellation tests provide standard clinical measures of neglect severity and deficits in daily life. A recent single-case study introduced a new variation on standard cancellation. Instead of making a visible mark on each target found, the patient made invisible marks (recorded with carbon paper underneath, for later scoring). Such invisible cancellation was found to reveal more neglect than cancellation with visible marks. Here we test the generality of this. Twenty three successive cases with suspected neglect each performed cancellation with visible or invisible marks. Neglect of contralesional targets was more pronounced with invisible marks. Indeed, about half of the patients only showed neglect in this version. For cases showing more neglect with invisible marks, stronger neglect of contralesional targets correlated with more revisits to ipsilesional targets for making additional invisible marks upon them. These results indicate that cancellation with invisible marks can reveal more neglect than standard cancellation with visible marks, while still providing a practical bedside test. Our observations may be consistent with recent proposals that demands on spatial working memory (required to keep track of previously found items only when marked invisibly) can exacerbate spatial neglect.

  12. Asymmetric Invisibility Cloaking Theory Based on the Concept of Effective Electromagnetic Fields for Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomo; Taki, Masato; Kanazawa, Toru; Arai, Shigehisa

    2014-03-01

    The asymmetric invisibility cloak is a special cloak with unidirectional transparency; that is, a person in the cloak should not be seen from the outside but should be able to see the outside. Existing theories of designing invisibility cloaks cannot be used for asymmetric cloaking because they are based on the transformation optics that uses Riemannian metric tensor independent of direction. To overcome this problem, we propose introducing directionality into invisibility cloaking. Our theory is based on ``the theory of effective magnetic field for photons'' proposed by Stanford University.[2] To realize asymmetric cloaking, we have extended the Stanford's theory to add the concept of ``effective electric field for photons.'' The effective electric and the magnetic field can be generated using a photonc resonator lattice, which is a kind of metamaterial. The Hamiltonian for photons in these fields has a similar form to that of the Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. An incident photon therefore experiences a ``Lorentz-like'' and a ``Coulomb-like'' force and shows asymmetric movement depending of its travelling direction.We show the procedure of designing actual invisibility cloaks using the photonc resonator lattice and confirm their operation with the aid of computer simulation. This work was supported in part by the MEXT; JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers #24246061, #24656046, #25420321, #25420322.

  13. Invisible Higgs decays from Higgs-graviscalar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, Daniele; Gunion, John F.

    2009-01-01

    We recompute the invisible Higgs decay width arising from Higgs-graviscalar mixing in the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali model, comparing the original derivation in the nondiagonal mass basis to that in a diagonal mass basis. The results obtained are identical (and differ by a factor of 2 from the original calculation) but the diagonal-basis derivation is pedagogically useful for clarifying the physics of the invisible width from mixing. We emphasize that both derivations make it clear that a direct scan in energy for a process such as WW→WW mediated by Higgs plus graviscalar intermediate resonances would follow a single Breit-Wigner form with total width given by Γ tot =Γ h SM +Γ invisible . We also compute the additional contributions to the invisible width due to direct Higgs to graviscalar-pair decays. We find that the invisible width due to the latter is relatively small, unless the Higgs mass is comparable to or larger than the effective extra-dimensional Planck mass.

  14. Banking Fragility in Colombia: An Empirical Analysis Based on Balance Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Lozano; Alexander Guarín

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the empirical relationship between credit funding sources and the financial vulnerability of the Colombian banking system. We propose a statistical model to measure and predict banking-fragility episodes associated with credit funding sources classified into retail deposits and wholesale funds. We compute the probability of financial fragility for both the aggregated banking system and the individual banks. Our approach performs a Bayesian averaging of estimated logit ...

  15. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase 2): A fragility handbook on eighteen components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Shteyngart, S.

    1991-06-01

    Fragility estimates of seven equipment classes were published in earlier reports. This report presents fragility analysis results from eleven additional equipment categories. The fragility levels are expressed in probabilistic terms. For users' convenience, this concluding report includes a summary of fragility results of all eighteen equipment classes. A set of conversion factors based on judgment is recommended for use of the information for early vintage equipment. The knowledge gained in conducting the Component Fragility Program and similar other programs is expected to provide a new direction for seismic verification and qualification of equipment. 15 refs., 12 tabs

  16. The scattering of a cylindrical invisibility cloak: reduced parameters and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L; Mortensen, N A; Ran, L

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of 2D cylindrical invisibility cloaks with simplified constitutive parameters with the assistance of scattering coefficients. We show that the scattering of the cloaks originates not only from the boundary conditions but also from the spatial variation of the component of permittivity/permeability. According to our formulation, we propose some restrictions to the invisibility cloak in order to minimize its scattering after the simplification has taken place. With our theoretical analysis, it is possible to design a simplified cloak using some peculiar composites such as photonic crystals which mimic an effective refractive index landscape rather than offering effective constitutives, meanwhile cancelling the scattering from the inner and outer boundaries.

  17. RTEL1 Inhibits Trinucleotide Repeat Expansions and Fragility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Frizzell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human RTEL1 is an essential, multifunctional helicase that maintains telomeres, regulates homologous recombination, and helps prevent bone marrow failure. Here, we show that RTEL1 also blocks trinucleotide repeat expansions, the causal mutation for 17 neurological diseases. Increased expansion frequencies of (CTG⋅CAG repeats occurred in human cells following knockdown of RTEL1, but not the alternative helicase Fbh1, and purified RTEL1 efficiently unwound triplet repeat hairpins in vitro. The expansion-blocking activity of RTEL1 also required Rad18 and HLTF, homologs of yeast Rad18 and Rad5. These findings are reminiscent of budding yeast Srs2, which inhibits expansions, unwinds hairpins, and prevents triplet-repeat-induced chromosome fragility. Accordingly, we found expansions and fragility were suppressed in yeast srs2 mutants expressing RTEL1, but not Fbh1. We propose that RTEL1 serves as a human analog of Srs2 to inhibit (CTG⋅CAG repeat expansions and fragility, likely by unwinding problematic hairpins.

  18. Fragile areas in the Alpine region: a reading between innovation and marginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Corrado

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reading and description of fragile Alpine areas that overturns the conventional standpoint, according to which marginality is often synonymous with handicap. The paper starts form a different point of view, able to recognize specific local potentialities that can still be activated with a specific creative effort. The reading regards fragile Alpine areas in the Provinces of Turin and Cuneo and is based on an empirical analysis of the actions underlying current micro-territorial innovative development trends.Cet article propose une lecture et une description des territoires alpins fragiles, en jetant un autre regard, où le concept de fragilité est associé à celui de handicap, c’est-à-dire un autre regard sur l’identification des potentiels locaux spécifiques qui peuvent être encore activés à travers une force créatrice propre aux Alpes. La lecture est effectuée en fonction des territoires alpins fragiles qui font partie des provinces de Turin et Coni et se base sur une analyse empirique des initiatives qui enclenchent en quelque façon des dynamiques micro-territoriales de développement innovant.

  19. Bayesian methodology for generic seismic fragility evaluation of components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Campbell, R.D.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Bayesian methodology for updating the seismic fragility of components in nuclear power plants is presented. The generic fragility data which have been evaluated based on the past SPSAs are combined with the seismic experience data. Although the seismic experience is limited to the acceleration range below the median capacity of the components, it has been found that the evidence is effective to update the fragility tail. In other words, the uncertainty of the fragility is reduced although the median capacity itself is not modified to a great extent. The annual frequency of failure is also reduced as a result of the updating of the fragility tail. The PDF of the seismic capacity is handled in discrete form, which enables the use of arbitrary type of prior distribution. Accordingly, the Log-N prior can be used which is consistent with the widely used fragility model. For evaluating posterior fragility parameters (A m and B U ), two methods have been proposed. Furthermore, it has been found that the importance of evidence used in the Bayesian methodology can be quantified by the entropy of the evidence. Only the events with high entropy need to be considered in the Bayesian updating of the fragility. The currently available seismic experience database for typical components can be utilized to develop the fragility tail which is contributive to the seismically-induced failure frequency. The combined use of generic fragility and seismic experience data, with the aid of Bayesian methodology, provides refined generic fragility curves which are useful for SPSA studies. (author)

  20. Invisible the dangerous allure of the unseen

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Philip

    2015-01-01

    If you could be invisible, what would you do? The chances are that it would have something to do with power, wealth or sex. Perhaps all three. But there's no need to feel guilty. Impulses like these have always been at the heart of our fascination with invisibility: it points to realms beyond our senses, serves as a receptacle for fears and dreams, and hints at worlds where other rules apply. Invisibility is a mighty power and a terrible curse, a sexual promise, a spiritual condition. This is a history of humanity's turbulent relationship with the invisible. It takes on the myths and morals of Plato, the occult obsessions of the Middle Ages, the trickeries and illusions of stage magic, the auras and ethers of Victorian physics, military strategies to camouflage armies and ships and the discovery of invisibly small worlds. From the medieval to the cutting-edge, fairy tales to telecommunications, from beliefs about the supernatural to the discovery of dark energy, Philip Ball reveals the universe of the invi...

  1. Geometry and light the science of invisibility

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The science of invisibility combines two of physics' greatest concepts: Einstein's general relativity and Maxwell's principles of electromagnetism. Recent years have witnessed major breakthroughs in the area, and the authors of this volume - Ulf Leonhardt and Thomas Philbin of Scotland's University of St. Andrews - have been active in the transformation of invisibility from fiction into science. Their work on designing invisibility devices is based on modern metamaterials, inspired by Fermat's principle, analogies between mechanics and optics, and the geometry of curved space. Suitable for gra

  2. The Role of Chain Length in Nonergodicity Factor and Fragility of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalle-Ferrie, Cecile; Niss, Kristine; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism that leads to different fragility values upon approaching the glass transition remains a topic of active discussion. Many researchers are trying to find an answer in the properties of the frozen glassy state. Following this approach, we focus here on a previously proposed relationship...... between the fragility of glass-formers and their nonergodicity factor, determined by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) in the glass. We extend this molecular liquid study to two model polymers— polystyrene (PS) and polyisobutylene (PIB)—for which we change the molecular weight. Polymers offer...... the opportunity to change the fragility without altering the chemical structure, just by changing the chain length. Thus, we specifically chose PS and PIB because they exhibit opposite dependences of fragility with molecular weight. Our analysis for these two polymers reveals no unique correlation between...

  3. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome: another phenotype of the fragile X gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, David; Grigsby, Jim

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychologists have an important role in evaluating patients with fragile X-associated disorders, but most practitioners are unaware of the recently identified neurodegenerative movement disorder known as fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The objective of this editorial is to orient the reader to FXTAS and highlight the importance of clinical neuropsychology in describing the fragile X premutation phenotype and the role practitioners may have in assessing and monitoring patients with or at risk for neurodegeneration. We issued a call for papers for the special issue, highlighting the primary objective of familiarizing clinical neuropsychologists with FXTAS, and with the neuropsychological phenotype of both male and female asymptomatic carriers. Eight papers are included, including an overview of the fragile X-associated disorders (Grigsby), a review of the neuroradiological and neurological aspects of FXTAS and how the disorder compares to other movement disorders (O'Keefe et al.), a perspective on the prominence of white matter disease and dementia in FXTAS (Filley), and a review of mouse models of FXTAS (Foote). There are four research papers, including one on self-reported memory problems in FXTAS (Birch et al.), and three papers focused on the neuropsychiatric aspects of the fragile X premutation, a review (Bourgeois), an examination of autism-related traits (Schneider), and a research paper on executive functioning and psychopathology (Grigsby). The issue highlights the importance of awareness of fragile X-associated disorders for neuropsychologists, an awareness that must reach beyond neurodevelopmental aspects related to fragile X syndrome into the realm of neurodegenerative disease and aging.

  4. RTEL1 inhibits trinucleotide repeat expansions and fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Aisling; Nguyen, Jennifer H G; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Turner, Katherine D; Boulton, Simon J; Freudenreich, Catherine H; Lahue, Robert S

    2014-03-13

    Human RTEL1 is an essential, multifunctional helicase that maintains telomeres, regulates homologous recombination, and helps prevent bone marrow failure. Here, we show that RTEL1 also blocks trinucleotide repeat expansions, the causal mutation for 17 neurological diseases. Increased expansion frequencies of (CTG⋅CAG) repeats occurred in human cells following knockdown of RTEL1, but not the alternative helicase Fbh1, and purified RTEL1 efficiently unwound triplet repeat hairpins in vitro. The expansion-blocking activity of RTEL1 also required Rad18 and HLTF, homologs of yeast Rad18 and Rad5. These findings are reminiscent of budding yeast Srs2, which inhibits expansions, unwinds hairpins, and prevents triplet-repeat-induced chromosome fragility. Accordingly, we found expansions and fragility were suppressed in yeast srs2 mutants expressing RTEL1, but not Fbh1. We propose that RTEL1 serves as a human analog of Srs2 to inhibit (CTG⋅CAG) repeat expansions and fragility, likely by unwinding problematic hairpins. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing invisible momentum ansatze in missing energy events at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc

    2017-08-01

    We consider SUSY-like events with two decay chains, each terminating in an invisible particle, whose true energy and momentum are not measured in the detector. Nevertheless, a useful educated guess about the invisible momenta can still be obtained by optimizing a suitable invariant mass function. We review and contrast several proposals in the literature for such ansatze: four versions of the M T 2-assisted on-shell reconstruction (MAOS), as well as several variants of the on-shell constrained M 2 variables. We compare the performance of these methods with regards to the mass determination of a new particle resonance along the decay chain from the peak of the reconstructed invariant mass distribution. For concreteness, we consider the event topology of dilepton t\\overline{t} events and study each of the three possible subsystems, in both a t\\overline{t} and a SUSY example. We find that the M 2 variables generally provide sharper peaks and therefore better ansatze for the invisible momenta. We show that the performance can be further improved by preselecting events near the kinematic endpoint of the corresponding variable from which the momentum ansatz originates.

  6. Cuidados invisibles: ¿son suficientemente reconocidos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna de la Rosa Eduardo

    Full Text Available Los cuidados invisibles son un elemento central y fundamental de la práctica de la Enfermería y son la base de su identidad profesional. La Enfermería ha sufrido un importante y positivo proceso de profesionalización en los últimos 150 años, sin embargo, los cuidados invisibles siguen siendo poco reconocidos, a pesar de su importancia en la recuperación y en la calidad de vida de los usuarios. En este trabajo se analizan brevemente las grandes transformaciones sociales actuales que obligan a replantearse la necesidad de visibilizar los cuidados invisibles, se plantean interrogantes clave para abordar esta discusión y se proponen una serie de acciones concretas para avanzar en este reconocimiento.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Fragile X syndrome Fragile X syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition that causes a ...

  8. Non-fragile multivariable PID controller design via system augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinrong; Lam, James; Shen, Mouquan; Shu, Zhan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the issue of designing non-fragile H∞ multivariable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with derivative filters is investigated. In order to obtain the controller gains, the original system is associated with an extended system such that the PID controller design can be formulated as a static output-feedback control problem. By taking the system augmentation approach, the conditions with slack matrices for solving the non-fragile H∞ multivariable PID controller gains are established. Based on the results, linear matrix inequality -based iterative algorithms are provided to compute the controller gains. Simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  9. Systems fragility: The sociology of chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Lori R

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the concept of community fragility in emergency management from a systems perspective. Using literature that addresses fragility in four areas of complex systems, including ecosystems, social systems, sociotechnical systems, and complex adaptive systems, a theoretical framework focused on the emergency management field is created. These findings illustrate how community fragility factors can be used in the emergency management field to not only improve overall outcomes after disaster but also build less fragile systems and communities in preparation for future disasters.

  10. Consideration of time-evolving capacity distributions and improved degradation models for seismic fragility assessment of aging highway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jayadipta; Sood, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop seismic fragility curves for deteriorating highway bridges by uniquely accounting for realistic pitting corrosion deterioration and time-dependent capacity distributions for reinforced concrete columns under chloride attacks. The proposed framework offers distinct improvements over state-of-the-art procedures for fragility assessment of degrading bridges which typically assume simplified uniform corrosion deterioration model and pristine limit state capacities. Depending on the time in service life and deterioration mechanism, this study finds that capacity limit states for deteriorating bridge columns follow either lognormal distribution or generalized extreme value distributions (particularly for pitting corrosion). Impact of column degradation mechanism on seismic response and fragility of bridge components and system is assessed using nonlinear time history analysis of three-dimensional finite element bridge models reflecting the uncertainties across structural modeling parameters, deterioration parameters and ground motion. Comparisons are drawn between the proposed methodology and traditional approaches to develop aging bridge fragility curves. Results indicate considerable underestimations of system level fragility across different damage states using the traditional approach compared to the proposed realistic pitting model for chloride induced corrosion. Time-dependent predictive functions are provided to interpolate logistic regression coefficients for continuous seismic reliability evaluation along the service life with reasonable accuracy. - Highlights: • Realistic modeling of chloride induced corrosion deterioration in the form of pitting. • Time-evolving capacity distribution for aging bridge columns under chloride attacks. • Time-dependent seismic fragility estimation of highway bridges at component and system level. • Mathematical functions for continuous tracking of seismic fragility along service

  11. Non-fragile consensus algorithms for a network of diffusion PDEs with boundary local interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun; Li, Junmin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, non-fragile consensus algorithm is proposed to solve the average consensus problem of a network of diffusion PDEs, modelled by boundary controlled heat equations. The problem deals with the case where the Neumann-type boundary controllers are corrupted by additive persistent disturbances. To achieve consensus between agents, a linear local interaction rule addressing this requirement is given. The proposed local interaction rules are analysed by applying a Lyapunov-based approach. The multiplicative and additive non-fragile feedback control algorithms are designed and sufficient conditions for the consensus of the multi-agent systems are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities, respectively. Simulation results are presented to support the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  12. Fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated disorders [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Rajaratnam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by a full mutation on the FMR1 gene and a subsequent lack of FMRP, the protein product of FMR1. FMRP plays a key role in regulating the translation of many proteins involved in maintaining neuronal synaptic connections; its deficiency may result in a range of intellectual disabilities, social deficits, psychiatric problems, and dysmorphic physical features. A range of clinical involvement is also associated with the FMR1 premutation, including fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, psychiatric problems, hypertension, migraines, and autoimmune problems. Over the past few years, there have been a number of advances in our knowledge of FXS and fragile X-associated disorders, and each of these advances offers significant clinical implications. Among these developments are a better understanding of the clinical impact of the phenomenon known as mosaicism, the revelation that various types of mutations can cause FXS, and improvements in treatment for FXS.

  13. Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia; Stadler, Gertraud; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2016-07-01

    Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking-specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six-week follow-up. No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. LES DEUX NIVEAUX DE L’INVISIBLE DANS L’OEUVRE DE FRIDA KAHLO (The two levels of invisible in the work of Frida Kahlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Molnár

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the different levels of representation of invisible feelings in the work of Frida Kahlo. In order to express these feelings, in some paintings, the artist uses visible objects, such as tears – which become the first level of representation of the invisible. In other paintings, however, she uses internal organs of the human body to represent invisible pain or suffering. These organs are hidden from the eye and are therefore invisible. There are two categories within this second level: the first one consists of internal organs traditionally used to represent invisible feelings in the European culture, such as the skull. The second category embraces organs used especially by Frida, like the womb. The study observes how her life had made this physically broken, but mentally strong artist to cut open her own body to show it to the world, representing feelings that only a woman can feel, but nobody can see.

  15. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2009-01-01

    A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.

  16. Three Faces of Fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb-Lundell, Cornelia C E

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first of 3 syndromes identified as a health condition related to fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene dysfunction. The other 2 syndromes are fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency syndrome (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which together are referred to as fragile X-associated disorders (FXDs). Collectively, this group comprises the 3 faces of fragile X. Even though the 3 conditions share a common genetic defect, each one is a separate health condition that results in a variety of body function impairments such as motor delay, musculoskeletal issues related to low muscle tone, coordination limitations, ataxia, tremor, undefined muscle aches and pains, and, for FXTAS, a late-onset neurodegeneration. Although each FXD condition may benefit from physical therapy intervention, available evidence as to the efficacy of intervention appropriate to FXDs is lacking. This perspective article will discuss the genetic basis of FMR1 gene dysfunction and describe health conditions related to this mutation, which have a range of expressions within a family. Physical therapy concerns and possible assessment and intervention strategies will be introduced. Understanding the intergenerational effect of the FMR1 mutation with potential life-span expression is a key component to identifying and treating the health conditions related to this specific genetic condition. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  17. Intention tremor, parkinsonism, and generalized brain atrophy in male carriers of fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, R J; Leehey, M; Heinrichs, W; Tassone, F; Wilson, R; Hills, J; Grigsby, J; Gage, B; Hagerman, P J

    2001-07-10

    The authors report five elderly men with the fragile X premutation who had a progressive action tremor associated with executive function deficits and generalized brain atrophy. These individuals had elevated fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) messenger RNA and normal or borderline levels of FMR1 protein. The authors propose that elevations of FMR1 messenger RNA may be causative for a neurodegenerative syndrome in a subgroup of elderly men with the FMR1 premutation.

  18. The Invisible Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Fossati, Giovanna; van den Oever, Annie

    The Invisible Cinema was an experimental movie theater designed by an experimental filmmaker. Devised by the Austrian avantgardist Peter Kubelka, it served as the first place of exhibition for the Anthology Film Archives in New York. Apart from the screen (and some exit signs and aisle lights

  19. Invisibility cloaking via non-smooth transformation optics and ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosskey, Miles M.; Nixon, Andrew T.; Schick, Leland M.; Kovacic, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of theoretically-predicted invisibility cloaks with shapes other than spheres and cylinders, including cones and ellipsoids, as well as shapes spliced from parts of these simpler shapes. In addition, we present an example explicitly displaying the non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. We depict rays propagating through these example cloaks using ray tracing for geometric optics. - Highlights: → Theoretically-predicted conical and ellipsoidal invisibility cloaks. → Non-smooth cloaks spliced from parts of simpler shapes. → Example displaying non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. → Rays propagating through example cloaks depicted using geometric optics.

  20. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  1. Anti-Counterfeiting Quick Response Code with Emission Color of Invisible Metal-Organic Frameworks as Encoding Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Mei; Tian, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhong-Rui; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2018-06-08

    Counterfeiting is a global epidemic that is compelling the development of new anti-counterfeiting strategy. Herein, we report a novel multiple anti-counterfeiting encoding strategy of invisible fluorescent quick response (QR) codes with emission color as information storage unit. The strategy requires red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting materials for different emission colors as encrypting information, single excitation for all of the emission for practicability, and ultraviolet (UV) excitation for invisibility under slight. Therefore, RGB light-emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) are designed as inks to construct the colorful light-emitting boxes for information encrypting, while three black vertex boxes were used for positioning. Full-color emissions are obtained by mixing the trichromatic NMOFs inks through inkjet printer. The encrypting information capacity is easily adjusted by the number of light-emitting boxes with the infinite emission colors. The information is decoded with specific excitation light at 275 nm, making the QR codes invisible under daylight. The composition of inks, invisibility, inkjet printing, and the abundant encrypting information all contribute to multiple anti-counterfeiting. The proposed QR codes pattern holds great potential for advanced anti-counterfeiting.

  2. Simulation Study of Invisible Decays of the Higgs Boson with the Circular Electron Positron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotishmati, Susmita

    A Higgs-like boson has been discovered by the experiments ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. We need to verify that it is the Standard Model (SM) Higgs and understand its nature. A Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), has been proposed as a Higgs factory for detailed study of the Higgs boson. In this dissertation we study the feasibility of measuring the H → Invisible decays at the CEPC. Dark Matter (DM) interacts with matter by gravity, thus appears to be invisible in the CEPC experiment. If Higgs boson couples to DM it could be an important "portal" to New Physics. A Monte Carlo analysis of H → Invisible optimized to achieve high signal significance, and low backgrounds in the e +e- → ZH, Z → mu +mu- channel based on an integrated luminosity of 5 ab-1 expected for ten years run of the CEPC, is performed. Precision on the Higgs to invisible branching ratio at the input values of 0.1%(SM) and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) cases 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% is determined. Two approaches have been employed. They are the cut-based analysis and the multivariate analysis. Based on this dissertation study a baseline analysis approach is recommended for future CEPC design and studies.

  3. Invisible axion in the hidden sector of no-scale supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new axion model which incorporates the U(1) PQ symmetry into a hidden sector, as well as an observable sector, of no-scale supergravity models. The axion is a spin-zero field in the hidden sector. The U(1) PQ symmetry is naturally embedded in the family symmetry of the no-scale models. Invisible axions live in the gravity hidden sector without conflict with the cosmological and astrophysical constraints. (orig.)

  4. Broadband unidirectional invisibility for airborne sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Weiwei; Guo, Mengping; Shen, Zhonghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a metafluid-based broadband cloak capable of guiding acoustic waves around obstacles along given directions while maintaining the wavefront undisturbed. The required parameter distribution of the proposed cloak is derived by coordinate transformation and practically implemented by employing the acoustic metafluid formed with periodically arranged slabs in acoustic chambers. The method for independently modulating the effective mass density and bulk modulus of the metafluid is developed by tuning the geometry parameters and the temperature of the acoustic chamber in a specific process. By virtue of this free-modulated method, the range of realizable effective parameters is substantially broadened, and the acoustic impedance of the anisotropic structures can be well matched to the background. The performance of the designed structure is quantitatively evaluated in the frequency range of 3-4 kHz by the averaged invisibility factor. The results show that the proposed cloak is effective in manipulating the acoustic field along the given direction and suppressing the wave scattering from the hidden object.

  5. Learning or Lurking?: Tracking the "Invisible" Online Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    This case study of inactive, or invisible, students enrolled in an online graduate course identifies how much time is spent in course-related activity, what the reasons are for students' invisibility, and if their preferred learning styles influence online behavior. Preliminary analysis of grades indicate that grades are better for high-visibility…

  6. Invisible and scrutinized bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold Lambert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The following text will attempt to demonstrate that both processes that aim at making bodies either invisible or, on the contrary, hyper-visible operates through the same mechanisms of a productive politics of visibility.

  7. Flooding Fragility Experiments and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tahhan, Antonio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Muchmore, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, Larinda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the work that has been performed on flooding fragility, both the experimental tests being carried out and the probabilistic fragility predictive models being produced in order to use the text results. Flooding experiments involving full-scale doors have commenced in the Portal Evaluation Tank. The goal of these experiments is to develop a full-scale component flooding experiment protocol and to acquire data that can be used to create Bayesian regression models representing the fragility of these components. This work is in support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluation research and development.

  8. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Joe, Yang Hee

    2005-01-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities

  9. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sgcho@incheon.ac.kr; Joe, Yang Hee [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities.

  10. Study on the fragility of structure with several elements in its story. Part 2: structure with ductile elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Y.; Fukushima, S.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship among the fragility of element, that of story and that of system, is examined using the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, 2-story models whose stories consist of 2 ductile elements are employed. A method is proposed which includes a nonlinear effect into the evaluation of elements capacities. This method does not require the nonlinear MCS, therefore saving computational efforts. Also, a method to estimate the stories and the system fragilities is proposed. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Fragile X-associated disorders: Don't miss them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Rachael C; Cohen, Jonathan; Trollor, Julian N

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of inherited disorders caused by expansions in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Premutation expansions of the FMR1 gene confer risk for fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, as well as other medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Premutation expansions of the FMR1 gene are common in the general population. However, fragile X-associated disorders are frequently under-recognised and often misdiagnosed. The aim of this article is to describe fragile X-associated disorders and identify specific considerations for general practitioners (GPs) during identification and management of these disorders. GPs have a critical role in the identification of fragile X-associated disorders, as well as coordination of complex care needs. Prompt recognition and appropriate management of these disorders and potential medical and psychiatric comorbidities will have important implications not only for the affected patient, but also other family members who may be at risk.

  12. Component fragilities - data collection, analysis and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the component fragility research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment with emphasis on electrical equipment, by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical and control devices of various manufacturers and models. Through a cooperative agreement, BNL has also obtained test data from EPRI/ANCO. An analysis of the collected data reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage, whereas the upper bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes occurring separately or interactively. For some components, the upper and lower bound fragility levels are observed to vary appreciably depending upon the manufacturers and models. An extensive amount of additional fragility or high level test data exists. If completely collected and properly analyzed, the entire data bank is expected to greatly reduce the need for additional testing to establish fragility levels for most equipment

  13. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Amra, C.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  15. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-04-30

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  16. The Physics of Invisibility A Story of Light and Deception

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Arthur C. Clarke famously wrote that, "any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." These words most certainly ring true with respect to invisibility cloaking devices. At work is the magic of science, of course. The technology to make an object simply disappear from view is now a reality. There is both great fear and great desire in the thought of invisibility. Indeed, for thousands of years, authors have grappled with the idea. Power, devilry, secrecy, ethical dilemma, and moral corruption - invisibility has it all. And yet, our waking world is full of familiar invisible phenomena. Electricity flowing along a metal wire, the gravity that keeps us grounded, the air we breathe, the bacteria and viruses that make us ill, the X-rays that reveal our broken bones - all are invisible to our eyes. They surround and envelop us, and we don't give them a second thought. Nature long ago learned how to play tricks with light rays, enriching the world with rainbows, mirages, and animal camouflag...

  17. Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Thermal imitators with single directional invisibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Xu, Liujun; Huang, Jiping

    2017-12-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been intensively studied during the past years to achieve the long-standing dream of invisibility, illusion, and other inconceivable thermal phenomena. However, many thermal metamaterials can only exhibit omnidirectional thermal response, which take on the distinct feature of geometrical isotropy. In this work, we theoretically design and experimentally fabricate a pair of thermal imitators by applying geometrical anisotropy provided by elliptical/ellipsoidal particles and layered structures. This pair of thermal imitators possesses thermal invisibility in one direction, while having thermal opacity in other directions. This work may open a gate in designing direction-dependent thermal metamaterials.

  19. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  20. Exploring the invisible universe from black holes to superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2015-01-01

    "Why"? Why is the world, the Universe the way it is? Is space infinitely large? How small is small? What happens when one continues to divide matter into ever smaller pieces? Indeed, what is matter? Is there anything else besides what can be seen? Pursuing the questions employing the leading notions of physics, one soon finds that the tangible and visible world dissolves — rather unexpectedly — into invisible things and domains that are beyond direct perception. A remarkable feature of our Universe is that most of its constituents turn out to be invisible, and this fact is brought out with great force by this book. Exploring the Invisible Universe covers the gamut of topics in advanced modern physics and provides extensive and well substantiated answers to these questions and many more. Discussed in a non-technical, yet also non-trivial manner, are topics dominated by invisible things — such as Black Holes and Superstrings as well as Fields, Gravitation, the Standard Model, Cosmology, Relativity, the O...

  1. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  2. Multifarious Functions of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna K; Broadie, Kendal

    2017-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a heritable intellectual and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), results from the loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This neurodevelopmental disease state exhibits neural circuit hyperconnectivity and hyperexcitability. Canonically, FMRP functions as an mRNA-binding translation suppressor, but recent findings have enormously expanded its proposed roles. Although connections between burgeoning FMRP functions remain unknown, recent advances have extended understanding of its involvement in RNA, channel, and protein binding that modulate calcium signaling, activity-dependent critical period development, and the excitation-inhibition (E/I) neural circuitry balance. In this review, we contextualize 3 years of FXS model research. Future directions extrapolated from recent advances focus on discovering links between FMRP roles to determine whether FMRP has a multitude of unrelated functions or whether combinatorial mechanisms can explain its multifaceted existence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of Secret Image Invisibility in Circulation Image with Dyadic Wavelet Based Data Hiding with Run-Length Coded Secret Images of Which Location of Codes are Determined with Random Number

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Yuji Yamada

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made for improvement of secret image invisibility in circulation images with dyadic wavelet based data hiding with run-length coded secret images of which location of codes are determined by random number. Through experiments, it is confirmed that secret images are almost invisible in circulation images. Also robustness of the proposed data hiding method against data compression of circulation images is discussed. Data hiding performance in terms of invisibility of secret images...

  4. Illusory ownership of an invisible body reduces autonomic and subjective social anxiety responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterstam, Arvid; Abdulkarim, Zakaryah; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2015-01-01

    What is it like to be invisible? This question has long fascinated man and has been the central theme of many classic literary works. Recent advances in materials science suggest that invisibility cloaking of the human body may be possible in the not-so-distant future. However, it remains unknown how invisibility affects body perception and embodied cognition. To address these questions, we developed a perceptual illusion of having an entire invisible body. Through a series of experiments, we characterized the multisensory rules that govern the elicitation of the illusion and show that the experience of having an invisible body reduces the social anxiety response to standing in front of an audience. This study provides an experimental model of what it is like to be invisible and shows that this experience affects bodily self-perception and social cognition. PMID:25906330

  5. Illusory ownership of an invisible body reduces autonomic and subjective social anxiety responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterstam, Arvid; Abdulkarim, Zakaryah; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2015-04-23

    What is it like to be invisible? This question has long fascinated man and has been the central theme of many classic literary works. Recent advances in materials science suggest that invisibility cloaking of the human body may be possible in the not-so-distant future. However, it remains unknown how invisibility affects body perception and embodied cognition. To address these questions, we developed a perceptual illusion of having an entire invisible body. Through a series of experiments, we characterized the multisensory rules that govern the elicitation of the illusion and show that the experience of having an invisible body reduces the social anxiety response to standing in front of an audience. This study provides an experimental model of what it is like to be invisible and shows that this experience affects bodily self-perception and social cognition.

