WorldWideScience

Sample records for proposed disposal sites

  1. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  2. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  3. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  4. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  5. Proposed Plan for an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri- Parties) are proposing an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision (ERDF ROD). EPA is the lead regulatory agency for the ERDF Project. This Proposed Plan includes two elements intended to promote Hanford Site cleanup activities by broadening utilization and operation of ERDF as follows: (1) Construct the planned Phase II of ERDF using the current disposal cell design and (2) enable centralized treatment of remediation waste at ERDF prior to disposal, as appropriate

  6. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the ''preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited

  7. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Stumpfl, E.; Weber, F.; Oszuszky, F.; Rudan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10 -4 (SI) or (32-46)x10 -6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.018 0 C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  8. Mapping subsurface pathways for contaminant migration at a proposed low level waste disposal site using electromagnetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic methods have been used to measure apparent terrain conductivity in the downstream portion of a watershed in which a waste disposal site is proposed. At that site, the pathways for waste migration in ground water are controlled by subsurface channels. The channels are identified using isocurves of measured apparent conductivity. Two upstream channel branches are found to merge into a single downstream channel which constitutes the main drainage path out of the watershed. The identification and mapping of the ground water pathways is an important contribution to the site characterization study and the pathways analysis. The direct applications of terrain conductivity mapping to the planning of the monitoring program, the hydrogeological testing, and the modeling study are demonstrated. 7 references, 4 figures

  9. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  10. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  11. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future

  12. Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action

  13. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  14. Disposal Site Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.; Jouse, C.A.; Esparza, V.

    1986-01-01

    An information management system for low-level waste shipped for disposal has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Disposal Site Information Management System (DSIMS) was developed to provide a user friendly computerized system, accessible through NRC on a nationwide network, for persons needing information to facilitate management decisions. This system has been developed on NOMAD VP/CSS, and the data obtained from the operators of commercial disposal sites are transferred to DSIMS semiannually. Capabilities are provided in DSIMS to allow the user to select and sort data for use in analysis and reporting low-level waste. The system also provides means for describing sources and quantities of low-level waste exceeding the limits of NRC 10 CFR Part 61 Class C. Information contained in DSIMS is intended to aid in future waste projections and economic analysis for new disposal sites

  15. Development of the methodology on priority of element-specific biosphere parameters for geological disposal applicable to any proposed repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ohi, Takao; Suzuki, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire all of biosphere parameters for geological disposal at the repository site because several hundreds of the parameters have to be dealt with in one calculation case of the biosphere assessment. Before site-specific activities, it is important to develop the data acquisition methodology of biosphere parameters applicable to any proposed repository site. The methodology for identification of the priority of the parameters was developed for the effective data acquisition of biosphere parameters at the site. First of all, flow diagram was constructed to evaluate the availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset. It was found to be effective for the data acquisition at the site to focus on the element-specific parameters with the existing dataset. Secondly, the priority of the data acquisition was identified for element-specific parameters at the site, with considering the variation of dose rate by combining the significant element-specific parameters. The availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset and the priority on data acquisition were identified for the element-specific parameters of key radionuclides in the safety assessment of geological disposal that should be acquired at the site. This priority list would be useful for effective data acquisition at the site. (author)

  16. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  17. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The present report and its annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful discussion

  18. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  19. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  20. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  1. Structural constraints for proposed Fort Hancock low-level radioactive waste disposal site (NTP-S34), southern Hudspeth County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemone, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Structural complexities reduce the homogeneity necessary for a site characterization model to an unacceptable level for performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal sites. The proposed site lies between the northern, stable Diablo platform and the southern, mobile Mesozoic Chihuahua tectonic belt. Structural movement along this interface has been active for the past 14,000 years. In addition, the area lies along the northern margin of the Permian Marfa basin and the northeastern margin of the deeply faulted Hueco bolson segment of the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift system. Recent seismic activity with extensive surface rupture in Quitman Canyon (30 mi southeast of the site) is also documented from the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake (6.4 Richter scale). The site is underlain by either a thrust fault or the complex terminus of a Mesozoic thrust fault. This fault is a segment of the continuous thrust sheet extending from exposures in the Sierra Blanc area, 30 mi east (Devil Ridge fault), to the El Paso area west (Rio Grande fault). This segment of the Devil Ridge-Rio Grande thrust is documented by the Haymond Krupp No. 1 Thaxton wildcat drilled at Campogrande Mountain immediately south of the site. The recent rift fault scarp (Campo Grande) immediately south of the Thaxton well has a 17-mi surface trace and is, no doubt, related to the subsurface Clint fault to the west in the El Paso area. An additional complexity is the presence of a monoclinal flexure with a minimum of 900 ft of surface relief (2 mi northeast of NTP-S34). A 4.5-mi, east-west, down-to-the-south normal fault occurs near the top of the monocline with a small associated graben. These complexities seriously compromise the proposed Fort Hancock site

  2. An alternative proposal for the disposal of potentially contaminated railroad crossties at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has accumulated approximately 300,000 crossties that have been replaced over a 40-year period of maintaining the site's 62 miles of railroad track. The ties reside in a pile on an open area of 2.3 acres near the site's F-Area facilities. A small fraction of the ties are potentially contaminated with radioactivity as a result of past site practices and service. Contamination was possible from occasional leaks in transport-casks moved by rail from the site's five nuclear materials production reactors to its two reprocessing facilities. Casks typically were filled with spent fuel, targets, and water from the reactor disassembly basins, which contained small amounts of fission and neutron activation product radioactivity normal to the operation of nuclear reactors

  3. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed

  5. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  6. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  7. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  8. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  9. Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs

  10. Hazardous waste disposal sites: Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Arkansas, like virtually every other state, is faced with a deluge of hazardous waste. There is a critical need for increased hazardous waste disposal capacity to insure continued industrial development. Additionally, perpetual maintenance of closed hazardous waste disposal sites is essential for the protection of the environment and human health. Brief descriptions of legislative and regulatory action in six other states are provided in this report. A report prepared for the New York State Environmental Facilities Corp. outlines three broad approaches states may take in dealing with their hazardous waste disposal problems. These are described. State assistance in siting and post-closure maintenance, with private ownership of site and facility, appears to be the most advantageous option

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  13. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California....

  14. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  15. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1995-05-01

    International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioeconomic. The first step of the site selection process is an inventory of potential host rock formations. After that, potential study areas are screened to identify sites for detailed investigations, prior to geological conditions and overall suitability for the safe disposal. This kind of stepwise site selection procedure has been used in Finland and in Sweden. A similar approach has been proposed in Canada, too. In accordance with the amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act, that entered into force in the beginning of 1995, Imatran Voima Oy has to make preparations for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Relating to the possible site selection, the following geological factors, as internationally recommended and used in the Nordic countries, should be taken into account: topography, stability of bedrock, brokenness and fracturing of bedrock, size of bedrock block, rock type, predictability and natural resources. The bedrock of the Loviisa NPP site is a part of the Vyborg rapakivi massif. As a whole the rapakivi granite area forms a potential target area, although other rock types or areas cannot be excluded from possible site selection studies. (25 refs., 7 figs.)

  16. 1994 Characterization report for the state approved land disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization activities at the proposed state-approved land disposal site (SALDS); it updates the original characterization report with studies completed since the first characterization report. The initial characterization report discusses studies from two characterization boreholes, 699-48-77A and 699-48-77B. This revision includes data from implementation of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan and the Aquifer Test Plan. The primary sources of data are two down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells, 699-48-77C and 699-48-77D, and aquifer testing of three zones in well 699-48-77C. The SALDS is located on the Hanford Site, approximately 183 m north of the 200 West Area on the north side of the 200 Areas Plateau. The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluents from the 200 Areas of Hanford

  17. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  18. Siting of near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The Safety Standards are supplemented by a number of Safety Guides and Safety Practices. This Safety Guide defines the site selection process and criteria for identifying suitable near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid wastes. Management of the siting process and data needed to apply the criteria are also specified. 4 refs

  19. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC's acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information

  20. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  1. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  2. Environmental monitoring considerations for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1982-01-01

    All waste disposal sites are required to monitor the environment. The proposed NRC licensing rule, 10 CFR Part 61, requires that such monitoring be conducted before, during, and after a site is operated. An adequate monitoring program consists of measuring concentrations of radionuclides, chemically-toxic substances, and leachate indicators in environmental media and of evaluating specific physical properties of the site. In addition, the composition of the buried waste must be known. Methods for obtaining this information are discussed and monitoring programs are presented for the preoperational, operational, and postclosure phases of a disposal site. Environmental monitoring is considered in a broad context, since it includes monitoring burial trenches onsite, as well as surveillance in the offsite environment. Postclosure monitoring programs will be strongly influenced by the operational monitoring results. In some respects, this phase will be easier since the migration pathways should be well known and the number of radionuclides of concern reduced by radioactive decay. The results of the environmental monitoring program will be vital to successful site operation. These results should be used to determine if operational changes are needed and to predict future environmental impacts

  3. Primary Criteria for Near Surface Disposal Facility in Egypt Proposal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media to protect human health and environment from the harmful effect of the ionizing radiation. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. The primary goal of the sitting process is to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  4. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 228.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a) The... following components: (1) Trend assessment surveys conducted at intervals frequent enough to assess the...

  5. The disposal of solid radioactive wastes to land sites in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Phillipson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste management by land disposal, using a strategy laid down by the government, is discussed. Waste disposal at Drigg, and the proposals for the two preferred sites at Elstow (shallow burial) and Billingham (deep burial) are outlined. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX); safety; public acceptance; and the role of the private sector; are also described. (U.K.)

  6. Proposal of a SiC disposal canister for very deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong-Youl; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper authors proposed a silicon carbide, SiC, disposal canister for the DBD concept in Korea. A. Kerber et al. first proposed the SiC canister for a geological disposal of HLW, CANDU or HTR spent nuclear fuels. SiC has some drawbacks in welding or manufacturing a large canister. Thus, we designed a double layered disposal canister consisting of a stainless steel outer layer and a SiC inner layer. KAERI has been interested in developing a very deep borehole disposal (DBD) of HLW generated from pyroprocessing of PWR spent nuclear fuel and supported the relevant R and D with very limited its own budget. KAERI team reviewed the DBD concept proposed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and developed its own concept. The SNL concept was based on the steel disposal canister. The authors developed a new technology called cold spray coating method to manufacture a copper-cast iron disposal canister for a geological disposal of high level waste in Korea. With this method, 8 mm thin copper canister with 400 mm in diameter and 1200 mm in height was made. In general, they do not give any credit on the lifetime of a disposal canister in DBD concept unlike the geological disposal. In such case, the expensive copper canister should be replaced with another one. We designed a disposal canister using SiC for DBD. According to an experience in manufacturing a small size canister, the fabrication of a large-size one is a challenge. Also, welding of SiC canister is not easy. Several pathways are being paved to overcome it.

  7. Proposed integrated hazardous waste disposal facility. Public environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Public Environmental Report describes a proposal by the Health Department of Western Australia to establish a disposal facility for certain hazardous wastes and seeks comments from governments agencies and the public that will assist the EPA to make its recommendations to. The facility would only be used for wastes generated in Western Australia.The proposal specifically includes: a high temperature incinerator for the disposal of organo-chlorines (including agricultural chemicals and PCBs), and other intractable wastes for which this is the optimum disposal method; an area for the burial (after any appropriate conditioning) of low level radioactive intractable wastes arising from the processing of mineral sands (including monazite, ilmenite and zircon) and phosphate rock. Detailed information is presented on those wastes which are currently identified as requiring disposal at the facility.The proposed facility will also be suitable for the disposal of other intractable wastes including radioactive wastes (from industry, medicine and research) and other solid intractable wastes of a chemical nature including spent catalysts etc. Proposals to dispose of these other wastes at this facility in the future will be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority for separate assessment

  8. Site characterization quality assurance for the California LLRW Disposal Site Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.P.; Ench, J.E.; Serlin, C.L.; Bennett, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In December of 1985 US Ecology was chosen as the license designee for the State of California's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1987, three candidate sites were selected for characterization studies in preparation for identifying the preferred site. The geotechnical characterization activities along with studies of the ecological and archaeological attributes, as well as assessments of the socio-economic impacts and cultural resources all provide input towards selection of the proposed site. These technical studies in conjunction with comments from local citizen committees and other interested parties are used as a basis for determining the proposed site for which full site characterization as required by California licensing requirements are undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program for Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the site characterization activities on the California LLRW Disposal Site Project. The focus is on three major perspectives: The composite QA Program and two of the primary characterization activities, the geotechnical and the meteorological investigations

  9. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  10. Basic principles and criteria on radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.; Kropikova, S.

    1980-01-01

    The basic principles are stated of radiation protection of the workers at radioactive waste disposal facilities, which must be observed in the choice of radioactive waste disposal sites. The emergency programme, the operating regulations and the safety report are specified. Workplace safety regulations are cited. (author)

  11. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd 3 ) (157,437 cubic feet (ft 3 )). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd 3 (756,999 ft 3 ) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd 3 (0.9 million ft 3 ). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with

  12. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  13. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  14. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Today principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot waste treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200 liter concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey, in 1990. The PRESTO - II (Prediction of Radiation Effects From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code was applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is non-site specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this codes takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  15. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  16. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1982-01-01

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  17. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  18. Northwest disposal site for LLW and ILW in China radioactive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kuizi; He Chunying; Lu Baozhen; Li Tingjun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the studies and main conclusions in site selection, design, and radioactive impact assessment of the Northwest Disposal Site of China for intermediate- and low-level radioactive wastes. At the end of the paper, further works are proposed

  19. A proposed risk acceptance criterion for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    1985-06-01

    The need to establish a radiological protection criterion that applies specifically to disposal of high level nuclear fuel wastes arises from the difficulty of applying the present ICRP recommendations. These recommendations apply to situations in which radiological detriment can be actively controlled, while a permanent waste disposal facility is meant to operate without the need for corrective actions. Also, the risks associated with waste disposal depend on events and processes that have various probabilities of occurrence. In these circumstances, it is not suitable to apply standards that are based on a single dose limit as in the present ICRP recommendations, because it will generally be possible to envisage events, perhaps rare, that would lead to doses above any selected limit. To overcome these difficulties, it is proposed to base a criterion for acceptability on a set of dose values and corresponding limiting values of probabilities; this set of values constitutes a risk-limit line. A risk-limit line suitable for waste disposal is proposed that has characteristics consistent with the basic philosophy of the ICRP and UNSCEAR recommendations, and is based on levels on natural background radiation

  20. The Finnish final disposal programme proceeds to the site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Research for the selection of the final disposal site has been carried out already since the beginning of 1980's. Field studies were started in 1987: In the recent years, studied sites have included Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Romuvaara in Kuhmo and Kivetty in Aeaenekoski. Based on 40 years operation of four power plant units, the estimate for the accumulation of spent fuel to be disposed of in Finland is 2,600 tU. A 'Decision in Principle' is needed from the Finnish government to select the final disposal site, Posiva submitted the application for a policy decision in May 1999. The intended site of the facility is Olkiluoto which produces most of the spent fuel in Finland: A disposal would minimise the need of transports. In a poll among the inhabitants of Eurajoki, 60 per cent approved the final disposal facility. After a positive decision of the government, Posiva will construct an underground research facility in Olkiluoto. The construction of the final disposal facility will take place in the 2010's, the facility should be operational in 2020. (orig.) [de

  1. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: alternatives to solidification in glass proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    More than a quarter-million cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes are now being held at government installations awaiting final disposal. During the past 20 years, the disposal plan of choice has been to incorporate the 40 to 50 radioactive elements dissolved in liquid wastes into blocks of glass, seal the glass in metal canisters, and insert the canisters into deep, geologically stable salt beds. Over the last few years, some geologists and materials scientists have become concerned that perhaps not enough is known yet about the interaction of waste, container, and salt (or any rock) to have a reasonable assurance that the hazardous wastes will be contained successfully. The biggest advantage of glass at present is the demonstrated practicality of producing large, highly radioactive blocks of it. The frontrunner as a successor to glass is ceramics, which are nonmetallic crystalline materials formed at high temperature, such as chinaware or natural minerals. An apparent advantage of ceramics is that they already have an ordered atomic structure, whose properties can be tailored to a particular waste element and to conditions of a specific disposal site. A ceramic tailored for waste disposal called supercalcine-ceramic has been developed. It was emphasized that the best minerals for waste solidification may be those that have proved most stable under natural conditions over geologic time. Disadvantage to ceramics are radiation damage and transmutation. However, it is now obvious that some ceramics are more stable than glass under certain conditions. Metal-encapsulated ceramic, called cermet, is being developed as a waste form. Cermets are considerably more resistant at 100 0 C than a borosilicate waste glass. Researchers are now testing prospective waste forms under the most extreme conditions that might prevail in a waste disposal site

  3. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  4. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  6. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater) and on waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders. (author)

  7. Proposed radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Criteria which are based solely on the consequences of releases of radionuclides, that is doses to man, are inappropriate for decisions on the acceptability of many of the disposal options for solid wastes. The risks associated with disposal options in which the intention is to isolate wastes from the biosphere for any length of time have two major components: the probability that a release of radionuclides will occur and the probability that subsequent radiation doses will give rise to deleterious effects. It is therefore necessary to develop criteria which embody the basic radiological principle of keeping risks to acceptable levels and take account of both components of risk. In this paper proposed criteria are described and some of the implications of adopting these criteria are discussed. (author)

  8. The principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The objective of the author is to review the need for shallow land disposal facilities in the UK and to propose design principles which will protect the public and operatives from excessive risk. It is not the intent of the author to present a detailed design of facility which will meet the design standards proposed although such a design is feasible and within the scope of currently available technology. The principles and standards proposed in this paper are not necessarily those of PPC Consultant Services Ltd. or NEI Waste Technologies Ltd. (author)