  6. The numerical computation of seismic fragility of base-isolated Nuclear Power Plants buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, Federico; Domaneschi, Marco; De Grandis, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Seismic fragility of structural components in base isolated NPP is computed. • Dynamic integration, Response Surface, FORM and Monte Carlo Simulation are adopted. • Refined approach for modeling the non-linearities behavior of isolators is proposed. • Beyond-design conditions are addressed. • The preliminary design of the isolated IRIS is the application of the procedure. -- Abstract: The research work here described is devoted to the development of a numerical procedure for the computation of seismic fragilities for equipment and structural components in Nuclear Power Plants; in particular, reference is made, in the present paper, to the case of isolated buildings. The proposed procedure for fragility computation makes use of the Response Surface Methodology to model the influence of the random variables on the dynamic response. To account for stochastic loading, the latter is computed by means of a simulation procedure. Given the Response Surface, the Monte Carlo method is used to compute the failure probability. The procedure is here applied to the preliminary design of the Nuclear Power Plant reactor building within the International Reactor Innovative and Secure international project; the building is equipped with a base isolation system based on the introduction of High Damping Rubber Bearing elements showing a markedly non linear mechanical behavior. The fragility analysis is performed assuming that the isolation devices become the critical elements in terms of seismic risk and that, once base-isolation is introduced, the dynamic behavior of the building can be captured by low-dimensional numerical models

  7. Invisible Web and Academic Research: A Partnership for Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Huda Y.; Assiri, Eman A.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the most significant roles of the invisible web in improving academic research and the main obstacles and challenges facing the use of the invisible web in improving academic research from the perspective of academics in Saudi universities. The descriptive analytical approach was utilized in this study. It…

  8. Determinants of Banking System Fragility : A Regional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Banking systems are fragile not only within one country but also within and across regions. We study the role of regional banking system characteristics for regional banking system fragility. We find that regional banking system fragility reduces when banks in the region jointly hold more

  9. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  10. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset

  11. Signatures of the Invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Strom, D

    2003-01-01

    On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).

  12. Design and analysis of the trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks with controllable invisibility performance in a quasi-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, implementation and detailed performance analysis for a class of trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks. An effective large invisible area is obtained compared with the traditional carpet cloak. The cloaks are realized with homogeneous metamaterials which are made of periodic arrangements of subwavelength unit cells composed of steel embedded in air. The microstructures and its effective parameters of the cloaks are determined quickly and precisely in a broadband frequency range by using the effective medium theory and the proposed parameters optimization method. The invisibility capability of the cloaks can be controlled by the variation of the key design parameters and scale factor which are proved to have more influence on the performance in the near field than that in the far field. Different designs are suitable for different application situations. Good cloaking performance demonstrates that such a device can be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of invisibility cloak.

  13. Invisibility cloaks with arbitrary geometries for layered and gradually changing backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Yao, K; Li, F

    2009-01-01

    Cloaks with arbitrary geometries are proposed which can make objects invisible in inhomogeneous backgrounds. The general and explicit expressions of the complex permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for cloaks embedded in layered and gradually changing media. The inner and the outer boundaries of the cloaks can be non-conformal with arbitrary shapes, which considerably improve the flexibility of the cloak applications. The interactions of electromagnetic waves with irregular cloaks are studied based on numerical simulations. The influences of the cloaked and uncloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinders upon the scattering fields of the multilayered backgrounds are quantitatively evaluated. The effect of loss on the cloaking performance has also been investigated. It is verified that cloaks with ideal parameters can smoothly deflect and guide the incoming beams to propagate around the shielded regions without disturbing the beams when they return to the inhomogeneous backgrounds. Therefore, the objects in the shielded region can be effectively invisible to the corresponding backgrounds. The performance of lossy cloaks will degrade with comparatively large power reduction of the transmitted beams.

  14. Invisible realities: Caring for older Moroccan migrants with dementia in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdai Chaouni, Saloua; De Donder, Liesbeth

    2018-01-01

    The number of older Moroccan migrants reaching the age of high risk for dementia is increasing in Belgium. Yet no study has been performed to explore how Moroccan families facing dementia experience and manage the condition. The study employed a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with 12 informal and 13 formal caregivers to answer this research question. Findings indicate that the experience of dementia includes several invisible realities that challenge the informal and formal caregivers: (1) the invisibility of dementia as a condition; (2) the invisible subtleties of the informal care execution; (3) the invisibility and inaccessibility of care services as explanation for these family's non-use of available services; and (4) the overlooking of culture, migration and religion as invisible influencers of the overall dementia experience. A better understanding of these hidden realities of migrant older people with dementia and their caregivers could lead to interventions to provide effective and tailored person-centred care that is sensitive to the individual's life experiences, culture and religious background.

  15. Chromosome fragility at FRAXA in human cleavage stage embryos at risk for fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdyck, Pieter; Berckmoes, Veerle; De Vos, Anick; Verpoest, Willem; Liebaers, Inge; Bonduelle, Maryse; De Rycke, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited intellectual disability syndrome, is caused by expansion and hypermethylation of the CGG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. This expanded repeat, also known as the rare fragile site FRAXA, causes X chromosome fragility in cultured cells from patients but only when induced by perturbing pyrimidine synthesis. We performed preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on 595 blastomeres biopsied from 442 cleavage stage embryos at risk for FXS using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. In six blastomeres, from five embryos an incomplete haplotype was observed with loss of all alleles telomeric to the CGG repeat. In all five embryos, the incomplete haplotype corresponded to the haplotype carrying the CGG repeat expansion. Subsequent analysis of additional blastomeres from three embryos by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the presence of a terminal deletion with a breakpoint close to the CGG repeat in two blastomeres from one embryo. A blastomere from another embryo showed the complementary duplication. We conclude that a CGG repeat expansion at FRAXA causes X chromosome fragility in early human IVF embryos at risk for FXS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The fragile X syndrome: Isolation of the FMR-1 gene and characterization of the fragile X mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Verkerk

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractConclusion Rapid progress has been made in the analysis of the fragile X syndrome during 1991. Different groups have discovered that fragile X chromosomes are preferentially methylated. In these X chromosomes an insertion has been found in the methylated region. The FMR-1 gene,

  17. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  18. Seismic fragility analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  19. Fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, or intellectual disability may not be present. Symptoms Behavior problems associated with fragile X syndrome include: Autism spectrum disorder Delay in crawling, walking, or twisting Hand flapping ...

  20. The Detection and Analysis of Chromosome Fragile Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Özer, Özgün; Hickson, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    A fragile site is a chromosomal locus that is prone to form a gap or constriction visible within a condensed metaphase chromosome, particularly following exposure of cells to DNA replication stress. Based on their frequency, fragile sites are classified as either common (CFSs; present in all...... for detection and analysis of chromosome fragile sites....

  1. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  2. Invisible Higgs boson decay with B→Kνν constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. S.; Park, Seong Chan; Wang Kai; Zhu Guohuai

    2010-01-01

    If the Higgs boson were the only particle within the LHC accessible range, precision measurement of the Higgs's properties would play a unique role in studying electroweak symmetry breaking as well as possible new physics. We try to use low energy experiments such as rare B decay to constrain a challenging decay mode of Higgs, in which a Higgs decays to a pair of light (≅1∼2 GeV) SM singlet S and becomes invisible. By using the current experimental bound of rare decay B→Kνν and computing the contribution of B→KSS to (the) B→K+Ee, we obtain an upper bound on the Higgs coupling to such light singlet. It is interesting that the partial width of the invisible decay mode h→SS by taking the upper bound value of coupling is at a comparable level with h→WW/ZZ or WW ( * ) decay modes, making the Higgs identifiable but with a different predicted decay branching ratio from [the] standard model Higgs decay. It will then have an impact on precision measurement of the Higgs's properties. We also study the implication for cosmology from such a light singlet and propose a solution to the potential problem.

  3. From Invisibility to Transparency: Identifying the Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the need for a broader and more inclusive approach to decisions about land and resources, one that recognizes the legitimacy of cultural values and traditional knowledge in environmental decision making and policy. Invisible losses are those not widely recognized or accounted for in decisions about resource planning and decision making in resource- and land-use negotiations precisely because they involve considerations that tend to be ignored by managers and scientists or because they are often indirect or cumulative, resulting from a complex, often cumulative series of events, decisions, choices, or policies. First Nations communities in western North America have experienced many such losses that, together, have resulted in a decline in the overall resilience of individuals and communities. We have identified eight types invisible losses that are often overlapping and cumulative: cultural/lifestyle losses, loss of identity, health losses, loss of self-determination and influence, emotional and psychological losses, loss of order in the world, knowledge losses, and indirect economic losses and lost opportunities. To render such invisible losses more transparent, which represents the first step in developing a more positive and equitable basis for decision making and negotiations around land and resources, we recommend six processes: focusing on what matters to the people affected, describing what matters in meaningful ways, making a place for these concerns in decision making, evaluating future losses and gains from a historical baseline, recognizing culturally derived values as relevant, and creating better alternatives for decision making so that invisible losses will be diminished or eliminated in the future.

  4. It's About Making Surfaces Invisible

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It's About Making Surfaces Invisible ... light is reflected from the surface between two media. The in- tensity of ... The reflection from each new interface and the combined reflec- .... Let us see the requirements of a material for a good stamp. The.

  5. Smith’s invisible hand: controversy is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Di Mario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smith’s metaphor of the invisible hand, commonly attributed to The Wealth of Nations, is described in the Theory of Moral Sentiments. It is a ‘deception’ fed to the lower classes. Private initiative depends upon the presence of privileged classes in a conservative rather than liberal state. Only thus can the ‘invisible hand’ improve the nation’s ‘wealth.’ Hence, the economic mainstream cannot easily claim Adam Smith as their ancestor. Nor can the Marxists associate him to the misdeeds of the mainstream. A Smithian ancestry is more plausible for Neoliberals.

  6. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-11-07

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their gender and sexual orientation. While unaware of the suppressed pictures, heterosexual males' attention was attracted to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males behaved similarly to heterosexual females, and gay/bisexual females performed in-between heterosexual males and females.

  7. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  8. Search for invisibly decaying Higgs boson at Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In several scenarios of Beyond Standard Model physics, the invisible decay mode of the Higgs boson is an interesting possibility. The search strategy for an invisible Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), using weak boson fusion process, has been studied in detail, by taking into account all possible ...

  9. Les territoires fragiles dans la région alpine : une proposition de lecture entre innovation et marginalité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Corrado

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une lecture et une description des territoires alpins fragiles, en jetant un autre regard, où le concept de fragilité est associé à celui de handicap, c’est-à-dire un autre regard sur l’identification des potentiels locaux spécifiques qui peuvent être encore activés à travers une force créatrice propre aux Alpes. La lecture est effectuée en fonction des territoires alpins fragiles qui font partie des provinces de Turin et Coni et se base sur une analyse empirique des initiatives qui enclenchent en quelque façon des dynamiques micro-territoriales de développement innovant.The paper proposes a reading and description of fragile Alpine areas that overturns the conventional standpoint, according to which marginality is often synonymous with handicap. The paper starts form a different point of view, able to recognize specific local potentialities that can still be activated with a specific creative effort. The reading regards fragile Alpine areas in the Provinces of Turin and Cuneo and is based on an empirical analysis of the actions underlying current micro-territorial innovative development trends.

  10. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant Part 1: Characterization of uncertainty in concrete constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Sammiuddin; Gupta, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A framework is proposed for seismic fragility assessment of Reinforced Concrete structures. • Experimentally validated finite element models are used to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Critical parameters in concrete constitutive model are identified to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Uncertainties in model parameters of concrete damage plasticity model is characterized. • Closed form expressions are used to compute the damage variables and plasticity. - Abstract: This two part manuscript proposes a framework for seismic fragility assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear energy facilities. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the characterization of uncertainties in the parameters of the material constitutive model. Concrete constitutive models that comprehensively address different damage states such as tensile cracking, compression failure, stiffness degradation, and recovery of degraded stiffness due to closing of previously formed cracks under dynamic loading are generally defined in terms of a large number of variables to characterize the plasticity and damage at material level. Over the past several years, many different studies have been presented on evaluation of fragility for reinforced concrete structures using nonlinear time history simulations. However, almost all of these studies do not consider uncertainties in the parameters of a comprehensive constitutive model. Part-I of this two-part manuscript presents a study that is used to identify uncertainties associated with the critical parameters in nonlinear concrete damage plasticity model proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989. Int. J. Solids Struct., 25(3), 299) and later modified by Lee and Fenves (1998a. J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 124(8), 892) and Lee and Fenves (1998b. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(9), 937) for the purpose of seismic fragility assessment. The limitations in implementation of the damage plasticity model within a finite element framework and

  11. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant Part 1: Characterization of uncertainty in concrete constitutive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 426 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 413 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A framework is proposed for seismic fragility assessment of Reinforced Concrete structures. • Experimentally validated finite element models are used to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Critical parameters in concrete constitutive model are identified to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Uncertainties in model parameters of concrete damage plasticity model is characterized. • Closed form expressions are used to compute the damage variables and plasticity. - Abstract: This two part manuscript proposes a framework for seismic fragility assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear energy facilities. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the characterization of uncertainties in the parameters of the material constitutive model. Concrete constitutive models that comprehensively address different damage states such as tensile cracking, compression failure, stiffness degradation, and recovery of degraded stiffness due to closing of previously formed cracks under dynamic loading are generally defined in terms of a large number of variables to characterize the plasticity and damage at material level. Over the past several years, many different studies have been presented on evaluation of fragility for reinforced concrete structures using nonlinear time history simulations. However, almost all of these studies do not consider uncertainties in the parameters of a comprehensive constitutive model. Part-I of this two-part manuscript presents a study that is used to identify uncertainties associated with the critical parameters in nonlinear concrete damage plasticity model proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989. Int. J. Solids Struct., 25(3), 299) and later modified by Lee and Fenves (1998a. J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 124(8), 892) and Lee and Fenves (1998b. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(9), 937) for the purpose of seismic fragility assessment. The limitations in implementation of the damage plasticity model within a finite element framework and

  12. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  13. A novel mixed-synchronization phenomenon in coupled Chua's circuits via non-fragile linear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Wei; Ma Qing-Hua; Zeng Li

    2011-01-01

    Dynamical variables of coupled nonlinear oscillators can exhibit different synchronization patterns depending on the designed coupling scheme. In this paper, a non-fragile linear feedback control strategy with multiplicative controller gain uncertainties is proposed for realizing the mixed-synchronization of Chua's circuits connected in a drive-response configuration. In particular, in the mixed-synchronization regime, different state variables of the response system can evolve into complete synchronization, anti-synchronization and even amplitude death simultaneously with the drive variables for an appropriate choice of scaling matrix. Using Lyapunov stability theory, we derive some sufficient criteria for achieving global mixed-synchronization. It is shown that the desired non-fragile state feedback controller can be constructed by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical simulations are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach. (general)

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. The range ...

  15. Relay testing parametric investigation of seismic fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    The seismic capacity of most electrical equipment is governed by malfunction of relays. An evaluation of the existing relay test data base at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has indicated that the seismic fragility of a relay may depend on various parameters related to the design or the input motion. In particular, the electrical mode, contact state, adjustment, chatter duration acceptance limit, and the frequency and the direction of the vibration input have been considered to influence the relay fragility level. For a particular relay type, the dynamics of its moving parts depends on the exact model number and vintage and hence, these parameters may also influence the fragility level. In order to investigate the effect of most of these parameters on the seismic fragility level, BNL has conducted a relay test program. The testing has been performed at Wyle Laboratories. Establishing the correlation between the single frequency fragility test input and the corresponding multifrequency response spectrum (TRS) is also an objective of this test program. This paper discusses the methodology used for testing and presents a brief summary of important test results. 1 ref., 10 figs

  16. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E.

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I ampersand C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  17. An Efficient Semi-fragile Watermarking Scheme for Tamper Localization and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Yang, Hui; Min, Lianquan

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problem that remote sensing images are vulnerable to be tampered, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme was proposed. Binary random matrix was used as the authentication watermark, which was embedded by quantizing the maximum absolute value of directional sub-bands coefficients. The average gray level of every non-overlapping 4×4 block was adopted as the recovery watermark, which was embedded in the least significant bit. Watermarking detection could be done directly without resorting to the original images. Experimental results showed our method was robust against rational distortions to a certain extent. At the same time, it was fragile to malicious manipulation, and realized accurate localization and approximate recovery of the tampered regions. Therefore, this scheme can protect the security of remote sensing image effectively.

  18. Resilience and the Fragile City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John de Boer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian, security, and development actors are witnessing two distinct but intertwined trends that will have a dramatic impact on their operations. The first relates to the fact that the locus of global poverty and vulnerability to disaster are increasingly concentrated in fragile and conflict affected states. The second trend is associated with the notion that the world has entered a period of unprecedented urbanization. For the first time in history, more people live inside urban centres than outside of them. As the world continues to urbanize, global emergencies will increasingly be concentrated in cities, particularly in lower income and fragile countries where the pace of urbanization is fastest. Yet, despite the growing risks facing urban populations living in fragile and conflict affected countries, there is very little understanding of what can be done to reduce the risks posed to these cities and their populations.

  19. Seismic fragility levels of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment used in nuclear power plants are discussed. The fragility level is defined as the vibration level corresponding to initiation of equipment malfunctions. The test response spectrum is used as a measure of this vibration level. The fragility phenomenon of an equipment is represented by a number of response spectra corresponding to various failure modes. Analysis methods are described for determination of the fragility level by use of existing test data. Useful conversion factors are tabulated to transform test response spectra from one damping value to another. Results are presented for switch-gears and motor control centers. The capacity levels of these equipment assemblies are observed to be limited by malfunctioning of contactors, motor starters, relays and/or switches. The applicability of the fragility levels, determined in terms of test response spectra, to Seismic Margin Studies and Probabilistic Risk Assessments is discussed and specific recommendations are provided

  20. Study on the Progress of Ecological Fragility Assessment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Hou, Kang; Chang, Yue; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei

    2018-02-01

    The basic elements of human survival are based on the ecological environment. The development of social economic and the security of the ecological environment are closely linked and interact with each other. The fragility of the environment directly affects the stability of the regional ecosystem and the sustainable development of the ecological environment. As part of the division of the national ecological security, the assessment of ecological fragility has become a hot and difficult issue in environmental research, and researchers at home and abroad have systematically studied the causes and states of ecological fragility. The assessment of regional ecological fragility is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the unbalanced distribution of ecological environment factors caused by human socio-economic activities or changes in ecosystems. At present, researches on ecological fragility has not formed a complete and unified index assessment system, and the unity of the assessment model has a direct impact on the accuracy of the index weights. Therefore, the discussion on selection of ecological fragility indexes and the improvement of ecological fragility assessment model is necessary, which is good for the improvement of ecological fragility assessment system in China.

  1. Frequency of fragile-x in x‑linked mental retardation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with isolated mental retardation or autism of unknown etiology with considerable fragile X dysmorphic features or established family history of fragile X syndrome, chromosomal study that identifies the fragile site at Xq27.3 in addition to other cytogenetic abnormalities could be useful or early diagnosis and intervention by ...

  2. The Invisibility of Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  3. The invisible Web uncovering information sources search engines can't see

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Enormous expanses of the Internet are unreachable with standard web search engines. This book provides the key to finding these hidden resources by identifying how to uncover and use invisible web resources. Mapping the invisible Web, when and how to use it, assessing the validity of the information, and the future of Web searching are topics covered in detail. Only 16 percent of Net-based information can be located using a general search engine. The other 84 percent is what is referred to as the invisible Web-made up of information stored in databases. Unlike pages on the visible Web, informa

  4. Witnessing violence: making the invisible visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, J K

    1995-01-01

    In his novel of Black life circa the 1950s, Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison laid bare the wasteful, destructive societal consequences of racism. At the close of the 20th century, we are faced with the phenomenon of another social problem, likewise unresolved and likely to haunt us similarly: urban violence. Following Ellison's example, this paper seeks to explore the impact of violence's stark invisibility by discussing a research strategy that better explains the terrifying phenomenon of violence. In order to comprehend the totality of violence, macro- and micro-level variables have to be introduced into the research design and measured over time. Therefore, research might best address violence if it was designed to include variables of poverty and racism, and was more inclusive of research from a broader range of scientific disciplines.

  5. Component fragilities. Data collection, analysis and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the component fragility research program sponsored by the US NRC, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment with emphasis on electrical equipment. To date, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical and control devices, e.g., switches, transmitters, potentiometers, indicators, relays, etc., of various manufacturers and models. BNL has also obtained test data from EPRI/ANCO. Analysis of the collected data reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage, whereas the upper bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes occurring separately or interactively. For some components, the upper and lower bound fragility levels are observed to vary appreciably depending upon the manufacturers and models. For some devices, testing even at the shake table vibration limit does not exhibit any failure. Failure of a relay is observed to be a frequent cause of failure of an electrical panel or a system. An extensive amount of additional fregility or high level test data exists

  6. Detection of invisible and crucial events: from seismic fluctuations to the war against terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Fronzoni, Leone; Grigolini, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Mega, Mirko S.; Palatella, Luigi E-mail: luigi.palatella@df.unipi.it; Rapisarda, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    We argue that the recent discovery of the non-Poissonian statistics of the seismic main-shocks is a special case of a more general approach to the detection of the distribution of the time increments between one crucial but invisible event and the next. We make the conjecture that the proposed approach can be applied to the analysis of terrorist network with significant benefits for the Intelligence Community.

  7. BANKING SYSTEM FRAGILITY: CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina CLICHICI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the determinants of Moldovan banking system fragility. It underlines the existing researches into the empirical determinants of banking fragility. The analysis revealed that there are numerous channels through which weaknesses within the macroeconomic conditions and structural characteristics might increase banking system fragility. The main macroeconomic determinants which may have an impact on Moldovan banking system fragility are: excessive domestic liquidity, pro-cyclical character of the banking system, dependence on remittances, financial dollarization. There are also several banking characteristics which play a role for Moldovan banking system fragility: the undermined intermediation function, high level of bad loans, uncertainties in the ownership structure, low presence of foreign strategic investors. The paper employed a quantitative, a qualitative and a comparative analysis using the financial soundness and structural indicators of the Moldovan banking system in order to assess the impact of various determinants on Moldovan banking system fragility. The results reveal a high degree of capitalization and liquidity of Moldovan banking system, factors which contribute and maintain the general stability of the entire financial system.

  8. Longitudinal Profiles of Adaptive Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Piven, Joseph; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally the adaptive behavior patterns in fragile X syndrome. METHOD: Caregivers of 275 children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome and 225 typically developing children and adolescents (2–18 years) were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales every 2 to 4 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. RESULTS: Standard scores of adaptive behavior in people with fragile X syndrome are marked by a significant decline over time in all domains for males and in communication for females. Socialization skills are a relative strength as compared with the other domains for males with fragile X syndrome. Females with fragile X syndrome did not show a discernible pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale longitudinal study to show that the acquisition of adaptive behavior slows as individuals with fragile X syndrome age. It is imperative to ensure that assessments of adaptive behavior skills are part of intervention programs focusing on childhood and adolescence in this condition. PMID:25070318

  9. Distributed Leadership And The Visibility/invisibility Paradox In On-line Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of distributed leadership in three on-line communities, reflecting on an observed visibility/invisibility paradox in leadership within these communities. Leaders who downplay their seniority and assume a degree of invisibility, allocating discretionary powers to subordinate levels in an organizational hierarchy, may facilitate the emergence of distributed leadership. Yet, simultaneously, leader-led relations are enabled by high leadership visibility. This paradox—that leaders need to be both highly visible and also invisible, or hands-off, when the occasion requires it—was derived from prior research into e-learning communities and tested in the analysis of discussions from on-line communities using a case study pattern-matching process. The operation of both visibility and invisibility in leadership is a key issue for enabling effective collaborations in distributed leadership situations based on trust. Such collaboration fosters positive group interaction and participative decision making in a consensus facilitated through leadership distribution amongst on-line community members.

  10. Robust non-fragile finite-frequency H∞ static output-feedback control for active suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of non-fragile H∞ static output-feedback control of vehicle active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint. The control objective is to improve ride comfort within the given frequency range and ensure the hard constraints in the time-domain. Moreover, in order to enhance the robustness of the controller, the control gain perturbation is also considered in controller synthesis. Firstly, a new non-fragile H∞ finite-frequency control condition is established by using generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP) lemma. Secondly, the static output-feedback control gain is directly derived by using a non-iteration algorithm. Different from the existing iteration LMI results, the static output-feedback design is simple and less conservative. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is applied to a quarter-car active suspension model with actuator dynamics, numerical results are made to show the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method.

  11. Fragile Butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: Med indlevelse og en unik balance af sårbarhed i stemmen synger og fortolker Heidie sine egne sange, hvis lyriske tekster grundlæggende har to temaer: En dyb kærlighed til livet og det at turde kærligheden. Toneuniverset i Fragile Butterfly tager sit afsæt i jazzen...

  12. Tracking development assistance for health to fragile states: 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Casey M; Haakenstad, Annie; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2015-03-19

    Development assistance for health (DAH) has grown substantially, totaling more than $31.3 billion in 2013. However, the degree that countries with high concentrations of armed conflict, ethnic violence, inequality, debt, and corruption have received this health aid and how that assistance might be different from the funding provided to other countries has not been assessed. We combine DAH estimates and a multidimensional fragile states index for 2005 through 2011. We disaggregate and compare total DAH disbursed for fragile states versus stable states. Between 2005 and 2011, DAH per person in fragile countries increased at an annualized rate of 5.4%. In 2011 DAH to fragile countries totaled $6.2 billion, which is $5.05 per person. This is 43% of total DAH that is traced to a country. Comparing low-income countries, funding channeled to fragile countries was $7.22 per person while stable countries received $11.15 per person. Relative to stable countries, donors preferred to provide more funding to low-income fragile countries that have refugees or ongoing external intervention but tended to avoid providing funding to countries with political gridlock, flawed elections, or economic decline. In 2011, Ethiopia received the most health aid of all fragile countries, while the United States provided the most funds to fragile countries. In 2011, 1.2 billion people lived in fragile countries. DAH can bolster health systems and might be especially valuable in providing long-term stability in fragile environments. While external health funding to these countries has increased since 2005, it is, in per person terms, almost half as much as the DAH provided to stable countries of comparable income levels.

  13. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  14. METHODOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF EMERGENT FRAGILITY: case study of the municipality of Colombo, Paraná.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Almeida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptation of the methodology of Environmental Fragility in order to detect Emergent Fragility.  We discuss the need for methods for measuring the impact of agriculture  which take different agricultural practices and ways of using natural resources into account. This methodological analysis is carried out through a case study of the municipality of Colombo, Paraná, in the Greater Curitiba Metropolitan Region.  This municipality is situated in an area of water springs and above an aquifer. It can be characterized by the presence of conventional and intensive vegetable production as well as the cultivation of several annual crops.   We elaborated several charts on Environmental Fragility (Potential and Emergent and evaluated the impact that agriculture has had on the quality and availability of water resources in the area we studied.  We went on to generate new parameters for distinguishing agricultural practices and their respective environmental impacts. Data have shown that, to the extent that different forms of agricultural use of soil are recognized and analyzed with greater precision, prospects for emergent fragility also vary. In the case of Colombo, data show that capacity for soil protection is greater when our proposed methodology is implemented, yet reaffirm the notion that agriculture that is practiced in areas where vegetables are grown implies high levels of soil vulnerability, also affecting water sources. Furthermore, we are led to conclude that the methodological procedures we propose are important in order to break with an erroneous view that generalizes the environmental impacts that agriculture causes, and in order to place greater value on the use of more  conservationist agricultural techniques.

  15. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  16. Topological mapping and navigation in indoor environment with invisible barcode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jin Wook; Chung, Woong Sik; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization and navigation problem using invisible two dimensional barcodes on the floor. Compared with other methods using natural/artificial landmark, the proposed localization method has great advantages in cost and appearance, since the location of the robot is perfectly known using the barcode information after the mapping is finished. We also propose a navigation algorithm which uses the topological structure. For the topological information, we define nodes and edges which are suitable for indoor navigation, especially for large area having multiple rooms, many walls and many static obstacles. The proposed algorithm also has an advantage that errors occurred in each node are mutually independent and can be compensated exactly after some navigation using barcode. Simulation and experimental results were performed to verify the algorithm in the barcode environment, and the result showed an excellent performance. After mapping, it is also possible to solve the kidnapped case and generate paths using topological information

  17. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  18. 21 CFR 864.6600 - Osmotic fragility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Osmotic fragility test. 864.6600 Section 864.6600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6600 Osmotic fragility...

  19. Detect Image Tamper by Semi-Fragile Digital Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFeilong; WANGYangsheng

    2004-01-01

    To authenticate the integrity of image while resisting some valid image processing such as JPEG compression, a semi-fragile image watermarking is described. Image name, one of the image features, has been used as the key of pseudo-random function to generate the special watermarks for the different image. Watermarks are embedded by changing the relationship between the blocks' DCT DC coefficients, and the image tamper are detected with the relationship of these DCT DC coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed technique can resist JPEG compression, and detect image tamper in the meantime.

  20. Estimating structural collapse fragility of generic building typologies using expert judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Wald, D.J.; Perkins, D.; Aspinall, W.P.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Deodatis, George; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    The structured expert elicitation process proposed by Cooke (1991), hereafter referred to as Cooke’s approach, is applied for the first time in the realm of structural collapse-fragility assessment for selected generic construction types. Cooke’s approach works on the principle of objective calibration scoring of judgments coupled with hypothesis testing used in classical statistics. The performance-based scoring system reflects the combined measure of an expert’s informativeness about variables in the problem area under consideration, and their ability to enumerate, in a statistically accurate way through expressing their true beliefs, the quantitative uncertainties associated with their assessments. We summarize the findings of an expert elicitation workshop in which a dozen earthquake-engineering professionals from around the world were engaged to estimate seismic collapse fragility for generic construction types. Development of seismic collapse fragility functions was accomplished by combining their judgments using weights derived from Cooke’s method. Although substantial effort was needed to elicit the inputs of these experts successfully, we anticipate that the elicitation strategy described here will gain momentum in a wide variety of earthquake seismology and engineering hazard and risk analyses where physical model and data limitations are inherent and objective professional judgment can fill gaps.

  1. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  2. Invisibility: the lived experience of women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Hilary; Clifford, Collette

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an exploration of the lived experience of 13 British women with cancer of the vulva who underwent surgical treatment. A review of the literature highlighted a paucity of knowledge as many studies were conducted during the 1980s and 1990s and investigated sexual functioning only. An interpretive phenomenological approach based on the work of Heidegger and van Manen was used to frame the study by posing the question, "What must it be like to be diagnosed with, and have surgery for a cancer of the vulva?" The women, younger than 50 years, were identified by purposive sampling and interviewed between 6 months and 5 years after surgery. The data were analyzed using framework analysis. The women's lived experience is described in its entirety by the concept of invisibility, characterized as something "no one can see," "heard of," and "talks about." The impact of this invisibility is discussed as the "invisibility of understanding" and "invisibility of support." Although many women may expect to be cured of their vulval cancer, the invisible nature of the condition and the resulting lack of understanding and support may continue for a considerable period, as every aspect of their everyday life and in their relationships may be affected. The challenge now is to raise awareness of this condition and provide greater informational and emotional support for these women.

  3. Heidegger’s phenomenology of the invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej SERAFIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin Heidegger has retrospectively characterized his philosophy as “phenomenology of the invisible”. This paradoxical formula suggests that the aim of his thinking was to examine the origin of the phenomena. Furthermore, Heidegger has also stated that his philosophy is ultimately motivated by a theological interest, namely the question of God’s absence. Following the guiding thread of those remarks, this essay analyzes the essential traits of Heidegger’s thought by interpreting them as an attempt to develop a phenomenology of the invisible. Heidegger’s attitude towards physics and metaphysics, his theory of truth, his reading of Aristotle, his concept of Dasein, his understanding of nothingness are all situated within the problematic context of the relation between the invisible and the revealed. Heidegger’s thought is thereby posited at the point of intersection of phenomenology, ontology, and theology.