  9. Lessons learned from international siting experiences of LLW Disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States can gain insight into successfully siting low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities by studying the process in other nations. Siting experiences in France and Sweden are compared to experiences in the United States. Three factors appear to making siting of LLW disposal facilities easier in France and Sweden than in the United States. First, the level of public trust in the government and the entities responsible for siting, developing, and operating a LLW disposal facility is much greater in France and Sweden than in the United States. Second, France and Sweden are much more dependent on nuclear power than is the United States. Third, French and Swedish citizens do not have the same access to the siting process (i.e., legal means to intervene) as do U.S. citizens. To compensate for these three factors, public officials responsible for siting a facility may need to better listen to the concerns of public interest groups and citizen advisory committees and amend their siting process accordingly and better share power and control with the public. If these two techniques are implemented earnestly by the states, siting efforts may be increasingly more successful in the United States

  10. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  11. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  12. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  13. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Everitt, R.A.; Gascoyne, M.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Martin, C.D.; Soonawala, N.M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1994-06-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  14. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs

  15. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  18. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  19. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  20. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  1. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  2. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  3. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  4. Performance assessment for proposed disposal of NORM at an existing landfill in New South Wales, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, S., E-mail: sfountain@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia (United States); Jones, J., E-mail: john.jones@sita.com.au [SITA Australia, Chullora, New South Wales (Australia); Christopherson, J.; Drummond, C., E-mail: jchristopherson@geosyntec.com, E-mail: cdrummond@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States); Bruce, R.; Duffy, D., E-mail: rbruce@geosyntec.com, E-mail: dduffy@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Beech, J., E-mail: jbeech@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 5,000 tonnes of soil containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), primarily consisting of the uranium and thorium series, were proposed to be removed from properties undergoing remedial action in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. These 'NORM soils' were proposed to be excavated and transported for disposal at an existing landfill facility in NSW. Once at the landfill facility and confirmed to meet appropriate acceptance criteria, the NORM soils were proposed to be disposed of in an encapsulated waste cell (EWC) within a previously permitted and constructed restricted solid waste (RSW) cell at the landfill. The characteristics of the NORM soils require that they be disposed of and managed in an appropriate manner, both near-term as well as beyond the time when the EWC liner system can be assumed to have degraded. A Performance Assessment (PA) was conducted to help assess the potential long-term incremental dose received by a target receptor group related to the disposal of the NORM soils at the landfill facility. The PA consisted of computing the doses to a designated receptor group associated with the planned disposal of the soils within the licensed RSW cell at the landfill facility. Primary tasks performed for this PA included conceptual site model (CSM) development, infiltration (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance [HELP]) modeling, and radionuclide fate and transport and dose (RESidual RADioactivity-OFFSITE [RESRAD-OFFSITE]) modeling. The results of the PA indicated that the computed doses to the receptors associated with the disposal of NORM soils in the EWC within the RSW at the landfill facility was in compliance with both the current NSW Radiation Control Regulation 2013 and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dose limits for the designated potential receptor group. (author)

  5. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  6. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artiola, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO 4 ) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  7. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  8. California LLW disposal site development update: Ahead of milestone schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to locate, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1986, the firm identified eighteen desert basins in southeastern California for siting consideration. Three candidate sites were selected for detailed field characterization work in February, 1987. A preferred site for licensing purposes will be identified in early 1988. California is currently ahead of the siting milestone schedule mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act. It is likely that a license application will be filed before the 1990 milestone date. This paper describes the process undertaken by US Ecology to identify three candidates sites for characterization, and the public involvement program supporting this decision. Future activities leading to final site development are also described

  9. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  10. Update on the Federal Facilities Compliance Act disposal workgroup disposal site evaluation - what has worked and what has not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Waters, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a planning process for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal in conjunction with the affected states for over two years and has screened the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. A radiological performance evaluation was conducted on these fifteen sites to further identify their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. Technical analyses are on-going. The disposal evaluation process has sufficiently satisfied the affected states' concerns to the point that disposal has not been a major issue in the consent order process for site treatment plans. Additionally, a large amount of technical and institutional information on several DOE sites has been summarized. The relative technical capabilities of the remaining fifteen sites have been demonstrated, and the benefits of waste form and disposal facility performance have been quantified. However, the final disposal configuration has not yet been determined. Additionally, the MLLW disposal planning efforts will need to integrate more closely with the low-level waste disposal activities before a final MLLW disposal configuration can be determined. Recent Environmental Protection Agency efforts related to the definition of hazardous wastes may also affect the process

  11. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

  12. Assessment of candidate sites for disposal of treated effluents at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    A rigidly defined evaluation process was used to recommend a preferred location to dispose of treated effluents from facilities in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. First, siting constraints were defined based on functional design considerations and siting guidelines. Then, criteria for selecting a preferred site from among several candidates were identified and their relative importance defined. Finally, the weighted criteria were applied and a site was selected for detailed characterization by subsurface investigations

  13. Guidance for closure of existing DOE LLW disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchfield, L.

    1987-01-01

    During FY 1986, a closure guidance document was developed. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in support of DOE Order 5820.2 to site operating contractors for the stabilization and closure of existing low-level waste (LLW) shallow land disposal sites at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Guidance is provided to aid operators in placing existing LLW sites in a closed conditions, i.e., a condition in which a nonoperational site meets postclosure performance requirements and can be shown, within a high degree of confidence, to perform as anticipated in the future, under the most cost-effective maintenance approach. Guidance is based on the philosophy that closure should be planned and performed using a systems approach. Plans for FY 1987 call for revision of the document to incorporate more information on closure of LLW sites also containing radioactive mixed waste and/or transuranic waste. 4 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  14. Methods for estimating on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. This Gaussian dispersion modeling becomes less accurate as the receptor comes closer to the source, and becomes inapplicable for the estimation of on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites. Partial differential equations are solved with appropriate boundary conditions for use in estimating the on-site concentrations in the ambient air impacted by emissions from an area source such as land disposal sites. Two variations of solution techniques are presented, and their predictions are compared

  15. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  16. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  17. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  18. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  19. Control and tracking arrangements for solid low-level waste disposals to the UK Drigg disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, K.G.; Grimwood, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Drigg disposal site has been the principal disposal site for solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in the United Kingdom since 1959. It is situated on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometers to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives LLW from a wide range of sources including nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle activities, defense activities, isotope manufacture, universities, hospitals, general industry and clean-up of contaminated sites. This LLW has been disposed of in a series of trenches cut into the underlying clay layer of the site, and, since 1988, also into concrete lined vault. The total volume of LLW disposed of at Drigg is at present in the order of 800,000m 3 , with disposals currently approximately 25,000m 3 per year. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site. To meet operational and regulatory requirements, BNFL needs to ensure the acceptability of the disposed waste and be able to track it from its arising point to its specific disposal location. This paper describes the system that has been developed to meet these requirements

  20. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  1. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) No person may operate...

  2. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  3. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  4. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  5. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ''special-case'' waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure

  6. Application of GIS in site selection for nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Luginaah, I.N.; Sorrell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Whether designing a new facility or investigating, potential contaminant migration at an existing site, proper characterization of the subsurface conditions and their interaction with surface features is critical to the process. The Atomic Energy Control Board, states in its regulatory document R-104 that, open-quotes For the long-term management of radioactive wastes, the preferred approach is disposal, a permanent method of management in which there is no intention of retrieval and which, ideally uses techniques and designs that do not rely for their success on long-term institutional control beyond a reasonable period of timeclose quotes. Thus although storage is safe, eventually disposal is necessary to avoid long-term reliance on continuing care and attention, such as monitoring and maintenance. In Canada, the concept being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) involves disposal in deep underground repositories in intrusive igneous rock. The aim of this concept as a disposal method is to build multiple barriers that would protect humans and the natural environment from contaminants in the radioactive waste. The multiple barriers include the geosphere, which consists of the rock, any sediments overlying the rock, and the groundwater. Nevertheless, immediate, as well as long-term, consequences, including, risk involved with technological systems and the inherent uncertainty of any forecast, make the prediction and analysis tasks of increasing importance. This uncertainty in the area of nuclear waste disposal is leading to growing concerns about nuclear waste site selection

  7. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Disposal of Draeger Tubes at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). At SRS Draeger tubes are used to identify the amount and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Draeger tubes rely on a chemical reaction to identify the nature and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Disposal practices for these tubes were identified by performing a hazardous waste evaluation per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Additional investigations were conducted to provide guidance for their safe handling, storage and disposal. A list of Draeger tubes commonly used at SRS was first evaluated to determine if they contained any material that could render them as a RCRA hazardous waste. Disposal techniques for Draeger tubes that contained any of the toxic contaminants listed in South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79. 261.24 (b) and/or contained an acid in the liquid form were addressed

  9. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy

  10. Development of new low level radioactive waste disposal sites: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert T.; Antonucci, George J.; Ryan, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the development of three new low level radioactive waste disposal facilities for the Central Midwest (Illinois), Southeastern (North Carolina) and Appalachian (Pennsylvania) compacts is presented. These three sites will dispose of about 50-65 percent of the commercial low-level waste (LLW) generated in the U.S. annually. Chem-Nuclear, as developer and proposed operator of all three sites has used a common approach to site development. This approach has been based on their twenty-plus years of operating experience and a standard technical approach. The technology employed is an above-grade, multiple engineered barrier design. The paper also contrasts actual progress at each site with a generalized project schedule. Areas of schedule delays are noted along with the steps being taken to accelerate schedule. Finally, we note that continued progress and timely start-up of operations of these new sites is critical on a national basis. This is due to the possibility of near-term closure of the existing LLW disposal sites. (author)

  11. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-09-01

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  12. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  13. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    .... SUMMARY: The EPA is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G- DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged... administration of ocean disposal permits; (2) development and maintenance of a site monitoring program; (3... include: (1) Regulating quantities and types of material to be disposed, including the time, rates, and...

  14. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  15. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perf...

  16. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future

  17. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded

  18. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  19. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  20. Source term development for tritium at the Sheffield disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Barletta, R.E.; Smalley, J.F.; Kempf, C.R.; Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site, which ceased operation in 1978, has been the focus of modeling efforts by the NRC for the purpose of predicting long-term site behavior. To provide the NRC with the information required for its modeling effort, a study to define the source term for tritium in eight trenches at the Sheffield site has been undertaken. Tritium is of special interest since significant concentrations of the isotope have been found in groundwater samples taken at the site and at locations outside the site boundary. Previous estimates of tritium site inventory at Sheffield are in wide disagreement. In this study, the tritium inventory in the eight trenches was estimated by reviewing the radioactive shipping records (RSRs) for waste buried in these trenches. It has been found that the tritium shipped for burial at the site was probably higher than previously estimated. In the eight trenches surveyed, which amount to roughly one half the total volume and activity buried at Sheffield, approximately 2350 Ci of tritium from non-fuel cycle sources were identified. The review of RSRs also formed the basis for obtaining waste package descriptions and for contacting large waste generators to obtain more detailed information regarding these waste packages. As a result of this review and the selected generator contacts, the non-fuel cycle tritium waste was categorized. The tritium releases from each of these waste categories were modeled. The results of this modeling effort are presented for each of the eight trenches selected. 3 references, 2 figures

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report

  3. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  5. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  6. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  7. Lessons learned -- a comparison of the proposed on-site waste management facilities at the various Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocco, J.; Singh, D.; Survochak, S.; Elo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Sites (DOE) are faced with the challenge of managing several categories of waste generated from past or future cleanup activities, such as 11(e)2 byproduct material, low-level radioactive (LL), low-level radioactive mixed (LLM), transuranic (TRU), high level radioactive (HL), and hazardous waste (HW). DOE must ensure safe and efficient management of these wastes while complying with all applicable federal and state laws. Proposed waste management strategies for the EM-40 Environmental Restoration (ER) program at these sites indicate that on-site disposal is becoming a viable option. For purposes of this paper, on-site disposal cells managed by the EM-40 program at Hanford, Weldon Spring, Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and Rocky Flats were compared. Programmatic aspects and design features were evaluated to determine what comparisons can be made, and to identify benefits lessons learned that may be applicable to other sites. Based on comparative analysis, it can be concluded that the DOE EM-40 disposal cells are very unique. Stakeholders played a major role in the decision to locate the various DOE on-site disposal facilities. The disposal cells will be used to manage 11(e)2 by-product materials, LL, LLM, and/or HLW. The analysis further suggests that the design criteria are comparable. Lessons learned relative to the public involvement activities at Weldon Spring, and the design approach at Hanford should be considered when planning future on-site disposal facilities at DOE sites. Further, a detailed analysis of progress made at Hanford should be evaluated for application at sites such as Rocky Flats that are currently planning on-site disposal facilities

  8. Site investigations for the disposal of spent fuel - investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-11-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The revised site investigation program for the years 1986-2010 is presented in this report. The objectives and activities in the near future are described in more detail. The main objectives and frame programs for the investigations in the more distant future are described. The program planning of these investigations are being developed in the preceding site investigations. The investigations for the site selection are divided into four phases: 1983-1985 selection of the investigation areas, preparations for the field investigations, drilling and investigations in a deep test borehole; 1986-1992 preliminary site investigations in 5-10 investigation areas; 1993-2000 detailed site investigations in 2-3 investigation areas. Site selection in the year 2000; 2001-2010 complementary investigations on the selected site. The first investigation phase will be carried out as planned. In this phase a 1001 m deep test borehole was drilled at Lavia in western Finland. With the investigations in the borehole and related development work, preparations were made for the future field investigations. The equipment and investigation methods are being developed during the site investigations. The equipment for taking groundwater samples and the unit for hydraulic testing have been developed. In the future the emphasis in the work will be in developing equipment for monitoring of the hydraulic head and measuring the volumetric flow. In groundwater sampling the present procedure can be improved by adding the test for the in-situ measurements. The results of the field investigations will be stored and processed in a centralized data base. The data base will transmit the results for the interpretation and then the interpreted results transmitted for model calculations and reporting. The cost estimate for the investigations in 1986-2010 is 110-125 million

  9. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  10. Safeguards for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Methods and technologies for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.

    2003-05-01

    The final disposal of the nuclear material shall introduce new safeguards concerns which have not been addressed previously in IAEA safeguards approaches for spent fuel. The encapsulation plant to be built at the site will be the final opportunity for verification of spent fuel assemblies prior to their transfer to the geological repository. Moreover, additional safety and safeguards measures are considered for the underground repository. Integrated safeguards verification systems will also concentrate on environmental monitoring to observe unannounced activities related to possible diversion schemes at the repository site. The final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological formation will begin in Finland within 10 years. After the geological site investigations and according to legal decision made in 2001, the final repository of the spent nuclear fuel shall be located at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The next phase of site investigations contains the construction of an underground facility, called ONKALO, for rock characterisation purposes. The excavation of the ONKALO is scheduled to start in 2004. Later on, the ONKALO may form a part of the final repository. The plans to construct the underground facility for nuclear material signify that the first safeguards measures, e.g. baseline mapping of the site area, need to take prior to the excavation phase. In order to support the development and implementation of the regulatory control of the final disposal programme, STUK established an independent expert group, LOSKA. The group should support the STUK in the development of the technical safeguards requirements, in the implementation of the safeguards and in the evaluation of the plans of the facility operator. This publication includes four background reports produced by this group. The first of these 'NDA verification of spent fuel, monitoring of disposal canisters, interaction of the safeguards and safety issues in the final disposal' describes the new

  11. Waste management and disposal in Czechoslovakia: Practices and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is presented on the actual practices and planning for the management of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia. Types and specific arisings of wastes, applied immobilization processes, and the planning for disposal of reactor wastes are outlined. A comprehensive R and D programme is focussed on the management of reactor wastes, as the spent fuel is returned to the Sovjet Union after a 10 year cooling time. (orig.)

  12. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

  13. Characteristics of special-case wastes potentially destined for disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.L.; Duran, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. It may be possible to dispose of some of the DOE's special-case waste using greater confinement disposal techniques at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE asked Sandia National Laboratories to investigate this possibility by performing system configuration analyses. The first step in performing system configuration analyses is to estimate the characteristics of special-case waste that might be destined for disposal at the NTS. The objective of this report is to characterize this special-case waste based upon information available in the literature. No waste was sampled and analyzed specifically for this report. The waste compositions given are not highly detailed, consisting of grains and curies of specific radionuclides per cubic meter. However, such vague waste characterization is adequate for the purposes of the system configuration task. In some previous work done on this subject, Kudera et al. [1990] identified nine categories of special-case radioactive waste and estimated volumes and activities for these categories. It would have been difficult to develop waste compositions based on the categories proposed by Kudera et al. [1990], so we created five groups of waste on which to base the waste compositions. These groups are (1) transuranic waste, (2) fission product waste, (3) activation product waste, (4) mobile/volatile waste, and (5) sealed sources. The radionuclides within a given group share common characteristics (e.g., alpha-emitters, heat generators), and we believe that these groups adequately represent the DOE's special-case waste potentially destined for greater confinement disposal at the NTS

  14. Proposed approach for bedrock characterization at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Dixon, D.F.

    1985-07-01

    Low- and intermediate-level wastes (L AND ILW) are produced at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) by the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development and by the production of radioisotopes. CRNL also manages L and ILW produced by Canadian research laboratories, universities, hospitals and some industries. An option that is being considered for the disposal of some of these wastes is to emplace them in a shallow rock cavity in fractured crystalline bedrock on the CRNL property. To design such a disposal facility and to evalute its long-term performance, data must be obtained on the geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site. Over the past several years, a variety of airborne, ground surface and borehole geological, geophysical and/or hydrogeological methods have been used to acquire data on some rock mass discontinuities at CRNL. The techniques which are apparently more useful for acquiring these data are described and a proposed approach to site characterization for a shallow rock cavity at CRNL is outlined

  15. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    2012-01-01

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139

  17. 77 FR 71842 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C... water solidified with clay containing low-activity radioactive material, at the US Ecology Idaho (USEI... and 10 CFR 70.17 Exemption of Humboldt Bay Power Plant Waste For Disposal at US Ecology, Inc'' [ADAMS...