  4. The Michelson interferometer-how to detect invisible interference patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verovnik, Ivo; Likar, Andrej

    2004-01-01

    In a Michelson interferometer, the contrast of the interference pattern fades away due to incoherence of light when the mirrors are not in equidistant positions. We propose an experiment where the distance between the interference fringes can be determined, even when the difference in length of the interferometer arms is far beyond the coherence length of the light, i.e. when the interference pattern disappears completely for the naked eye. We used a semiconductor laser with two photodiodes as sensors, which enabled us to follow the fluctuations of the light intensity on the screen. The distance between invisible interference fringes was determined from periodic changes of the summed fluctuating signal, obtained by changing the distance between the two sensors

  5. Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables

  6. Molecular characterization of X chromosome fragility in idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Alla Hosny Omar

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Frequency of fragile X syndrome among male siblings and relatives of mentally retarded patients ... hence the wide clinical spectrum of disorders caused by this ... fragile X syndrome, autism and other less well-characterized.

  7. Trio Fragile / Olga Kaljundi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljundi, Olga, 1941-2001

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis esinenud trupi "Trio Fragile" vernissaazhist. Trio loomingust ja osalejatest : kahe muusiku seltskonnas esineb ka 1984.a. Kunstiülikooli lõpetanud kunstnik Tõnu Talve.

  8. The invisible hand: regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in the Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition, and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, u...

  9. Attentional Set-Shifting in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Hamel, B. C. J.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt to the changing demands of the environment is often reported as a core deficit in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the cognitive processes that determine this attentional set-shifting deficit remain elusive. The present study investigated attentional set-shifting ability in fragile X syndrome males with the…

  10. ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY USING MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCE FOR INTEGRATED LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael Cereda Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geographic Information Systems brought greater possibilitie s to the representation and interpretation of the landscap e as well as the integrated a nalysis. However, this approach does not dispense technical and methodological substan tiation for achieving the computational universe. This work is grounded in ecodynamic s and empirical analysis of natural and anthr opogenic environmental Fragility a nd aims to propose and present an integrated paradigm of Multi-criteria Analysis and F uzzy Logic Model of Environmental Fragility, taking as a case study of the Basin of Monjolinho Stream in São Carlos-SP. The use of this methodology allowed for a reduct ion in the subjectivism influences of decision criteria, which factors might have its cartographic expression, respecting the complex integrated landscape.

  11. Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility.

  12. Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F G

    2017-01-01

    Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility. (letter)

  13. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  14. High functioning male with fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuta, Kirin; Schneider, Andrea; Gane, Louise; Polussa, Jonathan; Woodruff, Bryan; Pretto, Dalyir; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2015-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) affects individuals with more than 200 CGG repeats (full mutation) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Those born with FXS experience cognitive and social impairments, developmental delays, and some features of autism spectrum disorders. Carriers of a premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are generally not severely affected early in life; however, are at high risk of developing the late onset neurodegenerative disorder, Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), or Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI), and may have other medical conditions such as developmental delay, autism spectrum disorders, hypertension, anxiety, and immune-mediated disorders. Here we present a case of a 58-year-old man with a borderline IQ, average memory skills, and executive function deficits. He met criteria for multiple psychiatric diagnoses and presented with tremor and ataxia, meeting criteria for FXTAS. Molecular testing unveiled a completely unmethylated FMR1 full mutation in peripheral blood mononucleated cells with elevated FMR1 mRNA and premutation alleles of different sizes in two other tissues (primary fibroblasts and sperm), indicating the presence of allele instability based on both inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism. The observation of FXTAS in this case of a full mutation mosaic man suggests that the pathogenic mechanism underlying this disorder is not observed exclusively in premutation carriers as it was originally thought. The concomitant presence of features of FXS and late onset neurological deterioration with probable FXTAS likely result from a combined molecular pathology of elevated FMR1 mRNA levels, a molecular hallmark of FXTAS and low FMRP expression that leads to FXS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; D'Ayala, D.

    2011-01-01

    Building collapse is the dominant cause of casualties during earthquakes. In order to better predict human fatalities, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program requires collapse fragility functions for global building types. The collapse fragility is expressed as the probability of collapse at discrete levels of the input hazard defined in terms of macroseismic intensity. This article provides a simple procedure for quantifying collapse fragility using vulnerability criteria based on the European Macroseismic Scale (1998) for selected European building types. In addition, the collapse fragility functions are developed for global building types by fitting the beta distribution to the multiple experts’ estimates for the same building type (obtained from EERI’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE)-PAGER survey). Finally, using the collapse probability distributions at each shaking intensity level as a prior and field-based collapse-rate observations as likelihood, it is possible to update the collapse fragility functions for global building types using the Bayesian procedure.

  16. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Fulks JL, O’Bryhim BE et al (2010) Dopamine release and uptake impairments and behavioral alterations observed in mice that model fragile x mental...D2 dopamine receptor agonist. J Cogn Neurosci 4(1):58–68 Luo Y, Shan G et al (2010) Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0626 TITLE: Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Mechanical Component Flooding Fragility Experiments Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, C. L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Savage, B. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Johnson, B. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Muchmore, C. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Nichols, L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Roberts, G. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Ryan, E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Suresh, S. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Tahhan, A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Tuladhar, R. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Wells, A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Smith, C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This report describes progress on Nuclear Power Plant mechanical component flooding fragility experiments and supporting research. The progress includes execution of full scale fragility experiments using hollow-core doors, design of improvements to the Portal Evaluation Tank, equipment procurement and initial installation of PET improvements, designation of experiments exploiting the improved PET capabilities, fragility mathematical model development, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations, wave impact simulation device research, and pipe rupture mechanics research.

  18. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies

  19. Broadband three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Qu Shaobo; Wu Xiang; Wang Jiafu; Ma Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2010-01-01

    By means of embedded optical transformation, three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks have been designed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the invisible cloaks can be obtained based on the form invariance of Maxwell's equations in coordinate transformation. Numerical methods using the finite element method verified the diamond-shaped cloaks. The invisible properties of the designed cloaks are nearly perfect when the original line section is sufficiently short compared with its counterpart in the after-transformed space. The designed cloaks can operate in a wide bandwidth due to the line transformation in the coordinate transformation process.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome with GABAergic drugs in a knockout mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heulens, Inge; D'Hulst, Charlotte; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P.; Kooy, R. Frank

    2012-01-01

    Molecular and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for a general downregulation of the GABAergic system in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. GABA(A) receptors are the main inhibitory receptors in the brain and the GABA(A) receptor was proposed as a novel target for treatment of the fragile X

  1. Kerr black holes are not fragile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-04-21

    Certain AdS black holes are 'fragile', in the sense that, if they are deformed excessively, they become unstable to a fundamental non-perturbative stringy effect analogous to Schwinger pair-production [of branes]. Near-extremal topologically spherical AdS-Kerr black holes, which are natural candidates for string-theoretic models of the very rapidly rotating black holes that have actually been observed to exist, do represent a very drastic deformation of the AdS-Schwarzschild geometry. One therefore has strong reason to fear that these objects might be 'fragile', which in turn could mean that asymptotically flat rapidly rotating black holes might be fragile in string theory. Here we show that this does not happen: despite the severe deformation implied by near-extremal angular momenta, brane pair-production around topologically spherical AdS-Kerr-Newman black holes is always suppressed.

  2. The 'Invisible' Metal Particles in Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Muñoz-Paez, A.

    1997-01-01

    An easy, reliable and straightforward method to determine the sizes of small metal particles in supported metal catalyst which are invisible for most techniques (chemisorption, XRD, HRTEM) is presented. The technique we consider more appropriate is EXAFS, because it detects metal metal bonds even

  3. Axions: on the way to invisibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1982-01-01

    We present a survey of the theoretical motivation which lead to the axion and we summarize its properties. A brief account of the experimental situation is given, which in addition to cosmological constraints imposes to the axion the way of invisibility in Grand Unified Theories

  4. Tirilazad mesylate protects stored erythrocytes against osmotic fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, D E; Knechtel, T J; Bacznskyj, O; Decker, D; Guido, D M; Buxser, S E; Mathews, W R; Buffenbarger, S L; Lutzke, B S; McCall, J M

    1994-12-01

    The hypoosmotic lysis curve of freshly collected human erythrocytes is consistent with a single Gaussian error function with a mean of 46.5 +/- 0.25 mM NaCl and a standard deviation of 5.0 +/- 0.4 mM NaCl. After extended storage of RBCs under standard blood bank conditions the lysis curve conforms to the sum of two error functions instead of a possible shift in the mean and a broadening of a single error function. Thus, two distinct sub-populations with different fragilities are present instead of a single, broadly distributed population. One population is identical to the freshly collected erythrocytes, whereas the other population consists of osmotically fragile cells. The rate of generation of the new, osmotically fragile, population of cells was used to probe the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is responsible for the induction of membrane fragility. If it is so, then the antioxidant, tirilazad mesylate (U-74,006f), should protect against this degradation of stored erythrocytes. We found that tirilazad mesylate, at 17 microM (1.5 mol% with respect to membrane lecithin), retards significantly the formation of the osmotically fragile RBCs. Concomitantly, the concentration of free hemoglobin which accumulates during storage is markedly reduced by the drug. Since the presence of the drug also decreases the amount of F2-isoprostanes formed during the storage period, an antioxidant mechanism must be operative. These results demonstrate that tirilazad mesylate significantly decreases the number of fragile erythrocytes formed during storage in the blood bank.

  5. The 'invisible hand': regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-07-22

    The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in The Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, using similar forces to regulate the RHO GTPase cycle.

  6. The invisible hand: regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Preface The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in the Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition, and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, using similar forces to regulate the RHO GTPase cycle. PMID:21779026

  7. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  8. Visibility and Invisibility: the Work of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alejandra Collado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of employment, combined with theories about the end of work, place labor at the center of the agenda. Given this situation, it is found that debates around labor in general (its productive and reproductive spheres, its relation with employment and the visible and invisible forms of conducting work have been approached by one of the most neglected traditions of social thinking: feminism. Feminist thinkers have questioned the meaning of work and non-work in relation to the constant increase of the participation of women in the labor market. Although feminist proposals have different levels of analysis and emphasis, it is necessary to return to their unique production, in order to unveil the situation of greater exploitation and oppression, of workers in general and in particular of women. This situation is facilitated by the apparent “invisibilization” or by the loss of the centrality of labor.

  9. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  10. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  11. First search for invisible decays of ortho-positronium confined in a vacuum cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo, C.; Gerchow, L.; Liszkay, L.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2018-01-01

    The experimental setup and results of the first search for invisible decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) confined in a vacuum cavity are reported. No evidence of invisible decays at a level $\\text{Br}\\left(\\text{o-Ps}\\to\\text{invisible}\\right) < 5.9\\times 10^{-4}$ (90% C. L.) was found. This decay channel is predicted in Hidden Sector models such as the Mirror Matter (MM), which could be a candidate for Dark Matter. Analyzed within the MM context, this result provides an upper limit on the kin...

  12. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, W H

    2016-07-21

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as RI, RII, and RIII, respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: RI which can be described by "softness makes strong glasses," RII where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and RIII with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  13. Visualizing the Invisible College: Community among Authors in Top Social Work Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehle, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A review of literature related to the existence of an invisible college community among coauthors of articles in top-rated social work journals indicated that an invisible college could promote quality scholarship but that coauthoring might be inadequately studied or valued in social work education. Social network analysis revealed a skeletal…

  14. A feeling of being (in)visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long...

  15. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications

  16. Addendum to the NA64 Proposal: Search for the $A'\\to invisible$ and $X\\to e^+e^-$ decays in 2021

    CERN Document Server

    Gninenko, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    The experiment NA64 is aimed at a direct search for sub-GeV vector mediator $A'$ of Dark Matter production in invisible $A'$ decay mode. Another goal is to search for of a new light $X$ boson, which could explain a recently observed excess of $\\ee$ events from excited $^8$Be transitions. The NA64 Collaboration requests to carry out further both searches with the H4 electron beam in the year 2021 and beyond.

  17. Molecular characterization of X chromosome fragility in idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Frequency of fragile X syndrome among male siblings and relatives of mentally retarded patients is relatively high. Cytogenetic diagnosis of FXS is unreliable since it is ineffective for the diagnosis of premutated males or ...

  18. Going beyond Google again strategies for using and teaching the invisible web

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrating why teaching the Invisible Web should be a requirement for information literacy education in the 21st century, here the authors expand on the teaching foundation provided in the first book and persuasively argue that the Invisible Web is still relevant not only to student research but also to everyday life.

  19. Fragile-to-fragile liquid transition at Tg and stable-glass phase nucleation rate maximum at the Kauzmann temperature TK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at T g is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Δp accompanying the enthalpy change −V m ×Δp at T g where V m is the molar volume. A stable glass–liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at T≤T g , the Kauzmann temperature T K where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between T K and T g , the maximum nucleation rate at T K of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at T g and T K . Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at T g are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid–liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at T K of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atom, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at T g without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition

  20. Clinical neurogenetics: fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah A; O'Keefe, Joan A

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes the clinical findings, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome. The disorder occurs from a CGG repeat (55-200) expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene. It manifests clinically in kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, and executive dysfunction, usually in older men who carry the genetic abnormality. The disorder has distinct radiographic and pathologic findings. Symptomatic treatment is beneficial in some patients. The inheritance is X-linked and family members may be at risk for other fragile X-associated disorders. This information is useful to neurologists, general practitioners, and geneticists. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions FXPOI Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency ( FXPOI ) is a condition ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions FXTAS Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome ( FXTAS ) is characterized by ...

  3. Active electromagnetic invisibility cloaking and radiation force cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    This investigation shows that an active emitting electromagnetic (EM) Dirichlet source (i.e., with axial polarization of the electric field) in a homogeneous non-dissipative/non-absorptive medium placed near a perfectly conducting boundary can render total invisibility (i.e. zero extinction cross-section or efficiency) in addition to a radiation force cancellation on its surface. Based upon the Poynting theorem, the mathematical expression for the extinction, radiation and amplification cross-sections (or efficiencies) are derived using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. Moreover, the analysis is extended to compute the self-induced EM radiation force on the active source, resulting from the waves reflected by the boundary. The numerical results predict the generation of a zero extinction efficiency, achieving total invisibility, in addition to a radiation force cancellation which depend on the source size, the distance from the boundary and the associated EM mode order of the active source. Furthermore, an attractive EM pushing force on the active source directed toward the boundary or a repulsive pulling one pointing away from it can arise accordingly. The numerical predictions and computational results find potential applications in the design and development of EM cloaking devices, invisibility and stealth technologies.

  4. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions.

  5. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei, E-mail: pguan@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193 (China); Wang, W. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-07-21

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as R{sub I,} R{sub II}, and R{sub III}, respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: R{sub I} which can be described by “softness makes strong glasses,” R{sub II} where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and R{sub III} with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  6. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as R I, R II , and R III , respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: R I which can be described by “softness makes strong glasses,” R II where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and R III with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  7. Screening and diagnosis for the fragile X syndrome among the mentally retarded: an epidemiological and psychological survey. Collaborative Fragile X Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); S. Mohkamsing; H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); E. Mol; K. Gelsema; M. van Rijn; D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe fragile X syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by an expanded CGG repeat in the first exon of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene. Its frequency, X-linked inheritance, and consequences for relatives all prompt for

  8. (In)Visible Hand(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Zima

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the regulatory role of the state and legal norms, in market economy, especially in so-called transition countries. Legal policy, and other questions of the state and free market economy are here closely connected, because the state must ensure with legal norms that economic processes are not interrupted: only the state can establish the legal basis for a market economy. The free market’s invisible hand is acting in questions such as: what is to be produced,...

  9. Aprendizaje Invisible. Hacia una nueva ecología de la educación

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Cristóbal; Moravec, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Índice Carta del Editor Visibilidad para analizar la cara invisible del aprendizaje Por Hugo Pardo Kuklinski 9 Prólogo Una visión más amplia de Internet en el aprendizaje Por William H. Dutton 13 Capítulo 0 Introducción al aprendizaje invisible: la (r)evolución fuera del aula Por Cristóbal Cobo y John W. Moravec 17 Capítulo 1 Desde la sociedad 1.0 a la sociedad 3.0 Por John W. Moravec 47 Capítulo 2 Uso invisible de las tecnologías y competencias para ...

  10. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  11. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpouve, N.; Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T g .

  12. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The…

  13. Dilemmas in counselling females with the fragile X syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); H.M. van den Boer-van den Berg; M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe dilemmas in counselling a mildly retarded female with the fragile X syndrome and her retarded partner are presented. The fragile X syndrome is an X linked mental retardation disorder that affects males and, often less severely, females. Affected females

  14. When risk becomes invisible in the everyday life of day care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Ole Steen

    2016-01-01

    Both the identification of children at risk in day care and multidisciplinary collaboration with other professions have a political focus. This study was designed as an organizational field study and attempts to establish a coherent practice of multidisciplinary collaboration between day care...... and their life circumstances become invisible in the everyday life of day care. Due to defensive routines as well as an organizational culture that frames and creates a non-explicitly structured practice using intuitive processes, the problems of children at risk become invisible in the everyday life of day care....... When risk become invisible, it not only impedes the mono-professional help the children receive, it also inhibits a crucial multidisciplinary collaborative provision of support to children at risk and their families. The identification of children at risk seems to be based on an unexamined selection...

  15. Fragility estimation for seismically isolated nuclear structures by high confidence low probability of failure values and bi-linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carausu, A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the fragility estimation of seismically isolated nuclear power plant structure is proposed. The relationship between the ground motion intensity parameter (e.g. peak ground velocity or peak ground acceleration) and the response of isolated structures is expressed in terms of a bi-linear regression line, whose coefficients are estimated by the least-square method in terms of available data on seismic input and structural response. The notion of high confidence low probability of failure (HCLPF) value is also used for deriving compound fragility curves for coupled subsystems. (orig.)

  16. Experimental demonstration of invisible electromagnetic impedance matching cylindrical transformation optics cloak shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingji; Wang, Changxian; Cheng, Xiaodong; Gong, Congcheng; Song, Weili; Yuan, Xujin; Fang, Daining

    2018-04-01

    The realization of an ideal invisible cloak implementing transformation optics is still missing. An impedance matching concept is implanted into transformation optics cloak to generate an impedance matching cloak (IMC) shell. In this work, it is proved that impedance matching structure reduces the cloaking structure’s disturbance to a propagating electromagnetic field and improves its invisibility measured by scattering field intensity. Such a cylindrical IMC shell is designed, fabricated with proposed rounded rectangular split-ring-resonators (RR-SRRs), and experimental measurements show the total scattering field of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinder surrounded by an IMC shell is improved greatly compared to the PEC cylinder showing electromagnetic wave front ripple suppression and a considerable scattering shrinking effect. IMC shell backward scattering field is suppressed down to 7.29%, compared to the previous value of 86.7% due to its impedance matching character, and overall scattering field intensity shrinking is down to 19.3% compared to the previously realized value of 56.4%. Sideward scattering field recorded in the experiment also has a remarkable improvement compared to the PEC cylinder. The impedance matching concept might enlighten the realization of an ideal cloak and other novel electromagnetic cloaking and shielding structures.

  17. Forests, Fragility and Conflict : Overview and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harwell, Emily; Farah, Douglas; Blundell, Arthur G.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a synthesis of key themes and current knowledge about the links among forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. The main themes addressed are: how predatory, incapable, or absent states are fragile in different ways, and their diverse relationships to forests and conflict; the mechanisms by which forests facilitate or prolong conflict, inc...

  18. Data-Driven Decision Making in Fragile Contexts : Evidence from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Alexander; Hammer, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Data deficiencies contribute to state fragility and exacerbate fragile states’ already limited capacity to provide basic services, public security and rule of law. The lack of robust, good quality data can also have a disabling effect on government efforts to manage political conflict, and indeed can worsen conflict, since violent settings pose substantial challenges to knowledge generation, capture and application. In short, in fragile contexts the need for reliable evidence at all levels ...

  19. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  20. Fragile X syndrome: Are signaling lipids the missing culprits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Ricardos; Vitale, Nicolas; Moine, Hervé

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. FXS results from the absence of FMRP, an RNA binding protein associated to ribosomes that influences the translation of specific mRNAs in post-synaptic compartments of neurons. The main molecular consequence of the absence of FMRP is an excessive translation of neuronal protein in several areas of the brain. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the defect in synaptic plasticity responsible for FXS. Recent findings in neurons of the fragile X mouse model (Fmr1-KO) uncovered another consequence of the lack of FMRP: a deregulation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/phosphatidic acid (PA) homeostasis. DAG and PA are two interconvertible lipids that influence membrane architecture and that act as essential signaling molecules that activate various downstream effectors, including master regulators of local protein synthesis and actin polymerization. As a consequence, DAG and PA govern a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, vesicle/membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal organization. At the synapse, the level of these lipids is proposed to influence the synaptic activation status. FMRP appears as a master regulator of this neuronal process by controlling the translation of a diacylglycerol kinase enzyme that converts DAG into PA. The deregulated levels of DAG and PA caused by the absence of FMRP could represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of FXS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. The highly fragile glass former Decalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Systems exhibiting the glass transition can be classified by fragility. In this work we studied structural and dynamical aspects of highly fragile C 10 H 18 Decalin. Trans Decalin is locked into a pseudo-flat centrosymmetric conformation, while cis Decalin interchanges dynamically between chiral, pseudo-spherical ground states. On investigation of the phase behaviour trans Decalin was found to crystallise rapidly and cleanly; its crystal structure could be determined. From the crystal structure the dynamics of crystalline trans Decalin could be calculated using ab-initio lattice energy calculations and compared to measurements. Using neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations the amorphous structure of Decalin was investigated. The difference in structure to the common molecular liquid Cumene is significant. The features of the amorphous structure of sphere-like cis Decalin show strong resemblance to the ones of Argon and metallic glasses. The dynamics of Decalin were investigated in the slightly supercooled liquid range. Using neutron scattering and optical spectroscopy, data was collected for a wide spectral range and several temperatures. The data suggests high fragility for the generic Decalin mixture, which is in agreement with the reported results. By contrast to previous estimations, an extrapolation of our data indicates cis Decalin to be only slightly less fragile than the generic mixture. Finally a lower limit to the four point susceptibility function χ 4 could be calculated and the number of correlated molecules determined. The evolution of this value as a function of T g /T and relaxation time are in agreement with literature. (author) [fr

  2. Why Information Literacy Is Invisible

    OpenAIRE

    William Badke

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many information literacy programs on higher education campuses, the literature of information literacy and the concept of information literacy as a viable academic subject remain hidden to most professors and academic administrators. Information literacy is invisible to academia because it is misunderstood, academic administrators have not put it on their institutions' agendas, the literature of information literacy remains in the library silo, there is a false belief that infor...

  3. How to observe the invisible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefanis, G.; Peyret, O.; Darier, P.

    2000-01-01

    The observation of events and objects by images resulted from the detection of invisible radiation (infrared, X and gamma ray) emitted from these objects, is now more possible. This is mainly due to the progress in the microelectronics and semiconductors devices. With these advanced devices, it is possible to manufacture cameras with TV display size image and high resolution, which have many applications in military, medical and industrial sectors. (author)

  4. The Treatment of Smith's Invisible Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2007-01-01

    Adam Smith used the metaphor of an invisible hand to represent the instincts of human nature that direct behavior. Moderated by self-control and guided by proper institutional incentives, actions grounded in instincts can be shown to generate a beneficial social order even if not intended. Smith's concept, however, has been diluted and distorted…

  5. Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand: From Metaphor to Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Adam Smith and the ‘invisible hand’ are nearly synonymous in modern economic thinking. Adam Smith is strongly associated with the invisible hand, understood as a general rule that people in realising their self-interests unintentionally benefit the public good. The attribution to Smith is challengeable. Adam Smith’s use of the metaphor was much more modest; it was re-invented in the 1930s and 1940s onwards to bolster mathematical treatments of capitalism (Samuelson, Friedman) and to sup...

  6. A Trial of Metformin in Individuals With Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    Fragile X Syndrome; Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome; Mental Retardation, X Linked; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked; Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion; Fra(X) Syndrome; Intellectual Disability; FXS; Neurobehavioral Manifestations; Sex Chromosome Disorders

  7. Evaluation of liquid fragility and thermal stability of Al-based metallic glasses by equivalent structure parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuelian; Bian Xiufang; Hu Lina

    2010-01-01

    Based on extended Ideal-Atomic-Packing model, we propose an equivalent structure parameter '6x+11y' to evaluate fragility and thermal stability of Al-TM-RE metallic glasses, where x and y are composition concentrations of transition metal (TM) and rare earth (RE), respectively. Experimental results show that glass forming compositions with '6x+11y' near 100 have the smallest fragility parameter and best structure stability. In addition, '6x+11y' parameter has a positive relationship with onset-crystallization temperature, T x . Al-TM-RE glassy alloys with (6x+11y)≤100 undergo primary crystallization of fcc-Al nanocrystals, while alloys with (6x+11y)>100 exhibit nanoglassy or glassy crystallization behavior.

  8. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: delpouve.nicolas@gmail.com [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  9. Seismic fragility analysis of structural components for HFBR facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of recently completed seismic fragility analyses of the HFBR facilities. Based on a detailed review of past PRA studies, various refinements were made regarding the strength and ductility evaluation of structural components. Available laboratory test data were analysed to evaluate the formulations used to predict the ultimate strength and deformation capacities of steel, reinforced concrete and masonry structures. The biasness and uncertainties were evaluated within the framework of the fragility evaluation methods widely accepted in the nuclear industry. A few examples of fragility calculations are also included to illustrate the use of the presented formulations

  10. En el limbo de lo invisible. In the limbo of the invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Arocena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La violencia sobre la mujer representada en los medios de comunicación adquiere diversas formas que no siempre se manifiestan de manera explícita. A través de las modalidades de manipulación descritas por Greimas y Cour t é s l a s imágenes contemporáneas imponen a la mujer un único canon de belleza aceptable y una engañosa representación de su goce mediatizada por el deseo y la satisfacción masculinas. La dialéctica entre lo visible y lo invisible que el ojo patriarcal ha instaurado en la sociedad occidental por medio de la tiranía de los medios de comunicación de masas,aún impiden a la mujer, en pleno siglo XXI, el acceso a una manifestación libre y fidedigna de su propia naturaleza física y sexual.The representation of violence against women in the mass media adopts different forms that are not always explicit. Through the modes of manipulation described by Greimas and Courtés, contemporary images subject women to a single canon of acceptable beauty and a deceitfull representation of their pleasure mediated by masculine desire and satisfaction. Well into the XXI century, the dialectic between the visible and the invisible, which the patriarchal eye has installed inwestern society through the tyranny of the mass media, still preventswomen from having access to a free and reliable expression of theirown physical and sexual nature.

  11. Unidirectional reflection and invisibility in nonlinear media with an incoherent nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali; Oflaz, Neslihan

    2017-11-01

    We give explicit criteria for the reflectionlessness, transparency, and invisibility of a finite-range potential in the presence of an incoherent (intensity-dependent) nonlinearity that is confined to the range of the potential. This allows us to conduct a systematic study of the effects of such a nonlinearity on a locally periodic class of finite-range potentials that display perturbative unidirectional invisibility. We use our general results to examine the effects of a weak Kerr nonlinearity on the behavior of these potentials and show that the presence of nonlinearity destroys the unidirectional invisibility of these potentials. If the strength of the Kerr nonlinearity is so weak that the first-order perturbation theory is reliable, the presence of nonlinearity does not affect the unidirectional reflectionlessness and transmission reciprocity of the potential. We show that the expected violation of the latter is a second order perturbative effect.

  12. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their ...

  13. L'invisible invité

    OpenAIRE

    Frémy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: ""They’re a kind of cabin or hut, very basic and awkwardly assembled, wedged into the space of the balcony between the guardrail and the wall of the building.The vertical sides are made of plywood, canvas or tarp, and are topped by a vegetal roofing that is more or less dry, more or less green, threaded with palm wattle. These huts are opaque and seem to communicate with apartments…" Excerpt from L’Invisible invité by Anne Frémy, english by Bruce Bender...

  14. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  15. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  16. Dark matter from late invisible decays to and of gravitinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Strigari, Louis E.; Wang, Mei-Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we sift a simple supersymmetric framework of late invisible decays to and of the gravitino. We study a simple extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model that includes isosinglet color-triplet superfields and a singlet superfield. We investigate two cases where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle or the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. The next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle decays into two dark matter candidates and has a long lifetime due to gravitationally suppressed interactions. However, because of the absence of any hadronic or electromagnetic products, it satisfies the tight bounds set by big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. One or both of the dark matter candidates produced in invisible decays can contribute to the amount of dark radiation and suppress perturbations at scales that are being probed by the galaxy power spectrum and the Lyman-alpha forest data. We show that these constraints are satisfied in large regions of the parameter space and, as a result, the late invisible decays to and of the gravitino can be responsible for the entire dark matter relic abundance.

  17. The Seismic Fragility Evaluation of an Offsite Transformer according to Aging Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2008-01-01

    A seismic fragility analysis was performed, especially for an aged electric power transmission system, in this study. A real electric transformer system for Korean Nuclear Power Plants was selected for the seismic fragility evaluation. In the case of a seismic fragility analysis we should use design material properties and conditions. However material properties and environmental conditions of most structures and equipment are changed according to a lapse of time. Aging conditions greatly affect the integrity of the structures and equipment at NPP sites, but it is very difficult to estimate them qualitatively. Integrity of an anchor bolt system was considered with the aging conditions for an electric transformer system. At first, a seismic fragility analysis was performed for a fine condition for an electric transformer system. After that, a seismic fragility analysis according to the fastener of an anchor bolt system was conducted. This study showed that a looser anchor bolt creates seismic responses and seismic fragility changes of more 10%

  18. Harlequin, Holberg and the (in)visible masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    1998-01-01

    A reading of Holberg's harquinades "Ulysses Von Itacia" and "The Invisibles" placed in a context of European grotesque theatre with a specific regard to the texts relation to respectively older and newer French-Italian masque theatre. The analysis suggeststhat the first text is in perfect accorda...

  19. ''Invisible'' axion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is given of various ideas which have been put forth to detect ''invisible'' axions, i.e., axions with f/sub a/ between 3 x 10 7 GeV and 2 x 10 12 GeV. These experiments would attempt to detect the axions which constitute the halo of our galaxy or axions which are emitted by our sun; or they would attempt to detect the force mediated by virtual axions. Various relevant axion parameters are given as f/sub a/. Among the experiments described are: galactic axion detector using a cavity; ''spin coupled'' axion detection; axion to photon conversion in an inhomogeneous static magnetic field; and macroscopic forces mediated by axions. 27 refs

  20. Diagnostic, carrier and prenatal genetic testing for fragile X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability (ID) worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CGG repeat in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR-1) gene. Objectives. To review, retrospectively, the genetic services for FXS and other FMR-1-related disorders ...

  1. Whole-of-Government Approaches to Fragile States in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years fragile states have been high on the foreign policy agendas of the USA and the EU. Both actors look upon fragile states with great concern and consider them as security threats. Officially they give priority to ‘whole-of-government approaches’ (wga) when addressing the threats...

  2. Cities could hold the key to understanding fragility | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities are engines of economic growth and the primary sites of basic service delivery. Yet weak governance, along with inequalities related to income, social class, religion, and gender, may lead to a breakdown of systems and structures, and eventually to "fragile cities." Although the fragile cities concept is relatively new, ...

  3. Medición de los Capitales Intelectuales Visibles e Invisibles

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Heredia Heredia; Martha González Adame

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es presentar una propuesta para medir el capital intelectual visible e invisible y conocer la relación estadística entre ambos tipos de capital. Se parte de la propuesta de Nevado [1] sobre la clasificación de los activos intangibles visibles e invisibles y de la visión social evolutiva de Bueno [2]. A partir de esta postura se realiza un análisis del capital intelectual y los modelos para su medición hasta encontrar los criterios básicos de la nueva propuest...

  4. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic testing and reporting of fragile X syndrome and other fragile X-associated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Valérie; Glaeser, Dieter; McQuaid, Shirley; Steinbach, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Different mutations occurring in the unstable CGG repeat in 5' untranslated region of FMR1 gene are responsible for three fragile X-associated disorders. An expansion of over ∼200 CGG repeats when associated with abnormal methylation and inactivation of the promoter is the mutation termed ‘full mutation' and is responsible for fragile X syndrome (FXS), a neurodevelopmental disorder described as the most common cause of inherited intellectual impairment. The term ‘abnormal methylation' is used here to distinguish the DNA methylation induced by the expanded repeat from the ‘normal methylation' occurring on the inactive X chromosomes in females with normal, premutation, and full mutation alleles. All male and roughly half of the female full mutation carriers have FXS. Another anomaly termed ‘premutation' is characterized by the presence of 55 to ∼200 CGGs without abnormal methylation, and is the cause of two other diseases with incomplete penetrance. One is fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI), which is characterized by a large spectrum of ovarian dysfunction phenotypes and possible early menopause as the end stage. The other is fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which is a late onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting males and females. Because of the particular pattern and transmission of the CGG repeat, appropriate molecular testing and reporting is very important for the optimal genetic counselling in the three fragile X-associated disorders. Here, we describe best practice guidelines for genetic analysis and reporting in FXS, FXPOI, and FXTAS, including carrier and prenatal testing. PMID:25227148

  5. Single plasmonic nanoparticles for ultrasensitive DNA sensing: From invisible to visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longhua; Chen, Lichan; Hong, Seungpyo; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2016-05-15

    The background signal is a major factor that restricts the limit of detection of biosensors. Herein, we present a zero-background DNA-sensing approach that utilizes enzyme-guided gold nanoparticle (AuNP) enlargement. This sensing strategy is based on the finding that small nanoparticles are invisible under a darkfield optical microscope, thus completely eliminating the background signal. In the event of target binding, Ag deposition is triggered and enlarges the AuNP beyond its optical diffraction limit, thereby making the invisible AuNP visible. Because the plasmon scattering of Ag is stronger than that of Au, only a thin layer of Ag is required to greatly enhance the scattering intensity of the AuNPs. Our investigation revealed that a target DNA concentration as low as 5.0×10(-21)M can transform the darkfield image of the nanoparticle from completely dark (invisible) to a blue dot (visible). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural evolution during fragile-to-strong transition in CuZr(Al) glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, C.; Hu, L.N.; Sun, Q.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we show experimental evidence for the dynamic fragile-to-strong (F-S) transition in a series of CuZr(Al) glass-forming liquids (GFLs). A detailed analysis of the dynamics of 98 glass-forming liquids indicates that the F-S transition occurs around Tf-s ≈ 1.36 Tg. Using...... the hyperquenching-annealing-x-ray scattering approach, we have observed a three-stage evolution pattern of medium-range ordering (MRO) structures during the F-S transition, indicating a dramatic change of the MRO clusters around Tf-s upon cooling. The F-S transition in CuZr(Al) GFLs is attributed to the competition...... among the MRO clusters composed of different locally ordering configurations. A phenomenological scenario has been proposed to explain the structural evolution from the fragile to the strong phase in the CuZr(Al) GFLs....

  7. Flowers behind the back of the universe: A cosmic art project exploring the invisible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuri; Doser, Michael; Sakurai, Ryu; Shimoyama, Hajime; Takahashi, Ryo

    2018-05-01

    What can be seen within this universe? Since humans are not instinctively aware of the limitations of their sensorium, what is being missed is not immediately obvious. Aiming to explore with our imagination the invisible elements in the universe, we created an interactive cosmic art project in collaboration with the Gunma Astronomical Observatory, and the Polytech Festival in Moscow. In this paper, we firstly address the topic of dark matter, from the physics point of view, the concept in our project touching upon the invisible beauty in the universe, and then discuss the practical methodology for the process of making the installation. This installation was laid out based on a map of constellations from where people were able to see the antipode of Moscow, an opposite point from the venue where the installation was set, in analogy to illustrating what exists, but can not be seen. Using origami flowers - made in the course of a workshop by the visitors of the festival - as a metaphor of the beauty and transience of life, the installation seeks to deepen the awareness of participants about the numerous invisible structures in the universe. Placing them within reflective structures underlines both our reliance on technology to make the invisible visible, and the influence of the point of view on how we perceive and interpret the resulting representations. In their various forms and colors, these flowers can be seen as metaphorical mirror images of that which lies at the antipodes of our awareness: of colorful gas glowing in radio waves, supernovas in their many x-ray hues, dark matter, neutrinos, gravitational waves, dark energy. Considering both the invisible scenery of the sky and the invisible elements of beauty in the universe as lying behind the 'back' of the universe, hidden to our senses, this project explores a new way of communication between humans and the ubiquitous invisible in an artistic manner. Finally, the whole process of this project is summarized

  8. Attentional load modulates responses of human primary visual cortex to invisible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Lavie, Nilli; Rees, Geraint

    2007-03-20

    Visual neuroscience has long sought to determine the extent to which stimulus-evoked activity in visual cortex depends on attention and awareness. Some influential theories of consciousness maintain that the allocation of attention is restricted to conscious representations [1, 2]. However, in the load theory of attention [3], competition between task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli for limited-capacity attention does not depend on conscious perception of the irrelevant stimuli. The critical test is whether the level of attentional load in a relevant task would determine unconscious neural processing of invisible stimuli. Human participants were scanned with high-field fMRI while they performed a foveal task of low or high attentional load. Irrelevant, invisible monocular stimuli were simultaneously presented peripherally and were continuously suppressed by a flashing mask in the other eye [4]. Attentional load in the foveal task strongly modulated retinotopic activity evoked in primary visual cortex (V1) by the invisible stimuli. Contrary to traditional views [1, 2, 5, 6], we found that availability of attentional capacity determines neural representations related to unconscious processing of continuously suppressed stimuli in human primary visual cortex. Spillover of attention to cortical representations of invisible stimuli (under low load) cannot be a sufficient condition for their awareness.

  9. Earthquake Magnitude and Shaking Intensity Dependent Fragility Functions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Nollet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated web application, referred to as ER2 for rapid risk evaluator, is under development for a user-friendly seismic risk assessment by the non-expert public safety community. The assessment of likely negative consequences is based on pre-populated databases of seismic, building inventory and vulnerability parameters. To further accelerate the computation for near real-time analyses, implicit building fragility curves were developed as functions of the magnitude and the intensity of the seismic shaking defined with a single intensity measure, input spectral acceleration at 1.0 s implicitly considering the epicentral distance and local soil conditions. Damage probabilities were compared with those obtained with the standard fragility functions explicitly considering epicentral distances and local site classes in addition to the earthquake magnitudes and respective intensity of the seismic shaking. Different seismic scenarios were considered first for 53 building classes common in Eastern Canada, and then a reduced number of 24 combined building classes was proposed. Comparison of results indicate that the damage predictions with implicit fragility functions for short (M ≤ 5.5 and medium strong motion duration (5.5 < M ≤ 7.5 show low variation with distance and soil class, with average error of less than 3.6%.

  10. Another Distortion of Adam Smith: The Case of the "Invisible Hand"

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Meeropol

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a major omission in the way textbook writers and journalists utilize Adam Smith’s concept of the “invisible hand” to make Adam Smith an intellectual precursor of modern neo-liberal economic policy. Specifically, the paper addresses the use of the concept of the “invisible hand” by Adam Smith to address two major issues in the debate over neo-liberal policy: the international flow of capital and its role in the location of investment projects and the inequality in the dist...

  11. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  12. Fragility and hysteretic creep in frictional granular jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, M M; Rivera, M K; Krzakala, F; Ecke, R E

    2013-04-01

    The granular jamming transition is experimentally investigated in a two-dimensional system of frictional, bidispersed disks subject to quasistatic, uniaxial compression without vibrational disturbances (zero granular temperature). Three primary results are presented in this experimental study. First, using disks with different static friction coefficients (μ), we experimentally verify numerical results that predict jamming onset at progressively lower packing fractions with increasing friction. Second, we show that the first compression cycle measurably differs from subsequent cycles. The first cycle is fragile-a metastable configuration with simultaneous jammed and unjammed clusters-over a small packing fraction interval (φ(1)disk displacements over the same packing fraction interval. This fragile behavior is explained through a percolation mechanism of stressed contacts where cluster growth exhibits spatial correlation with disk displacements and contributes to recent results emphasizing fragility in frictional jamming. Control experiments show that the fragile state results from the experimental incompatibility between the requirements for zero friction and zero granular temperature. Measurements with several disk materials of varying elastic moduli E and friction coefficients μ show that friction directly controls the start of the fragile state but indirectly controls the exponential pressure rise. Finally, under repetitive loading (compression) and unloading (decompression), we find the system exhibits pressure hysteresis, and the critical packing fraction φ(c) increases slowly with repetition number. This friction-induced hysteretic creep is interpreted as the granular pack's evolution from a metastable to an eventual structurally stable configuration. It is shown to depend on the quasistatic step size Δφ, which provides the only perturbative mechanism in the experimental protocol, and the friction coefficient μ, which acts to stabilize the pack.

  13. Obesity, Food Selectivity, and Physical Activity in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Olmsted, Murrey

    2010-01-01

    National survey data from 884 families were used to examine the overall health of children and adults with fragile X syndrome. Results indicate the rate of obesity in adults with fragile X syndrome is similar to the general population (30%). Male children with fragile X syndrome, however, had higher rates of obesity (31%) when compared with…

  14. Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (ED-SFS is a newly described autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin fragility and blistering, palmoplantar keratoderma, abnormal hair growth, nail dystrophy, and occasionally defective sweating. It results from mutations in the PKP1 gene encoding plakophilin 1 (PKP1, which is an important component of stratifying epithelial desmosomes and a nuclear component of many cell types. Only 12 cases of this rare genodermatosis have been reported so far. We present an unusual case of ED-SFS in a 12-year boy who was normal at birth but subsequently developed skin fragility, hair and nail deformities, abnormal dentition, palmoplantar keratoderma, and abnormal sweating but no systemic abnormality.

  15. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  16. Ectodermal Dysplasia Skin Fragility Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Alan Atalay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis first described in 1997 by Mc Grath. EDSFS results from loss of function mutations in plakophilin-1 (PKP1. PKP1 is a structural component of desmosomes, cellcell adhesion complexes. It is also found as a nuclear protein in several cell types that are lack of desmosomes. In skin, however, PKP1 expression is confined mainly to suprabasal keratinocytes and the outer root sheath of hair follicules. Loss of function mutation in PKP1 leads to extensive skin fragility, bullae and erosions following minor trauma, focal keratoderma with painful fissures, alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In some patients hypohidrosis may also be seen. EDSFS is now considered as a specific suprabasal form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this report we describe a 20 year old EDSFS case.

  17. ¿Why are women invisible in the Teaching of history? Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda Sant Obiols

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wonder why women are invisible in the teaching of history and we develop some assumptions about the reasons for this invisibility. We analyze the place women occupy in the curriculum of social sciences and history of Catalonia to claim their presence in texts and in practices. We exemplify their role in a teaching unit called Gifts of the 36 -Women of the 36- dedicated to recall the role of Republican women during the Spanish Civil War, the Franquism and the transition to democracy.

  18. Illusory Speed is Retained in Memory during Invisible Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain can retain speed information in early visual short-term memory in an astonishingly precise manner. We investigated whether this (early visual memory system is active during the extrapolation of occluded motion and whether it reflects speed misperception due to contrast and size. Experiments 1A and 2A showed that reducing target contrast or increasing its size led to an illusory speed underestimation. Experiments 1B, 2B, and 3 showed that this illusory phenomenon is reflected in the memory of speed during occluded motion, independent of the range of visible speeds, of the length of the visible trajectory or the invisible trajectory, and of the type of task. These results suggest that illusory speed is retained in memory during invisible motion.

  19. Shifts of visuospatial attention to invisible (metacontrast-masked singletons: Clues from reaction times and event-related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Heumann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we tested whether a masked and, thus, invisible singleton-cue captures atten-tion in a stimulus-driven manner or in a top-down contingent manner. The manual RT (Reaction Time capture effect with the invisible singleton--cue decreased substantially when a match between the singleton-cue and the top-down controlled set of searched-for target features was also decreased. By contrast, with the PCN (Posterior Contralateral Negativity, an electrophysiological measure of the capture of visuospatial attention by the invisible singleton-cue, no significant decrement was observed. Taken together, the results support the assumption that an invisible singleton-cue can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner, and that different delays in the deallocation of attention (i.e., attention is deallocated more efficiently from acue that does not match the top-down controlled set than from a cue that does match the same set account for the weaker manual RT capture effect with a set- -nonmatching invisible singleton-cue.

  20. Comparison of the effect of hazard and response/fragility uncertainties on core melt probability uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensing, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This report proposes a method for comparing the effects of the uncertainty in probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) input parameters on the uncertainty in the predicted risks. The proposed method is applied to compare the effect of uncertainties in the descriptions of (1) the seismic hazard at a nuclear power plant site and (2) random variations in plant subsystem responses and component fragility on the uncertainty in the predicted probability of core melt. The PRA used is that developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

  1. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  2. Robust-yet-fragile nature of interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Wei, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Interdependent networks have been shown to be extremely vulnerable based on the percolation model. Parshani et al. [Europhys. Lett. 92, 68002 (2010), 10.1209/0295-5075/92/68002] further indicated that the more intersimilar networks are, the more robust they are to random failures. When traffic load is considered, how do the coupling patterns impact cascading failures in interdependent networks? This question has been largely unexplored until now. In this paper, we address this question by investigating the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks under either random failures or intentional attacks. It is found that interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs are robust yet fragile under either random failures or intentional attacks. Interdependent Barabási-Albert scale-free networks, however, are only robust yet fragile under random failures but fragile under intentional attacks. We further analyze the interdependent communication network and power grid and achieve similar results. These results advance our understanding of how interdependency shapes network robustness.

  3. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  4. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  5. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  6. Epidemiology of "fragile skin": results from a survey of different skin types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftek M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek Haftek,1 Christine Coutanceau,2 Charles Taïeb3 1Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Lyon, 2Département Médical, Laboratoires Dermatologiques A-Derma, Lavaur, 3Public Health, Pierre Fabre SA, Paris, France Background: Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of "fragile skin" in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived "fragile skin" across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods: Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218, Caucasian South skin (n=1,695, Asian skin (n=1,500, and Black skin (n=500. The main survey question was "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual's skin were also evaluated. Results: A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, "fragile skin" was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001. Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of "fragile skin" was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001, regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting "fragile skin" were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of "fragile skin" was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type in the previous 12 months. Conclusion: Whilst these

  7. On measuring the masses of pair-produced semi-invisibly decaying particles at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    A straightforward new technique is introduced which enables measurement at hadron colliders of an analytical combination of the masses of pair-produced semi-invisibly decaying particles and their invisible decay products. The new technique makes use of the invariance under contra-linear Lorentz boosts of a simple combination of the transverse momentum components of the aggregate visible products of each decay chain. In the general case where the invariant masses of the visible decay products are non-zero it is shown that in principle the masses of both the initial particles from the hard scattering and the invisible particles produced in the decay chains can be determined independently. This application is likely to be difficult to realise in practice however due to the contamination of the final state with ISR jets. The technique may be of most use for measurements of SUSY particle masses at the LHC, however the technique should be applicable to any class of hadron collider events in which heavy particles of unknown mass are pair-produced and decay to semi-invisible final states

  8. Rescue of Synaptic Phenotypes and Spatial Memory in Young Fragile X Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Kun; Hongpaisan, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L

    2016-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by synaptic immaturity, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. The disorder is caused by transcriptional shutdown in neurons of thefragile X mental retardation 1gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein. Fragile X mental retardation protein is a repressor of dendritic mRNA translation and its silencing leads to dysregulation of synaptically driven protein synthesis and impairments of intellect, cognition, and behavior, and FXS is a disorder that currently has no effective therapeutics. Here, young fragile X mice were treated with chronic bryostatin-1, a relatively selective protein kinase Cεactivator, which induces synaptogenesis and synaptic maturation/repair. Chronic treatment with bryostatin-1 rescues young fragile X mice from the disorder phenotypes, including normalization of most FXS abnormalities in 1) hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, 2) postsynaptic density-95 levels, 3) transformation of immature dendritic spines to mature synapses, 4) densities of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes, and 5) spatial learning and memory. The therapeutic effects were achieved without downregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 in the hippocampus and are more dramatic than those of a late-onset treatment in adult fragile X mice. mGluR5 expression was in fact lower in fragile X mice and its expression was restored with the bryostatin-1 treatment. Our results show that synaptic and cognitive function of young FXS mice can be normalized through pharmacological treatment without downregulation of mGluR5 and that bryostatin-1-like agents may represent a novel class of drugs to treat fragile X mental retardation at a young age and in adults. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. All-dielectric invisibility cloaks made of BaTiO3-loaded polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Di; Rajab, Khalid Z; Hao Yang; Kallos, Efthymios; Tang, Wenxuan; Argyropoulos, Christos; Piao Yongzhe; Yang Shoufeng

    2011-01-01

    Transformation optics has led the way in the development of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks from science fiction to engineering practice. Invisibility cloaks have been demonstrated over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with a variety of different fabrication techniques. However, all previous schemes have relied on the use of metamaterials consisting of arrays of sub-wavelength inclusions. We report on the first cloaking structure made of a high-κ dielectric-loaded foam mixture. A polyurethane foam mixed with different ratios of barium titanate is used to produce the required range of permittivities, and the invisibility cloak is demonstrated to work for all incident angles over a wide range of microwave frequencies. This method will greatly facilitate the development and large-scale manufacture of a wide range of transformation optics-based structures. (paper)

  10. Survey of seismic fragilities used in PRA studies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, seismic PRA studies have been performed on a large number of nuclear power plants in the USA. This paper presents a summary of a survey on fragility databases and the range of evaluated fragility values of various equipment categories based on past PRAs. The survey includes the use of experience data, the interpretations of available test data, and the quantification of uncertainties. The surveyed fragility databases are limited to data available in the public domain such as NUREG reports, conference proceedings and other publicly available reports. The extent of the availability of data as well as limitations are studied and tabulated for various equipment categories. The survey of the fragility values in past PRA studies includes not only the best estimate values, but also the dominant failure modes and the estimated uncertainty levels for each equipment category. The engineering judgments employed in estimating the uncertainty in the fragility values are also studied. This paper provides a perspective on the seismic fragility evaluation procedures for equipment in order to clearly identify the engineering analysis and judgment used in past seismic PRA studies

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with fragility syndrome in older adults attending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Carlos Gonzáles-Mechán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with fragility syndrome in older adults attending the EsSalud (Peruvian Social Security Health Insurance primary health care service, Chiclayo - Peru. Materials and methods: A descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample consisting of 326 older adults from urban areas and surrounding districts of Chiclayo, who attend the outpatient service at the Hospital Naylamp and Policlínico Chiclayo Oeste. A data collection sheet including social-demographic variables, comorbidity and polypharmacy, and fragility syndrome clinical criteria was filled in. Results: The prevalence of fragility was 17.5% and that of pre-fragility, 40.9%. The most frequent fragility clinical criteria were as follows: self-reported fatigue (42.3% and decreased grip strength (32.8%. The bivariate analysis showed an association with age, level of education, occupation (class IV and V concerning manual work, comorbidity (class II, asymptomatic disease or asymptomatic disease that requires medication but is under control, polypharmacy, anemia, Parkinson’s disease and non-vascular neurological disease. The final prediction model covering the age (1.08, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12, higher education level as a preventive variable (0.21, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.62, type II comorbidity (11 08, 95% CI: 1.45 to 84.38 and polypharmacy (2.49, 95% CI: 1.24 to 5.03 predicts the likelihood of fragility syndrome in 75.6%. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of fragility in the elderly population attending the primary health care service, and a significant association with age, higher education level, type II comorbidity and polypharmacy

  12. Fragility: The Next Wave in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Allan McDougall

    2009-01-01

    In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Info...

  13. Mathematical Definition, Mapping, and Detection of (Anti)Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Taleb, Nassim N.; Douady, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2014.93 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We provide a mathematical definition of fragility and antifragility as negative or positive sensitivity to a semi-measure of dispersion and volatility (a variant of negative or positive "vega") and examine the link to nonlinear effects. We integrate model error (and biases) into the fragile or antifragile conte...

  14. Fabrication and transfer of fragile 3D PDMS microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, J Mikael; Haraldsson, Tommy; Carlborg, Carl Fredrik; Van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Hansson, Jonas; Russom, Aman

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for PDMS microfabrication of fragile membranes and 3D fluidic networks, using a surface modified water-dissolvable release material, poly(vinyl alcohol), as a tool for handling, transfer and release of fragile polymer microstructures. The method is well suited for the fabrication of complex multilayer microfluidic devices, here shown for a PDMS device with a thin gas permeable membrane and closely spaced holes for vertical interlayer connections fabricated in a single layer. To the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes the most advanced PDMS fabrication method for the combination of thin, fragile structures and 3D fluidics networks, and hence a considerable step in the direction of making PDMS fabrication of complex microfluidic devices a routine endeavour. (paper)

  15. Fragility Variation of Lithium Borate Glasses Studied by Temperature-Modulated DSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yu; Fukawa, Yasuteru; Kawashima, Mitsuru; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-02-01

    The fragility of lithium borate glass system has been investigated by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). The frequency and temperature dependences of dynamic specific heat have been observed in the vicinity of a glass transition temperature Tg. It is shown that the value of the fragility index m can be determined from the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation times observed by TMDSC, when the raw phase angle is properly corrected. The composition dependence of the fragility has been also discussed.

  16. Fragility non-hip fracture patients are at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, M; Druml, T; Nicholas, J A; Hoffmann-Weltin, Y; Roth, T; Zegg, M; Blauth, M; Kammerlander, C

    2015-01-01

    Fragility fractures are a growing worldwide health care problem. Hip fractures have been clearly associated with poor outcomes. Fragility fractures of other bones are common reasons for hospital admission and short-term disability, but specific long-term outcome studies of non-hip fragility fractures are rare. The aim of our trial was to evaluate the 1-year outcomes of non-hip fragility fracture patients. This study is a retrospective cohort review of 307 consecutive older inpatient non-hip fracture patients. Patient data for analysis included fracture location, comorbidity prevalence, pre-fracture functional status, osteoporosis treatments and sociodemographic characteristics. The main outcomes evaluated were 1-year mortality and post-fracture functional status. As compared to the expected mortality, the observed 1-year mortality was increased in the study group (17.6 vs. 12.2 %, P = 0.005). After logistic regression, three variables remained as independent risk factors for 1-year mortality among non-hip fracture patients: malnutrition (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.5) and the Parker Mobility Score (PMS) (OR 0.85, CI 0.74-0.98). CCI and PMS were independent risk factors for a high grade of dependency after 1 year. Management of osteoporosis did not significantly improve after hospitalization due to a non-hip fragility fracture. The outcomes of older non-hip fracture patients are comparable to the poor outcomes of older hip fracture patients, and appear to be primarily related to comorbidities, pre-fracture function and nutritional status. The low rate of patients on osteoporosis medications likely reflects the insufficient recognition of the importance of osteoporosis assessment and treatment in non-hip fracture patients. Increased clinical and academic attention to non-hip fracture patients is needed.

  17. An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingjie; Wong, Zi Jing; Mrejen, Michael; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-18

    Metamaterial-based optical cloaks have thus far used volumetric distribution of the material properties to gradually bend light and thereby obscure the cloaked region. Hence, they are bulky and hard to scale up and, more critically, typical carpet cloaks introduce unnecessary phase shifts in the reflected light, making the cloaks detectable. Here, we demonstrate experimentally an ultrathin invisibility skin cloak wrapped over an object. This skin cloak conceals a three-dimensional arbitrarily shaped object by complete restoration of the phase of the reflected light at 730-nanometer wavelength. The skin cloak comprises a metasurface with distributed phase shifts rerouting light and rendering the object invisible. In contrast to bulky cloaks with volumetric index variation, our device is only 80 nanometer (about one-ninth of the wavelength) thick and potentially scalable for hiding macroscopic objects. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Risk factors for fragility fracture in Seremban district, Malaysia: a comparison of patients with fragility fracture in the orthopedic ward versus those in the outpatient department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng Yin Loh; King Hock Shong; Soo Nie Lan; Lo, Wan-Yi; Shu Yuen Woon

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease and becomes clinically significant in the presence of fragility fracture. Identifying risk factors that are associated with osteoporosis in the community is important in reducing the incidence of fragility fracture. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors associated with fragility fracture in the Seremban District of Malaysia. This is a population comparison study between orthopedic ward patients and outpatients attending a community health clinic for 6 months. Epidemiological data and the possible risk factors for osteoporosis were collected by direct interview. This study demonstrates that advancing age, low body weight, smoking, lack of regular exercise, low consumption of calcium containing foods, and using bone depleting drugs (steroids, thyroid hormone, and frusemides) are major risk factors for fragility fracture. Most of these risk factors are modifiable through effective lifestyle intervention.

  19. Clinical aspects of the fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Ted

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome patients express a wide array of cognitive and other gender-specific phenotypic features. These manifestations result not only from molecular mechanisms that are altered as a result of the expansion of a CGG-repeat region in the FMR1 promoter, but also genetic factors such as founder effects and mosaicism. In this chapter, I will summarize the many and varied features of fragile X syndrome as they present themselves in a clinical setting and describe the procedures that are used to diagnose patients. Finally, I will briefly touch on recent developments that will affect patient screening in the future.

  20. ADAM SMITH: THE INVISIBLE HAND OR CONFIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis, Gache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1776 Adam Smith raised the matter that an invisible hand was the one which moved the markets to obtain its efficiency. Despite in the present paper we are going to raise the hypothesis, that this invisible hand is in fact the confidence that each person feels when he is going to do business. That in addition it is unique, because it is different from the confidence of the others and that is a variable nonlinear that essentially is ligatured to respective personal histories. For that we are going to take as its bases the paper by Leopoldo Abadía (2009, with respect to the financial economy crisis that happened in 2007-2008, to evidence the form in which confidence operates. Therefore the contribution that we hope to do with this paper is to emphasize that, the level of confidence of the different actors, is the one which really moves the markets, (therefore the economy and that the crisis of the subprime mortgages is a confidence crisis at world-wide level.

  1. Heart Activity and Autistic Behavior in Infants and Toddlers with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette; Robinson, Ashley; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.

    2012-01-01

    The present study contrasted physiological arousal in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome to typically developing control participants and examined physiological predictors early in development to autism severity later in development in fragile X syndrome. Thirty-one males with fragile X syndrome (ages 8-40 months) and 25 age-matched…

  2. Raman and DSC studies of fragility in tellurium-zinc oxide glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Kripotou, Sotiria; Raptis, Constantine; Turrell, Sylvia; Syassen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements have been carried out in four mixed (TeO 2 ) 1-x (ZnO) x (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) glasses at high temperatures (Raman and DSC through the glass transition) and high pressures (Raman) with the aim of determining the fragility of these glass forming oxides. Four different criteria, corresponding to four parameters, were applied to assess the fragility of the glasses. From the DSC studies, we have obtained the fragility parameter m which corresponds to the slopes of Arrhenius (lnQ vs. 1/T g , were Q is the heating rate) plots, and the glass transition width ΔT g . Also, from the low-frequency Raman scattering, and in particular the boson peak intensity of the glasses at T g , we have estimated the fragility ratio r R (T g ) = I min /I max whose value serves as another (empirical) fragility criterion. Finally, from high pressure Raman measurements on the glasses, we have estimated the Grueneisen parameter γ T for each glass, which constitutes the fourth fragility parameter adopted in this work. Considering the four parameters ΔT g , m, r (T g ) and γ T and the generally accepted (empirical) fragility criteria, we conclude that the mixed tellurium-zinc oxides constitute strong-to-intermediate glass formers (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Seismic fragility of ventilation stack of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, S.S.; Yugai, T.Z.; Kalinkin, I.V.; Vizir, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Fragility study of safety related elements is necessary step in seismic PSA of nuclear power plant (NPP). In present work fragility was analyzed after the example of the ventilation stack of NPP. Ventilation stack, considered in present work, is a separately erected construction with height of 100 m made of cast-in-place reinforced concrete. In accordance with IAEA terminology fragility of element is defined as conditional probability of its failure at given level of seismic loading. Failure of a ventilation stack was considered as development of the plastic hinge in some section of a shaft. Seismic ground acceleration a, which corresponds to failure, could be defined as limit seismic acceleration of ventilation stack [a]. Limit seismic acceleration [a] was considered as random value. Sources of its variation are connected with stochastic nature of factors determining it (properties of construction materials, soils etc.), and also with uncertainties of existing analytical techniques. Random value [a] was assumed to be distributed lognormally. Median m[a] and logarithmically standard deviation β of this distribution were defined by 'scaling method' developed by R.P. Kennedy et al. Using this values fragility curves were plotted for different levels of confidence probability. (author)

  4. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  5. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well

  6. Cities could hold the key to understanding fragility | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities are engines of economic growth and the primary sites of basic service delivery. Yet weak governance, along with inequalities related to income, social class, religion, and gender, may lead to a breakdown of systems and structures, and eventually to "fragile cities." Although the fragile cities concept is relatively new, ...

  7. Fragile X syndrome: A review of clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Azarang, Atoosa; Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Hagerman, Randi J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene, which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein, usually has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated promoter. The full mutation is the almost always the cause of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The prevalence of FXS is about 1 in 4,000 to 1 in 7,000 in the general population although the prevalence varies in different regions of the world. FXS is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism. The understanding of the neurobiology of FXS has led to many targeted treatments, but none have cured this disorder. The treatment of the medical problems and associated behaviors remain the most useful intervention for children with FXS. In this review, we focus on the non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of medical and behavioral problems associated with FXS as well as current recommendations for follow-up and surveillance. PMID:27672537

  8. Seismic Fragility Assessment of an Isolated Multipylon Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, cable-stayed bridges have been widely built around the world due to the appealing aesthetics and efficient and fast mode of construction. Numerous studies have concluded that the cable-stayed bridges are sensitive to earthquakes because they possess low damping characteristics and high flexibility. Moreover, cable-stayed bridges need to warrant operability especially in the moderate-to-severe earthquakes. The provisions implemented in the seismic codes allow obtaining adequate seismic performance for the cable-stayed bridge components; nevertheless, they do not provide definite yet reliable rules to protect the bridge. To date, very few experimental tests have been carried out on the seismic fragility analysis of cable-stayed bridges which is the basis of performance-based analyses. The present paper is aimed at proposing a method to derive the seismic fragility curves of multipylon cable-stayed bridge through shake table tests. Toward this aim, a 1/20 scale three-dimensional model of a 22.5 m cable-stayed bridge in China is constructed and tested dynamically by using the shaking table facility of Tongji University. The cable-stayed bridge contains three pylons and one side pier. The outcomes of the comprehensive shaking table tests carried out on cable-stayed bridge have been utilized to derive fragility curves based on a systemic approach.

  9. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) controls diacylglycerol kinase activity in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Ricardos; Moutin, Enora; Becker, Jérôme A J; Heintz, Dimitri; Fouillen, Laetitia; Flatter, Eric; Krężel, Wojciech; Alunni, Violaine; Koebel, Pascale; Dembélé, Doulaye; Tassone, Flora; Bardoni, Barbara; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Vitale, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Le Merrer, Julie; Moine, Hervé

    2016-06-28

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in neurons. In the mouse, the lack of FMRP is associated with an excessive translation of hundreds of neuronal proteins, notably including postsynaptic proteins. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the observed defects of glutamatergic synapse maturation and function and to affect preferentially the hundreds of mRNA species that were reported to bind to FMRP. How FMRP impacts synaptic protein translation and which mRNAs are most important for the pathology remain unclear. Here we show by cross-linking immunoprecipitation in cortical neurons that FMRP is mostly associated with one unique mRNA: diacylglycerol kinase kappa (Dgkκ), a master regulator that controls the switch between diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways. The absence of FMRP in neurons abolishes group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent DGK activity combined with a loss of Dgkκ expression. The reduction of Dgkκ in neurons is sufficient to cause dendritic spine abnormalities, synaptic plasticity alterations, and behavior disorders similar to those observed in the FXS mouse model. Overexpression of Dgkκ in neurons is able to rescue the dendritic spine defects of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene KO neurons. Together, these data suggest that Dgkκ deregulation contributes to FXS pathology and support a model where FMRP, by controlling the translation of Dgkκ, indirectly controls synaptic proteins translation and membrane properties by impacting lipid signaling in dendritic spine.

  10. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG....../CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... fragile-X probes on cattle chromosomes was however, medium-prominent sub-centromeric signal on two homologues. BrdU administration in 12 h before harvesting identified these homologues to be chromosome number 5. In addition retrospective slides of cattle and sheep chromosomes used for fragile site studies...

  11. Modeling Fragile X Syndrome in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Małgorzata; Bardoni, Barbara; Capovilla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and autism are hallmarks of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), a hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder. The gene responsible for FXS is Fragile X Mental Retardation gene 1 (FMR1) encoding the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in RNA metabolism and modulating the expression level of many targets. Most cases of FXS are caused by silencing of FMR1 due to CGG expansions in the 5′-UTR of the gene. Humans also carry the FXR1 and FXR2 paralogs of FMR1 while flies have only one FMR1 gene, here called dFMR1, sharing the same level of sequence homology with all three human genes, but functionally most similar to FMR1. This enables a much easier approach for FMR1 genetic studies. Drosophila has been widely used to investigate FMR1 functions at genetic, cellular, and molecular levels since dFMR1 mutants have many phenotypes in common with the wide spectrum of FMR1 functions that underlay the disease. In this review, we present very recent Drosophila studies investigating FMRP functions at genetic, cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological levels in addition to research on pharmacological treatments in the fly model. These studies have the potential to aid the discovery of pharmacological therapies for FXS. PMID:29713264

  12. Association between change in BMD and fragility fracture in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert G; Prior, Jerilynn C; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the relationship between longitudinal change in BMD and fragility fractures. We studied 3635 women and 1417 men 50-85 yr of age in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study who had at least two BMD measurements (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and trochanter) within the first 5 yr of the study and fragility fractures (any, main, forearm/wrist, ribs, hip) within the first 7 yr. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationship between baseline BMD, BMD change, and fragility fractures. We found that, among nonusers of antiresorptives, independent of baseline BMD, a decrease of 0.01 g/cm(2)/yr in total hip BMD was associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.32) in women and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.78) in men. The risk of fragility fractures in subgroups such as fast losers and those with osteopenia was better estimated by models that included BMD change than by models that included baseline BMD but excluded BMD change. Although the association between baseline BMD and fragility fractures was similar in users and nonusers of antiresorptives, the association was stronger in nonusers compared with users. These results show that BMD change in both men and women is an independent risk factor for fragility fractures and also predicts fracture risk in those with osteopenia. The results suggest that BMD change should be included with other variables in a comprehensive fracture prediction model to capture its contribution to osteoporotic fracture risk.