  18. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for public comment the Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  19. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickel, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  20. Siting process for disposal site of low level radiactive waste in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Thiengtrongjit, S.; Sriyotha, K.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste in Thailand is composed of low level waste from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. In addition, the high activity of sealed radiation sources i.e. Cs-137 Co-60 and Ra-226 are also accumulated. Since the volume of treated waste has been gradually increased, the general needs for a repository become apparent. The near surface disposal method has been chosen for this aspect. The feasibility study on the underground disposal site has been done since 1982. The site selection criteria have been established, consisting of the rejection criteria, the technical performance criteria and the economic criteria. About 50 locations have been picked for consideration and 5 candidate sites have been selected and subsequent investigated. After thoroughly investigation, a definite location in Ratchburi Province, about 180 kilometers southwest of Bangkok, has been selected as the most suitable place for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Thailand

  1. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Lee, D.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  3. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  10. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  11. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  12. Subseabed disposal: systematic application of the site qualification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, L.E.; Damuth, J.E.; Hayes, D.B.; Heath, G.R.; Laine, E.P.; Leinen, M.; Tucholke, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    Two criteria, geologic stability and barrier effectiveness, form the basis of the Subseabed Disposal Program's site qualification plan to evaluate the ocean basins and identify those regions having characteristics most favorable for containment of radioactive waste. Stability criteria are used to define those regions least likely to be disturbed by tectonic forces or oceanographic changes during the lifetime of a waste repository. Barrier criteria define those lithologies most likely to form an effective barrier to the release of radionuclides. Two north Pacific regions and three north Atlantic regions (PAC I and II and ATL I, II, and III, respectively) have thus far been selected for further investigation based on the site qualification plan. The PAC I region, centered on the Shatsky Rise in the northwest Pacific, has been subdivided into areas and locations on the basis of an exhaustive review of data available in the archives of national and international agencies and institutions. Results from three locations surveyed and sampled within the PAC I region (VEMA cruise 36-12) suggest some variability in seismic reflector character and lithology, attributable partially to the effects of the North Pacific current. PAC II, located northeast of Hawaii, represents a generic study region characteristic of the Pacific pelagic, abyssal hill environment. Seismic reflection surveys and sampling indicate uniform sediment properties and processes, both laterally and vertically, within the PAC II region. Initial investigation of Regions ATL I, II, and III, located within the distal Nares abyssal plain, the distal Sohm abyssal plain, and the Cape Verde region, respectively, suggests certain smaller areas within these regions warrant more detailed study

  13. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  14. Trace metal contamination of water at a solid waste disposal site at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and close to, a solid waste disposal site at Kariba, Zimbabwe, and in water flowing from the area during 1996 and 1997. Soil samples were collected from the surface inside the disposal site and at distances of 3m, 25m and 50m (from the ...

  15. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  16. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.); (vi) Sludge from a waste treatment plant... leased by the operator; and (iii) the solid waste disposal site lacks road, rail, or adequate water... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in...

  17. Safety Report within the licence application for the siting of a radioactive waste repository/disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Sinaglova, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial safety specification report, which is submitted to the licensing authority as one of the application documents, is the basic document assessing the planned repository/disposal facility with respect to the suitability of the chosen site for this purpose. The following topics are covered: General information; Description and evidence of suitability of the site chosen; Description and tentative assessment of the repository/disposal facility design; Tentative assessment of impacts of running the facility on the employees, general public and environment (radionuclide inventory, transport routes, radionuclide release in normal, abnormal and emergency situations); Proposed concept of repository/disposal facility shutdown; and Assessment of quality assurance in the site selection, in preparatory work for the construction of the facility and in the subsequent stages. (P.A.)

  18. In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed

  19. Site selection and design basis of the National Disposal Facility for LILW. Geological and engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Content of the presentation: Site selection; Characteristics of the “Radiana” site (location, geological structure, physical and mechanical properties, hydro-geological conditions); Design basis of the Disposal Facility; Migration analysis; Safety assessment approach

  20. Evaluation of site-generated radioactive waste treatment and disposal methods for the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies the sources of radioactive wastes that may be generated at the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, estimates the waste quantities and characteristics, compares technologies available for waste treatment and disposal, and develops recommended concepts for site-generated waste treatment and disposal. The scope of this study is limited to operations during the emplacement phase, in which 70,000 MTU of high-level waste will be received and emplaced at the proposed repository. The evaluations consider all radioactive wastes generated during normal operations in surface and underground facilities. Wastes generated as a result of accidents are not addressed; accidents that could result in large quantities of radioactive waste are expected to occur very infrequently and temporary, portable systems could be used for any necessary cleanup. The results of this study can be used to develop more definitive plans for managing the site-generated wastes and as a basis for the design of associated facilities at the proposed repository

  1. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  2. Hydrogeologic studies for CRNL's proposed shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Devgun, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The first phase of conversion from storage to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes at CRNL is focussed on solids with hazardous lifetimes less than 500 years. In order to use a facility buried above the water table and to achieve maximum use of radionuclide migration information from studies of existing facilities, the proposed site is located in sands above an active groundwater flow system. The selection of a permeable and geologically-simple slow system has allowed application of a wide variety of techniques for hydrogeologic evaluation of the site. Ground-probing radar in conjunction with continuously cored boreholes have provided stratigraphic data and sediments for testing. Field hydrogeologic testing has included a detailed network of piezometers for hydraulic head mapping and a series of borehole dilution tests. Measurements of contaminant sorption behaviour are also being made in the field to reduce variations in uncontrolled parameters. Mathematical models successfully simulate the real system in terms of groundwater flow. Simulations of reactive contaminant transport are more difficult, but the application of data from field tests of radionuclide migration behaviour and from existing contaminant plumes will, we believe, provide acceptably reliable predictions of the impact of failures in the engineered disposal structure

  3. MODIFIED APPROACH FOR SITE SELECTION OF UNWANTED RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES DISPOSAL IN ARID COUNTRIES (CASE STUDY - EGYPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL AZIZ, M.A.H.; COCHRAN, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic methodology for siting of radioactive sealed sources disposal in arid countries and demonstrate the use of this methodology in Egypt. Availing from the experience gained from the greater confinement disposal (GCD) boreholes in Nevada, USA, the IAEA's approach for siting of near disposal was modified to fit the siting of the borehole disposal which suits the unwanted radioactive sealed sources. The modifications are represented by dividing the surveyed area into three phases; the exclusion phase in which the areas that meet exclusion criteria should be excluded, the site selection phase in which some potential sites that meet the primary criteria should be candidate and the preference stage in which the preference between the potential candidate sites should be carried out based on secondary criteria to select one or two sites at most. In Egypt, a considerable amount of unwanted radioactive sealed sources wastes have accumulated due to the peaceful uses of radio-isotopes.Taking into account the regional aspects and combining of the proposed developed methodology with geographic information system (GIS), the Nile Delta and its valley, the Sinai Peninsula and areas of historical heritage value are excluded from our concern as potential areas for radioactive waste disposal. Using the primary search criteria, some potential sites south Kharga, the Great Sand Sea, Gilf El-Kebear and the central part of the eastern desert have been identified as candidate areas meeting the primary criteria of site selection. More detailed studies should be conducted taking into account the secondary criteria to prefer among the above sites and select one or two sites at most

  4. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program's primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  8. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  9. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  10. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive disposal site Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the South Clive disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  14. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  16. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  17. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. DEVELOPMENT, QUALIFICATION, AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Edge, J.A.; Swanberg, D.J.; Robbins, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  19. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  20. Archaeological reconnaissance of a proposed site for the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.

    1976-01-01

    An archaeological reconnaissance was carried out on Sections 20, 21, 28, and 29 of T 22 S, R 31 E, Eddy County, NM, the core area of a site proposed for disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). This site is located in the Los Medanos area east of Carlsbad, NM. Results of the survey are presented in sections on survey techniques, geology, terrain, floristics, cultural resources, theoretical considerations, site description, and recommendations

  1. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  2. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  3. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services (NNES), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance

  5. Design and operation of a low-level solid-waste disposal site at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, K.A.; Wilson, N.E.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Since the mid-1940's, approximately 185000 m 3 of low-level and transuranic radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial. Procedures and facilities have been designed and evaluated in the areas of waste acceptance, treatment and storage, disposal, traffic control, and support systems. The methodologies assuring the proper management and disposal of radioactive solid waste are summarized

  6. The AMES Laboratory chemical disposal site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, chemical wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  7. The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, mixed wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  8. Scenarios used for the evaluations of the safety of a site for adioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1989-11-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them coppresponding to a type, of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an undergound laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events [fr

  9. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75... Real Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  12. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992)

  15. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report

  16. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developments in support of low level waste disposal at BNFL's Drigg Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The continued upgrading of low-level waste pretreatment and disposal practices related to the United Kingdom Drigg disposal site is described, noting the need to take into account operational safety, long term post-closure safety, regulatory and public acceptance factors

  18. On-site disposal of decontaminated and dismantled (D and D) materials: A management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.S.; Davis, M.J.; Picel, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a federal facility located near Cincinnati, Ohio that is being remediated. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) of the FEMP consists of 232 buildings and other structures that formerly housed various uranium and thorium metallurgical and chemical processes. The buildings are constructed primarily of steel and concrete, with transite siding. The structures are being decontaminated and dismantled using an interim remedial action approach. The disposition of the debris and other waste materials generated by the interim action is being addressed by the final remedial action for the operable unit. The preferred alternative is disposal of most of the material in an engineered disposal cell located on the FEMP property. This is complicated by the fact that the FEMP is located in an environmentally sensitive area and by the complex nature of the materials. The principal aquifer located beneath the site, the Great Miami Aquifer, is designated as a sole-source aquifer under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Disposal of any wastes at the FEMP must be protective of the aquifer. Dismantlement of OU3 structures will result in a very heterogeneous waste stream, both in terms of types of materials and levels of contamination. Wastes to be managed also include contaminated production equipment and drummed materials associated with former production activities, as well as structural materials. All of these factors complicate the management of OU3 materials. This paper discusses the approach proposed by the FEMP for the management of materials resulting from the interim remedial action. The components of the management approach being used to address disposal of the heterogeneous wastes from OU3 in an environmentally sensitive manner are discussed, followed by some conclusions

  19. Identification of sites for the low-level waste disposal development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of site selection studies for potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Summaries of the site selection procedures used and results of previous site selection studies on the ORR are included. This report includes recommendations of sites for demonstration of shallow land burial using engineered trench designs and demonstration of above-grade disposal using design concepts similar to those used in tumulus disposal. The site selection study, like its predecessor (ORNL/TM-9717, Use of DOE Site Selection Criteria for Screening Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation), involved application of exclusionary site screening criteria to the region of interest to eliminate unacceptable areas from consideration. Also like the previous study, the region of interest for this study was limited to the Oak Ridge Department of Energy Reservation. Reconnaissance-level environmental data were used in the study, and field inspections of candidate sites were made to verify the available reconnaissance data. Five candidate sites, all underlain by Knox dolomite residuum and bedrock, were identified for possible development of shallow land burial facilities. Of the five candidate sites, the West Chestnut site was judged to be best suited for deployment of the shallow land burial technology. Three candidate sites, all underlain by the Conasauga Group in Bear Creek Valley, were identified for possible development of above-grade disposal technologies. Of the three sites identified, the Central Bear Creek Valley site lying between State Route 95 and Gum Hollow Road was ranked most favorable for deployment of the above-grade disposal technology

  20. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  1. Managing the process for storage and disposal of immobilized high- and low-level tank waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murkowski, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) is one of six subcontractors under Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., the Management and Integration contractor for the Project Hanford Management Contract working for the US Department of Energy. One of LMHC's responsibilities is to prepare storage and disposal facilities to receive immobilized high and low-level tank waste by June of 2002. The immobilized materials are to be produced by one or more vendors working under a privatization contract. The immobilized low-activity waste is to be permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site while the immobilized high-level waste is to be stored at the Hanford Site while awaiting shipment to the offsite repository. Figure 1 is an overview of the entire cleanup mission with the disposal portion of the mission. Figure 2 is a representation of major activities required to complete the storage and disposal mission. The challenge for the LNIHC team is to understand and plan for accepting materials that are described in the Request for Proposal. Private companies will submit bids based on the Request for Proposal and other Department of Energy requirements. LMHC, however, must maintain sufficient flexibility to accept modifications that may occur during the privatization bid/award process that is expected to be completed by May 1998. Fundamental to this planning is to minimize the risks of stand-by costs if storage and disposal facilities are not available to receive the immobilized waste. LMHC has followed a rigorous process for the identification of the functions and requirements of the storage/disposal facilities. A set of alternatives to meet these functions and requirements were identified and evaluated. The alternatives selected were (1) to modify four vaults for disposal of immobilized low-activity waste, and (2) to retrofit a portion of the Canister Storage Building for storage of immobilized high-level waste

  2. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Nagra’s proposals for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The procedure proposed for the selection process is explained. The four sites for possible repositories of high-level radioactive waste as well as for low and intermediate-level wastes are described and rated with respect to the various safety factors involved. The reasons for the long-term safety measures proposed and the geological barriers involved are discussed. The four proposals for depository sites are looked at in more detail. The paper is well illustrated with several diagrams and tables

  3. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An operator...

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  6. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  8. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zittel, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of factors related to the site suitability of low-level waste disposal sites are discussed. The factors are a combination of those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Among the factors covered are: possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria and community involvement considerations. All these factors are discussed in a manner based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low-level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. The conclusion of the discussion is that problems encountered in siting low-level waste facilities will be largely societal and political in nature

  9. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittel, H. E.

    Factors related to the site suitability of low level waste disposal sites are discussed including those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria, and community involvement are considered. All these factors are based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. It is concluded that problems encountered in siting low level waste facilities are largely societal and political in nature.

  10. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.T.; Krenzien, S.K.; Geisinger, R.G.; Gordon, S.J.; Quinn, B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  11. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  12. Technologies for in situ immobilization and isolation of radioactive wastes at disposal and contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report describes technologies that have been developed worldwide and the experiences applied to both waste disposal and contaminated sites. The term immobilization covers both solidification and embedding of wastes

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office

  15. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  16. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  17. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  18. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  2. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  3. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  4. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  5. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method

  6. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  7. Pathways analyses and their role in the decision making process for selection of low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Oblow, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pathways analyses have been extensively used to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man and additional conservatism generally is built into the analysis when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. This conservatism is useful in ascertaining whether the site provides an adequate buffer to persons outside the site boundary. In reaching conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability, however, considerations must be given to the uncertainties involved in the analysis. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainties may prove useful in the decision making process for site suitability. 7 references, 1 figure

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  9. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  10. Stabilization and isolation of low-level liquid waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations is developing and testing equipment for stabilization and isolation of low-level radioactive liquid waste disposal sites. Stabilization and isolation are accomplished by a dynamic consolidation and particulate grout injection system. System equipment components include: a mobile grout plant for transport, mixing, and pumping of particulate grout; a vibratory hammer/extractor for consolidation of waste, backfill, and for emplacement of the injector; dynamic consolidation/injector probe for introducing grout into fill material; and an open-void surface injector that uses surface or subsurface mechanical or pneumatic packers and displacement gas filtration for introducing grout into disposal structure access piping. Treatment of a liquid-waste disposal site yields a physically stable, cementitious monolith. Additional testing and modification of this equipment for other applications to liquid waste disposal sites is in progress

  11. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  14. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes

  15. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.A. [Heartland Operation to Protect the Environment, Inc., Auburn, NE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  17. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals

  18. Proposal for a research programme on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The present report sets out a tentative research program related to radiologic safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste, set against the background of present knowledge in this field. The final stage of this program has to lead to a definitive appraisal of the suitability of the site explored in that stage for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Subsequent stages of the research effort is outlined in a critical path diagram. Radiological safety figures as the central factor in making choices. The report indicates the state of the art in different specialisms involved in the study of both natural barriers (rheology, hydrology, radionuclide transport, radiation damage) and artificial barriers (mining engineering) for geological disposal. (G.J.P.)

  19. Site safety requirements for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiming; Wang Ju

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the content, status and trend of site safety requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency, America, France, Sweden, Finland and Japan. Site safety requirements are usually represented as advantageous vis-a-vis disadvantagous conditions, and potential advantage vis-a-vis disadvantage conditions, respectively in aspects of geohydrology, geochemistry, lithology, climate and human intrusion etc. Study framework and steps of site safety requirements for China are discussed under the view of systems science. (authors)

  20. The role of geology in the evaluation of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsanwo, O.; Mands, E.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of waste disposal sites demonstrates the awareness of the need to protect the environment against pollution. The site are constructed on foundations of soils and rocks. Photo geological studies, geophysical investigations and geological field mapping are indispensable in the selection of suitable sites. Most of the construction materials (in the case of landfills) are of geologic origin and their suitability can only be ascertained after some geological assessments. Furthermore, the hydrogeological conditions within the adjoining terrains and the flow of leachates from and within the wastes must be monitored so as to prevent pollution (radiation, in the case of radioactive wastes, can be monitored with the aid of geochemistry). Several models/systems are available for the hydrogeological/geochemical evaluation of waste disposal sites. The selection of the site and the construction materials as well as the hydrogeological/ /geochemical studies are very critical as the performance of the disposal site depends solely on these aspects. These aspects are basically within the realms of geology. It is thus obvious that geology plays a leading role in the evaluation of waste disposal sites right from the site selection stage until the site is done with

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.280 - What information concerning a proposed disposal must a disposal agency provide to the Attorney...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of antitrust laws? 102-75.280 Section 102-75.280 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.280 What... the applicability of antitrust laws? The disposal agency must promptly provide the Attorney General...

  2. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  3. The application of assessment principles to an operational low level waste disposal site in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.; Newstead, S.; Weedon, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the current assessment principles utilized in England and discusses their application to the Drigg low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site. The Drigg Site was established in 1959 and the assessment principles were published in 1985; therefore, although the Drigg Site has operated successfully, the application of the assessment principles has caused changes in operations and the establishment of further site research by the Department of the Environment

  4. Wildlife and the coal waste policy debate: proposed rules for coal waste disposal ignore lessons from 45 years of wildlife poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examines wildlife poisoning from coal combustion waste (CCW) in the context of EPA's proposed policy that would allow continued use of surface impoundments as a disposal method. Data from 21 confirmed damage sites were evaluated, ranging from locations where historic poisoning has led to corrective actions that have greatly improved environmental...

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  10. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  11. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  12. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  14. Introduction to Envirocare of Utah's low activity radioactive waste disposal site located at Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Envirocare of Utah was licensed by the state of Utah on February 2, 1988, to become fully operational to receive low-activity radioactive waste at its disposal site near Clive, Utah. This paper discusses the organization of the firm, political support, acceptable materials, benefits of the operation, site characteristics, construction, health physics program, and environmental program

  15. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Water Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, OR/WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the border of Oregon and Washington.