  13. Ortodoncia estética invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    El adulto suele ofrecer resistencia a los convencionales tratamientos ortodóncicos, debido a la necesidad de llevar brackets visibles, tanto metálicos como estéticos de porcelana. El concepto de Ortodoncia Estética Invisible u Ortodoncia Lingual cubre las expectativas de este tipo de pacientes. La técnica multibrackets con aparatología lingual tiene aproximadamente 25 años de desarrollo y con la experiencia de los casos tratados, se ha llegado a la concepción de una técnica completamente prot...

  14. Invisible Higgs and Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a massive weakly interacting fermion simultaneously provides for a dominant component of the dark matter relic density and an invisible decay width of the Higgs boson at the LHC. As a concrete model realizing such dynamics we consider the minimal walking...... technicolor, although our results apply more generally. Taking into account the constraints from the electroweak precision measurements and current direct searches for dark matter particles, we find that such scenario is heavily constrained, and large portions of the parameter space are excluded....

  15. Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullar, Suzanne A.

    2008-01-01

    Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

  16. Self-Injurious Behavior and Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…

  17. Positron Emission Tomography (PET Quantification of GABAA Receptors in the Brain of Fragile X Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte D'Hulst

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, evidence has accumulated that the GABAA receptor is compromised in animal models for fragile X syndrome (FXS, a common hereditary form of intellectual disability. In mouse and fly models, agonists of the GABAA receptor were able to rescue specific consequences of the fragile X mutation. Here, we imaged and quantified GABAA receptors in vivo in brain of fragile X patients using Positron Emission Topography (PET and [11C]flumazenil, a known high-affinity and specific ligand for the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. We measured regional GABAA receptor availability in 10 fragile X patients and 10 control subjects. We found a significant reduction of on average 10% in GABAA receptor binding potential throughout the brain in fragile X patients. In the thalamus, the brain region showing the largest difference, the GABAA receptor availability was even reduced with 17%. This is one of the first reports of a PET study of human fragile X brain and directly demonstrates that the GABAA receptor availability is reduced in fragile X patients. The study reinforces previous hypotheses that the GABAA receptor is a potential target for rational pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome.

  18. Making the invisible visible: gender, data, and evidence for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... ... research projects play a critical role in reducing the invisibility gap. Thinking about gender and the related social categorizations such as class, ability, age, nation, and race when designing data collection and analysis tools ...

  19. Search for an invisibly-decaying Higgs boson at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    A search for a Higgs boson produced in e^+e^- collisions in association with a Z boson and decaying into invisible particles is performed. Data collected at LEP with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 189 GeV to 209 GeV are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.63/fb. Events with hadrons, electrons or muons with visible masses compatible with a Z boson and missing energy and momentum are selected. They are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. A lower limit of 112.3 GeV is set at 95% confidence level on the mass of the invisibly-decaying Higgs boson in the hypothesis that its production cross section equals that of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Relaxing this hypothesis, upper limits on the production cross section are derived.

  20. Fragility curves for bridges under differential support motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs the notion of fragility to investigate the seismic vulnerability of bridges subjected to spatially varying support motions. Fragility curves are developed for four highway bridges in California with vastly different structural characteristics. The input in this analysis consists...... of simulated ground motion arrays with temporal and spectral nonstationarities, and consistent with prescribed spatial variation patterns. Structural damage is quantified through displacement ductility demands obtained from nonlinear time-history analysis. The potential use of the ‘equal displacement’ rule...... to approximately evaluate displacement demands from analysis of the equivalent linear systems is examined....

  1. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  2. Fragile X premutation carriers: A systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephanie S G; Stanfield, Andrew C

    2015-05-15

    Expansion of the CGG repeat region of the FMR1 gene from less than 45 repeats to between 55 and 200 repeats is known as the fragile X premutation. Carriers of the fragile X premutation may develop a neurodegenerative disease called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Recent evidence suggests that premutation carriers experience other psychiatric difficulties throughout their lifespan. Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO were searched for all appropriate English language studies published between January 1990 and December 2013. 419 potentially relevant articles were identified and screened. 19 articles were included in the analysis. We discuss key structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings such as the MCP sign and white matter atrophy. Additionally, we discuss how functional MRI results have progressed our knowledge of how FXTAS may manifest, including reduced brain activation during social and memory tasks in multiple regions. This systematic review may have been limited by the search for articles on just 3 scientific databases. Differing techniques and methods of analyses between research groups and primary research articles may have caused differences in results between studies. Current MRI studies into the fragile X premutation have been important in the diagnosis of FXTAS and identifying potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Associations with blood based measures have also demonstrated that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative aspects of the fragile X premutation could be functionally and pathologically separate. Larger longitudinal studies will be required to investigate these conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragile Cities: a Critical Perspective on the Repertoire for New Urban Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Miklos

    Full Text Available Abstract At the end of the 1990s, researchers involved in the debate on the new wars introduced discussion about the urban dimension of contemporary conflicts into the International Relations discipline. The innovative debate about urban fragility is one of the many lines of inquiry that emerge within the framework of the relationship between cities and contemporary conflicts. This paper seeks to demonstrate that the concept of ‘fragile city’ offers a new and relevant analytical framework for understanding contemporary urban violence and inequality. Moreover, this same concept could also be instrumental in making fragile cities the new locus of international humanitarianism. The notion of fragile city emerges to describe new emergency situations more closely linked to urban contexts than to national dynamics, as previously described in the literature on fragile states. The concept of fragile city is a groundbreaking tool for understanding the human consequences of inequality in urban settings, but might also be used as a rhetorical vehicle for the reproduction of old dynamics and the inauguration of new intervention practices in urban areas that were previously inaccessible to humanitarian action, especially cities in Latin America.

  4. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1, Demonstration tests: Volume 1, Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.; Shipway, G.D.; Glozman, V.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes tests performed in Phase I of the NRC Component Fragility Research Program. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate procedures for characterizing the seismic fragility of a selected component, investigating how various parameters affect fragility, and finally using test data to develop practical fragility descriptions suitable for application in probabilistic risk assessments. A three-column motor control center housing motor controllers of various types and sizes as well as relays of different types and manufacturers was subjected to seismic input motions up to 2.5g zero period acceleration. To investigate the effect of base flexibility on the structural behavior of the MCC and on the functional behavior of the electrical devices, multiple tests were performed on each of four mounting configurations: four bolts per column with top bracking, four bolts per column with no top brace, four bolts per column with internal diagonal bracking, and two bolts per column with no top or internal bracking. Device fragility was characterized by contact chatter correlated to local in-cabinet response at the device location. Seismic capacities were developed for each device on the basis of local input motion required to cause chatter; these results were then applied to develop probabilistic fragility curves for each type of device, including estimates of the ''high-confidence low probability of failure'' capacity of each

  5. Fragile X mental retardation protein participates in non-coding RNA pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Hui; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Wei

    2018-02-20

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells. Subsequent studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in piRNA pathway by interacting with Aub, Ago1 and Piwi in the maintenance of normal chromatin structures and genomic stability. More recent studies showed that FMRP is associated with lncRNA pathway, suggesting a potential role for the involvement in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we summarize the novel findings and explore the relationship between FMRP and non-coding RNA pathways, particularly the piRNA pathway, thereby providing critical insights on the molecular pathogenesis of Fragile X syndrome, and potential translational applications in clinical management of the disease.

  6. Whiteness and Ethnocentric Monoculturalism: Making the "Invisible" Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2004-01-01

    Whiteness and ethnocentric monoculturalism are powerful and entrenched determinants of worldview. Because they are invisible and operate outside the level of conscious awareness, they can be detrimental to people of color, women, and other marginalized groups in society. Both define a reality that gives advantages to White Euro American males…

  7. Visible Voices: Literacy Identity and the Invisible Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchniewicz, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite calls for increased awareness of and sensitivity to diverse students and their in- and out-of-school literacies, the "invisible homeless"--those who often decline to self-identify--receive inadequate scholarly attention. They are often individuals who fear the stigma associated with homelessness as they navigate workplace, academic, and…

  8. Task relevance differentially shapes ventral visual stream sensitivity to visible and invisible faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouider, Sid; Barbot, Antoine; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    requires dissociating it from the top-down influences underlying conscious recognition. Here, using visual masking to abolish perceptual consciousness in humans, we report that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to invisible faces in the fusiform gyrus are enhanced when they are task...... relevance crucially shapes the sensitivity of fusiform regions to face stimuli, leading from enhancement to suppression of neural activity when the top-down influences accruing from conscious recognition are prevented.......Top-down modulations of the visual cortex can be driven by task relevance. Yet, several accounts propose that the perceptual inferences underlying conscious recognition involve similar top-down modulations of sensory responses. Studying the pure impact of task relevance on sensory responses...

  9. Selective Spatial Processing Deficits in an At-Risk Subgroup of the Fragile X Premutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Darren R.; Kogan, Cary S.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    Until a decade ago, it was assumed that males with the fragile X premutation were unaffected by any cognitive phenotype. Here we examined the extent to which CGG repeat toxicity extends to visuospatial functioning in male fragile X premutation carriers who are asymptomatic for a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated…

  10. The Visible and the Invisible: Mathematics as Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Maheux, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have shown increasing interest in theorizing knowing and learning as something alive or as something that comes alive through the involvement of the body. Almost all current efforts attempt doing so by focusing on the body in which the otherwise invisible living being exhibits itself, thereby failing to consider everything…

  11. Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems Non-fragile H-infinity Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Xiao-Heng

    2012-01-01

    "Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems Non-fragile H-infinity Filtering" investigates the problem of non-fragile H-infinity filter design for T-S fuzzy systems. The nonlinear plant is represented by a T-S fuzzy model. Given a T-S fuzzy system, the objective of this book is to design an H-infinity filter with the gain variations such that the filtering error system guarantees a prescribed H-infinity performance level. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the solution of non-fragile H-infinity filter design problem can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The intended audiences are graduate students and researchers both from the fields of engineering and mathematics. Dr. Xiao-Heng Chang is an Associate Professor at the College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China. He is also a Postdoctoral Researcher at the College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.

  12. Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n = 48), adolescents (n = 85), and adults (n = 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth…

  13. Flap Endonuclease 1 Limits Telomere Fragility on the Leading Strand*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Daniel C.; Parajuli, Shankar; Nguyen, Mai; Moore, Hayley R.; Alspach, Elise; Lock, Ying Jie; Honaker, Yuchi; Saharia, Abhishek; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity, but not DNA repair activities, results in leading strand-specific telomere fragility. Furthermore, we show that FEN1 depletion-induced telomere fragility is increased by RNA polymerase II inhibition and is rescued by ectopic RNase H1 expression. These data suggest that FEN1 limits leading strand-specific telomere fragility by processing RNA:DNA hybrid/flap intermediates that arise from co-directional collisions occurring between the replisome and RNA polymerase. Our data reveal the first molecular mechanism for leading strand-specific telomere fragility and the first known role for FEN1 in leading strand DNA replication. Because FEN1 mutations have been identified in human cancers, our findings raise the possibility that unresolved RNA:DNA hybrid structures contribute to the genomic instability associated with cancer. PMID:25922071

  14. Daily negative affect and smoking after a self-set quit attempt: The role of dyadic invisible social support in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Janina; Stadler, Gertraud; Ochsner, Sibylle; Rackow, Pamela; Knoll, Nina; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2015-11-01

    Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Fragile Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    China's One Child Policy and its rigorous national focus on educational testing are well known. But what happens to those "lucky" few at the very top of the pyramid? Fragile Elite explores the contradictions of being an elite student through ethnographic research conducted at two top universities...... in China. It uncovers the intimate psychological strains students suffer under the pressure imposed on them by parents and state, where the state acts as a parent, and the parents sometimes reinforce the state. The book offers insights into the intergenerational tensions as work in relation to the ongoing...... shifts in educational policy and definition of what a "quality" student, child, and citizen is in contemporary China....

  16. Magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of ferrite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Youwen

    2015-02-01

    A magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of the isotropic and homogeneous ferrite material has been investigated based on the scattering cancellation method from the Mie scattering theory. The analytical and simulated results have demonstrated that such this shell can drastically reduce the total scattering cross-section of this cloaking system at multiple frequencies. These multiple cloaking frequencies of this shell can be externally controlled since the magnetic permeability of ferrites is well tuned by the applied magnetic field. This may provide a potential way to design a tunable multifrequency invisibility cloak with considerable flexibility.

  17. Search for Invisible Axion Dark Matter with the Axion Dark Matter Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, N; Force, N; Khatiwada, R; Lentz, E; Ottens, R; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Carosi, G; Woollett, N; Bowring, D; Chou, A S; Sonnenschein, A; Wester, W; Boutan, C; Oblath, N S; Bradley, R; Daw, E J; Dixit, A V; Clarke, J; O'Kelley, S R; Crisosto, N; Gleason, J R; Jois, S; Sikivie, P; Stern, I; Sullivan, N S; Tanner, D B; Hilton, G C

    2018-04-13

    This Letter reports the results from a haloscope search for dark matter axions with masses between 2.66 and 2.81  μeV. The search excludes the range of axion-photon couplings predicted by plausible models of the invisible axion. This unprecedented sensitivity is achieved by operating a large-volume haloscope at subkelvin temperatures, thereby reducing thermal noise as well as the excess noise from the ultralow-noise superconducting quantum interference device amplifier used for the signal power readout. Ongoing searches will provide nearly definitive tests of the invisible axion model over a wide range of axion masses.

  18. The Evaluation of Corneal Fragility After UVA/Riboflavin Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanyun; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhang, Chunxiao; Mu, Guoying

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the fragility of cornea after UVA/riboflavin crosslinking (CXL). Sixty New Zealand rabbits received UVA/riboflavin crosslinking treatment (wavelength 365 nm, irradiance 3.0 mW/cm, and total dose 5.4 J/cm) on right eyes. Animals were sacrificed before and immediately after treatment (day 0), day 1, 3, 7, and 28 after treatment. A 4×10 mm corneal strip for biomechanical evaluation was harvested after sacrifice. The corneal fragility was evaluated by measurement of elongation rate, whereby the elongation rate equals elongation length/baseline length. The Youngs modulus and maximal stress were 1.41±0.51 MPa and 5.56±1.84 MPa before CXL, and increased to 2.31±0.68 MPa (P=0.008) and 9.25±2.74 MPa (P=0.04), respectively, on day 0, then maintained a stable level within a 28 days follow-up. The elongation rate was 62.04±9.34% before CXL and decreased to 48.95%±8.24% (P=0.02) on day 0, then maintained a stable level within a 28 days follow-up. This study showed an increase in the corneal fragility after UVA/riboflavin crosslinking along with an increase in the corneal stiffness. A long-term follow-up should be taken to evaluate the potential deleterious effect of the increasing corneal fragility after UVA/riboflavin crosslinking.

  19. Manipulations of attention dissociate fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Lamme, Victor A F

    2011-05-01

    People often rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Traditionally, VSTM is thought to operate on either a short time-scale with high capacity - iconic memory - or a long time scale with small capacity - visual working memory. Recent research suggests that in addition, an intermediate stage of memory in between iconic memory and visual working memory exists. This intermediate stage has a large capacity and a lifetime of several seconds, but is easily overwritten by new stimulation. We therefore termed it fragile VSTM. In previous studies, fragile VSTM has been dissociated from iconic memory by the characteristics of the memory trace. In the present study, we dissociated fragile VSTM from visual working memory by showing a differentiation in their dependency on attention. A decrease in attention during presentation of the stimulus array greatly reduced the capacity of visual working memory, while this had only a small effect on the capacity of fragile VSTM. We conclude that fragile VSTM is a separate memory store from visual working memory. Thus, a tripartite division of VSTM appears to be in place, comprising iconic memory, fragile VSTM and visual working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of carbide precipitation upon hydrogen fragilization of an AISI 304 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarabedian, A.E.; Ovejero Garcia, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with austenitic stainless steels for a family of steels that is renowned for its high resistance to hydrogen fragilization. Nevertheless, these steels may suffer hydrogen fragilization under severe working conditions. This fact is strongly dependent on many factors -composition, grain size, other phases present, corrosion sensitivity, etc.-. While there are studies that show how intergranular corrosion is influenced by corrosion sensitivity -mainly due to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries-, there are no reports about the effect of the carbide precipitation itself on hydrogen fragilization for these steels. (Author) [es

  1. On the pressure dependence of the fragility of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlus, S; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C M [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2009-08-19

    This work was motivated by ostensibly contradictory results from different groups regarding the effect of pressure on the fragility of glycerol. We present new experimental data for an intermediate pressure regime showing that the fragility increases with pressure up to about 1.8 GPa, becoming invariant at higher pressures. There is no discrepancy among the various literature data taken in toto. The behavior of glycerol is quite distinct from that of normal liquids, a result of its substantial hydrogen bonding. (fast track communication)

  2. Behavioral Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Parents and professionals typically report problem behavior as a significant concern for children with fragile X syndrome. In the present study, the authors explored whether behaviorally based interventions would result in a reduction in problem behavior and an improvement in quality of life for 3 children with fragile X syndrome and their…

  3. Fragile X syndrome in two siblings with major congenital malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampietro, P.F.; Haas, B.R.; Lipper, E. [Cornell Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on 2 brothers with both fragile X and VACTERL-H syndrome. The first sibling, age 5, had bilateral cleft lip and palate, ventricular septal defect, and a hypoplastic thumb. The second sibling, age 2{1/2}, had a trachesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and vertebral abnormality. High-resolution chromosome analysis showed a 46,XY chromosome constitution in both siblings. By PCR and Southern blot analysis, the siblings were found to have large triplet repeat expansions in the fragile X gene (FMR 1) and both had methylation mosaicism. Enzyme kinetic studies of iduronate sulfatase demonstrated a two-fold increase in activity in the first sib as compared to the second. Possible mechanisms through which the fragile X mutation can cause down-regulation of adjacent loci are discussed. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Invisible metal-grid transparent electrode prepared by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yonghee; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Invisible Ag-grid transparent electrodes (TEs) were prepared by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing using Ag nano-particle inks. Ag-grid width less than 10 µm was achieved by the EHD jet printing, which was invisible to the naked eye. The Ag-grid line-to-line distance (pitch) was modulated in order to investigate the electrical and optical properties of the EHD jet-printed Ag-grid TEs. The decrease in the sheet resistance at the expense of the transmittance was observed as the Ag-grid pitch decreased. The figure of merit of Ag-grid TEs with various Ag-grid pitches was investigated in order to determine the optimum pitch condition for both electrical and optical properties. With the 150 µm Ag-grid pitch, the EHD jet-printed Ag-grid TE has the sheet resistance of 4.87 Ω sq −1 and the transmittance of 81.75% after annealing at 200 °C under near-infrared. Ag filling factor (FF) was defined to predict the electrical and optical properties of Ag-grid TEs. It was found that the measured electrical and optical properties were well simulated by the theoretical equations incorporating FF. The EHD jet-printed invisible Ag-grid TE with good electrical and optical properties implies its promising application to the printed optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  5. Motivation and detectability of an invisibly decaying Higgs boson at the Fermilab Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.P.; Wells, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    A Higgs boson with a mass below 150 GeV has a total decay width of less than 20 MeV into accessible standard model states. This narrow width means that the usual branching fractions for such a light Higgs boson are highly susceptible to any new particles to which it has unsuppressed couplings. In particular, there are many reasonable and interesting theoretical ideas that naturally imply an invisibly decaying Higgs boson. The motivations include models with light supersymmetric neutralinos, spontaneously broken lepton number, radiatively generated neutrino masses, additional singlet scalar(s), or right-handed neutrinos in the extra dimensions of TeV gravity. We discuss these approaches to model building and their implications for Higgs boson phenomenology in future Fermilab Tevatron runs. We find, for example, that the Tevatron with 30 fb -1 integrated luminosity can make a 3σ observation in the l + l - +E/ T channel for a 125 GeV Higgs boson that is produced with the same strength as the standard model Higgs boson but always decays invisibly. We also analyze the b bar b+E/ T final state signal and conclude that it is not as sensitive, but it may assist in excluding the possibility of an invisibly decaying Higgs boson or enable confirmation of an observed signal in the dilepton channel. We argue that a comprehensive Higgs boson search at the Tevatron should include the possibility that the Higgs boson decays invisibly. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Alice

    Roč. 5, September /article 1081 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : participatory sense-making * enactive theory * Merleau-Ponty * invisibility * opacity * (Inter)acting with the inner partner * performativity * dramaturgical analysis Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014 http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01081/abstract

  7. Children's Attributions of Intentions to an Invisible Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Parker, Becky D.

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 3-9 years were informed that an invisible agent (Princess Alice) would help them play a forced-choice game by "telling them, somehow, when they chose the wrong box," whereas a matched control group of children were not given this supernatural prime. On 2 unexpected event trials, an experimenter triggered a simulated unexpected event…

  8. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  9. Aligners: the Invisible Corrector-A Boon or Bane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Lodd

    2018-03-01

    The trend of clinical orthodontics has shown a palpable shift from conventional braces to innovative technologies like invisible aligners. Aligners are sequences of clear trays worn by patients to straighten their teeth. They were envisaged for the main purpose of esthetics, mainly directed toward self-conscious teenagers who otherwise would shy away from essential correction of malocclusion.

  10. Essays on financial fragility and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates various issues in regulation, with three chapters on financial fragility and banking regulation, and one chapter on competition policy. Chapter 2 studies banks’ herding driven by their need for market liquidity, highlighting a trade-off between systemic risk and liquidity

  11. Mass restricting variables in semi-invisible production at the LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Konar

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... in reconstructing such events with the momenta of invisible particles. This feature is .... Exclusive methods – These variables are defined with the assumption that the ... ble independent invariant mass variables using the SM.

  12. Managing Public Finance and Procurement in Fragile and Conflicted Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Doug; Andrews, Matt; Turkewitz, Joel; Wescotttz, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Discusses ways to enhance the incentives for elites to invest political capital in achieving (1) functional results through the formal public finance management (PFM) system; (2) the effectiveness of agencies responsible for services and regulating activities; and (3) better performance of civil service officials. Using the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) Performance Measurement Framework, countries affected by conflict and fragility can be compared with non-fragile poo...

  13. Aunting as a Call to Public Intellectualism: The Roles of (In)Visibility in Health Communication Research and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Stephanie A

    2017-08-01

    In this essay, the author identifies the theme of (in)visibility permeating her research on fathers of children with a rare genetic condition, Sturge-Weber syndrome. The tension between physical visibility of the condition and lack of awareness is explored, alongside issues of (in)visibility in coping and support-seeking strategies of fathers. Finally, the author examines her own experiences in the research process through the lens of (in)visibility, in both managing her own emotions and exploring her roles as a researcher, an aunt, and a public intellectual.

  14. Estimated damage from the Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami: A model comparisons using fragility curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, D. M.; Cox, D. T.; Chen, Y.; Weber, B. A.; Chen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Building damage from a hypothetical Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami was estimated using two methods and applied at the community scale. The first method applies proposed guidelines for a new ASCE 7 standard to calculate the flow depth, flow velocity, and momentum flux from a known runup limit and estimate of the total tsunami energy at the shoreline. This procedure is based on a potential energy budget, uses the energy grade line, and accounts for frictional losses. The second method utilized numerical model results from previous studies to determine maximum flow depth, velocity, and momentum flux throughout the inundation zone. The towns of Seaside and Canon Beach, Oregon, were selected for analysis due to the availability of existing data from previously published works. Fragility curves, based on the hydrodynamic features of the tsunami flow (inundation depth, flow velocity, and momentum flux) and proposed design standards from ASCE 7 were used to estimate the probability of damage to structures located within the inundations zone. The analysis proceeded at the parcel level, using tax-lot data to identify construction type (wood, steel, and reinforced-concrete) and age, which was used as a performance measure when applying the fragility curves and design standards. The overall probability of damage to civil buildings was integrated for comparison between the two methods, and also analyzed spatially for damage patterns, which could be controlled by local bathymetric features. The two methods were compared to assess the sensitivity of the results to the uncertainty in the input hydrodynamic conditions and fragility curves, and the potential advantages of each method discussed. On-going work includes coupling the results of building damage and vulnerability to an economic input output model. This model assesses trade between business sectors located inside and outside the induction zone, and is used to measure the impact to the regional economy. Results highlight

  15. Fragility Modeling of Aging Containment Metallic Pressure Boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.L.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    The containment in a nuclear power plant (NPP) provides a barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. Corrosion that has been observed in some steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments has raised questions about their ability to perform this function. The performance of corroded containments during events at or beyond the design basis is impacted by numerous sources of uncertainty. A fragility model of the containment provides a relatively simple depiction of the impact of uncertainties on structural performance and a basis for decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. Moreover, it is a necessary ingredient of any time-dependent structural reliability analysis. A nonlinear finite element analysis of containment response furnishes the necessary platform to perform numerical experiments to determine containment fragility. A statistically-based sampling plan minimizes the finite element computations required to develop the fragility curve. The -percentile (or other fractile) then gives a statistically based indication of the lower bound on containment capacity, and can be used as a screening tool to determine whether more refined further analysis or tests to support service life evaluations are warranted

  16. Flap Endonuclease 1 Limits Telomere Fragility on the Leading Strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Daniel C; Parajuli, Shankar; Nguyen, Mai; Moore, Hayley R; Alspach, Elise; Lock, Ying Jie; Honaker, Yuchi; Saharia, Abhishek; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Stewart, Sheila A

    2015-06-12

    The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity, but not DNA repair activities, results in leading strand-specific telomere fragility. Furthermore, we show that FEN1 depletion-induced telomere fragility is increased by RNA polymerase II inhibition and is rescued by ectopic RNase H1 expression. These data suggest that FEN1 limits leading strand-specific telomere fragility by processing RNA:DNA hybrid/flap intermediates that arise from co-directional collisions occurring between the replisome and RNA polymerase. Our data reveal the first molecular mechanism for leading strand-specific telomere fragility and the first known role for FEN1 in leading strand DNA replication. Because FEN1 mutations have been identified in human cancers, our findings raise the possibility that unresolved RNA:DNA hybrid structures contribute to the genomic instability associated with cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Seismic fragility analysis of the block masonry wall in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z-L.; Pandey, M.D.; Xie, X-C.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of seismic fragility of a structure is an integral part in the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Analysis (SPRA). The block masonry wall, a commonly used barrier in nuclear power plants, is fairly vulnerable to failure under an earthquake. In practice, the seismic fragility of block walls is commonly evaluated using a simple deterministic approach called Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method. This paper presents a more formal fragility analysis of a block wall based on rigorous probabilistic methods and the accuracy of the CDFM method is evaluated by comparison to the more rigorous FA method. (author)

  18. Fragility and structure of Al-Cu alloy melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xiaoqian; Bian Xiufang; Mao Tan; Li Zhenkuan; Guo Jing; Zhao Yan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic viscosity measurements are performed for Al-Cu alloy melts with different compositions using an oscillating-cup viscometer. The results show that the viscosities of Al-Cu alloy melts increase with the copper content increasing, and also have a correlation with the correlation radius of clusters, which is measured by the high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. It has also been found that the fragilities of superheated melts (M) of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloys increase with the copper content increasing. There exists a relationship between the fragility and the structure in Al-Cu alloy melts. The value of the M reflects the variation of activation energy for viscous flow

  19. Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian

    2011-01-01

    We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.

  20. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment--horizontal shaft pump test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, T.; Abe, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The current seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump is 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (1.6 g), which was decided from previous vibration tests and we believe that it must have sufficient margin. The purpose of fragility capacity test is to obtain realistic seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump by vibration tests. Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water (RCW) Pump was tested as a typical horizontal shaft pump, and then bearings and liner rings were tested as important parts to evaluate critical acceleration and dispersion. Regarding RCW pump test, no damage was found, though maximum input acceleration level was 6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (6 g). Some kinds of bearings and liner rings were tested on the element test. Input load was based on seismic motion which was same with the RCW pump test, and maximum load was equivalent to over 20 times of design seismic acceleration. There was not significant damage that caused emergency stop of pump but degradation of surface roughness was found on some kinds of bearings. It would cause reduction of pump life, but such damage on bearings occurred under large seismic load condition that was equivalent to over 10 to 20 g force. Test results show that realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as higher as current value which has been used for our seismic PSA. (authors)

  1. Comparison of intraerythrocyte and intraleucocyte Sodium content and erythrocyte fragility in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, A.; Cocci, F.; Cristofani, R.; Piras, F.; Balzan, S.; Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione; Giachetti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Sodium content of mononuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes and the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were measured in 22 young male volunteers before and after three days of increased Sodium intake. Analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed no significant correlations between intraleucocyte and intraerythrocyte Sodium and between intraerythrocyte Sodium and osmotic fragility. On the other hand, a highly significant relation was present between osmotic fragility and intraleucocyte Sodium before high salt intake, which disappeared after 3 days of increased salt intake

  2. Invisible Connections : Why Migrating Shorebirds Need the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kam, Jan; Battley, Phil; McCaffery, Brian; Rogers, Danny; Hong, Jae-Sang; Moores, Nial; Yong-ki, Yu; Lewis, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Each year, invisible to the naked eye, millions of migrating shorebirds fly from Australasia towards the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea bordering China and Korea. Each flock is made up of individuals using whatever strategies they can muster to endure the flights, weather the storms and find safe

  3. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. I’m incredible—or am I? : On the socialization of fragile self-views in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.

    2015-01-01

    I’m incredible—or am I? This is a recurring and daunting question for children with fragile self-views, whose feelings of self-worth crumble in the face of setbacks. What are the origins of children’s fragile self-views, and how can interventions reduce the fragility of children’s self-views? The

  5. Designing the coordinate transformation function for non-magnetic invisibility cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaofei; Feng Yijun; Zhao Lin; Jiang Tian; Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi

    2008-01-01

    An optical invisibility cloak based on a transformation approach has recently been proposed by a reduced set of material properties due to their easier implementation in reality and little need for an inhomogeneous permeability distribution, but the drawback of undesired scattering caused by the impedance mismatching at the outer boundary is unavoidable in such a cloak. By properly designing the coordinate transformation function to ensure impedance matching at the outer surface, we show that the performance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical cloak could be improved with minimized scattering fields. Using either a single high order power function or an optimized piecewise continuous power function, a cylindrical non-magnetic cloak has been designed with nearly perfect cloaking performance, which is better than those generated with a linear or a quadratic function. Due to the monotonicity of the designed power functions, the resulting cloak has no restriction on the size of the cloaking shell, therefore is suitable for both thick and thin cloaking structures.

  6. Narratives of the Invisible: Autobiography, Kinship, and Alterity in Native Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Vanessa Elisa; Brightman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Shamanic knowledge is based on an ambiguous commensality with invisible others. As a result, shamans oscillate constantly between spheres of intimacy, both visible and invisible. A place of power and transformation, the spirit world is rarely described by native interlocutors in an objective, detached way; rather, they depict it in terms of events and experiences. Instead of examining the formal qualities of accounts of the spirit world through analyses of ritual performance and shamanic quests, we focus on life histories as autobiographical accounts in order to explore what they reveal about the relationship between personal history (and indigenous historicity) and the spirit world. We introduce the term 'double reflexivity' to refer to processes by which narratives about the self are produced through relationships with alterity.

  7. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  8. Influence of removal of invisible fixation on the saccadic and manual gap effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    Saccadic and manual reactions to a peripherally presented target are facilitated by removing a central fixation stimulus shortly before a target onset (the gap effect). The present study examined the effects of removal of a visible and invisible fixation point on the saccadic gap effect and the manual gap effect. Participants were required to fixate a central fixation point and respond to a peripherally presented target as quickly and accurately as possible by making a saccade (Experiment 1) or pressing a corresponding key (Experiment 2). The fixation point was dichoptically presented, and visibility was manipulated by using binocular rivalry and continuous flash suppression technique. In both saccade and key-press tasks, removing the visible fixation strongly quickened the responses. Furthermore, the invisible fixation, which remained on the display but suppressed, significantly delayed the saccadic response. Contrarily, the invisible fixation had no effect on the manual task. These results indicate that partially different processes mediate the saccadic gap effect and the manual gap effect. In particular, unconscious processes might modulate an oculomotor-specific component of the saccadic gap effect, presumably via subcortical mechanisms.

  9. Dopamine transporter imaging study in parkinsonism occurring in fragile X premutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceravolo, R; Antonini, A; Volterrani, D; Rossi, C; Goldwurm, S; Di Maria, E; Kiferle, L; Bonuccelli, U; Murri, L

    2005-12-27

    The authors studied four patients with parkinsonism carrying the fragile X premutation using SPECT with ([23)I]FP-CIT. They found evidence of preserved presynaptic nigrostriatal function, suggesting that parkinsonism in the X fragile premutation might be related to postsynaptic dopaminergic changes or different neurotransmitter alterations.

  10. Epilepsy in fragile-X-syndrome mimicking panayiotopoulos syndrome: Description of three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Casellato, Susanna; Fabbro, Franco; Negrin, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Fragile-X-syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10-20% of individuals with Fragile-X-syndrome. A frequent seizure/electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern resembles that of benign rolandic epilepsy. We describe the clinical features, EEG findings and evolution in three patients affected by Fragile-X-syndrome and epilepsy mimicking Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Age at seizure onset was between 4 and about 7 years. Seizures pattern comprised a constellation of autonomic symptoms with unilateral deviation of the eyes and ictal syncope. Duration of the seizures could be brief or lengthy. Interictal EEGs revealed functional multifocal abnormalities. The evolution was benign in all patients with seizures remission before the age of 14. This observation expands the spectrum of benign epileptic phenotypes present in Fragile-X-syndrome and may be quite helpful in guiding anticonvulsant management and counseling families as to expectations regarding seizure remission. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Invisible Web

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is an invisible web beneath CERN that keeps the entire system going. It often goes unnoticed, yet is responsible for transmitting the vast amounts of data produced at CERN: the optical fibre network.   CERN’s 35,000 km of optical fibres are also used to synchronise the accelerators, take measurements of the beams and to send controls to the LHC. The network is maintained by a team of seven specialists working in the Cabling and Optical Fibres Section of the Engineering Department, while another eight specialists are responsible for copper control and direct current (DC) power cabling (412,000 cables at CERN). Although their work is essential to keep the LHC running, their record-breaking developments often go unspoken. In a recent seminar held on 14 October, the Optical Fibre team had the opportunity to present their exceptional work with radiation-resistant optical fibres. Daniel Ricci at the CCC optical fibre “starpoint”, which serves the LHC installation...

  12. The Invisible Boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Kevin Anthony; Jensen, Iben

    , the participants agreed that all students in their class are part of the community. Following the participants, a good class community is when ‘you do lots of things together’. However, as the interview progressed (after eight minutes), it became apparent that at least one student was isolated and stood outside...... the participant’s definition of ‘good community’. It seemed almost as if they had forgotten a particular student in the class, until a question refreshed their collective memory. Participants suddenly became aware that there is at least one student in their class who does not participate in any joint activities......, either in or outside school. The question about how a group of students can collectively forget that one student is isolated in the class must be raised. The aim of this thinking note is to explore the mechanisms around social stigma and attempt to shed more light on the issue surrounding the ‘invisible...

  13. Inverse problems, invisibility, and artificial wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenleaf, A; Kurylev, Y; Lassas, M; Uhlmann, G

    2008-01-01

    We will describe recent theoretical and experimental progress on making objects invisible to electromagnetic waves. Maxwell's equations have transformation laws that allow for design of electromagnetic parameters that would steer light around a hidden region, returning it to its original path on the far side. Not only would observers be unaware of the contents of the hidden region, they would not even be aware that something was hidden. The object would have no shadow. New advances in metamaterials have given some experimental evidence that this indeed can be made possible at certain frequencies

  14. Electromagnetic Invisibility of Elliptic Cylinder Cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Yao; Chao, Li; Fang, Li

    2008-01-01

    Structures with unique electromagnetic properties are designed based on the approach of spatial coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations. This approach is applied to scheme out invisible elliptic cylinder cloaks, which provide more feasibility for cloaking arbitrarily shaped objects. The transformation expressions for the anisotropic material parameters and the field distribution are derived. The cloaking performances of ideal and lossy elliptic cylinder cloaks are investigated by finite element simulations. It is found that the cloaking performance will degrade in the forward direction with increasing loss. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  15. Mujeres invisibles en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Sköld, Luz Marina

    2007-01-01

    En el Perú, actualmente existen aproximadamente un millón de personas que no tienen un documento de identidad y no figuran en los registros del Estado. Son consideradas personas invisibles porque no existen le-galmente. De acuerdo a estudios realizados, este grupo de personas tiene un rostro específico; se trata de una población pobre, rural y principal-mente de mujeres. El 53% de las mujeres indocumentadas residen en el área rural. Las causas que originan la indocumentación son varias, entre...

  16. Ironic inversion in Eliza Haywood's fiction: fantomina and "The History of the Invisible Mistress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    This article contends that Fantomina can best be understood as an ironic inversion of “The History of the Invisible Mistress”, a Spanish nouvelle published as an interpolated tale in Paul Scarron's Le Roman Comique. Both works revolve around the efforts of a heroine to capture and hold the attention of a young man upon whom she has set her heart. The plot of both works concerns the successive disguises by which the heroines seek to test their heroes. But where Don Carlos, the hero of “The History of the Invisible Mistress”, remains chaste and faithful to his initial pledge, Beauplaisir, with whom Fantomina becomes sexually involved, displays the inconstancy of a roving libertine. Hence, where “The History of the Invisible Mistress” ends happily in marriage, Fantomina concludes with its heroine's pregnancy and exile in disgrace by her mother to a monastery in France. A comparison of the two texts affords a fascinating glimpse into Haywood's aims and strategies in Fantomina.

  17. The effect of atom mismatch on the fragility of supercooled Lennard-Jones binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Minhua; Sun Yongli; Wang Aiping; Ma Congxiao; Li Jiayun; Cheng Weidong; Liu Fang

    2006-01-01

    The shear viscosity of the well-known binary Lennard-Jones mixture is simulated under constant temperature and constant volume conditions (NVT) by a molecular-dynamics (MD) method. The effect of atomic size mismatch on the fragility parameter and glass-forming ability is studied. The fragility parameters calculated from shear viscosity data decrease with the increment of the atomic size mismatch. The value of the fragility changes from 168.963 to 22.976 when the mismatch changes from 0.023 to 0.25. It is shown that the fragility parameter is sensitive to the atomic size mismatch. The calculated pair distribution functions and mean square displacements indicate that the glass-forming ability increases with the atomic size mismatch

  18. Fragile X-Associated Diminished Ovarian Reserve and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency from Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Man

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55–200 CGG repeats allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM. Some manifestations of the PM are unique; fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, and fragile-X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, while others tend to be non-specific such as intellectual disability. In addition, women carrying a PM may suffer from subfertility or infertility. There is a need to elucidate whether the impairment of ovarian function found in PM carriers arises during the primordial germ cell (PGC development stage, or due to a rapidly diminishing oocyte pool throughout life or even both. Due to the possibility of expansion into a FM in the next generation, and other ramifications, carrying a PM can have an enormous impact on one’s life; therefore, preconception counseling for couples carrying the PM is of paramount importance. In this review, we will elaborate on the clinical manifestations in female PM carriers and propose the definition of fragile-X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR, then we will review recent scientific findings regarding possible mechanisms leading to FXDOR and FXPOI. Lastly, we will discuss counseling, preventative measures and interventions available for women carrying a PM regarding different aspects of their reproductive life, fertility treatment, pregnancy, prenatal testing, contraception and fertility preservation options.

  19. Fragile X-Associated Diminished Ovarian Reserve and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency from Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Limor; Lekovich, Jovana; Rosenwaks, Zev; Gerhardt, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM) is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55-200 CGG repeats) allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM. Some manifestations of the PM are unique; fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile-X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI), while others tend to be non-specific such as intellectual disability. In addition, women carrying a PM may suffer from subfertility or infertility. There is a need to elucidate whether the impairment of ovarian function found in PM carriers arises during the primordial germ cell (PGC) development stage, or due to a rapidly diminishing oocyte pool throughout life or even both. Due to the possibility of expansion into a FM in the next generation, and other ramifications, carrying a PM can have an enormous impact on one's life; therefore, preconception counseling for couples carrying the PM is of paramount importance. In this review, we will elaborate on the clinical manifestations in female PM carriers and propose the definition of fragile-X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR), then we will review recent scientific findings regarding possible mechanisms leading to FXDOR and FXPOI. Lastly, we will discuss counseling, preventative measures and interventions available for women carrying a PM regarding different aspects of their reproductive life, fertility treatment, pregnancy, prenatal testing, contraception and fertility preservation options.

  20. Fragile sites, dysfunctional telomere and chromosome fusions: What is 5S rDNA role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alain Victor; Wolski, Michele Andressa Vier; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Repetitive DNA regions are known as fragile chromosomal sites which present a high flexibility and low stability. Our focus was characterize fragile sites in 5S rDNA regions. The Ancistrus sp. species shows a diploid number of 50 and an indicative Robertsonian fusion at chromosomal pair 1. Two sequences of 5S rDNA were identified: 5S.1 rDNA and 5S.2 rDNA. The first sequence gathers the necessary structures to gene expression and shows a functional secondary structure prediction. Otherwise, the 5S.2 rDNA sequence does not contain the upstream sequences that are required to expression, furthermore its structure prediction reveals a nonfunctional ribosomal RNA. The chromosomal mapping revealed several 5S.1 and 5S.2 rDNA clusters. In addition, the 5S.2 rDNA clusters were found in acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes proximal regions. The pair 1 5S.2 rDNA cluster is co-located with interstitial telomeric sites (ITS). Our results indicate that its clusters are hotspots to chromosomal breaks. During the meiotic prophase bouquet arrangement, double strand breaks (DSBs) at proximal 5S.2 rDNA of acrocentric chromosomes could lead to homologous and non-homologous repair mechanisms as Robertsonian fusions. Still, ITS sites provides chromosomal instability, resulting in telomeric recombination via TRF2 shelterin protein and a series of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Our proposal is that 5S rDNA derived sequences, act as chromosomal fragile sites in association with some chromosomal rearrangements of Loricariidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Instantaneous, Simple, and Reversible Revealing of Invisible Patterns Encrypted in Robust Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Li, Jiaqi; Liu, Liwang; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2018-05-04

    The colors of photonic crystals are based on their periodic crystalline structure. They show clear advantages over conventional chromophores for many applications, mainly due to their anti-photobleaching and responsiveness to stimuli. More specifically, combining colloidal photonic crystals and invisible patterns is important in steganography and watermarking for anticounterfeiting applications. Here a convenient way to imprint robust invisible patterns in colloidal crystals of hollow silica spheres is presented. While these patterns remain invisible under static environmental humidity, even up to near 100% relative humidity, they are unveiled immediately (≈100 ms) and fully reversibly by dynamic humid flow, e.g., human breath. They reveal themselves due to the extreme wettability of the patterned (etched) regions, as confirmed by contact angle measurements. The liquid surface tension threshold to induce wetting (revealing the imprinted invisible images) is evaluated by thermodynamic predictions and subsequently verified by exposure to various vapors with different surface tension. The color of the patterned regions is furthermore independently tuned by vapors with different refractive indices. Such a system can play a key role in applications such as anticounterfeiting, identification, and vapor sensing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A nonsense mutation in FMR1 causing fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Dedic, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by lack of the FMR1 gene product FMRP. The most frequent cause is the expansion of a CGG repeat located in the 5'UTR of FMR1. Alleles with 200 or more repeats become hypermethylated and transcriptionally silent....... Only few patients with intragenic point mutations in FMR1 have been reported and, currently, routine analysis of patients referred for fragile X syndrome includes solely analysis for repeat expansion and methylation status. We identified a substitution in exon 2 of FMR1, c.80C>A, causing a nonsense...... mutation p.Ser27X, in a patient with classical clinical symptoms of fragile X syndrome. The mother who carried the mutation in heterozygous form presented with mild intellectual impairment. We conclude that further studies including western blot and DNA sequence analysis of the FMR1 gene should...

  3. Seismic margins review of nuclear power plants: Fragility aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Hardy, G.S.; Hashimoto, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fragility analysis is utilised in the seismic margin review in initial screening of certain components in the plant based on their generically high seismic capacities. A detailed walkdown of the plant is conducted to confirm that the initial screening is valid i.e., the generically high seismic capacity components do not possess any potential weaknesses (e.g., inadequate bracing, inadequate anchorage and potential systems interaction). For the components that are screened in, their seismic capacities are evaluated using either a probabilistic analysis of a deterministic evaluation. Based on a system analysis, the Boolean expressions for critical accident sequences are derived. These Boolean expressions are quantified using the component fragilities and nonseismic unavailabilities of components. The final product is the High Confidence Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity of the plant and the identification of potential seismic vulnerabilities in the plant. The objective of the paper is to describe the application of fragility analysis procedures in the seismic margin review of Maine Yankee and to document the insights obtained in this trial plant review. (orig./HP)

  4. The Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.; Steel, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project, a NASA-funded tactile exhibit for the visually impaired community was launched in July 2009 at the Martin Luther King Library in D.C. The exhibit is part of the global FETTU exhibit, a project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, Crab Nebula, Whirlpool Galaxy, and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the NASA-funded Braille/tactile book Touch the Invisible Sky. Multiple geographic locations and venue types have been targeted for the displays. The FETTU-tactile exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy, bridging a gap in learning. This exhibit is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under proposal 08-EPO08-0068 issued through the Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Clinical assessment tools identify functional deficits in fragility fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames TD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tyler D Ames,1 Corinne E Wee,1 Khoi M Le,1 Tiffany L Wang,1 Julie Y Bishop,2 Laura S Phieffer,2 Carmen E Quatman2 1The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Purpose: To identify inexpensive, noninvasive, portable, clinical assessment tools that can be used to assess functional performance measures that may put older patients at risk for falls such as balance, handgrip strength, and lumbopelvic control.Patients and methods: Twenty fragility fracture patients and 21 healthy control subjects were evaluated using clinical assessment tools (Nintendo Wii Balance Board [WBB], a handheld dynamometer, and an application for the Apple iPod Touch, the Level Belt that measure functional performance during activity of daily living tasks. The main outcome measurements were balance (WBB, handgrip strength (handheld dynamometer, and lumbopelvic control (iPod Touch Level Belt, which were compared between fragility fracture patients and healthy controls.Results: Fragility fracture patients had lower scores on the vertical component of the WBB Torso Twist task (P=0.042 and greater medial–lateral lumbopelvic sway during a 40 m walk (P=0.026 when compared to healthy controls. Unexpectedly, the fracture patients had significantly higher scores on the left leg (P=0.020 and total components (P=0.010 of the WBB Single Leg Stand task as well as less faults during the left Single Leg Stand task (P=0.003.Conclusion: The clinical assessment tools utilized in this study are relatively inexpensive and portable tools of performance measures capable of detecting differences in postural sway between fragility fracture patients and controls. Keywords: fall risk, geriatric fracture, Nintendo Wii Balance Board, Level Belt, fragility fracture

  6. ADAM SMITH: LA MANO INVISIBLE O LA CONFIANZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gache, Fernando Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1776 Adam Smith planteó que una mano invisible era quien movía a los mercados para obtener su eficiencia. No obstante en el presente trabajo vamos a plantear la hipótesis, que dicha mano invisible, es en realidad la confianza que cada persona siente en el momento de hacer un negocio. Que además es única, pues es distinta a la confianza de los demás y que se trata de una variable no lineal que fundamentalmente está ligada a las respectivas historias personales. Para ello vamos a tomar como base el trabajo de Leopoldo Abadía (2009, respecto de la crisis económico financiera que se desató en el 2007-2008, para poner en evidencia la forma en que opera la confianza. Por lo tanto la contribución que esperamos hacer con este trabajo es destacar que, el nivel de confianza de los diferentes actores, es quien realmente mueve a los mercados, (por tanto la economía y que la crisis de las hipotecas subprime es una crisis de confianza a nivel mundial.

  7. Fragility analysis methodology for degraded structures and passive components in nuclear power plantsIllustrated using a condensate storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Jinsuo; Braverman, Joseph; Hofmayer, Charles; Choun, Young Sun; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2010-06-01

    This report describes the seismic fragility capacity for a condensate storage tank with various degradation scenarios. The conservative deterministic failure margin method has been utilized for the undegraded case and has been modified to accommodate the degraded cases. A total of five seismic fragility analysis cases have been described: (1) undegraded case, (2) degraded stainless tank shell, (3) degraded anchor bolts, (4) anchorage concrete cracking, and (5) a perfect correlation of the three degradation scenarios. Insights from these fragility analyses are also presented. An overview of the methods for seismic fragility analysis and generic approaches to incorporate time-dependent degradation models into a fragility analysis is presented. Fundamental concepts of seismic fragility analysis are summarized to facilitate discussions in later sections. The seismic fragility analysis of the undegraded CST, which is assumed to have all of its components in design condition, is described. The subject CST was located in an operating Korean NPP. The baseline fragility capacity of the CST is calculated and the basic procedure of seismic fragility analysis is established. This report presents the results and insights of the seismic fragility analysis of the CST under various postulated degradation scenarios

  8. Ocular Motor Indicators of Executive Dysfunction in Fragile X and Turner Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Adrian G.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Zee, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X and Turner syndromes are two X-chromosome-related disorders associated with executive function and visual spatial deficits. In the present study, we used ocular motor paradigms to examine evidence that disruption to different neurological pathways underlies these deficits. We tested 17 females with fragile X, 19 females with Turner…

  9. Visual Pathway Deficit in Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers: A Potential Endophenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicated impaired magnocellular (M) and relatively spared parvocellular (P) visual pathway functioning in patients with fragile X syndrome. In this study, we assessed M and P pathways in 22 female fragile X premutation carriers with normal intelligence and in 20 healthy non-carrier controls. Testing procedure included visual…

  10. Through the Wormhole: Tracking Invisible MPLS Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Vanaubel, Yves; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Donnet, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting graphs contain a significant amount of nodes with a very large degree, often exceeding the actual number of interfaces of a router. Although this property may result from inaccurate alias resolution, we believe that opaque MPLS clouds made of invisible tunnels are the main cause. Using Layer-2...

  11. Phenomenology of a leptonic goldstino and invisible Higgs boson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Zwirner, Fabio; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Tuckmantel, Marc; Zwirner, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Non-linearly realized supersymmetry, combined with the Standard Model field content and SU(3)XSU(2)XU(1) gauge invariance, permits local dimension-six operators involving a goldstino, a lepton doublet and a Higgs doublet. These interactions preserve total lepton number if the left-handed goldstino transforms as an antilepton. We discuss the resulting phenomenology, in the simple limit where the new couplings involve only one lepton family, thus conserving also lepton flavour. Both the Z boson and the Higgs boson can decay into a neutrino and a goldstino: the present limits from the invisible Z width and from other observables leave room for the striking possibility of a Higgs boson decaying dominantly, or at least with a sizable branching ratio, via such an invisible mode. We finally comment on the perspectives at hadron and lepton colliders, and on possible extensions of our analysis.

  12. Object permanence in dogs: invisible displacement in a rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Gipson, Cassie D; Vaughan, Aubrey; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R

    2009-02-01

    Dogs were tested for object permanence using an invisible displacement in which an object was hidden in one of two containers at either end of a beam and the beam was rotated. Consistent with earlier research, when the beam was rotated 180 degrees , the dogs failed to find the object. However, when the beam was rotated only 90 degrees , they were successful. Furthermore, when the dogs were led either 90 degrees or 180 degrees around the apparatus, they were also successful. In a control condition, when the dogs could not see the direction of the 90 degrees rotation, they failed to find the object. The results suggest that the 180 degrees rotation may produce an interfering context that can be reduced by rotating the apparatus only 90 degrees or by changing the dogs' perspective. Once the conflict is eliminated, dogs show evidence of object permanence that includes invisibly displaced objects.

  13. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, David; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL) shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  14. A Simple, High-Throughput Assay for Fragile X Expanded Alleles Using Triple Repeat Primed PCR and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Elaine; Laver, Thomas; Yu, Ping; Jama, Mohamed; Young, Keith; Zoccoli, Michael; Marlowe, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Population screening has been proposed for Fragile X syndrome to identify premutation carrier females and affected newborns. We developed a PCR-based assay capable of quickly detecting the presence or absence of an expanded FMR1 allele with high sensitivity and specificity. This assay combines a triplet repeat primed PCR with high-throughput automated capillary electrophoresis. We evaluated assay performance using archived samples sent for Fragile X diagnostic testing representing a range of Fragile X CGG-repeat expansions. Two hundred five previously genotyped samples were tested with the new assay. Data were analyzed for the presence of a trinucleotide “ladder” extending beyond 55 repeats, which was set as a cut-off to identify expanded FMR1 alleles. We identified expanded FMR1 alleles in 132 samples (59 premutation, 71 full mutation, 2 mosaics) and normal FMR1 alleles in 73 samples. We found 100% concordance with previous results from PCR and Southern blot analyses. In addition, we show feasibility of using this assay with DNA extracted from dried-blood spots. Using a single PCR combined with high-throughput fragment analysis on the automated capillary electrophoresis instrument, we developed a rapid and reproducible PCR-based laboratory assay that meets many of the requirements for a first-tier test for population screening. PMID:20431035

  15. In-Vision Continuity Announcers: Performing an Identity for Early Television in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja de Leeuw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-vision continuity announcers have played central – yet understudied – roles in early television history. Through their performances on and off the screen, they mediated the identity of the televisual medium in the 1950s and 1960s, popularizing it as a medium of sound and vision, a domestic and gendered medium as well as a national and transnational institution.Focusing primarily on Dutch and Romanian female in-vision continuity announcers in the 1950s and 60s and making extensive comparisons with other countries in Europe, this article illustrates how these early professionals of television performed as part of a European-wide phenomenon of defining the identity of the new televisual medium.

  16. Correlated and uncorrelated invisible temporal white noise alters mesopic rod signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Kremers, Jan; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We determined how rod signaling at mesopic light levels is altered by extrinsic temporal white noise that is correlated or uncorrelated with the activity of one (magnocellular, parvocellular, or koniocellular) postreceptoral pathway. Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. Psychometric (Weibull) functions were measured for incremental rod pulses (50 to 250 ms) in the presence (or absence; control) of perceptually invisible subthreshold extrinsic noise. Uncorrelated (rod) noise facilitates rod detection. Correlated postreceptoral pathway noise produces differential changes in rod detection thresholds and decreases the slope of the psychometric functions. We demonstrate that invisible extrinsic noise changes rod-signaling characteristics within the three retinogeniculate pathways at mesopic illumination depending on the temporal profile of the rod stimulus and the extrinsic noise type.

  17. The invisible hand and the rational agent are behind bubbles and crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galam, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 dot-com crash and the 2008 subprime crisis have fueled the belief that the two classical paradigms of economics, the invisible hand and the rational agent, are not well appropriate to describe market dynamics and should be abandoned at the benefit of alternative new theoretical concepts. At odd with such a view, using a simple model of choice dynamics from sociophysics, the invisible hand and the rational agent paradigms are given a new legitimacy. Indeed, it is sufficient to introduce the holding of a few intermediate mini market aggregations by agents sharing their own private information, to recenter the invisible hand and the rational agent at the heart of market self regulation. An elasticity is discovered in the market efficiency mechanism due to the existence of an agent collective anticipation. This elasticity is shown to create spontaneous bubbles, which are rationally founded. At the same time, crashes occur at once when the limit of elasticity is reached. Plasticity can also be achieved through a combination of a crash with a sudden shift of the collective anticipation. Although the findings disclose a path to put an end to the bubble-crash phenomena, it is argued to be rationally not feasible. Bubbles and crashes are thus an intrinsic internal part of classical economics.

  18. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM...... and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia......-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus....

  19. Search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons in the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Woods, N

    A search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons is performed using the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes. In the ZH mode, the Z boson is required to decay to a pair of charged leptons or a [Formula: see text] quark pair. The searches use the 8 [Formula: see text] pp collision dataset collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 19.7 [Formula: see text]. Certain channels include data from 7 [Formula: see text] collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 [Formula: see text]. The searches are sensitive to non-standard-model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. In all channels, the observed data are consistent with the expected standard model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross section times invisible branching fraction, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, for the vector boson fusion and ZH production modes. By combining all channels, and assuming standard model Higgs boson cross sections and acceptances, the observed (expected) upper limit on the invisible branching fraction at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is found to be 0.58 (0.44) at 95 % confidence level. We interpret this limit in terms of a Higgs-portal model of dark matter interactions.

  20. A map of the invisible journeys into particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2017-01-01

    What is the universe really made of? How do we know? Follow the map of the invisible to find out... Over the last sixty years, scientists around the world have worked together to explore the fundamental constituents of matter, and the forces that govern their behaviour. The result, so far, is the ‘Standard Model’ of elementary particles: a theoretical map of the basic building blocks of the universe. With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the map as we know it was completed, but also extended into strange new territory. A Map of the Invisible is an explorer’s guide to the Standard Model and the extraordinary realms of particle physics. After shrinking us down to the size of a sub-atomic particle, pioneering physicist Jon Butterworth takes us on board his research vessel for a journey in search of atoms and quarks, electrons and neutrinos, and the forces that shape the universe. Step by step, discovery by discovery, we journey into the world of the unseen, from the atom to black holes and dark ...

  1. Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) Motor Dysfunction Modeled in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Molly; Arque, Gloria; Berman, Robert F; Santos, Mónica

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some carriers of the fragile X premutation (PM). In PM carriers, there is a moderate expansion of a CGG trinucleotide sequence (55-200 repeats) in the fragile X gene (FMR1) leading to increased FMR1 mRNA and small to moderate decreases in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The key symptoms of FXTAS include cerebellar gait ataxia, kinetic tremor, sensorimotor deficits, neuropsychiatric changes, and dementia. While the specific trigger(s) that causes PM carriers to progress to FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, the use of animal models has shed light on the underlying neurobiology of the altered pathways involved in disease development. In this review, we examine the current use of mouse models to study PM and FXTAS, focusing on recent advances in the field. Specifically, we will discuss the construct, face, and predictive validities of these PM mouse models, the insights into the underlying disease mechanisms, and potential treatments.

  2. Evaluation of structural fragilities for an IPEEE seismic probabilistic risk assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiocel, D.M.; Wilson, P.R.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the main issues and results of a structural fragility analysis for a Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) study of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in the Eastern US. The fragility evaluations were performed for the Reactor Building, Auxiliary Building, Intake Structure and Diesel Generator Building. The random seismic input is defined in terms of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) earthquake on the NPP site anchored to a reference level of 0.40 g Zero Period Ground Acceleration (ZPGA). Because of the soft soil conditions new Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses were performed using the original finite element (stick) structural models and the complex frequency approach. The soil deposit randomness was described by the variations in both the low strain soil shear modules and in its dependence with the shear strain. The probabilistic SSI analyses were performed using digital simulation techniques. The critical failure modes for each structure are investigated and the fragility evaluations are discussed. Concluding remarks and recommendations for improving the quality of the structural fragility analyses are included

  3. Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) Motor Dysfunction Modeled in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Molly; Arque, Gloria; Berman, Robert F.; Santos, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some carriers of the Fragile X premutation (PM). In PM carriers there is a moderate expansion of a CGG trinucleotide sequence (55-200 repeats) in the fragile X gene (FMR1) leading to increased FMR1 mRNA and small to moderate decreases in the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) expression. The key symptoms of FXTAS include cerebellar gait ataxia, kinetic tremor, sensorimotor deficits, neuropsychiatric changes, and dementia. While the specific trigger(s) that cause PM carriers to progress to FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, the use of animal models has shed light on the underlying neurobiology of the altered pathways involved in disease development. In this review, we examine the current use of mouse models to study PM and FXTAS, focusing on recent advances in the field. Specifically we will discuss the construct, face and predictive validities of these PM mouse models, the insights into the underlying disease mechanisms and potential treatments. PMID:27255703

  4. Seismic Margin Assessment for Research Reactor using Fragility based Fault Tree Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Shinyoung; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jong-Min; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The research reactor has been often subjected to external hazards during the design lifetime. Especially, a seismic event can be one of significant threats to the failure of structure system of the research reactor. This failure is possibly extended to the direct core damage of the reactor. For this purpose, the fault tree for structural system failure leading to the core damage under an earthquake accident is developed. The failure probabilities of basic events are evaluated as fragility curves of log-normal distributions. Finally, the plant-level seismic margin is investigated by the fault tree analysis combining with fragility data and the critical path is identified. The plant-level probabilistic seismic margin assessment using the fragility based fault tree analysis was performed for quantifying the safety of research reactor to a seismic hazard. For this, the fault tree for structural system failure leading to the core damage of the reactor under a seismic accident was developed. The failure probabilities of basic events were evaluated as fragility curves of log-normal distributions.

  5. Fragile X Syndrome: An Aging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea; Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral correlates of molecular variations related to the FMR1 gene have been studied rather extensively, but research about the long-term outcome in individuals with fragile X spectrum disorders remains sparse. In this review, we present an overview of aging research and recent findings in regard to cellular and clinical…

  6. Dynamics of processing invisible faces in the brain: automatic neural encoding of facial expression information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Shannon, Robert W; Vizueta, Nathalie; Bernat, Edward M; Patrick, Christopher J; He, Sheng

    2009-02-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are suggested to process facial identity and facial expression information respectively. We recently demonstrated a functional dissociation between the FFA and the STS as well as correlated sensitivity of the STS and the amygdala to facial expressions using an interocular suppression paradigm [Jiang, Y., He, S., 2006. Cortical responses to invisible faces: dissociating subsystems for facial-information processing. Curr. Biol. 16, 2023-2029.]. In the current event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of facial information processing. Observers viewed neutral, fearful, and scrambled face stimuli, either visibly or rendered invisible through interocular suppression. Relative to scrambled face stimuli, intact visible faces elicited larger positive P1 (110-130 ms) and larger negative N1 or N170 (160-180 ms) potentials at posterior occipital and bilateral occipito-temporal regions respectively, with the N170 amplitude significantly greater for fearful than neutral faces. Invisible intact faces generated a stronger signal than scrambled faces at 140-200 ms over posterior occipital areas whereas invisible fearful faces (compared to neutral and scrambled faces) elicited a significantly larger negative deflection starting at 220 ms along the STS. These results provide further evidence for cortical processing of facial information without awareness and elucidate the temporal sequence of automatic facial expression information extraction.

  7. Fragility of superheated melts and glass-forming ability in Pr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Q.G.; Zhou, J.K.; Zheng, H.X.; Li, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic viscosity (η) of superheated melts, thermal properties (T x , T m , T L ) and X-ray diffraction analysis on the Pr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) are reported and discussed. A new refined concept, the superheated fragility defined as M' = E S δ x /k B , has been developed based on common solidification theory and the Arrhenius equation. The interrelationship between this kind of fragility and the glass-forming ability (GFA) is elaborated on and evaluated in Pr-based BMG and Al-based amorphous ribbon alloys. Using viscosity data of superheated melts, it is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that the fragility parameter M' may be used as a GFA indicator for metallic alloys

  8. The prospects for ecosystem services provision in fragile states’ urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bogadi, Antonija

    2018-01-01

    In fragile states context of climate change vulnerability, poverty and lack of infrastructure, the ability of ecosystem services to provide for numerous human needs is indispensable. The focus of this paper is describing the prospects for ecosystem services provision in fragile states’ urban areas. This paper presents a distinct approach by analyzing actors with capacity to provide ecosystem services in urban areas: government, international partners and citizens. Using infrastructure investm...

  9. Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Luis R; Thakur, Mili

    2017-03-01

    Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI.

  10. The secret of the invisible man. The function of the visibility of behavior in identity and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mandujano

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the many functions that the visibility of an individual's behaviour has for their identity, and for the efficiency of their processes. The analysis addresses three concerns: first, the issue of the visibility-invisibility of behaviour; second, individual and social perception of that visibility-invisibility; and lastly, the impact of that perception on identity and change.

  11. ¿Violencia invisible o del éxtasis al dolor? Invisible violence or from ecstasy to pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Fernández Rius

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los valores y roles para cada género no tienen el mismo reconocimiento social. Se trata de una construcción cultural que pretende, apoyándose en las diferencias, y en una dicotómica jerarquización y poder, establecer una desigualdad que acentúa la supremacía de lo masculino como valor. En la cultura patriarcal - como tendencia - suelen ser los hombres los más violentos, para un comportamiento de dependencia y docilidad en las mujeres. Por ello las relaciones de pareja, asociadas con fantasías de amor, constituyen un espacio de poder y son acosadas constantemente por vivencias de servidumbre y dominio. Diferencia - jerarquía - desigualdad - discriminación - violencia, circuito invisible en retroalimentación que la cultura reedita cotidianamente y que se expresa desde formas psicológicas, hasta daños extremos fundamentalmente hacia las mujeres en los vínculos amorosos.The values and roles for each gender are not socially recognized in an impartial way. It is a cultural construction that seeks, relying on the differences and, on a dichotomous hierarchy and power, to establish an inequality that reinforces the supremacy of masculinity as a value. In patriarchal culture - as a trend - men tend to be the most violent, and women to have a behavior of dependence and docility. Therefore the coupling relationships associated with fantasies of love are a space of power and are constantly harassed by experiences of servitude and domination. Difference - hierarchy - inequality - discrimination - violence, invisible feedback circuit that culture reedits daily and which expresses itself from psychological form to extreme damages primarily toward women on the amorous relationship.