  16. IMPACT OF THE JAKUŠEVEC-PRUDINEC WASTE DISPOSAL SITE ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Nakić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research shown in this paper is to investigate the cause and effect relation of the Jakuševec-Prudinec waste disposal site and the groundwater pollution. The recovery of the Jakuševec-Prudinec waste disposal site by the end of 2003 did not have any significant impact on the pollution reduction in groundwater. Very high values of the pollution index defined in the area southeastern from the waste disposal site show spreading of the pollution toward Mičevec village. The analysis of the hydrogeochemical characteristics showed that in the waste disposal site area the local geochemical anomalies of the partial CO2 pressure exist, indicating that the intensive carbonate dissolution processes and HCO3- enrichment dominate in this area. Near the border of the waste disposal site groundwater with high ammonium ion (NH4+ and chloride ion (Cl- dominates. The high concentrations of the heavy metals and very strong geochemical bonds determined from the correlation coefficients show that in the reductive aquifer conditions heavy metals strongly release (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. System for the hydrogeologic analysis of uranium mill waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osiensky, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the uranium mill wastes generated before 1977 are stored in unlined tailings ponds. Seepage from some of these ponds has been of sufficient severity that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has required the installation of withdrawal wells to remove the contaminated groundwater. Uranium mill waste disposal facilities typically are located in complex hydrogeologic environments. This research was initiated in 1980 to analyze hydrogeologic data collected at seven disposal sites in the US that have experienced problems with groundwater contamination. The characteristics of seepage migration are site specific and are controlled by the hydrogeologic environment in the vicinity of each tailings pond. Careful monitoring of most seepage plumes was not initiated until approximately 1977. These efforts were accelerated as a consequence of the uranium Mill Tailings Act of 1979. Some of the data collected at uranium mill waste disposal sites in the past are incomplete and some were collected by methods that are outdated. Data frequently were collected in sequences which disrupted the continuity of the hydrogeologic analysis and decreased the effectiveness of the data collection programs. Evaluation of data collection programs for seven uranium mill waste disposal sites in the US has led to the development and presentation herein of a system for the hydrogeologic analysis of disposal sites

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  19. Operational safety analysis of the Olkiluoto disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-11-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facilities, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facilities to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. First the normal encapsulation process is described and then possible incident and accident cases associated to that are identified for this assessment. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Radioactive releases and radiation doses are evaluated as a consequence of normal operation and some essential incident and accident cases. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered (activated when necessary) both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. In addition the results for unfiltered releases are also presented e.g. for the emergency planning. During about 30 operation years of our four nuclear power plant units there have been found 58 fuel pins failures. Roughly estimating there has been one fuel leakage per year in a facility (includes two units). Based on this and adopting a conservative approach, it is estimated that one fuel pin per year could leak in normal operation during encapsulation process. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The most exposed group of inhabitants is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the most exposed group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The

  20. Investigation of layered covers designed to limit infiltration at waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.M.; Herzog, B.L.; Cartwright, K.; Larson, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Layered soils of highly contrasting texture have been shown to act as a barrier to infiltration because of differences in unsaturated hydraulic properties. Water infiltrating into a fine-grained soil overlying an unsaturated gravel will not enter the gravel until the overlying material is nearly saturated. As a result of what is commonly called the wick effect, moisture will flow laterally through the fine-grained soil above the gravel layer. Layered covers of compacted soil materials utilizing this phenomenon have been proposed to limit infiltration at waste disposal sites. A study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is underway to evaluate the potential use of layered trench covers to minimize infiltration at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Moisture movement through layered covers consisting of compacted fine-grained soils and sand or gravel was modeled, using a one-dimensional finite-difference model to compare with laboratory column experiments and a two-dimensional finite-element model for field-scale simulations. Soil-moisture characteristic data were obtained from laboratory experiments and the hydraulic conductivity was calculated as a function of capillary pressure. The numerical simulations indicate that layered covers using various combinations of compacted fine-grained soils and coarse-grained material are able to substantially reduce infiltration. Laboratory column experiments using a dual-gamma ray attenuation system to measure moisture content and density simultaneously have been used to observe the behavior of layered soils and to select materials for field testing. Currently underway are field-scale studies of alternative cover designs selected on the basis of two-dimensional modeling

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  3. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  6. Site qualification plan for the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Hollister, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In our evolving study to identify and examine sites in subseabed geological formations for use as repositories for high-level nuclear wastes, two primary criteria guide all phases of this work: the stability and barrier criteria of the site. The stability criterion defines areas of the seabed not likely to be disturbed by tectonic forces and oceanographic changes during the lifetime of a waste repository. The barrier criterion defines those subseabed geological formations most likely to form an effective barrier to the release of radionuclides. Because of the large area of the oceans, a phased approach has been adopted so that successively smaller areas of the seafloor can be studied in ever greater detail. The first phase, which is complete, has identified the abyssal clay deposits that are remote from tectonic boundaries and continental margins as being the regions (<10/sup 6/ km/sup 2/) on the seafloor within which acceptable sites might be most readily identified. The second phase involves downgrading less desirable areas within these regions using archived seismic reflection profiling, sediment cores, and oceanographic data. This winnowing process identifies locations about one degree square (≤10/sup 4/ km/sup 2/) for more detailed field studies during the first part of the third phase. From these locations candidate sites will be chosen, based on detailed geological and geophysical surveying. The second part of the third phase will involve detailed monitoring of the candidate sites to determine long-term baseline conditions. After monitoring is underway, a pilot repository will be established, using waste canisters

  7. Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    California's users of radioactive materials, working together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (Cal Rad), have played a role in fostering development of our state's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. One of Cal Rad's contributions was to develop and sponsor California's siting legislation in 1983. In this paper, the elements of the state's LLRW siting law, California Senate Bill 342 (Chapter 1177, Statutes a 1983), and their relationship to a successful siting program are described

  8. Study of a waste disposal site and it's groundwater contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of an old borrow pit at Avu village in the outskirts of Owerri Urban as the permanent dump for wastes from Owerri Urban is evaluated in terms of the hydrogeology of the site. The depth to the groundwater table or the vadose zone is 9 – 9.5m; the texture of the soils shows fine attenuative materials that can inhibit ...

  9. Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratliff, R.A.; Dornsife, B.; Autry, V.; Gronemyer, L.; Vaden, J.; Cashman, T.

    1985-08-01

    Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary for conducting a confirmatory monitoring program, and providing suggestions in other areas which, based on experiences, would result in a more effective regulatory program

  10. Public participation and regional development at a nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The propositions brought forward in this article try to implement sociological aspects into the search for nuclear waste disposal sites based on two theses: Firstly without the willingness of public participation in the search and inspection processes the success of the process is severly put into question in a democratic state. Secondly the potential disposal site must not block the further economic development of the region. These two theses lead to socio-economic criteria for consideration or debarment, to a concept of active and intensive participation, and to considerations about long-term regional development. (orig.)

  11. Selected hydrologic data from a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents data collected during a study of the effects on the water table aquifer from wastewater application at rates of up to 5 inches per week on a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The study was conducted from April 1982 through December 1983. The disposal site covers approximately 14 acres. Water level and water quality data from organic, inorganic, and nutrient analyses from the water table aquifer to a depth of 30 ft and similar water quality data from the wastewater treatment plant are included. (USGS)

  12. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  13. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  14. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  16. The influence of disposal capacity on the course of site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, J.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of, or more accurately the lack of, disposal capacity has altered the course of decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated sites. Political sensitivities in the 1970s caused a congressional restructuring of the disposal system in the United States. At the same time, the 1970s saw a movement towards reexamining many previously decontaminated facilities with a new emphasis on environmental protection. A reexamination of accessibility to disposal capacity began in the 1980s because the three states with disposal facilities wanted to restrict use of their facilities and create new capacity in other states. The passage of the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act and Amendments Act permitted states to form compacts to restrict use of disposal facilities in their region. The Amendments Act also permitted the collection of surcharges that ultimately increased the cost of disposal by 300% within a decade. Radioactive facilities that were reevaluated include radium facilities of the first decades of the Twentieth Century, government and private facilities that took part in atomic weapon development during the World War II era, and older facilities licensed under the Atomic Energy Act in the latter half of the century. The reevaluations resulted in modern day conclusions that further remedial actions may be needed. The solution appeared straightforward: removal of the radiological contamination that is in excess of current day environmental standards. The large volumes of slightly contaminated debris and the limited, costly disposal capacity have created a need for alternatives to excavation and removal. Some of the techniques have created opportunities such as specialized disposal sites (e.g., Envirocare), reuse of contaminated metals, more aggressive decontamination processes, and recycling (e.g., mill reprocessing). (author)

  17. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  18. Natural radioactivity of airbone particulates in coal-ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made on the actual concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust and soil around coal power stations, to study the effect of coal-ash disposal site on natural radioactivity of environmental samples. Samples were collected at a coal-ash disposal and its reference places. The results obtained are summaried as follows; (1) Concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust at the disposal place was nealy equal to those at the reference place. (2) Origin of those α-emitting elements in the dust was successfully deduced, on the basis of correlating concentrations of Sc and Cl elements in the dust. (3) It was inferred that elements of both U and Po in the dust at disposal site came from soil by about 80% and artificial origin such as exhausted gas by remainder. Almost all Th element were from soil. It was therefore concluded that effect of disposal site on radioactivity concentrations of dusts was negligible. (author)

  19. Site-selection studies for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Aeikaes, T.

    1984-02-01

    In the management of waste by the Industrial Power Company Ltd. (TVO) preparations are being made for the final disposal of unprocessed spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The site selection program will advance in three phases. The final disposal site must be made at the latest by the end of the year 2000, in accordance with a decision laid down by the Finnish Government. In the first phase, 1983-85, the main object is to find homogeneous stable bedrock blocks surrounded by fracture zones located at a safe distance from the planned disposal area. The work usually starts with a regional structural analysis of mosaics of Landsat-1 winter and summer imagery. Next an assortment of different maps, which cover the whole country, is used. Technical methods for geological and hydrogeological site investigations are being developed during the very first phase of the studies, and a borehole 1000 meters deep will be made in southwestern Finland. Studies for the final disposal of spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste have been made since 1974 in Finland. General suitability studies of the bedrock have been going on since 1977. The present results indicate that suitable investigation areas for the final disposal of highly active waste can be found in Finland

  20. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Iden, C.R.; Nine, B.; Chang, C.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14 C, 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 137 Cs, 60 Co, 241 Am, and 238 239 240 Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  1. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  2. Research in the selection of very low level radioactive waste disposal site in southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Xianguo; Long, Qiong; Zhong, Hongmei; Xu, Zhengqi; Mu, Keliang; Gao, Lan

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Chinese Radioactive Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal Security is that must use proper and optimized ways to manage radioactive waste and make sure human beings and the environment either at the present or in the future can be free from any unacceptable risks. According to the goal, this paper presents an overview of comprehensive site characterization work that comprises investigations of physical geography, climatology, geology and hydrogeology, as well as geological hazard on two candidate Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal sites (Site 1 and Site 2) which are both located in the south west of China. The results showed that there are many similarities in the regional extent of the two sites, but many distinct differences are found in terrain and topographic features, granule stratum, hydraulic gradient, and so on. On the whole, the two alternative sites are in line with the requirements for very low level radioactive waste disposal, and Site 1 is superior to Site 2. (author)

  3. Baseline radiological monitoring at proposed uranium prospecting site at Rohil Sikar, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, V.N.; Sahoo, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Once economically viable grades of uranium deposits are proposed for mining and processing by the industry radiological baseline studies are required for future comparison during operational phases. The information collected during such studies serve as connecting feature between regulatory compliance and technical information. Present paper summarizes the results of baseline monitoring of atmospheric 222 Rn and gamma level in the area at prospecting mining, milling and waste disposal sites of Rohil Rajasthan

  4. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Institutional aspects of siting nuclear waste disposal facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; Prichard, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper has dealt with the institutional issues associated with disposal of nuclear waste in the US. The authors believe that these institutional problems must be resolved, no matter how technologically well suited a site may be for disposal, before site selection may take place. The authors have also pointed out that the geography of the US, with its large arid regions of very low population density, contributes to the institutional acceptability of nuclear waste disposal. Economic factors, especially in sparsely populated areas where the uranium mining and milling industry has caused operation, also weigh on the acceptability of nuclear waste to local communities. This acceptability will be highest where there are existing nuclear facilities and/or facilities which are closed - thus creating unemployment especially where alternative economic opportunities are few

  7. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  8. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  9. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  10. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  11. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, S H; Brown, A; Davison, C C; Gascoyne, M; Lodha, G S; Stevenson, D R; Thorne, G A; Tomsons, D [AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL`s strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB`s R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL`s investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL`s strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL`s R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs.

  12. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  13. Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

  14. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  15. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  16. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2007-01-01

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author) [es

  17. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

  18. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

  19. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste are disposal site in Tottori prefecture for fiscal year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    This document is the compilation of environment monitoring around waste uranium are disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. This result have been to reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables and fruits. (J.P.N.)

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste are disposal site in Tottori prefecture for fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document is the compilation of environment monitoring around waste uranium are disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. This result have been to reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (author)

  1. QA in the characterization of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of the quality assurance program for the site characterization phase of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The author's thought on implementation of a program with a comparison to the California plan are presented

  2. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste ore disposal site in Tottori prefecture: fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This document is the compilation of environmental monitoring around waste uranium ore disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. The results have been reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (A. Yamamoto)

  4. Climate change research methods and its significance in the study of choosing candidate site in nuclear waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Zhang Zhanshi

    2008-01-01

    A high-level nuclear waste is the inevitable product accompanies the development of the nuclear power station. How to dispose it properly has become focused by all over the world. Some of the important progresses have been achieved in the fields of site setting, performance assessment and underground laboratory recently. Palaeoclimate patter and the tendency of climate change are very important aspects for the site setting This paper discussed some of the important progresses on the disposal of unclear wastes, the influence of the climate change on the site setting and main methods such as lake sediments, marine sediment, loess, ancient soil and ice core deal with palaeoclimate and palaeo environment study. (authors)

  5. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 2, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report, the Preoperational Baseline and Site Characterization Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. Five groundwater monitoring wells, six deep characterization boreholes, and two shallow characterization boreholes were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) site to directly investigate site-specific hydrogeologic conditions

  6. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  7. Evaluation of shale hosted low-level waste disposal sites in semi-arid environments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggenthen, W.M.; Rahn, P.H.; Arthur, R.C.; Miller, J.R.; Bangsund, W.J.; Eberlin, J.

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the findings of a multidisciplinary investigation intended to delineate critical factors and concerns associated with shale hosted, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites located in semiarid environments. The investigations focus primarily upon concerns regarding the hydrology, geochemistry, and meteorology of such an environment. The studies described within this report specifically do not constitute an evaluation of any one particular site nor even a particular class of sites. Rather, it is the intention of the report to present data and insights that would assist private concerns and governmental agencies in the efficient and prudent development of such disposal areas. This report assumes that the hypothetical waste site in question would be developed as a trench type operation similar to that used at Barnwell, South Carolina, with variations upon the techniques used at Beatty Flat, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington. The trench design (Figures 1 and 2) is assumed to be similar to that generic design described in ''Procedures and Technology for Shallow Land Burial, DOE/LLw-13Td, 1983) although it is also assumed that improvements and adaptations will be made upon this basic design to meet the individual needs of a particular site. During the preparation of this report it became apparent that new types of trench design are being studied. Discussions of these trench design proposals are not central to this report. The examples of trench design in Figures 1 and 2 are presented only to give an idea as to the general philosophy of construction of shallow burial facilities

  8. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Relyea, J.F.; Seitz, R.R.; Cammann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  9. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  10. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South

  11. Multiattribute utility analysis of alternative sites for the disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Five potential sites nominated for the Nation's first geologic repository for disposing of nuclear waste are evaluated using multiattribute utility analysis. The analysis was designed to aid the Department of Energy in its selection of 3 sites for characterization, a detailed data-gathering process that will involve the construction of exploratory shafts for underground testing and that may cost as much as $1 billion per site. The analysis produced insights into the relative advantages and disadvantages of the nominated sites and clarified current uncertainties regarding repository performance

  12. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  13. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  14. Statement of position of the United States Department of Energy in the matter of proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste (waste confidence rulemaking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of this proceeding is to assess generically the degree of assurance that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, to determine when such disposal or off-site storage will be available, and to determine whether wastes can be safely stored on-site past license expiration until off-site disposal/storage is available

  15. Statement of position of the United States Department of Energy in the matter of proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste (waste confidence rulemaking)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-15

    Purpose of this proceeding is to assess generically the degree of assurance that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, to determine when such disposal or off-site storage will be available, and to determine whether wastes can be safely stored on-site past license expiration until off-site disposal/storage is available. (DLC)

  16. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  17. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    1998-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Gansu Province, northwest of China, as an example, the author introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, the author also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System

  18. Low level radioactive waste disposal/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction, incineration, waste avoidance, and clean waste segregation. This paper summarizes new technology being developed and implemented. 11 refs., 1 fig

  19. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Guansu province, northwest of China, as an example, this paper introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, this paper also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System. (author)

  20. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly 60 Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables

  1. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Kondo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Funabashi, Hideaki; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Kamei, Gento; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ohi, Takao; Hyodo, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m 3 ) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  2. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  3. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each owner...