  12. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  13. Unpacking the invisible knapsack: The invention of white privilege pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Margolin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses Ricoeur’s hermeneutics of suspicion, an interpretive strategy directed to the hidden or repressed meanings behind texts, to examine the origins of white privilege pedagogy, in particular their foundational technique, “unpacking the invisible knapsack.” This article’s chief finding is that this pedagogy, though designed to fight racism, has the unintended effect of supporting white privilege. Teaching whites to “unpack their invisible knapsack” does not make them more willing to take action against racial inequality. On the contrary, it makes them more complacent, more at home in an unjust world, and more comfortable with their whiteness. White privilege pedagogy does this by focusing on personal identity (whites’ personal identity over institutional structures, by paying more attention to whites’ experiences than to blacks’, by falsely claiming that the confession of white privileges leads to social action beneficial to blacks, and by restoring and expanding whites’ sense of moral rightness.

  14. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascucci

    Full Text Available Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  15. An Investigation of Narrative Ability in Boys with Autism and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brown, Abigail L.; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.; Mueffelmann, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas pragmatic language difficulties are characteristic of both autism and Fragile X syndrome, it is unclear whether such deficits are qualitatively similar or whether certain skills are differentially affected. This study compared narrative competence in boys with autism, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and typical development. Results…

  16. The Search for an Effective Therapy to Treat Fragile X Syndrome: Dream or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnola, Sara; Bardoni, Barbara; Maurin, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of intellectual disability and a primary cause of autism. It originates from the lack of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which is an RNA-binding protein encoded by the Fragile X Mental Retardation Gene 1 (FMR1) gene. Multiple roles have been attributed to this protein, ranging from RNA transport (from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but also along neurites) to translational control of mRNAs. Over the last 20 years many studies ha...

  17. Fragility analysis of a seismically-isolated emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ohtori, Yasuki

    2005-01-01

    The seismic capacity of an Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in nuclear power plants influences the seismic safety of the plants significantly. A recent study showed that the increase of the seismic capacity of the EDG could reduce the core damage frequency (CDF) remarkably. It is known that the major failure mode of the EDG is a concrete coning failure due to the pulling out of the anchor bolts. The use of base isolators instead of anchor bolts can increase the seismic capacity of the EDG without any major problems. The fragility curves for a base-isolated EDG should be different from those for a conventional type because the major failure mode of the base-isolated EDG will not be a concrete coning one any more. The governing failure mode of the base-isolated EDG must be the damage of the isolators. This study introduces a fragility evaluation method for an isolated EDG, and evaluates the fragilities for the isolated EDG and compares them with those for the conventional one. Evaluation of the ground motion index is also carried out to determine the governing parameter suitable for representing the seismic responses of the base isolator

  18. Breastfeeding of a medically fragile foster child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2005-02-01

    A case is presented in which a medically fragile baby was breastfed by her foster mother. As a result, the child's physical and emotional health were improved. The mechanisms whereby human milk improves health are well known. The act of breastfeeding may also have an analgesic and relaxant effect as a result of hormonal influences and skin-to-skin contact. Many foster babies may benefit from human milk or breastfeeding. However, the risk of disease transmission must be minimized. Provision of human milk to all medically fragile foster babies is desirable. Breastfeeding by the foster mother may be applicable in cases in which the child is likely to be in long-term care, the child has been previously breastfed, or the child's mother expresses a desire that the infant be breastfed. However, social barriers must be overcome before breastfeeding of foster babies can become more common.

  19. Effects of hyperoxia and caffeine on the expression of fragile site at Xq27.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, S.K.; Surana, R.B.; Christopher, K.L. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-02

    To enhance the cytogenetic expression of the fragile X chromosome, we studied the effects of hyperoxia and caffeine on the induction of fragile Xq27.3. A lymphoblastoid cell line (GM 06912) derived from a fragile X male proband was cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 16% dialyzed fetal calf serum. The cells were synchronously subjected to one of 3 different atmospheric oxygen tensions (21%, 21.3 kPa, hyperoxic) during the last 24 hours of the 72 hour culture, immediately after the addition of 2{prime}-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FUdR) at 25 ng/ml. To study the enhancing effect of caffeine, with or without hyperoxia, a second set of cultures was additionally subjected to caffeine (2.5 mM) during the last 6 hours of the culture. When the fragility of hyperoxic cells (38.1 kPa dissolved oxygen) was compared to that of normoxic control cells (13.3 kPa dissolved oxygen), the difference was significant (P < 0.05). These data suggest that there is a mean increase in the fragile Xq27.3 expressivity as the dissolved oxygen tension increases. Additionally, we observed that caffeine, with or without hyperoxia, significantly (P <0.05) suppressed the expression of the fragile X site in this lymphoblastoid cell line. 34 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.

  1. Designing for the invisible: user-centered design of infrastructure awareness systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Infrastructure awareness systems reveal invisible aspects of infrastructures to their existing or potential users. Designing such systems is challenging as it requires making visible the hidden activity of infrastructures while providing information of interest to the users. To address...

  2. Making the Invisible Visible: A Methodological and a Substantive Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of "making the invisible visible" from a methodological and a substantive viewpoint. The ideas emerged from a doctoral research study into individual target setting with middle ability students in an English secondary school. The students involved had been identified by assessments as "average"…

  3. Resolution of Spatial and Temporal Visual Attention in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual impairment and the most common single-gene cause of autism. Individuals with fragile X syndrome present with a neurobehavioural phenotype that includes selective deficits in spatiotemporal visual perception associated with neural processing in frontal-parietal networks of the…

  4. Fragile X checklists: A meta-analysis and development of a simplified universal clinical checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Lumaka, Aimé; Kanteng, Gray; Mutesa, Léon; Mukuku, Olivier; Wembonyama, Stanislas; Hagerman, Randi; Luboya, Oscar Numbi; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper

    2018-04-06

    Clinical checklists available have been developed to assess the risk of a positive Fragile X syndrome but they include relatively small sample sizes. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis that included statistical pooling of study results to obtain accurate figures on the prevalence of clinical predictors of Fragile X syndrome among patients with intellectual disability, thereby helping health professionals to improve their referrals for Fragile X testing. All published studies consisting of cytogenetic and/or molecular screening for fragile X syndrome among patients with intellectual disability, were eligible for the meta-analysis. All patients enrolled in clinical checklists trials of Fragile X syndrome were eligible for this review, with no exclusion based on ethnicity or age. Odds ratio values, with 95% confidence intervals as well as Cronbach coefficient alpha, was reported to assess the frequency of clinical characteristics in subjects with intellectual disability with and without the fragile X mutation to determine the most discriminating. The following features were strongly associated with Fragile X syndrome: skin soft and velvety on the palms with redundancy of skin on the dorsum of hand [OR: 16.85 (95% CI 10.4-27.3; α:0.97)], large testes [OR: 7.14 (95% CI 5.53-9.22; α: 0.80)], large and prominent ears [OR: 18.62 (95% CI 14.38-24.1; α: 0.98)], pale blue eyes [OR: 8.97 (95% CI 4.75-16.97; α: 0.83)], family history of intellectual disability [OR: 3.43 (95% CI 2.76-4.27; α: 0.81)] as well as autistic-like behavior [OR: 3.08 (95% CI 2.48-3.83; α: 0.77)], Flat feet [OR: 11.53 (95% CI 6.79-19.56; α:0.91)], plantar crease [OR: 3.74 (95% CI 2.67-5.24; α: 0.70)]. We noted a weaker positive association between transverse palmar crease [OR: 2.68 (95% CI 1.70-4.18; α: 0.51)], elongated face [OR: 3.69 (95% CI 2.84-4.81; α: 0.63)]; hyperextensible metacarpo-phalangeal joints [OR: 2.68 (95% CI 2.15-3.34; α: 0.57)] and the Fragile X syndrome. This study

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ERYTHROCYTES OSMOTIC FRAGILITY TEST PERFORMED IN CHILDREN WITH INDIRECT HYPERBILIRUB1NEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stojanović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes is useful in the diagnosis of different types of hereditary hemolytic anemias followed with hyperbilirubinemia. Hemolytic anemias, characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells, are usually the consequence of many metabolic abnormalities like cellular membrane defect, erythrocyte enzymes defect or hemoglobin abnormalities – hemoglobinopathies. The object of our study was to assess the relationship between osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes and severity of indirect hyperbilirubinemia in some inherited erythrocytes’ disorders. We did the osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes by using Dacie, s method with normal values of erythrocytes hemolysis between 0,48 to 0,34% NaCl (minimal to maximal hemolysis. In hereditary spherocytosis, fragility of erythrocytes was increased (min. at 0,50 % NaCl to max. 0,44 % NaCl . In the child with β- thalassemia and cycle cell anemia erythrocytes fragility was decreased (min . at 0,42 to max. 0,32 % NaCl, that is 0,40% min. of hemolysis and 0,34% max. hemolysis in the second case. In newborn infants with high levels of indirect bilirubin in serum as a cause of physiological jaundice, the osmotic fragility test was within a normal range. Our findings point out the diagnostic value of osmotic fragility test in assessing patients with the indirect hyperbilirubinemia. This simple and important diagnostic test can be performed in small laboratories.

  6. State fragility and its regional implications for peace and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    of the Cold war left a security void, and the fragility, and in some instances collapse, of the state structures resulted in new state formations and new conflicts, both intra- and inter-state in nature. However, conflicts and security challenges in East Africa are due to amongst other things porous borders......, fragile states and bad governance regional in nature, and cannot be solved by the individual states alone. Regional institutions have been in a weak position dealing with these challenges, and attempts have been to strengthen the capacity of these regional institutions. This paper investigates...

  7. Invisible losses and the logics of resettlement compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Rebecca; Satterfield, Terre

    2014-10-01

    The necessity of compensating people negatively affected by conservation and other development projects has been widely acknowledged. It is less widely acknowledged that because conventional compensation assessments focus on material resources and their economic equivalents, many important losses incurred by resettlers are invisible to project authorities. Through ethnographic observations and interviews, we documented losses identified by people facing resettlement from Mozambique's Limpopo National Park. We also examined resettlement planning documents to determine why decision makers' assessments of natural resource use and value neglect losses residents identified as critical. Identifying, preventing, and mitigating invisible losses in resettlement planning necessitates a better understanding of intangible benefits residents derive from resources, which are often as or more important than their readily apparent material properties. These benefits include but are not limited to decision-making authority linked to owning land versus having the use of fields; ancestral identity and social belonging linked to gravesites; the importance of tree roots that provide a powerful sense of security because they suppress hunger in periods of scarcity; and the importance of people's location within social networks and hierarchies as they determine the benefits versus risks that will be incurred through resettlement. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639......Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639...

  9. Fragility fractures at Auckland City Hospital: we can do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, Geoffrey; Wilkinson, Susan; Scott, Marilyn; Mitchell, Paul; Harris, Roger

    2017-12-01

    This study describes in detail the burden of caring for patients aged ≥ 50 years seen in one year with a fragility fracture in a large urban environment and shows that these fractures result in a long length of stay and significant mortality. Intervention to prevent further fracture was poorly done. To examine the epidemiology of fragility fracture in patients over age 50 years and record the number who received appropriate secondary prevention treatment. All patients aged ≥ 50 years presenting with a fracture during the 12 months following July 1 st 2011, to Auckland City Hospital or residing in central Auckland at the time of their fracture, were identified from hospital and Accident Compensation Corporation records. A random sample of 55% of these patient's records were reviewed to establish the type of fracture, prior fracture and falls history, and use of bisphosphonates in the 12 months before presentation. Their length of stay (LOS) by type of fracture was recorded. The use of bisphosphonate drugs in the following 12 months was obtained from centralised national records of prescriptions. 2729 patients aged ≥ 50 years presented with a fragility fracture in the central Auckland region in one year. Fifty-six percent of these patients were seen at Auckland Hospital and of these, 82% patients required admission with a mean LOS of 20 days (SD ± 24 days).The remaining 44% of patients were looked after in the private outpatient sector. Approximately 30% of the admissions were for hip fracture. Sixty-four percent of patients with a fragility fracture did not receive a potent bisphosphonate, 12% were considered not appropriate for treatment, and 24% received a potent bisphosphonate during their admission or in the next 12 months. Approximately 1 in 18 people aged ≥ 50 years presented in one year with a fragility fracture.Secondary prevention strategies were poorly implemented. Additional resources for identifying and initiating secondary fracture prevention

  10. Cerebral protein synthesis in a knockin mouse model of the fragile X premutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Qin (Mei); T. Huang (Tianjian); Z. Liu (Zhonghua); M. Kader (Michael); T. Burlin (Thomas); Z. Xia (Zengyan); Z. Zeidler (Zachary); R.K. Hukema (Renate); C.B. Smith (Carolyn B.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe (CGG)n-repeat in the 5’-untransiated region of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMRi) gene is polymorphic and may become unstable on transmission to the next generation. In fragile X syndrome, CGG repeat lengths exceed 200, resulting in silencing of FMRi and absence of its

  11. Red Blood Cell Mechanical Fragility Test for Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Luke A; Olia, Salim E; Kameneva, Marina V

    2017-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects. To address these limitations, we propose a 6.5 mL reduced volume RBT and corresponding modified MFI (MMFI) that does not require prior Ht adjustment. This new method was assessed for i) correlation to the existing text, ii) to quantify the effect of Ht on MFI, and iii) validation by reexamining the protective effect of plasma proteins on RBC MF. The reduced volume RBT strongly correlated (r = 0.941) with the established large volume RBT at matched Hts, and an equation was developed to calculate MMFI: a numerical estimation (R 2  = 0.923) of MFI if performed with the reduced volume RBT at "standard" (40%) Ht. An inversely proportional relationship was found between plasma protein concentration and RBC MF using the MMFI-reduced volume method, supporting previous literature findings. The new reduced volume RBT and modified MFI will allow for the measurement of RBC MF in clinical and preclinical studies involving humans or small animals. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Seismic fragility curves of bridge piers accounting for ground motions in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Duan; Lee, Tae-Hyung

    2018-04-01

    Korea is located in a slight-to-moderate seismic zone. Nevertheless, several studies pointed that the peak earthquake magnitude in the region can be reached to approximately 6.5. Accordingly, a seismic vulnerability evaluation of the existing structures accounting for ground motions in Korea is momentous. The purpose of this paper is to develop seismic fragility curves for bridge piers of a steel box girder bridge equipped with and without base isolators based on a set of ground motions recorded in Korea. A finite element simulation platform, OpenSees, is utilized to perform nonlinear time history analyses of the bridges. A series of damage states is defined based on a damage index which is expressed in terms of the column displacement ductility ratio. The fragility curves based on Korean motions were thereafter compared with the fragility curves generated using worldwide earthquakes to assess the effect of the two ground motion groups on the seismic fragility curves of the bridge piers. The results reveal that both non- and base-isolated bridge piers are less vulnerable during the Korean ground motions than that under worldwide earthquakes.

  13. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  14. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Emory University and Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  15. Organizational changes help Benin NGO better protect fragile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... ... climate change adaptation, and sustainable management of fragile ecosystems. ... build community-level capacity for sustainable development through ... solution is to build new houses in more secure areas and to relocate ...

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls ion channel expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent

    2016-10-15

    Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in the control of local translation, which has pleiotropic effects, in particular on synaptic function. Analysis of the brain FMRP transcriptome has revealed hundreds of potential mRNA targets encoding postsynaptic and presynaptic proteins, including a number of ion channels. FMRP has been confirmed to bind voltage-gated potassium channels (K v 3.1 and K v 4.2) mRNAs and regulates their expression in somatodendritic compartments of neurons. Recent studies have uncovered a number of additional roles for FMRP besides RNA regulation. FMRP was shown to directly interact with, and modulate, a number of ion channel complexes. The sodium-activated potassium (Slack) channel was the first ion channel shown to directly interact with FMRP; this interaction alters the single-channel properties of the Slack channel. FMRP was also shown to interact with the auxiliary β4 subunit of the calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel; this interaction increases calcium-dependent activation of the BK channel. More recently, FMRP was shown to directly interact with the voltage-gated calcium channel, Ca v 2.2, and reduce its trafficking to the plasma membrane. Studies performed on animal models of fragile X syndrome have revealed links between modifications of ion channel activity and changes in neuronal excitability, suggesting that these modifications could contribute to the phenotypes observed in patients with fragile X-associated disorders. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  17. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  18. Flavor connections and neutrino mass hierarchy in variant invisible axion models without domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.

    1988-08-01

    New types of invisible axion model based on the recent variant axion models are presented. They belong to the N=1 type model and hence are free of domain wall problems. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry transformations are not totally generation and flavor blind, which may help in understanding the small values of electron and u-quark and large t-quark masses. The light neutrino mass pattern in the two Higgs singlet models can have a very different hierarchy that differs from the other type invisible axion model. (Author) (25 refs.)

  19. Autism Is Associated with the Fragile-X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. Ted.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The authors describe their methods for establishing the presence or absence of the fragile-X chromosome and discuss some of the clinical implications of their findings in relation to the clinical diagnosis of autism. (SW)

  20. Molecular medicine of fragile X syndrome: based on known molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Yu; Wu, Ling-Qian; Duan, Ran-Hui

    2016-02-01

    Extensive research on fragile X mental retardation gene knockout mice and mutant Drosophila models has largely expanded our knowledge on mechanism-based treatment of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In light of these findings, several clinical trials are now underway for therapeutic translation to humans. Electronic literature searches were conducted using the PubMed database and ClinicalTrials.gov. The search terms included "fragile X syndrome", "FXS and medication", "FXS and therapeutics" and "FXS and treatment". Based on the publications identified in this search, we reviewed the neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS patients and the potential pathogenic mechanisms to monitor the progress of FXS research, from basic studies to clinical trials. The pathological mechanisms of FXS were categorized on the basis of neuroanatomy, synaptic structure, synaptic transmission and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) loss of function. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in FXS were described to motivate extensive research into the region-specific pathologies in the brain responsible for FXS behavioural manifestations. Mechanism-directed molecular medicines were classified according to their target pathological mechanisms, and the most recent progress in clinical trials was discussed. Current mechanism-based studies and clinical trials have greatly contributed to the development of FXS pharmacological therapeutics. Research examining the extent to which these treatments provided a rescue effect or FMRP compensation for the developmental impairments in FXS patients may help to improve the efficacy of treatments.

  1. Fragility issues of medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN m-health environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yow-Yiong Edwin; Philip, Nada; Istepanian, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some of the fragility issues of a medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN in m-health applications. In particular, we present a medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) scheme for enhanced QoS support for IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), as a modification for the standard 802.11e enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF) is proposed for enhanced medical data performance. The medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) proposed extends the EDCF, by halving the contention window (CW) after zeta consecutive successful transmissions to reduce the collision probability when channel is busy. Simulation results show that MCAFA outperforms EDCF in-terms of overall performance relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G/WLAN wireless environments.

  2. Program outline of seismic fragility capacity tests on nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijima, T.; Abe, H.; Fujita, T.

    2004-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risk of nuclear plant that is designed with definitive seismic design condition. Seismic fragility capacity data are necessary for seismic PSA, but we don't have sufficient data of active components of nuclear plants in Japan. This paper describes a plan of seismic fragility capacity tests on nuclear power plant equipment. The purpose of those tests is to obtain seismic fragility capacity of important equipment from a safety design point of view. And the equipment for the fragility capacity tests were selected considering effect on core damage frequency (CDF) that was evaluated by our preliminary seismic PSA. Consequently horizontal shaft pump, electric cabinets, Control Rod Drive system (CRD system) of BWR and PWR plant and vertical shaft pump were selected. The seismic fragility capacity tests are conducted from phase-1 to phase-3, and horizontal shaft pump and electric cabinets are tested on phase-1. The fragility capacity test consists of two types of tests. One is actual equipment test and another is element test. On actual equipment test, a real size model is tested with high-level seismic motion, and critical acceleration and failure mode are investigated. Regarding fragility test phase-1, we selected typical type horizontal shaft pump and electric cabinets for the actual equipment test. Those were Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water (RCW) Pump and eight kinds of electric cabinets such as relay cabinet, motor control center. On the test phase-1, maximum input acceleration for the actual equipment test is intended to be 6-G-force. Since the shaking table of TADOTSU facility did not have capability for high acceleration, we made vibration amplifying system. In this system, amplifying device is mounted on original shaking table and it moves in synchronization with original table. The element test is conducted with many samples and critical acceleration, median and

  3. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, Gry; Koht, Jeanette

    2017-10-31

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. The major signs and symptoms are tremor, ataxia and parkinsonism. Up to one in 2 000 persons over 50 years of age will develop the syndrome. There is reason to believe that too few individuals in Norway undergo testing for this condition.

  4. Race and the fragility of the legal distinction between juveniles and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Rattan

    Full Text Available Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantly more similar to adults in their inherent culpability and to express more support for severe sentencing. Indeed, these differences in participants' perceptions of this foundational legal precedent distinguishing between juveniles and adults accounted for their greater support for severe punishment. These results highlight the fragility of protections for juveniles when race is in play. Furthermore, we suggest that this fragility may have broad implications for how juveniles are seen and treated in the criminal justice system.

  5. Targeted pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorders: fragile X and Rett syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are genetically and clinically heterogeneous and lack effective medications to treat their core symptoms. Studies of syndromic ASDs caused by single gene mutations have provided insights into the pathophysiology of autism. Fragile X and Rett syndromes belong to the syndromic ASDs in which preclinical studies have identified rational targets for drug therapies focused on correcting underlying neural dysfunction. These preclinical discoveries are increasingly translating into exciting human clinical trials. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among ASDs, targeted treatments developed for fragile X and Rett syndromes may be helpful for autism of different etiologies. Here, we review the targeted pharmacological treatment of fragile X and Rett syndromes and discuss related issues in both preclinical studies and clinical trials of potential therapies for the diseases.

  6. The Pathophysiology of Fragile X (and What It Teaches Us about Synapses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakar, Asha L.; Dölen, Gül; Bear, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X is the most common known inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, and it typically results from transcriptional silencing of FMR1 and loss of the encoded protein, FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein that functions at many synapses to inhibit local translation stimulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) 1 and 5. Recent studies on the biology of FMRP and the signaling pathways downstream of mGluR1/5 have yielded deeper insight into how synaptic protein synthesis and plasticity are regulated by experience. This new knowledge has also suggested ways that altered signaling and synaptic function can be corrected in fragile X, and human clinical trials based on this information are under way. PMID:22483044

  7. Targeted pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorders: fragile X and Rett syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hansen; Pati, Sandipan; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Doering, Laurie C.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous and lack effective medications to treat their core symptoms. Studies of syndromic ASDs caused by single gene mutations have provided insights into the pathophysiology of autism. Fragile X and Rett syndromes belong to the syndromic ASDs in which preclinical studies have identified rational targets for drug therapies focused on correcting underlying neural dysfunction. These preclinical discoveries are increasingly translating into exciting human clinical trials. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among ASDs, targeted treatments developed for fragile X and Rett syndromes may be helpful for autism of different etiologies. Here, we review the targeted pharmacological treatment of fragile X and Rett syndromes and discuss related issues in both preclinical studies and clinical trials of potential therapies for the diseases. PMID:25767435

  8. Coordinate transformations make perfect invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wei; Yan Min; Ruan Zhichao; Qiu Min

    2008-01-01

    By investigating wave properties at cloak boundaries, invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape constructed by general coordinate transformations are confirmed to be perfectly invisible to the external incident wave. The differences between line transformed cloaks and point transformed cloaks are discussed. The fields in the cloak medium are found analytically to be related to the fields in the original space via coordinate transformation functions. At the exterior boundary of the cloak, it is shown that no reflection is excited even though the permittivity and permeability do not always have a perfectly matched layer form, whereas at the inner boundary, no reflection is excited either, and in particular no field can penetrate into the cloaked region. However, for the inner boundary of any line transformed cloak, the permittivity and permeability in a specific tangential direction are always required to be infinitely large. Furthermore, the field discontinuity at the inner boundary always exists; the surface current is induced to make this discontinuity self-consistent. A point transformed cloak does not experience such problems. The tangential fields at the inner boundary are all zero, implying that no field discontinuity exists

  9. Racism, Invisibility, and the Alienation of the African American in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man has enjoyed a plethora of readings, how the Marxist concept of alienation and estrangement figure in the narrative has been largely ignored. Moreover, critics appear not to be in agreement about Ellison's aesthetic project in this novel. While some acknowledge the “Negro slant” of the ...

  10. Search for invisibly decaying Higgs boson at Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    boson with a mass of 120 GeV/c2 for LHC energy of 14 TeV. Since the ... The exercise described here for the determination of the significance for excess ... to search for the invisible Higgs boson with less than 10 fb−1 at 3σ level [8]. We report ...

  11. Recent advances in assays for the fragile X-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Bruce E; Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The fragile X-related disorders are a group of three clinical conditions resulting from the instability of a CGG-repeat tract at the 5' end of the FMR1 transcript. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) are disorders seen in carriers of FMR1 alleles with 55-200 repeats. Female carriers of these premutation (PM) alleles are also at risk of having a child who has an FMR1 allele with >200 repeats. Most of these full mutation (FM) alleles are epigenetically silenced resulting in a deficit of the FMR1 gene product, FMRP. This results in fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism. The diagnosis and study of these disorders is challenging, in part because the detection of alleles with large repeat numbers has, until recently, been either time-consuming or unreliable. This problem is compounded by the mosaicism for repeat length and/or DNA methylation that is frequently seen in PM and FM carriers. Furthermore, since AGG interruptions in the repeat tract affect the risk that a FM allele will be maternally transmitted, the ability to accurately detect these interruptions in female PM carriers is an additional challenge that must be met. This review will discuss some of the pros and cons of some recently described assays for these disorders, including those that detect FMRP levels directly, as well as emerging technologies that promise to improve the diagnosis of these conditions and to be useful in both basic and translational research settings.

  12. Behavioral Assessment of Social Anxiety in Females with Turner or Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak-Karpiak, Katarzyna; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Ross, Judith L.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared 29 females with Turner syndrome and 21 females with fragile X syndrome (ages 6-22) on a videotaped role-play interaction with 34 females in a comparison group. Three of eight behavioral measures of social skills differentiated the participant groups. Fragile-X subjects required more time to initiate interactions and Turner…

  13. Financial Liberalization and Financial Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Enrica Detragiache; Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the empirical relationship between banking crises and financial liberalization using a panel of data for 53 countries for 1980-95. They find that banking crises are more likely to occur in liberalized financial systems. But financial liberalization's impact on a fragile banking sector is weaker where the institutional environment is strong--especially where there is respect for the rule of law, a low level of corruption, and good contract enforcement. They examine evidence o...

  14. Developing fragility functions for aquaculture rafts and eelgrass in the case of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the two devastating tsunamis in 2004 (Indian Ocean and 2011 (Great East Japan, new findings have emerged on the relationship between tsunami characteristics and damage in terms of fragility functions. Human loss and damage to buildings and infrastructures are the primary target of recovery and reconstruction; thus, such relationships for offshore properties and marine ecosystems remain unclear. To overcome this lack of knowledge, this study used the available data from two possible target areas (Mangokuura Lake and Matsushima Bay from the 2011 Japan tsunami. This study has three main components: (1 reproduction of the 2011 tsunami, (2 damage investigation, and (3 fragility function development. First, the source models of the 2011 tsunami were verified and adjusted to reproduce the tsunami characteristics in the target areas. Second, the damage ratio (complete damage of the aquaculture raft and eelgrass was investigated using satellite images taken before and after the 2011 tsunami through visual inspection and binarization. Third, the tsunami fragility functions were developed using the relationship between the simulated tsunami characteristics and the estimated damage ratio. Based on the statistical analysis results, fragility functions were developed for Mangokuura Lake, and the flow velocity was the main contributor to the damage instead of the wave amplitude. For example, the damage ratio above 0.9 was found to be equal to the maximum flow velocities of 1.3 m s−1 (aquaculture raft and 3.0 m s−1 (eelgrass. This finding is consistent with the previously proposed damage criterion of 1 m s−1 for the aquaculture raft. This study is the first step in the development of damage assessment and planning for marine products and environmental factors to mitigate the effects of future tsunamis.

  15. Developing fragility functions for aquaculture rafts and eelgrass in the case of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Fukui, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kei; Leelawat, Natt; Ohira, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2018-01-01

    Since the two devastating tsunamis in 2004 (Indian Ocean) and 2011 (Great East Japan), new findings have emerged on the relationship between tsunami characteristics and damage in terms of fragility functions. Human loss and damage to buildings and infrastructures are the primary target of recovery and reconstruction; thus, such relationships for offshore properties and marine ecosystems remain unclear. To overcome this lack of knowledge, this study used the available data from two possible target areas (Mangokuura Lake and Matsushima Bay) from the 2011 Japan tsunami. This study has three main components: (1) reproduction of the 2011 tsunami, (2) damage investigation, and (3) fragility function development. First, the source models of the 2011 tsunami were verified and adjusted to reproduce the tsunami characteristics in the target areas. Second, the damage ratio (complete damage) of the aquaculture raft and eelgrass was investigated using satellite images taken before and after the 2011 tsunami through visual inspection and binarization. Third, the tsunami fragility functions were developed using the relationship between the simulated tsunami characteristics and the estimated damage ratio. Based on the statistical analysis results, fragility functions were developed for Mangokuura Lake, and the flow velocity was the main contributor to the damage instead of the wave amplitude. For example, the damage ratio above 0.9 was found to be equal to the maximum flow velocities of 1.3 m s-1 (aquaculture raft) and 3.0 m s-1 (eelgrass). This finding is consistent with the previously proposed damage criterion of 1 m s-1 for the aquaculture raft. This study is the first step in the development of damage assessment and planning for marine products and environmental factors to mitigate the effects of future tsunamis.

  16. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  17. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Sergey V; Kohler, Peter J; Miller, Kevin J; Granger, Richard; Tse, Peter U

    2014-01-01

    Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS) or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF). In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  18. Paradoxical effect of baclofen on social behavior in the fragile X syndrome mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zeidler (Shimriet); A.S. Pop (Andreea); I.A. Jaafar; H. De Boer (Helen); R.A.M. Buijsen (Ronald); C. de Esch (Celine); I.M. Nieuwenhuizen-Bakker; R.K. Hukema (Renate); R. Willemsen (Rob)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenetic cause of intellectual disability, autism spectrum features, and a broad range of other psychiatric and medical problems. FXS is caused by the lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a translational regulator

  19. Emotion Potentiated Startle in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Elizabeth C.; Cordeiro, Lisa; Chavez, Alyssa D.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Hessl, David

    2014-01-01

    Social avoidance and anxiety are prevalent in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and are potentially mediated by the amygdala, a brain region critical for social behavior. Unfortunately, functional brain resonance imaging investigation of the amygdala in FXS is limited by the difficulties experienced by intellectually impaired and anxious participants. We…

  20. Schiffer's Conjecture, Interior Transmission Eigenvalues and Invisibility Cloaking: Singular Problem vs. Nonsingular Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we present some interesting observations on the Schiffer's conjecture, interior transmission eigenvalue problem and their connections to singular and nonsingular invisibility cloaking problems of acoustic waves.

  1. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Louise Nørgaard; Stenbøg, Anne Sofie Christensen; Albrechtslund, Anders

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  2. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie; Nørgaard Glud, Louise; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  3. Local variation of fragility and glass transition temperature of ultra-thin supported polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakata, Paul Z; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W

    2012-12-28

    Despite extensive efforts, a definitive picture of the glass transition of ultra-thin polymer films has yet to emerge. The effect of film thickness h on the glass transition temperature T(g) has been widely examined, but this characterization does not account for the fragility of glass-formation, which quantifies how rapidly relaxation times vary with temperature T. Accordingly, we simulate supported polymer films of a bead-spring model and determine both T(g) and fragility, both as a function of h and film depth. We contrast changes in the relaxation dynamics with density ρ and demonstrate the limitations of the commonly invoked free-volume layer model. As opposed to bulk polymer materials, we find that the fragility and T(g) do not generally vary proportionately. Consequently, the determination of the fragility profile--both locally and for the film as a whole--is essential for the characterization of changes in film dynamics with confinement.

  4. On the fragility of fractional-order PID controllers for FOPDT processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Fabrizio; Visioli, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the fragility issue of fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers applied to integer first-order plus-dead-time processes. In particular, the effects of the variations of the controller parameters on the achieved control system robustness and performance are investigated. Results show that this kind of controllers is more fragile with respect to the standard proportional-integral-derivative controllers and therefore a significant attention should be paid by the user in their tuning. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. When risk becomes invisible in the everyday life of day care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Ole Steen

    2016-01-01

    . When risk become invisible, it not only impedes the mono-professional help the children receive, it also inhibits a crucial multidisciplinary collaborative provision of support to children at risk and their families. The identification of children at risk seems to be based on an unexamined selection...

  6. Fragility characterization of disaccharide/water glass-forming systems by QENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Magazu, S.; Maisano, G

    2003-08-01

    Up to now, the molecular mechanisms underlying the bioprotectant properties of trehalose are not fully understood. From the beginning of our research the attention has been mainly focused on the role played by the disaccharide/water interactions in unravelling the mechanisms which make trehalose, among disaccharides, the most effective bioprotector. In the present work, results of neutron scattering measurements performed on trehalose/H{sub 2}O and sucrose/H{sub 2}O mixtures are reported. A correlation between the temperature behaviour of the mean-square displacement evaluated by QENS and fragility is proposed. What emerges from this study is the stronger character of the trehalose/water mixture in comparison with the sucrose/water. This implies a greater ability of trehalose, in respect to sucrose, to encapsulate biomolecules into more rigid structures and hence a greater cryptobiotic effectiveness.

  7. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.

    1987-02-01

    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  8. Invisible Light: a global infotainment community based on augmented reality technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Kai; Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Curticapean, Dan

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical details about optics and photonics are not common knowledge nowadays. Physicists are keen to scientifically explain `light,' which has a huge impact on our lives. It is necessary to examine it from multiple perspectives and to make the knowledge accessible to the public in an interdisciplinary, scientifically well-grounded and appealing medial way. To allow an information exchange on a global scale, our project "Invisible Light" establishes a worldwide accessible platform. Its contents will not be created by a single instance, but user-generated, with the help of the global community. The article describes the infotainment portal "Invisible Light," which stores scientific articles about light and photonics and makes them accessible worldwide. All articles are tagged with geo-coordinates, so they can be clearly identified and localized. A smartphone application is used for visualization, transmitting the information to users in real time by means of an augmented reality application. Scientific information is made accessible for a broad audience and in an attractive manner.

  9. A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Husain, M.; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Zaki, Osama K.; Al-Othman, L.; Al-Nasser, Mohammed N.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

  10. Growth, history, or institutions? What explains state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocchi, Graziella; Guerzoni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We explore the determinants of state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa. Controlling for a wide range of economic, demographic, geographic and institutional regressors, we find that institutions, and in particular the civil liberties index and the number of revolutions, are the main determinants of fragility, even taking into account their potential endogeneity. Economic factors such as income growth and investment display a non robust impact after controlling for omitted variables and reverse c...

  11. The impact of autism spectrum disorder symptoms on gesture use in fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lorang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims This study compared gesture rate and purpose in participants with Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome, and the impact of autism spectrum disorder symptoms on each syndrome. Methods Twenty individuals with fragile X syndrome and 20 individuals with Down syndrome between nine and 22 years of age participated in this study. We coded gesture rate and purpose from an autism spectrum disorder evaluation, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Second Edition. Results We did not find between-group differences (Down syndrome compared to fragile X syndrome in gesture rate or purpose. Notably, as autism spectrum disorder symptoms increased, the group with Down syndrome produced a lower rate of gestures, but used gestures for the same purpose. Gesture rate did not change based on autism spectrum disorder symptoms in the participants with fragile X syndrome, but as autism spectrum disorder symptoms increased, the participants with fragile X syndrome produced a larger proportion of gestures to regulate behavior and a smaller proportion for joint attention/social interaction. Conclusions Overall, the amount or purpose of gestures did not differentiate individuals with Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. However, the presence of autism spectrum disorder symptoms had a significant and unique impact on these genetic disorders. In individuals with Down syndrome, the presence of more autism spectrum disorder symptoms resulted in a reduction in the rate of gesturing, but did not change the purpose. However, in fragile X syndrome, the rate of gestures remained the same, but the purpose of those gestures changed based on autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Implications Autism spectrum disorder symptoms differentially impact gestures in Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. Individuals with Down syndrome and more autism spectrum disorder symptoms are using gestures less frequently. Therefore, clinicians may need to consider children with

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Kavita S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of chromosome abnormalities and Fragile X syndrome in a population of autistic patients referred to our laboratory. Methods Data was analyzed from 433 patients with autistic traits tested using chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and/or molecular testing for fragile X syndrome by Southern and PCR methods. Results The median age was 4 years. Sex ratio was 4.5 males to 1 female [354:79]. A chromosome (cs abnormality was found in 14/421 [3.33 %] cases. The aberrations were: 4/14 [28%] supernumerary markers; 4/14 [28%] deletions; 1/14 [7%] duplication; 3/14 [21%] inversions; 2/14 [14%] translocations. FISH was performed on 23 cases for reasons other than to characterize a previously identified cytogenetic abnormality. All 23 cases were negative. Fragile-X testing by Southern blots and PCR analysis found 7/316 [2.2 %] with an abnormal result. The mutations detected were: a full mutation (fM and abnormal methylation in 3 [43 %], mosaic mutations with partial methylation of variable clinical significance in 3 [43%] and a permutation carrier [14%]. The frequency of chromosome and fragile-X abnormalities appears to be within the range in reported surveys (cs 4.8-1.7%, FRAX 2–4%. Limitations of our retrospective study include paucity of behavioral diagnostic information, and a specific clinical criterion for testing. Conclusions Twenty-eight percent of chromosome abnormalities detected in our study were subtle; therefore a high resolution cytogenetic study with a scrutiny of 15q11.2q13, 2q37 and Xp23

  13. Multipartnered Fertility and Depression among Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between multipartnered fertility (MPF)--when parents have children with more than one partner--and depression. Random-effects models suggested that MPF is associated with a greater likelihood of depression, net of family structure and other covariates.…

  14. Comparative Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility Test and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erythrocytes osmotic fragility and haematological parameters of subjects with HbAS (sickle cell trait) and HbSS (sickle cell anaemia) were determined and compared with subjects with HbAA (normal adult haemoglobin), which acted as control. They were divided into three groups of 40 subjects for HbAA, 35 subjects for ...

  15. Shifts of visuospatial attention to invisible (metacontrast-masked) singletons: Clues from reaction times and event-related potential

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Heumann; Ulrich Ansorge

    2006-01-01

    In the current study, we tested whether a masked and, thus, invisible singleton-cue captures atten-tion in a stimulus-driven manner or in a top-down contingent manner. The manual RT (Reaction Time) capture effect with the invisible singleton--cue decreased substantially when a match between the singleton-cue and the top-down controlled set of searched-for target features was also decreased. By contrast, with the PCN (Posterior Contralateral Negativity), an electrophysiological measure of the ...

  16. Invisible Cost Effective Mechanics for Anterior Space Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumle, Aatish Vinod; Bagrecha, Saurabh; Gharat, Ninad; Misal, Abhijit; Toshniwal, N G

    2015-01-01

    The shifting paradigm towards invisible orthodontic treatment and also awareness in patients has allured their focus towards the most esthetic treatment approach. Also the lingual treatment is proved successful and is very well accepted by the patients. The problem that persist is its high expenses, which is not affordable by all patients. This article is a effort to treat a simple Class I malocclusion with anterior spacing using a simple, esthetic, Cost effective approach with acceptable results when esthetics plays a priority role.

  17. Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers Show Age- and Genetically-Modulated Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Here…

  18. Determination of a modal interaction correction for narrowband fragility data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory tests for safety equipment operation under seismic environments in nuclear power plants have typically included various motion simulations based on either successively-applied multiple narrowband waveforms or simultaneous multifrequency broadband random waveforms. However, only broadband excitations are directly applicable when equipment performance is affected by interaction between simultaneously responding modes. Therefore, a modal interaction correction factor is developed so that a narrowed response spectrum can be transformed to an approximately equivalent broadband spectrum which accounts for modal interaction effects. The approach includes study of the fragility response of a simple two-degree-of-freedom oscillator for representative narrowband and broadband excitations, and relating the two resulting fragility response spectra. It is found that multiplication of the narrowband response spectrum by an 0.7 factor produces a conservative equivalent broadband response spectrum. The results are interpreted in terms of a secondary device responding on a primary support structure, or a primary structure having two resonances. The approach is useful for updating existing test results based on narrowband spectra, developing composite spectra for similar equipment, or providing more flexibility in designing new tests, and is applicable to qualification proof test data as well as fragility data. 10 refs., 8 figs

  19. Seismic Fragility Curves of Industrial Buildings by Using Nonlinear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the steel fragility curves and performance curves of industrial buildings of different geometries. The fragility curves were obtained for different building geometries, and the performance curves were developed based on lateral load, which is affected by the geometry of the building. Three records of far-field ground motion were used for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, and the design lateral loads for pushover analysis (POA. All designs were based on British Standard (BS 5950; however, Eurocode 8 was preferred for seismic consideration in the analysis because BS 5950 does not specify any seismic provision. The five levels of performance stated by FEMA-273, namely, operational phase, immediate occupancy, damage control, life safety, and collapse prevention (CP were used as main guidelines for evaluating structural performance. For POA, Model 2 had highest base shear, followed by Model 1 and Model 3, even though Model 2 has a smaller structure compared with Model 3. Meanwhile, the fragility curves showed that the probability of reaching or exceeding the CP level of Model 2 is the highest, followed by that of Models 1 and 3.

  20. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured

  1. Le socle d'une œuvre, invisible mais essentiel

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site internet du blog des Musées d'art et d'histoire (http://blog.mahgeneve.ch): "Le support se faisant aujourd'hui le plus discret possible, voire invisible. Sa réalisation nécessite une étroite collaboration entre les différents acteurs d'une exposition car le socleur doit allier les besoins de la conservation et de la muséographie.".

  2. THE WORK PROCESS IN RADIOLOGICAL NURSING: INVISIBILITY OFIONIZING RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Juliana Almeida Coelho de; Gelbcke,Francine Lima; Huhn,Andrea; Vargas,Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Qualitative descriptive and exploratory research, performed with 20 nursing professionals working in a general radiology unit and surgery center with the "C-arm" equipment, and the hemodynamics unit of a southern Brazilian teaching hospital. Aim was to analyze the dimensions of the work process for radiological technology nurse professionals. This paper made clear that radiological technologies are outside nursing, which leads to the invisibility of ionizing radiation, leading to ina...

  3. Non-fragile observer-based output feedback control for polytopic uncertain system under distributed model predictive control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiqun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Sunjie; Zhong, Zhaozhun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a non-fragile observer-based output feedback control problem for the polytopic uncertain system under distributed model predictive control (MPC) approach is discussed. By decomposing the global system into some subsystems, the computation complexity is reduced, so it follows that the online designing time can be saved.Moreover, an observer-based output feedback control algorithm is proposed in the framework of distributed MPC to deal with the difficulties in obtaining the states measurements. In this way, the presented observer-based output-feedback MPC strategy is more flexible and applicable in practice than the traditional state-feedback one. What is more, the non-fragility of the controller has been taken into consideration in favour of increasing the robustness of the polytopic uncertain system. After that, a sufficient stability criterion is presented by using Lyapunov-like functional approach, meanwhile, the corresponding control law and the upper bound of the quadratic cost function are derived by solving an optimisation subject to convex constraints. Finally, some simulation examples are employed to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. The osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes is inhibited by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habodaszova, D.; Sikurova, L.; Waczulikova, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of green laser irradiation (532 nm, 30 mW, 31,7 J/cm 2 ) on the membrane integrity of human erythrocytes and compared the results with the effect of infrared laser irradiation (810 nm, 50 mW, 31,3 J/cm 2 ). To evaluate the membrane integrity of erythrocytes, one clinical parameter, the osmotic fragility, was investigated. We observed a decrease in osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes after irradiation by the green laser light as well as by the infrared laser compared to non-irradiated controls (Authors)

  5. Measurements of the Poisson ratio and fragility of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Olsen, Niels Boye

    Recently much attention has been given to models and phenomenology of glass-forming liquids that correlates fast and slow degrees of freedom . In particular the Poisson ratio has been correlated with fragility. We present data on shear - and bulk modulus obtained by the techniques...... of the piezoelectric transducers PBG and PSG on a number of glass-forming liquids. Hereby the Poisson ratio can be found. Furthermore the PSG also gives the temperature dependence of shear viscosity and thereby the fragility. The validity of the conjectured relation is discussed...

  6. Invisible players: a family systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstedt, Jon

    2005-10-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate that the family is a key player in the athlete's development and performance, sometimes invisible, but often all too visible. The practice of clinical sport psychology is enriched by a family-based orientation to the assessment and treatment of athletes. Creating a workable family system is a challenge for parents. They have many difficult decisions to make, and are often without support and direction in making those choices. Sport psychiatrists and psychologists can be helpful to parents as well as athletes by using family-based assessments and treatment interventions that provide education, challenge, and support as they negotiate the tasks and transitions in the family life cycle.

  7. Development of fragility descriptions of equipment for seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Campbell, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant for postulated hazard requires the development of fragility relationships for the plants' safety related equipment. The objective of this paper is to present some general results and conclusions concerning the development of these seismic fragility levels. Participation in fragility-related research and experience gained from the completion of several PRA studies of a variety of nuclear power plants have provided much insight as to the most vulnerable equipment and the most efficient use of resources for development of fragilities. Plants studied had seismic design bases ranging from very simple equivalent static analysis for some of the earlier plants to state-of-the-art complex multimode dyanamic analyses for plants currently under construction. Increased sophistication and rigor in seismic qualification of equipment has resulted for the most part in increased seismic resistance. The majority of equipment has been found, however, to possess more than adequate resistance to seismic loading regardless of the degree of sophistication utilized in design as long as seismic loading was included in the design process. This paper presents conclusions of the authors as to which items of equipment typically require an individual ''plant-specific'' fragility analysis and which can be treated in a generic fashion. In addition, general conclusions on the relative seismic capacity levels and most frequent failure modes are summarized for generic equipment groups

  8. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  9. Le origini culturali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO RONCAGLIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After recalling the financial origin of the crisis and the persistent worldwide fragility of the financial sector, and after citing papers which before 2007 had pointed out the elements of systemic fragility of the US and world economy, the paper illustrates the cultural roots of the crisis, namely the economic views which favoured deregulation policies: the fallacy of the invisible hand of the market and a simplistic view of uncertainty, to which Keynesian uncertainty is opposed, with the consequent underevaluation of the risks of systemic instability.

  10. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  11. Revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Updating requirements based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accidents (3). Fragility evaluation and outline of the updated points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Susumu; Mihara, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from Great East Japan earthquake and other new findings had been accumulated on the fragility evaluation of buildings and components. And also new analysis and evaluation method had been proposed with the advancement of recent analysis and evaluation technology. These were reflected in revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Scope of the fragility evaluation were extended to all equipment on the site, severe accident management equipment including portable equipment and earthquake concomitant incident (such as tsunami) countermeasure equipment. This article described outlines of updating points of the fragility evaluation of the AESJ Standard for Seismic PRA; (1) requirements for seismic induced other risk evaluations such as fire, inundation and tsunami, (2) simulation technology based on recent findings such as three dimensional responses of buildings / structures and its effect on equipment, (3) requirements of the fragility evaluation for various failure mode of several equipment such as severe accident management equipment, fine failure mode of buildings / structures, failures of equipment related with earthquake concomitant incidents (embankment and seawall) and spent fuel pool, and (4) requirements for the fragility evaluation of aftershocks and soil deformation due to fault displacement. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  13. Fragility: The Next Wave in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan McDougall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Information Technology (IT systems—works on the concept of subjects and objects. Subjects are those entities that seek to exploit the services (or capacity offered by the object. Objects, on the other hand, are those entities that deliver some good or service to the overall system. Of course, something may act as the object in one pairing and the subject in another pairing—they are not exclusive in nature.

  14. Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.

  15. Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Geske

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.

  16. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D; Abrahamsen, Bo; Schwartz, Ann V; Ferrari, Serge L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts that compromise collagen properties, increase marrow adiposity, release inflammatory factors and adipokines from visceral fat, and potentially alter the function of osteocytes. Additional factors including treatment-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  18. The mineralogical phase transformation of invisible gold-concentrate by microwave heating, and enhancement of their gold leaching rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Geonyoung; Kim, Bongju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park*, Cheonyoung

    2015-04-01

    In this study, in order to obtain the maximum Au leaching rate, an invisible gold concentrate sample was microwave-treated and a thiourea leaching experiment was performed. It is found that gold exists as invisible as a result of observation with an optical microscope and an electron microscope. As the invisible gold concentrate sample was exposed to microwave longer, its temperature and weight loss were increased together and its S content was decreased. The conditions for the maximum Au leaching rate and the fast leaching effect were a particle size of -325×400 mesh, exposure to microwave for 70 minutes, 1.0 g of thiourea, 0.0504 g of sodium sulfite and 0.425 g of ferric sulfate. However, the condition under which Au was leached out to the maximum was applied to the control sample, but its Au leaching rate was just in a range of 78% to 88%. Such results suggest that the effect of sodium sulfite and ferric sulfate was more effective in the microwave-treated sample than in the control sample. Therefore, it was confirmed that the complete and very fast Au leaching can be achieved by means of the microwave pretreatment of invisible gold concentrate.

  19. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  20. Development of fragility functions to estimate homelessness after an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after an earthquake, many stakeholders need to make decisions about their response. These decisions often need to be made in a data poor environment as accurate information on the impact can take months or even years to be collected and publicized. Social fragility functions have been developed and applied to provide an estimate of the impact in terms of building damage, deaths and injuries in near real time. These rough estimates can help governments and response agencies determine what aid may be required which can improve their emergency response and facilitate planning for longer term response. Due to building damage, lifeline outages, fear of aftershocks, or other causes, people may become displaced or homeless after an earthquake. Especially in cold and dangerous locations, the rapid provision of safe emergency shelter can be a lifesaving necessity. However, immediately after an event there is little information available about the number of homeless, their locations and whether they require public shelter to aid the response agencies in decision making. In this research, we analyze homelessness after historic earthquakes using the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database. CATDAT includes information on the hazard as well as the physical and social impact of over 7200 damaging earthquakes from 1900-2013 (Daniell et al. 2011). We explore the relationship of both earthquake characteristics and area characteristics with homelessness after the earthquake. We consider modelled variables such as population density, HDI, year, measures of ground motion intensity developed in Daniell (2014) over the time period from 1900-2013 as well as temperature. Using a base methodology based on that used for PAGER fatality fragility curves developed by Jaiswal and Wald (2010), but using regression through time using the socioeconomic parameters developed in Daniell et al. (2012) for "socioeconomic fragility functions", we develop a set of fragility curves that can be

  1. Primary Retrograde Tibiotalocalcaneal Nailing For Fragility Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Hansen, Dane C; Harrison, Ryan; Lucas, Douglas E; Degenova, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fragility fractures are difficult to treat due to poor bone quality and soft tissues as well as the near ubiquitous presence of comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Conventional open reduction and internal fixation in this population has been shown to lead to a significant rate of complications. Given the high rate of complications with contemporary fixation methods, the present study aims to critically evaluate the use of acute hindfoot nailing as a percutaneous fixation technique for high-risk ankle fragility fractures. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 31 patients treated with primary retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nail without joint preparation for a mean of 13.6 months postoperatively from an urban Level I trauma center during the years 2006-2012. Overall, there were two superficial infections (6.5%) and three deep infections (9.7%) in the series. There were 28 (90.3%) patients that went on to radiographic union at a mean of 22.2 weeks with maintenance of foot and ankle alignment. There were three cases of asymptomatic screw breakage observed at a mean of 18.3 months postoperatively, which were all treated conservatively.. This study shows that retrograde hindfoot nailing is an acceptable treatment option for treatment of ankle fragility fractures. Hindfoot nailing allows early weightbearing, limited soft tissue injury, and a relatively low rate of complications, all of which are advantages to conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques. Given these findings, larger prospective randomized trials comparing this treatment with conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques are warranted.

  2. Repeat-mediated genetic and epigenetic changes at the FMR1 locus in the Fragile X-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdin, Karen; Hayward, Bruce E.; Kumari, Daman; Lokanga, Rachel A.; Sciascia, Nicholas; Zhao, Xiao-Nan

    2014-01-01

    The Fragile X-related disorders are a group of genetic conditions that include the neurodegenerative disorder, Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), the fertility disorder, Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and the intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The pathology in all these diseases is related to the number of CGG/CCG-repeats in the 5′ UTR of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The repeats are prone to continuous expansion and the increase in repeat number has paradoxical effects on gene expression increasing transcription on mid-sized alleles and decreasing it on longer ones. In some cases the repeats can simultaneously both increase FMR1 mRNA production and decrease the levels of the FMR1 gene product, Fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). Since FXTAS and FXPOI result from the deleterious consequences of the expression of elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA and FXS is caused by an FMRP deficiency, the clinical picture is turning out to be more complex than once appreciated. Added complications result from the fact that increasing repeat numbers make the alleles somatically unstable. Thus many individuals have a complex mixture of different sized alleles in different cells. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the eponymous fragile site, once thought to be no more than a useful diagnostic criterion, may have clinical consequences for females who inherit chromosomes that express this site. This review will cover what is currently known about the mechanisms responsible for repeat instability, for the repeat-mediated epigenetic changes that affect expression of the FMR1 gene, and for chromosome fragility. It will also touch on what current and future options are for ameliorating some of these effects. PMID:25101111

  3. When physics becomes art: Signatures of the invisible lands in Geneva

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition that brings together science and art, arrives in Geneva next week. Thanks to CERN and the London Institute, eleven European artists have worked with physicists from the Laboratory and the result of this collaboration will be shown in the Centre d'Art Contemporain until May.

  4. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Compounds That Increase Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Expression in Neural Stem Cells Differentiated From Fragile X Syndrome Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Daman; Swaroop, Manju; Southall, Noel; Huang, Wenwei; Zheng, Wei; Usdin, Karen

    2015-07-01

    : Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited cognitive disability, is caused by a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In most patients, the absence of FMRP is due to an aberrant transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. FXS has no cure, and the available treatments only provide symptomatic relief. Given that FMR1 gene silencing in FXS patient cells can be partially reversed by treatment with compounds that target repressive epigenetic marks, restoring FMRP expression could be one approach for the treatment of FXS. We describe a homogeneous and highly sensitive time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for FMRP detection in a 1,536-well plate format. Using neural stem cells differentiated from an FXS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line that does not express any FMRP, we screened a collection of approximately 5,000 known tool compounds and approved drugs using this FMRP assay and identified 6 compounds that modestly increase FMR1 gene expression in FXS patient cells. Although none of these compounds resulted in clinically relevant levels of FMR1 mRNA, our data provide proof of principle that this assay combined with FXS patient-derived neural stem cells can be used in a high-throughput format to identify better lead compounds for FXS drug development. In this study, a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for fragile X mental retardation protein detection was developed and optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries using fragile X syndrome (FXS) patient-derived neural stem cells. The data suggest that this HTS format will be useful for the identification of better lead compounds for developing new therapeutics for FXS. This assay can also be adapted for FMRP detection in clinical and research settings. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Currency crisis and external fragility: a Minskyan interpretation applied to the Brazilian economy between 1999 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Rocha Sarto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has two goals. The first one is to develop an interpretation for open economies founded on Minsky’s financial fragility hypothesis about the process of a currency crisis and its determinants. The deterioration of an economy’s external financial structure is identified as the reason for the increase of its crisis susceptibility. With this approach, we create external fragility indexes intending to measure an economy’s crisis susceptibility. Our second objective is to evaluate the Brazilian external fragility between 1999 and 2013 using the index and the interpretation previously developed. The results suggest that Brazilian’s external fragility suffered a gradual and significant decrease and tends to follow stable trend in the coming years.

  6. Brief Report: Acamprosate in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS). We report on the first trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mGluR5 antagonism, in three adults with FXS and autism. Medical records describing open-label treatment with acamprosate in 3 patients with FXS and a comorbid diagnosis of autistic disorder…

  7. Physical energy cost serves as the 'invisible hand' governing economic valuation. Direct evidence from biogeochemical data and the U.S. metal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhicen; Koerwer, Joel; Nemoto, Jiro; Imura, Hidefumi

    2008-01-01

    Energy supply is mandatory for the production of economic value. Nevertheless, tradition dictates that an enigmatic 'invisible hand' governs economic valuation. Physical scientists have long proposed alternative but testable energy cost theories of economic valuation, and have shown the gross correlation between energy consumption and economic output at the national level through input-output energy analysis. However, due to the difficulty of precise energy analysis and highly complicated real markets, no decisive evidence directly linking energy costs to the selling prices of individual commodities has yet been found. Over the past century, the US metal market has accumulated a huge body of price data, which for the first time ever provides us the opportunity to quantitatively examine the direct energy-value correlation. Here, by analyzing the market price data of 65 purified chemical elements (mainly metals) relative to the total energy consumption for refining them from naturally occurring geochemical conditions, we found a clear correlation between the energy cost and their market prices. The underlying physics we proposed has compatibility with conventional economic concepts such as the ratio between supply and demand or scarcity's role in economic valuation. It demonstrates how energy cost serves as the 'invisible hand' governing economic valuation. Thorough understanding of this energy connection between the human economic and the Earth's biogeochemical metabolism is essential for improving the overall energy efficiency and furthermore the sustainability of the human society. (author)

  8. Soil erosion fragility assessment using an impact model and geographic information system

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge,Luiz Alberto Blanco

    2009-01-01

    A study was taken in a 1566 ha watershed situated in the Capivara River basin, municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. This environment is fragile and can be subjected to different forms of negative impacts, among them soil erosion by water. The main objective of the research was to develop a methodology for the assessment of soil erosion fragility at the various different watershed positions, using the geographic information system ILWIS version 3.3 for Windows. An impact model wa...

  9. Internet invisible y web semántica : ¿el futuro de los sistemas de información en línea?

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Bonilla, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Los cambios en la Web Invisible, cuyas fronteras no dejan de retroceder, y el desarrollo de la web semántica marcarán buena parte del futuro de los sistemas de búsqueda en línea de los próximos años. La Web Invisible es cada vez menos invisible porque, poco a poco, y de una forma u otra, sus contenidos se van incorporando a los motores de búsqueda. La web semántica es la más ambiciosa e importante apuesta tecnológica y científica del W3 Consortium y afectará en gran medida a los desarrollos f...

  10. On the importance of uncertain factors in seismic fragility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.; Zentner, I.; Pellegri, A.; Tarantola, S.; Rocquigny, E. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the definition of importance measures for helping the modeller to detect the factors on which to focus modelling activity and data collection in seismic fragility analysis. We study sensitivity measures consistent with the decision-support criteria of interest, namely, the (mean) fragility curve and the “High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure” (HCLPF) value. The importance measures are obtained analytically for the EPRI safety factor method, which is nowadays used worldwide for seismic risk assessment of nuclear plants. We illustrate and discuss the use of both variance-based and CDF-based importance measures in the application to two case studies, the first analytical and based on the EPRI method, the second numerical.

  11. Scaling in soft spheres: fragility invariance on the repulsive potential softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Cristiano De; Sciortino, Francesco; Coniglio, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of the dependence of the fragility of glass forming supercooled liquids on the 'softness' of an interacting potential by performing numerical simulation of a binary mixture of soft spheres with different power n of the interparticle repulsive potential. We show that the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for various n collapses onto a universal curve, supporting the unexpected view that fragility is not related to the hard core repulsion. We also find that the configurational entropy correlates with the slowing down of the dynamics for all studied n. (letter to the editor)

  12. Fragile X founder chromosomes in Italy: A few initial events and possible explanation for their heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiurazzi, P.; Genuardi, M.; Kozak, L.; Neri, G. [Universita Cattolica and Centro Ricerche per la Disabilita Mentale e Motoria, Roma (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    A total of 137 fragile X and 235 control chromosomes from various regions of Italy were haplotyped by analyzing two neighbouring marker microsatellites, FRAXAC1 and DXS548. The number of CGG repeats at the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene was also assessed in 141 control chromosomes and correlated with their haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium between some {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} haplotypes and fragile X was observed, while other {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} haplotypes may have originated by subsequent mutation at the marker microsatellite loci and/or recombination between them. Recent evidence suggests that the initial mechanism leading to CGG instability might consist of rare (10{sup -6/-7}) CGG repeat slippage events and/or loss of a stabilizing AGG via A-to-C transversion. Also, the apparently high variety of fragile X chromosomes may be partly due to the relatively high mutation rate (10{sup -4/-5}) of the microsatellite markers used in haplotyping. Our fragile X sample also showed a higher than expected heterozygosity when compared to the control sample and we suggest that this might be explained by the chance occurrence of the few founding events on different chromosomes, irrespective of their actual frequency in the population. Alternatively, a local mechanism could enhance the microsatellite mutation rate only on fragile X chromosomes, or fragile X mutations might occur more frequently on certain background haplotypes. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagerman Randi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1, leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABAA pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  14. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  15. The boundary conditions for point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media. We assume that there are several point transformed electromagnetic cloaks located in different points in space. Our results apply in particular to the first-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Pendry et al and to the high-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Hendi et al and by Cai et al. We identify the appropriate cloaking boundary conditions that the solutions of Maxwell equations have to satisfy at the outside, ∂K + , and at the inside, ∂K - , of the boundary of the cloaked object K in the case where the permittivity and the permeability are bounded below and above in K. Namely, that the tangential components of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at ∂K + -which is always true-and that the normal components of the curl of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at ∂K - . These results are proven requiring that energy be conserved. In the case of one spherical cloak with a spherically stratified K and a radial current at ∂K we verify by an explicit calculation that our cloaking boundary conditions are satisfied and that cloaking of active devices holds, even if the current is at the boundary of the cloaked object. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media, our results apply to the cloaking of objects with passive and active devices contained in general anisotropic media, in particular to objects with passive and active devices contained inside general crystals. Our results suggest a method to enhance cloaking in the approximate transformation media that are used in practice. Namely, to coat the boundary of the cloaked object (the inner boundary of the cloak) with a material that imposes the boundary conditions above. As these boundary conditions have to be satisfied for exact transformation

  16. Added Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound on Biopsies of Focal Hepatic Lesions Invisible on Fusion Imaging Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Mimi; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid can improve the lesion conspicuity and feasibility of percutaneous biopsies for focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision making. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Between June 2013 and January 2015, 711 US-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed for focal hepatic lesions. Biopsies were performed using CEUS for guidance if lesions were invisible on fusion imaging. We retrospectively evaluated the number of target lesions initially invisible on fusion imaging that became visible after applying CEUS, using a 4-point scale. Technical success rates of biopsies were evaluated based on histopathological results. In addition, the occurrence of changes in clinical decision making was assessed. Among 711 patients, 16 patients (2.3%) were included in the study. The median size of target lesions was 1.1 cm (range, 0.5-1.9 cm) in pre-procedural imaging. After CEUS, 15 of 16 (93.8%) focal hepatic lesions were visualized. The conspicuity score was significantly increased after adding CEUS, as compared to that on fusion imaging (p making for 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). The addition of CEUS could improve the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging. This dual guidance using CEUS and fusion imaging may affect patient management via changes in clinical decision-making.

  17. Illustrating the (in)visible: Understanding the impact of loss in adults living with secondary lymphedema after cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required. PMID:25148936

  18. Visible Fists, Clandestine Kicks, and Invisible Elbows: Three Forms of Regulating Neoliberal Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Auyero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Argentina In a preliminary attempt to understand the daily production of poor people’s subordination in contemporary Argentina, this paper explores the workings of overt and covert forms of state violence against the urban destitute and of more subtle modes of domination. Attention to the simultaneous operation of what this paper calls visible fists, clandestine kicks, and invisible elbows in the daily life of the dispossessed serves to a better integrate violence into the study of popular politics, and b cast light on the productive (and not merely repressive nature of state power.   Resumen: Puños visibles, patadas clandestinas y codos invisibles: tres formas de regulación de la pobreza neoliberal En un acercamiento preliminar a la producción cotidiana de la subordinación de los pobres urbanos en la Argentina contemporánea, este artículo explora las formas abiertas y encubiertas de violencia estatal contra los más destituidos y las modalidades más sutiles de dominación. Una atención simultánea a lo que el artículo denomina puños visibles, patadas clandestinas, y codos invisibles en la vida cotidiana de los desposeídos es útil a los efectos de: a integrar la violencia en el estudio de la política popular, y b iluminar la naturaleza productiva (y no meramente represiva del poder estatal.

  19. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-11-16

    Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention.

  20. Resolution of spatial and temporal visual attention in infants with fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual impairment and the most common single-gene cause of autism. Individuals with fragile X syndrome present with a neurobehavioural phenotype that includes selective deficits in spatiotemporal visual perception associated with neural processing in frontal–parietal networks of the brain. The goal of the current study was to examine whether reduced resolution of spatial and/or temporal visual attention may underlie perceptual def...