  5. Portsmouth On-Site Disposal Cell High Density Polyethylene Geomembrane Longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  6. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  7. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    zone has low saturated hydraulic conductivities on the order of 10 -5 cm/s and in this respect is well-suited for the disposal of LILW. The saturated formations are primarily made up of silt and moderately-to-slightly weathered granite, which exhibit even lower hydraulic conductivities, on the order of 10 −6 cm/s, also favorable for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Chemical analyses indicate that the groundwaters at the site are of the HCO 3 –Na·Ca and HCO 3 ·SO 4 –Na·Ca types and are weakly corrosive to concrete and steel. Geochemical analyses indicate that the rock and soil materials (particularly weathered granite) at the site contain very small fractions of colloidal particles and exhibit low Cation Exchange Capacities (CEC), and would therefore have limited capacity for sorption of radionuclides. Groundwater flow and solute transport models of the candidate site have been developed using MODFLOW and MT3DMS, incorporating the data obtained during the assessment program. Calibration was based on the available measured groundwater level fluctuations and tracer concentrations from in situ dispersion tests. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient as determined in calibration is equal to 5.0 × 10 −3 m 2 /d. Numerical sensitivity analyses indicate that the hydraulic conductivity and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient are the key parameters controlling the transport of radionuclides, while the numerical model is not sensitive to changes in the effective porosity and the specific yield. Preliminary predictions have been performed with the calibrated model both for the natural setting of the site and the graded site in which the valleys of the site are backfilled with low permeable materials. Results indicate that the proposed site grading increases the safety of the site for disposal of LILW by reducing both the groundwater level and the hydraulic gradient and that radionuclide transport would not likely be a problem or cause groundwater

  8. Safety assessment of hypothetical near surface disposal at Serpong site: far-field modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, E.; D Mallants; G Volckraert

    2001-01-01

    The far field modeling of radionuclide disposed at Serpong site was carried out based on the hydrogeological data. The simulation of radionuclide in the groundwater was calculated by the PORFLOW computer code. The groundwater simulation was done for 2 cases. In the first case the conductivity of soil layer at Serpong site contains of two layers and in the second case just contains of one layer. The results of the first case, indicated that the flow calculations show that depending on the location of the disposal site, radionuclides that are released from the repository may either show up in the nearby Cisalak creek or in Cisadane river. The results of the second case indicated that the local flow system exist. This means that all radionuclides that migrate out of the repository will appear in the Cisalak creek. The transport time for radionuclides with a low retardation factor in lateric clay soil is around 10 years for a travel of 200 m distance

  9. Pathways to man for radionuclides released from disposal sites on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    To predict the potential radiological impact on man of the disposal of radioactive wastes it is necessary to identify all the events and processes that could cause releases of radionuclides into the environment, to estimate their probabilities of occurrence and to calculate their consequences, for both individuals and populations. This paper briefly reviews the types of releases that have to be considered for land disposal sites and describes the mathematical models used to calculate rates of transport of radionuclides through the environment and doses to man. The difficulties involved in predicting environmental conditions in the far future are discussed, in the light of the ways in which the results of consequence calculations will be used. Assessments of land disposal of long-lived and highly radioactive wastes are briefly reviewed, with the aim of identifying the most important radionuclides and exposure pathways, and the areas where the models and their databases require improvement. (author)

  10. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - 13454

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, Jeanne; Arnold, Pat [National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), P.O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 (United States); Saad, Max [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); DiSanza, Frank [E. Frank DiSanza Consulting, 2250 Alanhurst Drive, Henderson, NV 89052 (United States); Cabble, Kevin [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, P.O. Box 98518, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8518 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012. (authors)

  11. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - 13454

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poling, Jeanne; Arnold, Pat; Saad, Max; DiSanza, Frank; Cabble, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012. (authors)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd 3 (4,580 m 3 ) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories' preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment

  13. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriev, Nazirzhon T.; Abdushukurov, Dzhamshed A.; Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.

    2012-01-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 10 14 and 2 x 10 13 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 10 14 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3 . Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  15. 1982 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,891 cubic meters of radioactive waste containing 413,898 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1982. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes estimated volumes by generator categories. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity by disposal site for each state. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1982 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available, reactor information was obtained directly from the utility

  16. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  17. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated

  18. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  20. Report: Follow-Up Report: EPA Proposes to Streamline the Review, Management and Disposal of Hazardous Waste Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0260, August 19, 2015. EPA states that it intends to issue a proposed rule, Management Standards for Hazardous Waste, which will attempt to streamline the approach to managing and disposing of hazardous and nonhazardous pharmaceutical waste.

  1. Cost effectiveness of below-threshold waste disposal at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A minimal health and environmental risk, limitations on disposal capacity, and the relatively high costs of low level waste (LLW) disposal are basic driving forces that lead to consideration of less restrictive disposal of wastes with very low levels of radiological contamination. The term threshold limit describes radioactive wastes that have sufficiently low-levels of radiological content to be managed according to their nonradiological properties. Given the efforts described elsewhere to provide guidance on the definition of below threshold (BT) doses and concentration levels, the purpose of this study was to quantify the resultant quantities, costs and cost effectiveness of BT disposal. For purposes of consistency with the previous demonstrations of the application of the threshold concept, available data for waste streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) sites were collected and analyzed with regard to volumes, radionuclide concentrations, and disposal costs. From this information, quantities of BT waste, potential cost savings and cost effectiveness values were estimated. 1 reference, 5 tables

  2. Site selection experience for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Helton, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary performance criteria and site selection guides specific to the Savannah River Plant, were developed for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility. These site selection guides were applied to seventeen potential sites identified at SRP. The potential site were ranked based on how well they met a set of characteristics considered important in site selection for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The characteristics were given a weighting factor representing its relative importance in meeting site performance criteria. A candidate site was selected and will be the subject of a site characterization program

  3. The 1986 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The data are grouped and presented by compact regions. The data include activity and volume by waste classes, generator type, and disposal site. The report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 1,804,998 cubic feet (51,113 cubic meters) of radioactive waste containing 233,726 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1986. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc., and US Ecology for each state. Sixty-three percent of low-level waste volumes disposed at commercial sites was assigned to the state of origin. These volumes represent those disposed at Beatty and Barnwell disposal sites. Thirty-seven percent, or 665,066 cubic feet (18,831 cubic meters), of the waste disposed in the US in 1986 went to the Richland site. 8 refs., 75 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Test program for closure activities at a mixed waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Harley, J.P. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A 58-acre site at the Savannah River Plant which was used for disposal of low-level radioactive waste and quantities of the hazardous materials lead, cadmium, scintillation fluid, and oil will be the first large waste site at the Savannah River Plant to be permanently closed. The actions leading to closure of the facility will include surface stabilization and capping of the site. Test programs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic compaction as a stabilization technique and the feasibility of using locally derived clay as a capping material

  5. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  6. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Saburo; Maruyama, Masakatsu

    2008-01-01

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  7. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  8. Evaluation and design of drained low-level radioactive disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1984-12-01

    Low-level disposal in shallow trenches has been the subject of much critical assessment in recent years. Historically most trenches have been located in fairly permeable settings and any liquid waste stored has migrated at rates limited mainly by hydraulic effects and the ion exchange capacity of underlying soil minerals. Attempts to minimize such seepage by choosing sites in very impermeable settings lead to overflow and surface runoff, whenever the trench cap is breached by subsidence or erosion. The work described in this report was directed to an optimum compromise situation where less reliance is placed on cap permanence, any ground seepage is directed and controlled, and the amount of waste leaching that would occur is minimized by keeping the soil surrounding the waste at only residual moisture levels at all times. Measurements have been conducted to determine these residual levels for some representative soils, to estimate the impact on waste migration of mainly unsaturated flow conditions, and to generate a conceptual design of a disposal facility which would provide adequate drainage to keep the waste from being exposed to continuous leaching by standing water. An attempt has also been made to quantify the reduced source terms under such periodic, unsaturated flow conditions, but those tests have not been conclusive to date. For low-permeability soils the waste should be placed about 1 ft. above the saturated layer formed by suction forces immediately above the gravel layer. Since most disposal sites, even in humid regions of the United States, are exposed only to intermittent rainfall and as most trench designs incorporate some gravel base for drainage, the results of this project have broader applications in assessing actual migration conditions in shallow trench disposal sites. Similar considerations may also apply to disposal of hazardous wastes

  9. Low-level waste disposal site performance assessment with the RQ/PQ methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Grant, M.W.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    A methodology called RQ/PQ (retention quotient/performance quotient) has been developed for relating the potential hazard of radioactive waste to the natural and man-made barriers provided by a disposal facility. The methodology utilizes a systems approach to quantify the safety of low-level waste disposed in a near-surface facility. The main advantages of the RQ/PQ methodology are its simplicity of analysis and clarity of presentation while still allowing a comprehensive set of nuclides and pathways to be treated. Site performance and facility designs for low-level waste disposal can be easily investigated with relatively few parameters needed to define the problem. Application of the methodology has revealed that the key factor affecting the safety of low-level waste disposal in near surface facilities is the potential for intrusion events. Food, inhalation and well water pathways dominate in the analysis of such events. While the food and inhalation pathways are not strongly site-dependent, the well water pathway is. Finally, burial at depths of 5 m or more was shown to reduce the impacts from intrusion events

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  11. Data Validation Package - July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Groundwater sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site is conducted every 5 years to monitor disposal cell performance. During this event, samples were collected from eight monitoring wells as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0723. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled and seven additional wells. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that require additional action or follow-up.

  12. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas

  14. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  15. Potential for effects of land contamination on human health. 2. The case of waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Levy, Len; Brown, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This review of the epidemiological literature shows that evidence for negative impacts of land contaminated by waste disposal on human health is limited. However, the potential for health impacts cannot be dismissed. The link between residence close to hazardous waste disposal sites and heightened levels of stress and anxiety is relatively well established. However, studies on self-reported outcomes generally suffer from interpretational problems, as subjective symptoms may be due to increased perception and recall. Several recent multiple-site studies support a plausible linkage between residence near waste disposal sites and reproductive effects (including congenital anomalies and low birth weight). There is some conflict in the literature investigating links between land contamination and cancers; the evidence for and against a link is equally balanced and is insufficient to make causal inferences. These are difficult to establish because of lack of data on individual exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. There is no consistently occurring risk for any specific tumor across multiple studies on sites expected to contain similar contaminants. Further insights on health effects of land contamination are likely to be gained from studies that consider exposure pathways and biomarkers of exposure and effect, similar to those deployed with some success in investigating impacts of cadmium on human health.

  16. The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities

  17. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford?s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program

  18. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  19. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  20. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of compensation and incentives in siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facilities. Compensations may be in the form of grants to enable host communities to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed facility. Compensations may also include reimbursements to the host community for costs incurred during facility construction, operation and closure. These may include required improvements to local roads, new equipment, and payments for revenue losses in local property taxes when disposal sites are removed from the tax base. Incentives provide benefits to the community beyond the costs directly related to the operation of the facility. Greater local control over waste facilities can be a powerful incentive. Local officials may be more willing to accept a facility if they have some control over the operation and monitoring associated with the facility. Failure to secure new disposal sites may cause such problems as illegal dumping which would create public health hazards. Also, lack of disposal capacity may restrict research and medical use of radioactive materials. The use of compensation and incentives may increase acceptance of communities for hosting a low-level waste disposal facility

  1. Sulfur transformations related to revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlas, S.A.; Artiola, J.F.; Salo, L.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated factors controlling redox conditions in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge and identified ways to minimize the production of phytotoxic reduced sulfur species at FGD sludge disposal sites. The oxidation of reduced FGD sludge (Eh-385 mV) appears to be a two-step process mostly controlled by water content. Eighty percent of total sulfide in reduced sludge was oxidized within 20 h of exposure to air with constant water evaporation. When organic carbon (OC) was added to saturated oxidized sludge, the Eh dropped exponentially. Sulfate reduction began at an Eh of about -75 mV and reached a maximum at -265 to -320 mV. Water content, degree of mixing, concentration of OC, and temperature control the rate and extent of reduction of FGD sludge. This suggests that water saturation and OC inputs to revegetated disposal sites should be controlled, especially during warm temperatures, to prevent production of phytotoxic levels of sulfides.

  2. Cost effectiveness of below-threshold waste disposal at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previous study has indicated the feasibility of establishing a threshold of concentration below which certain low-level (radioactive wastes) (LLW) could be safely handled and disposed of by conventional means such as landfills. Such below-threshold wastes have been synonymously termed de minimis or below regulatory concern (BRC) and can be deemed appropriate for management according to their nonradiological characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness for management and disposal of below-threshold waste at certain US Department of Energy sites. The sites selected for this study were the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Savannah River Laboratory. Cost-benefit analysis was used to determine the impacts, benefits, and potential cost advantages of establishing and implementing a threshold limit

  3. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  4. Public Participation and Regional Development at a Nuclear Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, Detlev

    2003-01-01

    One of the conditions for citizens to actively participate in the search for a final repository for radioactive waste is public involvement and the preparation of perspectives for a long-term development of those regions which are geologically eligible for a nuclear waste disposal site. Regional development is an integral part of public participation and ranking second, after safety factors, as the essential field of interest for the local residents of a region chosen for a potential disposal site. Therefore, this presentation will start with the discussion of those considerations referring to theoretical and empirical principles of public participation in long-long-term and high-risk projects. In a second step, the principles of public participation will be outlined. Afterwards, I will focus on the significance of the region as living space for people before I put up for discussion a few thoughts on regional development. The question why the public should be involved actively and intensively in the search for a permanent disposal site, can be answered easily. So far all attempts, not only in Germany, but in most countries where the search for a disposal site is on, have failed due to resistance by the civilian population. Behind this pragmatic reasoning, however, there is a complex societal process which should be understood in order to be able to classify the individual elements of 'active and intensive participation'. In the last decades, a rather informal and situational form of democratic decision making and realization of interests has evolved alongside of the representative and formalized democracy. On one side, the institutionalized and formalized democratic structure is at work: the system of parliaments and government, of independent jurisdiction and mediatory organizations such as trade unions, associations and lobbyists who communicate their specific interests to the decision-making process

  5. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  6. From NIMBY to YIMBY: How generators can support siting LLRW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently head complaint about siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. The producers or generators of this waste can help move public opinion form NIMBY to YIMBY (YES exclamation point In MY Back Yard exclamation point). Generators of low-level radioactive waste often believe it is the responsibility of other organizations to site disposal facilities for the waste, and that their role is to assure the technical aspects of the facility, such as acceptability criteria for the various waste forms, are clearly defined. In reality, generators, using a properly designed and effectively implemented communications plan, can be the most effective advocates for siting a facility. The communications plan must include the following elements: an objective focusing on the importance of generators becoming vocal and active; clearly defined and crafted key messages; specifically defined and targeted audiences for those messages; and speaker training which includes how to communicate with hostile or concerned audiences about a subject they perceive as very risky. Generators must develop coalitions with other groups and form a grassroots support organization. Finally, opportunities must be developed to deliver these messages using a variety of means. Written materials should be distributed often to keep the need for disposal capability in the public's mind. Can we get from NIMBY to YIMBY? It is difficult, but doable--especially with support from the people who make the waste in the first place

  7. Dimensionality of heavy metal distribution in waste disposal sites using nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, Kostas; Komnitsas, Kostas

    2008-01-01

    Mapping of heavy metal contamination in mining and waste disposal sites usually relies on geostatistical approaches and linear stochastic dynamics. The present paper aims to identify, using the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation dimension (CD) algorithm, the existence of a nonlinear deterministic and chaotic dynamic behaviour in the spatial pattern of arsenic, manganese and zinc concentration in a Russian coal waste disposal site. The analysis carried out yielded embedding dimension values ranging between 7 and 8 suggesting thus from a chaotic dynamic perspective that arsenic, manganese and zinc concentration in space is a medium dimensional problem for the regionalized scale considered in this study. This alternative nonlinear dynamics approach may complement conventional geostatistical studies and may be also used for the estimation of risk and the subsequent screening and selection of a feasible remediation scheme in wider mining and waste disposal sites. Finally, the synergistic effect of this study may be further elaborated if additional factors including among others presence of hot spots, density and depth of sampling, mineralogy of wastes and sensitivity of analytical techniques are taken into account

  8. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  9. Application of the Integrated Site and Environment Data Management System for LILW Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak

    2007-01-01

    During the last five years, Site Information and Total Environmental data management System(SITES) has been developed. SITES is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules, such as site database system (SECURE), safety assessment system (SAINT) and environmental monitoring system (SUDAL). In general, for the safe management of radioactive waste repository, the information of site environment should be collected and managed systematically from the initial site survey. For this, SECURE module manages its data for the site characterization, environmental information, and radioactive environmental information etc. The purpose of SAINT module is to apply and analyze the data from SECURE. SUDAL is developed for environmental monitoring of the radioactive waste repository. Separately, it is ready to open to the public for offering partial information

  10. Site selection procedure for high level radioactive waste disposal in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Vachev, B.

    1993-01-01

    A combined site selection approach is implemented. Bulgaria's territory has been classified in three categories, presented on a 1:500000 scale map. The number of suitable sites has been reduced to 20 using the method of successive screening. The formulated site selection problem is a typical discrete multi-criteria decision making problem under uncertainty. A 5-level procedure using Expert Choice Rating and relative models is created. It is a part of a common procedure for evaluation and choice of variants for high level radwaste disposal construction. On this basis 7-8 more preferable sites are demonstrated. A new knowledge and information about the relative importance of the criteria and their subsets, about the level of criteria uncertainty and the reliability are gained. It is very useful for planning and managing of the next final stages of the site selection procedure. 7 figs., 8 refs., 4 suppls. (author)

  11. Geomorphic assessment of uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Summary report of the workshop by the panel of geomorphologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumm, S.A.; Costa, J.E.; Toy, T.; Knox, J.; Warner, R.; Scott, J.

    1982-01-01

    The following report of the panel of geomorphologists is a summary of the principal findings of the geomorphological Workshop with respect to its three objectives: 1) examination of geomorphic controls on site stability, 2) demonstration of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the siting (and design) of stable tailings disposal containment systems, 3) development (in outline) of a procedure for the evaluation of long-term stability of tailing disposal sites

  12. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    intent to assist Russian engineers and scientists in their integration into the international scientific community concerned with radioactive waste disposal and to share advanced safety approaches. The corresponding joint R and D activities were pooled in the following three R and D BMWi-funded projects: - ASTER ''Requirements for Site Investigation for a HLW Repository in hard rock Formations'' (2002 - 05), to develop a well-justified methodological approach for site investigation and selection in the Nizhnekansk granitoid formation near Krasnoyarsk, exemplarily for the disposal of conditioned HLW sludge from formerly produced weapons-grade plutonium and vitrified HLW from reprocessing - WIBASTA ''Performance investigation of engineered and geologic barriers of a HLW repository in magmatic host rocks'' (2005 - 08): performance analysis of the system of geologic and engineered barriers based on safety functions, exemplarily for the proposed HLW disposal facility at the Yeniseysky site - URSEL ''Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for HLW disposal in crystalline rocks'' (2008 - 16) Main Objective: Investigation of the robustness of the safety and of the safety assessment of e repository in crystalline rocks. In the last decade of the 20th century, site investigation activities started in various preselected regions of the Nizhnekansky granitoid formation east of Krasnoyarsk. Starting in 2003, preference was given to the Yeniseysky site, which is located several kilometres south east of the underground former production facilities for weapons-grade plutonium of the Mining Chemical Combine (MCC) at Zheleznogorsk. In the beginning, these investigations were performed for the eventual disposal of conditioned HLW sludge from weapons-grade plutonium production and vitrified HLW from reprocessing of the planned reprocessing plant RT-2 at Zheleznogorsk. Recently, priority has been given to so-called class 1 waste

  13. Selection of a Site for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility: A Joint Report on Characterization of Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.; Cernakauskas, P.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes general and safety-relevant environmental conditions of investigated sites and provides an overview of information concerning wastes to be disposed of. Safety relevant design aspects are given in the Project Report on Reference Design for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Low-and Intermediate-Level Short-Lived Radioactive Waste in Lithuania. This Report summarizes results of investigations performed during 2003-2005 by a number of researchers and evaluated by RATA. The work was performed by the Institute of Geology and Geography, the Lithuanian Energy Institute, Vilnius University, the Institute of Chemistry, UAB Grota, the Lithuanian Geological Survey, Swedish consultants from Geodevelopment, SKB and SKI-ICP, and generalized by RATA

  14. Site investigations for final disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Laine, T.

    1982-12-01

    Research concerning disposal of high-level nuclear waste of the Industrial Power Company Ltd has focused on deep underground disposal in Finnish precambrian bedrock. The present target is to have a repository for high-level waste in operation by 2020. Selection of the repository site is based on site investigations. In addition to geosciences, selection of appropriate site includes many branches of studies; engineering, safety analysis, ecology, transport, demography etc. The investigations required for site selection for high-level waste have been arranged in a sequence of four phases. The aim of the phases is that investigations become more and more detailed as the selection process continues. Phase I of the investigations is the characterization of potential areas. This comprises establishment of criteria for site selection and identification of areas that meet selection criteria. Objective of these studies is to determine areas for phase II field investigations. The studies are largely made by reviewing existing data and remote-sensing techniques. Phase II field investigations will be undertaken between 1986-1992. The number of potential candidates for repository site is reduced to few preferred areas by preceeding generic study. The site selection process culminates in phase III in site confirmation studies carried out at 2...3 most suitable sites during 1992-2010. This is then followed by phase IV, which comprises very detailed investigations at the selected site. An alternative for these investigations is to undertake them by using pilot shaft and drifts. Active development is taking place in all phases concerning investigation methods, criteria, parameters, data processing and modelling. The applicability of the various investigation methods and techniques is tested in a deep borehole in phase I. The co-operation with countries with similar geological conditions makes it possible to compare results obtained by different techniques

  15. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    and the overall suitability of the sites for final disposal in terms of technical and safety aspects was evaluated. After the detailed site investigations, the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy (jointly owned by TVO and Fortum) proposed Olkiluoto as the site of the final disposal facility. In December 2000, the Government made a decision in principle in favour of the project, and in May 2001, the Parliament ratified the Government's policy decision by 159 votes to 3. (orig.)

  16. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S; Paananen, M; Kuivamaki, A [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    overall suitability of the sites for final disposal in terms of technical and safety aspects was evaluated. After the detailed site investigations, the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy (jointly owned by TVO and Fortum) proposed Olkiluoto as the site of the final disposal facility. In December 2000, the Government made a decision in principle in favour of the project, and in May 2001, the Parliament ratified the Government's policy decision by 159 votes to 3. (orig.)

  17. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  18. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  19. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  20. Siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: The public policy dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The book's focus is on one overwhelming problems facing the compacts and states: figuring out where low-level waste disposal sites should be located. The author discusses the central issues underlying this dilemma - authority, trust, risk, justice - and the roles each plays in determining whether the siting processes are regarded as legitimate. The structure of the book provides a mix of narrative, fact and philosophy and adds to the body of well researched information saying that is is not only right but more efficient to develop and implement a just process

  1. Geohydrologic problems at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.; Robertson, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several commercial and US Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the USA have not adequately contained the waste products. Studies of these sites indicate a number of causes for the problems, including water accumulation in filled trenches, breaches of trench cap integrity, erosion, high water table, hydrogeological complexity, flooding, complex leachate chemistry, and rapid radionuclide migration in groundwater. These problems can be avoided through the application of practical, comprehensive, and common sense earth-science guidelines discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Assessing risks to fish populations near a proposed disposal facility for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Miesenheimer, P.; Hull, R.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of used nuclear fuel disposal in the Canadian Shield is currently undergoing a federal environmental assessment review process. As part of this review, potential risks to brook trout populations in the vicinity of such an underground repository were considered. Chemical fate, transport and exposure models have been utilized to estimate the dose rates from released radionuclides and other fuel constituents, and these likely will not be sufficient to harm fish in nearby streams. However, other stressors such as habitat alteration (e.g., loss of upwelling) and/or fishing pressure associated with increased public access could have significant population impacts if the site is located in a pristine northern region. Population models are utilized to explore the risks of local population reduction for different combinations of fishing pressure and habitat degradation

  3. Summary of treatment, storage, and disposal facility usage data collected from U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.; Oswald, K.; Trump, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the level and extent of treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) assessment duplication. Commercial TSDFs are used as an integral part of the hazardous waste management process for those DOE sites that generate hazardous waste. Data regarding the DOE sites' usage have been extracted from three sets of data and analyzed in this report. The data are presented both qualitatively and quantitatively, as appropriate. This information provides the basis for further analysis of assessment duplication to be documented in issue papers as appropriate. Once the issues have been identified and adequately defined, corrective measures will be proposed and subsequently implemented

  4. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document establishes elements of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will use this plan in support of license issuance for the long-term surveillance of the Canonsburg site. The Canonsburg (CAN) site is located within the borough of Canonsburg, Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Canonsburg site covers approximately 30 acres (74 hectares). The disposal cell contains approximately 226,000 tons (241,000 tons) of residual radioactive material (RRM). Area C is southeast of the Canonsburg site, between Strabane Avenue and Chartiers Creek. Contaminated soils were removed from Area C during the remedial action, and the area was restored with uncontaminated fill material.After this cleanup, residual quantities of thorium-230 were detected at several Area C locations. The remedial action plan did not consider the ingrowth of radium-226 from thorium-230 as part of the Area C cleanup, and only two locations contained sufficient thorium-230 concentrations to result in radium-226 concentrations slightly above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards

  6. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  7. Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeimahmoudi, Mehdi; Esmaeli, Abdolreza; Gharegozlu, Alireza; Shabanian, Hassan; Rokni, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a scientific method based on Geographical Information System (GIS) regarding all sustainable development measures to locate a proper landfill for disposal of hazardous wastes, especially industrial (radioactive) wastes. Seven effective factors for determining hazardous waste landfill were applied in Qom Province, central Iran. These criteria included water, slope, population centers, roads, fault, protected areas and geology. The Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP) model based on pair comparison was used. First, the weight of each factor was determined by experts; afterwards each layer of maps entered to ARC GIS and with special weight multiplied together, finally the best suitable site was introduced. The most suitable sites for burial were in northwest and west of Qom Province and eventually five zones were introduced as the sample sites. GIs and AHP model is introduced as the technical, useful and accelerator tool for disposal site selection. Furthermore it is determined that geological factor is the most effective layer for site selection. It is suggested that geological conditions should be considered primarily then other factors are taken into consideration.

  8. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  9. The search for a final disposal site as field of conflict. A proposition for a profile of a problem-oriented sociological repository research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocke, P.

    2005-01-01

    The search for a final disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Germany is to characterize as an enduring and politicised conflict causing a blocked process of decision making. A social science based research on final disposals, reflecting this stalemate situation in Germany, did not take place since the middle of the 1980s. This ITAS paper presents a proposal, how - by the means of social science - the chances and risks for further decision making about nuclear waste could be articulated more precise. (orig.)

  10. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas:Estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge);Analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility;Evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; andEstimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance.An estimate of recharge at a LLW site is important since recharge is a principal factor in controlling the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway. The most common methods for estimating recharge are discussed in Chapter 2. Many factors affect recharge; the natural recharge at an undisturbed site is not necessarily representative either of the recharge that will occur after the site has been disturbed or of the flow of water into a disposal facility at the site. Factors affecting recharge are discussed in Chapter 2.At many sites engineered components are required for a LLW facility to meet performance requirements. Chapter 3 discusses the use of engineered barriers to control the flow of water in a LLW facility, with a particular emphasis on cover systems. Design options and the potential performance and degradation mechanisms of engineered components are also discussed.Water flow in a LLW disposal facility must be evaluated before construction of the facility. In addition, hydrologic performance must be predicted over a very long time frame. For these reasons, the hydrologic evaluation relies on the use of predictive modeling. In Chapter 4, the evaluation of unsaturated water flow modeling is discussed. A checklist of items is presented to guide the evaluation

  11. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented

  12. Heroism and Imperialism in the Arctic: Edwin Landseer’s Man Proposes – God Disposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Høvik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Edwin Landseer contributed the painting Man Proposes - God Disposes (Royal Holloway College, Egham, showing two polar bears amongst the remnants of a failed Arctic expedition, to the Royal Academy's annual exhibition of 1864. As contemporary nineteenth-century reviews of this exhibition show, the British public commonly associated Landseer's painting with the lost Arctic expedition of sir John Franklin, who had set out to find the Northwest Passage in 1845. Despite Landseer's gloomy representation of a present-day human disaster and, in effect, of British exploration in the Arctic, the painting became a public success upon its first showing. I will argue that a major reason why the painting became a success, was because Landseer's version of the Franklin expedition's fate offered a closure to the whole Franklin tragedy that corresponded to British nineteenth-century views on heroism and British-ness.

  13. Parameters for characterizing sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutton, R.J.; Malone, P.G.; Meade, R.B.; Patrick, D.M.

    1982-05-01

    Sixty-seven site parameters and parameter groups are identified as important characteristics of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste and require detailed evaluation. Several of the most important parameters are needed for hydrological analysis while others are needed for facility design, construction, and operation. Still others are needed for baseline and detection stages of monitoring. It is recommended that all parameters be evaluated by technically qualified personnel. Appropriate tests and documentation methods are discussed in a second report, which will follow. However, site-specific testing or elaborate field measurement will not always be necessary, i.e., where indicated to be unnecessary on a technical basis. Much of this report, Appendices A through G, is directed to explaining the importances of parameters and to establishing site-specific limitations

  14. Cast iron transport, storage and disposal containers for use in UK nuclear licensed sites - 59412

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Ductile Cast Iron Containers of the types GCVI (UK trademark -GNS YELLOW BOX R ) and MOSAIK R have been in use in Germany for transport, storage and disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) for more than two decades. In 2009 a number of containers of these types were delivered to various Magnox sites as so called pathfinders to test their suitability for Magnox waste streams. The results were encouraging. Therefore the Letter of Compliance (LoC) procedure was started to prove the suitability of packages using these types of containers for the future UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and a conceptual Letter of Compliance (cLoC) was obtained from RWMD in 2010. Waste stream specific applications for Interim Stage Letters of Compliance (ILoC) for a number of waste streams from different Magnox sites and from the UK's only pressurised water reactor, Sizewell B are currently being prepared and discussed with RWMD. In order to achieve a package suitable for interim storage and disposal the contents of a Ductile Cast Iron Container only has to be dried. Mobile drying facilities are readily available. Containers and drying facilities form a concerted system

  15. Mass transfer of CO2 to groundwaters from a near-surface waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Manni, G.; Torok, J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous 14 CO 2 originating from buried low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) in a near-surface disposal site can be released to the environment via two major paths: gas-phase diffusion through soils to the atmosphere, and dissolution in groundwater, followed by aqueous migration. Aqueous migration would give the highest dose to an individual, especially if C-14 was converted to an organic form and ingested. Gaseous diffusion would give a lower dose, largely because of atmospheric dispersion and dilution. The objective of this study was to develop the capability to estimate which of the two paths will likely be dominant for typical near-surface disposal facilities. The main missing parameter for making this estimate was a mass-transfer coefficient (K L ) of 14 CO 2 to groundwaters, which was determined experimentally using a large sand box. The K L thus determined was approximately 10 to 20 times smaller than for an open liquid surface. This suggests that there is a potential resistance to mass transfer, probably caused by the capillary fringe. The value obtained was incorporated into a simple model of CO 2 transport around a typical near-surface disposal site. The model suggests that CO 2 transport via both gaseous release and aqueous migration paths are of similar magnitude for a repository located ∼2 m above the water table. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Spatial patterns of serial murder: an analysis of disposal site location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, S; Canter, D

    2001-01-01

    Although the murders committed by serial killers may not be considered rational, there is growing evidence that the locations in which they commit their crimes may be guided by an implicit, if limited rationality. The hypothesized logic of disposal site choice of serial killers led to predictions that (a) their criminal domains would be around their home base and relate to familiar travel distances, (b) they would have a size that was characteristic of each offender, (c) the distribution would be biased towards other non-criminal activities, and (d) the size of the domains would increase over time. Examination of the geographical distribution of the sites at which 126 US and 29 UK serial killers disposed of their victims' bodies supported all four hypotheses. It was found that rational choice and routine activity models of criminal behavior could explain the spatial choices of serial murderers. It was concluded that the locations at which serial killers dispose of their victims' bodies reflect the inherent logic of the choices that underlie their predatory activities. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    zone has low saturated hydraulic conductivities on the order of 10(-5)cm/s and in this respect is well-suited for the disposal of LILW. The saturated formations are primarily made up of silt and moderately-to-slightly weathered granite, which exhibit even lower hydraulic conductivities, on the order of 10(-6)cm/s, also favorable for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Chemical analyses indicate that the groundwaters at the site are of the HCO(3)-Na · Ca and HCO(3) · SO(4)-Na · Ca types and are weakly corrosive to concrete and steel. Geochemical analyses indicate that the rock and soil materials (particularly weathered granite) at the site contain very small fractions of colloidal particles and exhibit low Cation Exchange Capacities (CEC), and would therefore have limited capacity for sorption of radionuclides. Groundwater flow and solute transport models of the candidate site have been developed using MODFLOW and MT3DMS, incorporating the data obtained during the assessment program. Calibration was based on the available measured groundwater level fluctuations and tracer concentrations from in situ dispersion tests. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient as determined in calibration is equal to 5.0 × 10(-3) m(2)/d. Numerical sensitivity analyses indicate that the hydraulic conductivity and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient are the key parameters controlling the transport of radionuclides, while the numerical model is not sensitive to changes in the effective porosity and the specific yield. Preliminary predictions have been performed with the calibrated model both for the natural setting of the site and the graded site in which the valleys of the site are backfilled with low permeable materials. Results indicate that the proposed site grading increases the safety of the site for disposal of LILW by reducing both the groundwater level and the hydraulic gradient and that radionuclide transport would not likely be a problem or cause groundwater

  18. Studies on site characterization methodologies for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Guo Yonghai; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the final achievement of the project 'Studies of Site-specific Geological Environment for High Level Waste Disposal and Performance Assessment Methodology, Part Ⅰ: Studies on Site Characterization Methodologies for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal', which is a 'Key Scientific and Technological Pre-Research Project for National Defense' during 2001-2005. The study area is Beishan area, Gansu Province, NW China--the most potential site for China's underground research laboratory and high level radioactive waste repository. The boreholes BS01, BS2, BS03 and BS04 drilled in fractured granite media in Beishan are used to conduct comprehensive studies on site characterization methodologies, including: bore hole drilling method, in situ measurement methods of hydrogeological parameters, underground water sampling technology, hydrogeochemical logging method, geo-stress measurement method, acoustic borehole televiewer measurement method, borehole radar measurement method, fault stability evaluation methods and rock joint evaluation method. The execution of the project has resulted in the establishment of an 'Integrated Methodological System for Site Characterization in Granite Site for High Level Radioactive Waste Repository' and the 8 key methodologies for site characterization: bore hole drilling method with minimum disturbance to rock mass, measurement method for hydrogeological parameters of fracture granite mass, in situ groundwater sampling methods from bore holes in fractured granite mass, fracture measurement methods by borehole televiewer and bore radar system, hydrogeochemical logging, low permeability measurement methods, geophysical methods for rock mass evaluation, modeling methods for rock joints. Those methods are comprehensive, advanced, innovative, practical, reliable and of high accuracy. The comprehensive utilization of those methods in granite mass will help to obtain systematic parameters of

  19. Tajik Republican Waste Disposal Site (Radon) is guarantee of weapons of mass destruction nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivopuskov, G.S.; Salomov, Dzh.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rapid introduction of radioactive materials into industry, medicine and research during Soviet Union lead to necessity of establishing and constructing the whole range of specialized storages at the end of 50"t"h and 60"t"h in 19"t"h century. Thus, the Tajik Site for surface disposal of radioactive wastes was established in Tajikistan by USSR Council of Ministers decree from 2 February 1960. The aim of establishment is collection, transportation for disposal and disposal of radioactive wastes in Dushanbe city. The site is located in Fanskiy mountains foothills and the area where site located is complicated form polygon with complicated difference on height. Selected territory corresponded to the requirements lodged for site construction of surface disposal of radioactive wastes. The site started its operation in 1962, as disposal site at special motor pool on sanitary clearance of Dushanbe city and it was named as N 44. In 1976 it was renamed to site of radioactive wastes disposal with responsibilities to collect and transport for disposal of radioactive wastes in all over the Tajikistan. Two line reconstructions of radioactive wastes disposal storages was carried out in all Soviet Union countries from 1980 to 1986 by Ministry of Atom Industry (Minatomprom) project. This project was developed taking into account the experience of former years. In 1990, the Tajik site was renamed to Republican Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (RWDS). Land inventory was approved and 71 hectares of land was allocated for organization of high security zone, sanitary protection zone and radiation-control area. During its activity the site moved from one organization to another in municipal service system. It led to reducing of security personnel from 33 to 4 police guards. The perimeter of 'high security zone' had just barbed wire fence. This fact aroused big alarm for security of radioactive materials in 'mortuaries'. Troubled 90"t"h, the collapse of Soviet Union and

  20. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  1. Review on waste inventory, waste characteristics and candidate site for LLW disposal in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Punnachaiya, M.; Danladkaew, K.

    1997-01-01

    It is a worldwide practice that radioactive waste has to be kept under control to be ensured of low potential impact on man and his environment. In Thailand, the OAEP is responsible for all radioactive waste management activities, both operation and the competent authority. The radioactive waste in Thailand consists of low level wastes from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. A plan for central disposal site has been set up. The near surface disposal method is chosen for this aspect because of its simple, inexpensive and adequate safe and very well know process. 8 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Enhancement of high density polyethylene high integrity containers at a low level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Wong, O.P.

    1989-01-01

    High integrity containers (HIC) made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) have been used for disposal in South Carolina since the late seventies. With the recent definitive position taken by the NRC on the suitability of these containers for disposal, alternative means of assuring the structural integrity of the containers for the long term became necessary. The authors' company has developed an utilized reinforced concrete caissons at the Hanford, Washington site as an additional barrier and structural element to assure the long term high integrity function of the current HDPE HIC's also known as Poly HIC's on the market. This paper outlines the background of the HIC's in question, the NRC positions and ruling, and presents technical bases for the applicability of appropriately designed concrete overpacks to augment the structural integrity of HIC's

  3. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  4. Site clean-up requirements: where does one dispose of dirt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Under its Superfund program the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed itself to remediate certain residential and commercial properties impacted by an accumulation of indoor radon or thoron resulting from deposition of contaminated dirt. A case in point: The State of New Jersey now has a number of sites contaminated with the residues of radium or thorium extraction operations. The residues (dirt) were removed from the original operations areas and used as landfill, often in locations which are now around houses or other buildings. EPA's soil contamination limits for radium or thorium dictate that remediation efforts consist of removal of that fill. This solution presents the problem of disposing of large volumes of marginally radioactive materials. Options which recognize the present lack of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are examined here

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  6. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Johnson, Richard [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  7. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  8. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  9. Hydrogeology of a hazardous-waste disposal site near Brentwood, Williamson County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick; Hanchar, D.W.; Lee, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 44,000 gal of industrial solvent wastes were disposed in pits on a farm near Brentwood, Tennessee, in 1978, and contaminants were reported in the soil and shallow groundwater on the site in 1985. In order for the State to evaluate possible remedial-action alternatives, an 18-month study was conducted to define the hydrogeologic setting of the site and surrounding area. The area is underlain by four hydrogeologic units: (1) an upper aquifer consisting of saturated regolith, Bigby-Cannon Limestone, and weathered Hermitage Formation; (2) the Hermitage confining unit; (3) a lower aquifer consisting of the Carters Limestone; and (4) the Lebanon confining unit. Wells generally are low yielding less than 1 gal/min ), although locally the aquifers may yield as much as 80 gal/minute. This lower aquifer is anisotropic, and transmissivity of this aquifer is greatest in a northwest-southeast direction. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from precipitation, and estimates of average annual recharge rates range from 6 to 15 inches/year. Discharge from the groundwater system is primarily to the Little Harpeth River and its tributaries. Groundwater flow at the disposal site is mainly to a small topographic depression that drains the site. Geochemical data indicate four distinct water types. These types represent (1) shallow, rapidly circulating groundwater; (2) deeper (> than 100 ft), rapidly circulating groundwater; (3) shallow, slow moving groundwater; and (4) deeper, slow moving groundwater. Results of the numerical model indicate that most flow is in the upper aquifer. (USGS)

  10. Selection criteria for a radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    A program commenced in 1978 to select a suitable site for the disposal of nuclear waste in South Africa. This entailed the examination of a variety of socio-economic and earthscience related parameters over large parts of South Africa. The site selection program, for which the Geology Department of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) (previously the Nuclear Development Corporation (NUCOR)) accepted responsibility, commenced with an initial screening phase and led to the identification of potentially suitable areas by mid 1980. A site suitability phase involving regional, and subsequently detailed socio-economic, geological, geohydrological and geophysical studies in the areas identified by the screening phase was completed in December 1982. As a result of very positive indications that the district of Namaqualand was the most suitable candidate area it was possible, after further detailed investigations, to identify and purchase a site judged to be suitable for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste by February 1983. The area acquired measures some 10 000ha in extent and is situated 100km southeast of Springbok in the northwestern Cape and 600km north of the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town

  11. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  12. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  13. Recycling and disposal of FUSRAP materials from the Ashland 2 site at a licensed uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Conboy, D.; Rehmann, M.; Roberts, H.

    1999-01-01

    During World War II the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) used facilities near Buffalo, N.Y. to extract natural uranium from ores. Some of the byproduct material left from the ores (MED byproduct), containing low levels of uranium, thorium, and radium, was deposited on a disposal site known as Ashland 2, located in Tonawanda, NY. On behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, or the Corps), ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICFKE) was tasked to provide the best value clean-up results that meet all of the criteria established in the Record of Decision for the site. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUC), the operator of the White Mesa Uranium Mill, a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed mill near Blanding, Utah, was selected to perform uranium extraction on the excavated materials, therefore giving the best value as it provided beneficial use of the material consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) intent to encourage recycling and recovery, while also providing the most cost-effective means of disposal. Challenges overcome to complete this project included (1) identifying the best-value location to accept the material; (2) meeting regulatory requirements with IUC obtaining an NRC license amendment to accept and process the material as an alternate feed; (3) excavating and preparing the material for shipment, then shipping the material to the Mill for uranium recovery; and (4) processing the material, followed by disposal of tailings from the process in the Mill's licensed uranium tailings facility. Excavation from Ashland 2 and processing of the Ashland 2 material at the White Mesa Mill resulted in a cleaner environment at Tonawanda, a cost avoidance of up to $16 million, beneficial recovery of source material, and environmentally protective disposal of byproduct material. (author)

  14. Radon levels after restoration of the U-mine disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Rojc, J.; Jovanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    After cessation of the underground mining of uranium ore and production of uranium concentrate at Zirovski Vrh (Slovenia) in the period 1985-1990, two permanent surface disposal sites remained, namely, tailings pile and mine waste rock pile. Both disposal sites were of equal size of 4 hectares and were significant sources of radon. Their final restoration was designed in compliance with the condition of dose constraint for the public and authorized limits for radon exhalation from the remediated piles. In the late summer of 2008, a restoration of the mine waste pile was finished. Radon releases were reduced significantly by constructing an effective radon barrier of well compacted clay material and a thick complex protective cover layer constructed over it. Radon exhalation rate from the mine waste area was lowered from primary level of 0.7 Bq/m 2 ·s to natural levels (0.01 Bq/m 2 ·s), and consequently, ambient radon levels also decreased on the site and nearby environment. The average radon contribution from the remaining U-mine sources was estimated on the basis of the environmental measurements of radon concentrations; they dropped from initial 7-9 Bq/m 3 to approximately 3 Bq/m 3 . Further reduction of outdoor radon concentrations is expected after 2010, since the restoration of another disposal site will have been completed by the end of this year. Public exposure due to industrial radon after the first phase of restoration satisfactorily meets the dose constraint level of 0.3 mSv/y, since it decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/y. (authors)

  15. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions

  16. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  17. Selection of candidate sites for a LLRW disposal facility in Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, Ronald E.; Holeman, George R.; Hileman, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Connecticut, one of the two members of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact, has been directed by the Compact Commission to site a facility to manage the low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in Connecticut. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS) has been given the responsibility to identify a site in the state for a LLRW disposal facility. The CHWMS has decided to plan for a site with an operating life of 50 years. A site of at least 160 acres will be needed to accommodate (he expected volume of LLRW and meet state and federal site requirements. A Site Selection Plan establishing the process and criteria to be used in siting a facility was adopted by the CHWMS in November 1990. The Plan calls for a stepwise screening of the state using published data to identify three candidate sites. A preferred site will be selected from among the candidate sites using onsite testing. The site selection criteria, which closely follow state and federal statutory and regulatory requirements, are divided into three types: exclusionary, avoidance and preference. Battelle Memorial Institute was selected as the contractor to assist the CHWMS in site screening. With guidance from the CHWMS, Battelle undertook screening of the state by applying the exclusionary, avoidance and preference criteria in three steps to identify from eight to twelve potential sites. The CHWMS Board of Directors bad decided that it wanted to be closely involved in the selection of the three candidate sites and to do so in a way that precluded the political and parochial pressures that are inevitably associated with a siting process. To meet these two goals a geographically neutral approach was devised for candidate site selection. In June, 1991 the CHWMS, with assistance from Battelle, conducted a three day workshop, open to the public, in which eight sites were presented to the Board. Data on the sites were presented in a way that did not disclose

  18. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  19. Hydrogeological and geotechnical requirements for the construction of radioactive waste disposal sites with respect to the CONSOLID-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giurgea, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of this dissertation, hydrogeological and geotechnical studies were carried out and critically analyzed for the estimation of the site applicability of a proposed low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste site (LILRW) at Cernavoda/Romania. The analysis, studies and modeling had to bring hints concerning the security of the final storage of the Cernovoda site, in accordance with the compliance of the severe recommendations of the IAEA-Vienna (International Atomic Energy Agency). A series of numerical model calculations were performed in completion of the 'in situ'- and laboratory-analyses. These calculations focused principally on the migration of the radionuclides through the base sealing and the geological strata. The results of the calculated models, including numerical simulation of the radionuclides migration, are leading to the conclusion, that even considering the worst possible suppositions and accidents, the groundwater in the deeper underground of the waste disposal site will not be reached by the radionuclides within the institutional control period of 300 years. These modeling results are to be considered the main focus of the thesis. The numerical 2D-simulation of the radionuclides migration through the unsaturated strata, represents a new contribution to the site assessment. The model includes unsaturated soil hydraulic properties determined by laboratory and 'in situ' measurements, as well as the radioactive decay and the ad- and absorbing properties of the geological formations. (orig.) [de

  20. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  2. Evaluation factors for verification and validation of low-level waste disposal site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.S.; Mezga, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify general evaluation factors to be used to verify and validate LLW disposal site performance models in order to assess their site-specific applicability and to determine their accuracy and sensitivity. It is intended that the information contained in this paper be employed by model users involved with LLW site performance model verification and validation. It should not be construed as providing protocols, but rather as providing a framework for the preparation of specific protocols or procedures. A brief description of each evaluation factor is provided. The factors have been categorized according to recommended use during either the model verification or the model validation process. The general responsibilities of the developer and user are provided. In many cases it is difficult to separate the responsibilities of the developer and user, but the user is ultimately accountable for both verification and validation processes. 4 refs

  3. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorries, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  5. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  6. Characterization and remediation of a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Sherman, M.W.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.; Ripp, J.A.; Taylor, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    From the early 1800s through the late 1940s, the production of gas using coal, coke or oil resulted in generation of large volumes of residues including coal tar, lamp black and wood chips containing cyanides at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. Often, these tarry residues were disposed of by burial at or near these plants. In recent years, old MGP sites have come under increased scrutiny from environmental regulators. To address the issues of groundwater contamination and need for clean-up, it is necessary to accurately determine where the tarry materials are now located and how different chemicals released from tars have migrated away from their sources. EPRI research at a coal-tar disposal site in New York has focused on examining and evaluating conventional and innovative methods for sampling and analysis to delineate the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, and to assess the efficacy of remedial actions. This paper presents some of the results of this research and offers recommendations on conducting size investigations as well as selecting appropriate remediation measures

  7. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  8. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This document Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; and preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. This does not represent the entire body of data available. Other types of information are archived at BHI Document Control. Five ground water monitoring wells were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site to directly investigate site- specific hydrogeologic conditions. Well and borehole activity summaries are presented in Volume 1. Field borehole logs and geophysical data from the drilling are presented in this document. Well development and pump installation sheets are presented for the groundwater monitoring wells. Other data presented in this document include borehole geophysical logs from existing wells; chemical data from the sampling of soil, vegetation, and mammals from the ERDF to support the preoperational baseline; ERDF surface radiation surveys;a nd aquifer testing data for well 699-32-72B

  9. Deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in France: The volunteering approach in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, M.; Barber, P.

    1995-01-01

    The French Waste Act of December 1991 set up important dispositions among which the deep disposal of long-lived waste should be evaluated before 2006. ANDRA, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, is particularly responsible for the siting, the construction and the operation of underground laboratories designed to study potential geologic host-formations for deep disposal. An open decision-making process started up in 1992, specially to restore the public confidence after strong contest in the early 1990. The mission of negotiation conducted in 1993 all over the country by the appointed Member of Parliament, Mr. Bataille, allowed volunteer candidates for the siting surveyed by ANDRA in 1994 and 1995. Four areas are presently under characterization investigations, proceeding with the first phase of the underground laboratory program with the objective of choosing two sites for two underground laboratories. France is now entering a new and very important phase on the long path towards the creation of an underground repository where public's understanding and acceptance is an important part of the overall process as it is shown in this paper

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  11. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  12. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  13. Selection and investigation of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced subsurface fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Injection of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 10 3 μCi/mL, consisting mainly of radionuclides, such as strontium and cesium, having half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement into a thick shale formation is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide-adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide-retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation, and therefore the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion and dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are (1) the potential for inducing vertical fractures, (2) phase separation during and after the injections, (3) the reliability of methods for determining the orientation of induced fractures, (4) the possibility of triggering earthquakes, and (5) radionuclides being leached and transported by ground water. Theoretical considerations about inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale are discussed, as are field procedures for site selection, safety, and the monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the application of the theory and techniques of field operations

  14. Guidelines for radiological performance assessment of DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Otis, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    This document provides guidance for conducting radiological performance assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The guidance is specifically intended to provide the fundamental approach necessary to meet the performance assessment requirements. The document is written for LLW facility operators or other personnel who will manage the performance assessment task. The document is meant to provide guidance for conducting performance assessments in a generally consistent manner at all DOE LLW disposal facilities. The guidance includes a summary of performance objectives to be met by LLW disposal facilities (these objectives are derived from current DOE and other applicable federal regulatory guidelines); specific criteria for an adequate performance assessment and from which a minimum set of required calculations may be determined; recommendations of methods for screening critical components of the analysis system so that these components can be addressed in detail; recommendations for the selection of existing models and the development of site-specific models; recommendations of techniques for comparison of assessment results with performance objectives; and a summary of reporting requirements

  15. Radioactive Waste Disposal Pilot Plant concept for a New Mexico site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty years of investigation have shown that disposal of nuclear wastes in deep salt formations is the surest means of isolating these wastes from the biosphere for the extremely long period of time required. A large scale demonstration of this capability will soon be provided by a Radioactive Waste Disposal Pilot Plant (RWDPP) to be developed in southeastern New Mexico. Initially, the pilot plant will accept only ERDA generated waste; high level waste from the commercial power reactor fuel cycle will eventually be accommodated in the pilot plant and the initial RWDPP design will be compatible with this waste form. Selection of a specific site and salt horizon will be completed in June 1976. Conceptual design of the RWDPP and assessment of its environmental impact will be completed by June 1977. Construction is expected to start in 1978 with first waste accepted in 1982. The present concept develops disposal areas for all nuclear waste types in a single salt horizon about 800 meters deep. This single level can accommodate all low level and high level waste generated in the United States through the year 2010. A major constraint on the RWDPP design is the ERDA requirement that all waste be ''readily'' retrievable during the duration of pilot plant operation

  16. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed reference sites in the New York Bight, Great South Bay, and Ambrose Light, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The current reference site used in evaluations of dredged material proposed for open water disposal in the New York Bight is the Mud Dump Reference Site. The sediment at this reference site is predominantly sand. The US Army Corps of Engineers New York District is considering designation of a new reference site that (1) includes a fine-grained component, believed to be necessary for adequate amphipod survival in laboratory tests, (2) better reflects the physical characteristics of the fine-grained sediment dredged from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and (3) is further removed from the Mud Dump Site than the current Mud Dump Reference Site. The Battelle Marine Science Laboratory was requested to characterize sediment collected from seven candidate reference sites during two study phases. This report presents the results of physical, chemical, and toxicological characterizations of sediment from these sites in comparisons with those of the original Mud Dump Reference Site.

  18. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action.Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  19. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Hinkkanen, H.; Rouhiainen, P.; Oehberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements

  20. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd. (Finland); Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J. [Vibrometric Oy (Finland); Hinkkanen, H. [Posiva Oy (Finland); Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy (Finland); Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements 23 refs, 4 figs

  1. A framework of dynamic analysis for risks asociated with human activity at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.; Masuda, S.

    1989-01-01

    Human intrusive actions at radioactive waste disposal sites which cause radiological impact were identified in connection with other events and processes on the influence diagram. The scenarios of less likely events including human intrusive actions were generated from the diagram and then treated by probabilistic way. For assigning probabilities of events dynamically, simultaneous difference equations were introduced and simple general solutions which satisfy the equations were used to illustrate the example calculations for both direct and indirect impacts by human intrusive actions such as drilling/mining and pumping of groundwater. The method developed here will be useful for both scenario screening in overall scenario study and risk calculation combined with consequence analysis

  2. Long term evolution of waste disposal sites: scenario selection and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaudecerf, P.; Blanc, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The safety analysis of long term radioactive waste disposal projects must take into account the evolution of the sites natural environment. The present paper aims at reassessing some questions relating to the methods and to some lack of knowledge which may appear when we try to forecast such evolutions and their results, and to some solutions that can be considered. We will particularly discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the deterministic approaches and the construction and working out of scenarios. The presentation is illustrated by reference to recent examples. 5 refs., 6 figs [fr

  3. Hydrologic factors and 90Sr transport at a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    There are several hydrologic factors that can affect contaminant migration at a waste disposal site. Many studies recognize surface water and groundwater controls as major factors. But what are the specific hydrologic processes most often associated with contaminant transport. Studies of solid waste storage areas (SWSAs) for low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is located in the humid environment of east Tennessee, have identified several mechanisms. Most of the processes are associated with groundwater movement, but in at least one case, surface runoff has played a dominant role. In all cases, consideration of localized hydrologic conditions has been the key to understanding the factors responsible for radionuclide migration

  4. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura Pastor

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  6. Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose of mixed low level wastes (MLLW) (radioactive and hazardous) at the SRS and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The SRS, in conjunction with other laboratories, has also demonstrated that vitrification can be used to dispose of a wide variety of MLLW and low-level wastes (LLW) at the SRS, at ORR, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), at Rocky Flats (RF), at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP). The SRS, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA), have demonstrated that vitrification can also be used to safely dispose of ion-exchange (IEX) resins and sludges from commercial nuclear reactors. In addition, the SRS has successfully demonstrated that numerous wastes declared hazardous by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be vitrified, e.g. mining industry wastes, contaminated harbor sludges, asbestos containing material (ACM), Pb-paint on army tanks and bridges. Once these EPA hazardous wastes are vitrified, the waste glass is rendered non-hazardous allowing these materials to be recycled as glassphalt (glass impregnated asphalt for roads and runways), roofing shingles, glasscrete (glass used as aggregate in concrete), or other uses. Glass is also being used as a medium to transport SRS americium (Am) and curium (Cm) to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for recycle in the ORR medical source program and use in smoke detectors at an estimated value of $1.5 billion to the general public

  7. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  8. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from the Port of Santos and the disposal sites of dredged material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduinetty Ceci P. M. Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dredging of sediments from the Santos Channel is necessary to allow the navigation of ships operating in the Port of Santos. The disposal sites for such sediments are situated on the coastal zone, in front of the Santos Bay. The present paper aimed at evaluating the toxicity of sediments collected at the Santos Channel and at the former and current sediment disposal sites. Whole sediment tests with amphipods and elutriate assays with sea-urchin embryos were used. The samples from the Santos Channel were considered the most toxic: all the sediment samples from this area showed toxicity. Moreover, some samples from both former and new sediment disposal sites exhibited toxicity. Therefore, results showed that sediments from the studied areas present evidences of degradation; however, further studies are required to determine relationships between toxicity and contamination. Results also suggested that the disposal of dredged sediments should be re-evaluated.A dragagem dos sedimentos do Canal de Santos é necessária para permitir o trânsito de navios que operam no Porto de Santos. As áreas de disposição do material dragado estão situadas na zona costeira, em frente à Baía de Santos. Este estudo visou avaliar a qualidade dos sedimentos do Canal de Santos e das áreas de disposição atuais e antigas, utilizando testes de toxicidade de sedimento integral com anfípodos e de toxicidade de elutriatos com embriões de ouriço do mar. As amostras do Canal de Santos foram consideradas as mais tóxicas: todas as amostras dessa área foram consideradas significativamente tóxicas. Além disso, algumas amostras das áreas de disposição exibiram toxicidade. Os resultados mostraram, portanto, que os sedimentos apresentam evidências de degradação em sua qualidade, porém novos estudos devem ser conduzidos visando determinar as relações entre contaminação e toxicidade. Os resultados sugerem ainda que a disposição dos sedimentos dragados

  10. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository

  11. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository.

  12. Proposed genetic algorithms for construction site lay out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, Michael J.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The positioning of temporary facilities on a construction site is an area of research which has been recognised as important but which has received relatively little attention. In this paper, a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem in which m facilities are to be positioned to n

  13. Annual Performance Report April 2015 Through March 2016 for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This annual report evaluates the performance of the groundwater remediation system at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site (Shiprock site) for the period April 2015 through March 2016. The Shiprock site, a former uranium-ore processing facility remediated under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management. This annual report is based on an analysis of groundwater quality and groundwater level data obtained from site monitoring wells and the groundwater flow rates associated with the extraction wells, drains, and seeps. Background The Shiprock mill operated from 1954 to 1968 on property leased from the Navajo Nation. Remediation of surface contamination, including stabilization of mill tailings in an engineered disposal cell, was completed in 1986. During mill operation, nitrate, sulfate, uranium, and other milling-related constituents leached into underlying sediments and contaminated groundwater in the area of the mill site. In March 2003, DOE initiated active remediation of groundwater at the site using extraction wells and interceptor drains. At that time, DOE developed a baseline performance report that established specific performance standards for the Shiprock site groundwater remediation system. The Shiprock site is divided into two distinct areas: the floodplain and the terrace. The floodplain remediation system consists of two groundwater extraction wells, a seep collection drain, and two collection trenches (Trench 1 and Trench 2). The terrace remediation system consists of nine groundwater extraction wells, two collection drains (Bob Lee Wash and Many Devils Wash), and a terrace drainage channel diversion structure. All extracted groundwater is pumped into a lined evaporation pond on the terrace. Compliance Strategy and Remediation Goals As documented in the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission–approved compliance strategy for the

  14. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units is listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) which was agreed to by the state of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). CAU 543 sites are located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. All Area 15 CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, which operated from 1963 to 1981 and was used to support animal experiments involving the uptake of radionuclides. Each of the Area 15 CASs, except CAS 15-23-01, is associated with the disposal of waste effluent from Building 15-06, which was the primary location of the various tests and experiments conducted onsite. Waste effluent disposal from Building 15-06 involved piping, sumps, outfalls, a septic tank with leachfield, underground storage tanks, and an aboveground storage tank (AST). CAS 15-23-01 was associated with decontamination activities of farm equipment potentially contaminated with radiological constituents, pesticides, and herbicides. While the building structures were removed before the investigation took place, all the original tanks, sumps, piping, and concrete building pads remain in place. The Area 6 CAS is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, a facility which operated from 1971 to 2001 and was used to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, clothing, and other materials that had become contaminated during nuclear testing activities. The CAS includes the effluent collection and distribution systems for Buildings

  16. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater.

  17. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts.

  18. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, D.

    1996-02-01

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  19. Tests for evaluating sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutton, R.J.; Butler, D.K.; Meade, R.B.; Patrick, D.M.; Strong, A.B.; Taylor, H.M. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    This report, the second of a series, identifies the tests and other means of evaluating or documenting the important characteristics of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The specific parameters were identified and explained in regard to their importance in characterizing disposal facilities in the previous report. More than half of the tests and procedures are standard methods recognized and used nationwide, most conspicuously the numerous chemical tests. Other tests are commonly used methods recognized widely as state of the art, e.g., geological and geophysical methods. The basis for choosing these state-of-the-art methods is discussed, and the concepts and procedures themselves are reviewed in the absence of standards for ready reference. Besides standards and state-of-the-art practices a third category of methods involves the use of existing data sources or recognized correlations in place of new testing or documentation. It is particularly important that mapping, logging, sampling, testing, interpretation, and analysis be conducted by technically qualified and professionally motivated personnel using appropriate equipment and facilities, and general guidance is provided in this direction. There will be cases where site-specific testing and measurement are indicated to be unnecessary on a technical basis. This report calls attention to the usual subordinate role of such parameters and their only infrequent need for testing

  20. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Estimation of distribution coefficient for uranium in soil around a waste disposal site at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination arising from the disposed waste from industrial origin is of major concern now a days. There is a possibility of run off as well as Ieaching of contaminants from the sites to nearby aquatic bodies through rain water. Distribution coefficient, K d in soil is an important parameter to predict the migration of contaminants. However it requires precise measurement not only for the accurate prediction of contaminant transport but also for describing the sorption behavior in a particular environment. The variation of K d values for a radionuclide is due to differences in geochemical conditions, soil materials, nature of water and methods used for the measurements. For the present study soil samples have been collected near a waste disposal site at Trombay and the sorption of uranium has been studied by measuring the distribution coefficient (K d ) by laboratory batch method. In our earlier studies, we could notice substantial effect of ionic composition of ground water on the K d values of uranium. In this study we have used rain water as the sorption media and the measured K d value s were compared with previous values for different soil and water characteristics from different regions of India

  2. Control of pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Ramrav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After landfilling of wastes is completed, the stabilization of landfilled ground requires much time and cost. Therefore, this study aimed to control the pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal sites during landfilling process, by conducting field surveys and laboratory experiments. In field surveys, we investigated the changes of retained water quality such as pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. The results show the pH of retained water has risen to about 10 when the volume of landfilled wastes reached about 25% of landfill capacity. In lowing the pH, we considered a low-cost method by pumping seawater from the adjacent sea into the landfill. The mechanism in this method is that, H+ dissociated from HCO3- in the fresh seawater react with OH- eluted from wastes would result in pH decrease. The laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the effect on pH change by adding fresh seawater to alkalized seawater. As a result, the effect of injecting fresh seawater into alkalized seawater with pH higher than 9 was confirmed. Therefore, this treatment method is suggested to enable the disposal sites to be used promptly after landfilling is completed, by adding fresh seawater to purify the retained water and waste at low cost during landfilling process.

  3. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Dose and risk assessment for intrusion into mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1991-10-01

    Sites previously used for disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical materials have resulted in situations that pose a potential threat to humans from inadvertent intrusion. An example generic scenario analysis was developed to demonstrate the evaluation of potential exposure to either cleanup workers or members of the public who intrude into buried waste containing both radioactive and hazardous chemical contaminants. The example scenarios consist of a collection of exposure routes (or pathways) with specific modeling assumptions for well-drilling and for excavation to construct buildings. These scenarios are used to describe conceptually some potential patterns of activity by non-protected human beings during intrusion into mixed-waste disposal sites. The dose from exposure to radioactive materials is calculated using the GENII software system and converted to risk by using factors from ICRP Publication 60. The hazard assessment for nonradioactive materials is performed using recent guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The example results are in the form of cancer risk for carcinogens and radiation exposure

  5. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site's preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised

  6. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). STP reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare a plan describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste (hazardous/radioactive waste). DOE decided to prepare its site treatment plan in a three phased approach. The first phase, called the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP), was issued in October 1993. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the CSTP described mixed waste streams generated at SRS and listed treatment scenarios for each waste stream utilizing an onsite, offsite DOE, and offsite or onsite commercial or vendor treatment option. The CSTP is followed by the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), due to be issued in August 1994. The DSTP, the current activity., will narrow the options discussed in the CSTP to a preferred treatment option, if possible, and will include waste streams proposed to be shipped to SRS from other DOE facilities as well as waste streams SRS may send offsite for treatment. The SRS DSTP process has been designed to address treatment options for each of the site's mixed waste streams. The SRS Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP) is due to be issued in February 1995. The compliance order would be derived from the PSTP

  7. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3 H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow

  8. Modeling of reactive chemical transport of leachates from a utility fly-ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.; Zhu, M.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Freyberg, D.L.; Ronan, A.D.; Itakagi, S.

    1991-04-01

    Fly ash from fossil-fuel power plants is commonly slurried and pumped to disposal sites. The utility industry is interested in finding out whether any hazardous constituents might leach from the accumulated fly ash and contaminate ground and surface waters. To evaluate the significance of this problem, a representative site was selected for modeling. FASTCHEM, a computer code developed for the Electric Power Research Institute, was utilized for the simulation of the transport and fate of the fly-ash leachate. The chemical evolution of the leachate was modeled as it migrated along streamtubes defined by the flow model. The modeling predicts that most of the leachate seeps through the dam confining the ash pond. With the exception of ferrous, manganous, sulfate and small amounts of nickel ions, all other dissolved constituents are predicted to discharge at environmentally acceptable concentrations

  9. Heavy metals contamination of air and soil in Karak solid waste disposal site, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiries, A. G.; Jaradat, Q. M.; Momani, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The level of air and soil pollution in the municipal solid waste disposal site of Karak(Jordan) were investigated during spring of 1995 by monitoring the amounts of heavy metals. The concentration (mg/kg)of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the upper soil were found to have a range of 15.3-39.3, 21.2-38.0 and 60.0-127.0 respectively. However, for the lower soil, the ranges are 13.4-18.9, 18.5-23.7, and 50.6-90.4, respectively. The soil contamination with heavy metals was almost confined to the upper soil in the locations closely surrounding the burning site, which could be accounted to the arid climate conditions of the area. (authors). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision Support System For Management Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal At The Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term safety of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive disposal facilities is assessed by conducting a performance assessment -- a systematic analysis that compares estimated risks to the public and the environment with performance objectives contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Before site operations, facilities design features such as final inventory, waste form characteristics, and closure cover design may be uncertain. Site operators need a modeling tool that can be used throughout the operational life of the disposal site to guide decisions regarding the acceptance of problematic waste streams, new disposal cell design, environmental monitoring program design, and final site closure. In response to these needs the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has developed a decision support system for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site. The core of the system is a probabilistic inventory and performance assessment model implemented in the GoldSim R simulation platform. The modeling platform supports multiple graphic capabilities that allow clear documentation of the model data sources, conceptual model, mathematical implementation, and results. The combined models have the capability to estimate disposal site inventory, contaminant concentrations in environmental media, and radiological doses to members of the public engaged in various activities at multiple locations. The model allows rapid assessment and documentation of the consequences of waste management decisions using the most current site characterization information, radionuclide inventory, and conceptual model. The model is routinely used to provide annual updates of site performance, evaluate the consequences of disposal of new waste streams, develop waste concentration limits, optimize the design of new disposal cells, and assess the adequacy of environmental

  12. Fast neutron incineration as an alternative to geologic disposal: the Rubbia proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, James.

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Amplifier is a ''fast neutron non-critical device'' conceived by Professor Carlo Rubbia and is described as the outcome of a mature cross-fertilisation between modern accelerators and nuclear power. In its currently proposed manifestation it uses thorium and actinite waste as fuel and molten lead for cooling. The lead also acts as a built-in spallation neutron source in the reactor core. Protons from the accelerator are beamed into the spallation region of the core where they produce large numbers of neutrons. These generate heat by nuclear cascades rather than by the self-sustaining chain reaction of a conventional nuclear reactor and the amount of power produced is controlled by the beam current. The basic principle was demonstrated in an experiment at CERN in 1994. The Energy Amplifier has passive safety features, relying only on natural convection for the lead coolant and with cut-off of the proton beam by overflowing lead should the system overheat. A recent discovery has shown that in addition to incinerating transuranic elements and generating a large amount of energy, the system has the potential to transmute long-lived radioactive products from LWRs. This could virtually eliminate the need for geological disposal repositories. The Energy Amplifier would draw on a number of research strands and technologies from around the world. Funding is now being sought to build a 100 MWt prototype. (UK)

  13. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    A summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites is provided. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed include those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). The review is limited to activities conducted for the purpose of monitoring disposal site performance. Areas of environmental monitoring reviewed include air monitoring for particulates and gases, monitoring of surface water runoff, surface water bodies, ground water, monitoring of surface soils and the vadose zone, and monitoring of ambient penetrating radiation. Routine environmental surveillance is conducted at major LLW disposal sites at various levels of effort for specific environmental media. In summary, all sites implement a routine monitoring program for penetrating radiation. Four sites (INEL, NTS, LANL, and SRP) monitor particulates in air specifically at LLW disposal sites. Hanford monitors particulates at LLW sites in conjunction with monitoring of other site operations. Particulates are monitored on a reservationwide network at ORNL. Gases are monitored specifically at active LLW sites operated at NTS, LANL, and SRP. Ground water is monitored specifically at LLW sites at INEL, LANL, and SRP, in conjunction with other operations at Hanford, and as part of a reservationwide program at NTS and ORNL. Surface water is monitored at INEL, LANL, and SRP LLW sites. Surface soil is sampled and analyzed on a routine basis at INEL and LANL. Routine monitoring of the vadose zone is conducted at the INEL and SRP. Techniques and equipment in use are described and other aspects of environmental monitoring programs, such as quality assurance and data base management, are reviewed

  14. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  15. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is the first in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the text (Appendices A through G). Volume 2 provides raw data. A site located between 200 East and 200 West Areas, in the central portion of the Hanford Site, was selected as the prime location for the ERDF. Modifications to the facility design minimize the footprint and have resulted in a significant reduction in the areal size. This change was initiated in part as a response to recommendations of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group to limit waste management activities to an exclusive zone within the squared-off boundary of the 200 Areas. Additionally, the reduction in size of the footprint was initiated to minimize impacts to ecology. The ERDF is designed for disposal of remediation wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site and could be expanded to hold as much as 28 million yd 3 (21.4 million m 3 ) of solid waste

  16. Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC's position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ''one-bad-year'' scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ''critical cross section'' study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity

  17. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of Proposed Code Changes Regarding Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems in Suffolk County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of proposed code changes regarding residential onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) in Suffolk County, New York. Of the approximately 569,000 housing units in Suffolk County, 365,000 are no...

  18. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  19. The application of passive sampler (DGT technology for improved understanding of metal behaviour at a marine disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal behaviour and availability at a contaminated dredge material disposal site within UK waters has been investigated using Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT passive sampling technology. Three stations representing contrasting history and presence of maintenance dredge disposal, including a control station outside the disposal site, have been studied and depth profiles of fluxes of different metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn to the binding gel (Chelex 100 have been derived. Higher flux rates and shallower mobilisation of metals (Mn and Fe to the binding gel were observed at the disposal stations compared to the control station. Here we describe metal mobilization at different depths, linking the remobilization of Fe2+ and Mn2+ to the sediment (resupply of other heavy metals of interest with a focus on Cd, Ni and Pb and as they are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD list of priority substances and OSPAR list of priority pollutants. Results showed that Cd, Pb and Ni exhibited signs of resupply at the sediment-water interface (SWI. There was a potential increased mobilisation and source to the water column of Pb and Ni at the disposal site stations, but there was no Cd source, despite higher total loadings. This information has the potential to improve our current understanding of metal cycles at disposal sites. This work can be used as an indication of likely metal bioavailability and also assist in determining whether the sites act as sources or sinks of heavy metals. This information could assist disposal site monitoring and dredge material licensing.

  20. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  1. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  2. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  3. Methodology for selecting low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with application to the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed to select an environmentally acceptable site for low-level radioactive waste disposal for a predetermined region of interest using prescribed site suitability requirements. The methodology provides a defensible means for identifying candidate areas within the region, candidate sites within the areas, and an environmentally preferred site from the candidate sites. This is accomplished in site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The methodology was applied to the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. 6 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  4. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste

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