WorldWideScience

Sample records for property acquisition techniques

  1. Data acquisition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Testing neutron generators and major subassemblies has undergone a transition in the past few years. Digital information is now used for storage and analysis. The key to the change is the availability of a high-speed digitizer system. The status of the Sandia Laboratory data acquisition and handling system as applied to this area is surveyed. 1 figure

  2. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  3. Transient data acquisition techniques under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, S.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series which describes the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the MARS project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although EDS was developed for use on AVLIS, the functional requirements, overall design, and specific techniques are applicable to any experimental data acquisition system involving large quantities of transient data. In particular this paper will discuss the techniques and equipment used to do the data acquisition. Included are what types of hardware are used and how that hardware (CAMAC, digital oscilloscopes) is interfaced to the HP computers. In this discussion the author will address the problems encountered and the solutions used, as well as the performance of the instrument/computer interfaces. The second topic the author will discuss is how the acquired data is associated to graphics and analysis portions of EDS through efficient real time data bases. This discussion will include how the acquired data is folded into the overall structure of EDS providing the user immediate access to raw and analyzed data. By example you will see how easily a new diagnostic can be added to the EDS structure without modifying the other parts of the system. 8 figs

  4. Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

  5. New partially parallel acquisition technique in cerebral imaging: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Gawehn, Joachim; Bauermann, Thomas; Vucurevic, Goran; Stoeter, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In MRI applications where short acquisition time is necessary, the increase of acquisition speed is often at the expense of image resolution and SNR. In such cases, the newly developed parallel acquisition techniques could provide images without mentioned limitations and in reasonably shortened measurement time. A newly designed eight-channel head coil array (i-PAT coil) allowing for parallel acquisition of independently reconstructed images (GRAPPA mode) has been tested for its applicability in neuroradiology. Image homogeneity was tested in standard phantom and healthy volunteers. BOLD signal changes were studied in a group of six volunteers using finger tapping stimulation. Phantom studies revealed an important drop of signal even after the use of a normalization filter in the center of the image and an important increase of artifact power with reduction of measurement time strongly depending on the combination of acceleration parameters. The additional application of a parallel acquisition technique such as GRAPPA decreases measurement time in the range of about 30%, but further reduction is often possible only at the expense of SNR. This technique performs best in conditions in which imaging speed is important, such as CE MRA, but time resolution still does not allow the acquisition of angiograms separating the arterial and venous phase. Significantly larger areas of BOLD activation were found using the i-PAT coil compared to the standard head coil. Being an eight-channel surface coil array, peripheral cortical structures profit from high SNR as high-resolution imaging of small cortical dysplasias and functional activation of cortical areas imaged by BOLD contrast. In BOLD contrast imaging, susceptibility artifacts are reduced, but only if an appropriate combination of acceleration parameters is used. (orig.)

  6. New partially parallel acquisition technique in cerebral imaging: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintera, Jaroslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Gawehn, Joachim; Bauermann, Thomas; Vucurevic, Goran; Stoeter, Peter [University Clinic Mainz, Institute of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    In MRI applications where short acquisition time is necessary, the increase of acquisition speed is often at the expense of image resolution and SNR. In such cases, the newly developed parallel acquisition techniques could provide images without mentioned limitations and in reasonably shortened measurement time. A newly designed eight-channel head coil array (i-PAT coil) allowing for parallel acquisition of independently reconstructed images (GRAPPA mode) has been tested for its applicability in neuroradiology. Image homogeneity was tested in standard phantom and healthy volunteers. BOLD signal changes were studied in a group of six volunteers using finger tapping stimulation. Phantom studies revealed an important drop of signal even after the use of a normalization filter in the center of the image and an important increase of artifact power with reduction of measurement time strongly depending on the combination of acceleration parameters. The additional application of a parallel acquisition technique such as GRAPPA decreases measurement time in the range of about 30%, but further reduction is often possible only at the expense of SNR. This technique performs best in conditions in which imaging speed is important, such as CE MRA, but time resolution still does not allow the acquisition of angiograms separating the arterial and venous phase. Significantly larger areas of BOLD activation were found using the i-PAT coil compared to the standard head coil. Being an eight-channel surface coil array, peripheral cortical structures profit from high SNR as high-resolution imaging of small cortical dysplasias and functional activation of cortical areas imaged by BOLD contrast. In BOLD contrast imaging, susceptibility artifacts are reduced, but only if an appropriate combination of acceleration parameters is used. (orig.)

  7. Quick pace of property acquisitions requires two-stage evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, R.; Lockwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional method of evaluating oil and gas reserves may be too cumbersome for the quick pace of oil and gas property acquisition. An acquisition evaluator must decide quickly if a property meets basic purchase criteria. The current business climate requires a two-stage approach. First, the evaluator makes a quick assessment of the property and submits a bid. If the bid is accepted then the evaluator goes on with a detailed analysis, which represents the second stage. Acquisition of producing properties has become an important activity for many independent oil and gas producers, who must be able to evaluate reserves quickly enough to make effective business decisions yet accurately enough to avoid costly mistakes. Independent thus must be familiar with how transactions usually progress as well as with the basic methods of property evaluation. The paper discusses acquisition activity, the initial offer, the final offer, property evaluation, and fair market value

  8. In search of the best technique for vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohseni-Far

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teade plagiaadi kohta / Report of an Act of Plagiarism (6. mai 2012 / 6 May, 2012ERÜ aastaraamatus 4 (2008 lk 121–138 ilmunud Mohammad Mohseni-Far'i artikli "In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition" näol on tegemist iseenda plagiaadiga. Sama artikkel on 2008. a ilmunud lisaks ERÜ aastaraamatule veel KAKS KORDA ligilähedases sõnastuses ning ligilähedase pealkirjaga. Kuna autor on tegelnud sõnastuse muutmisega, siis järelikult on tegemist teadliku plagiaadiga. Vt ka Check for Plagiarism On the Web.We are sorry to inform that Mohammad Mohseni-Far, the author of 'In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition' published in ERÜ aastaraamat / EAAL yearbook, Vol. 4 (2008 pp. 121–138, has published the same article TWICE in another journal just by changing the title and a few wordings. The plagiarism is verified, using the Check for Plagiarism On the Web.A Cognitively-oriented Encapsulation of Strategies Utilized for Lexical Development: In search of a flexible and highly interactive curriculum. – Porta Linguarum 9 (2008, 35–42. Techniques and Strategies Utilized for Vocabulary Acquisition: the necessity to design a multifaceted framework with an instructionally wise equilibrium. – Porta Linguarum 8 (2007, 137–152.ERÜ aastaraamatu toimetus / Editors of the EAAL yearbook***The present study is intended to critically examine vocabulary learning/acquisition techniques within second/foreign language context. Accordingly, the purpose of this survey is to concentrate particularly on the variables connected with lexical knowledge and establish a fairly all-inclusive framework which comprises and expounds on the most significant strategies and relevant factors within the vocabulary acquisition context. At the outset, the study introduces four salient variables; learner, task and strategy serve as a general structure of inquiry (Flavell’s cognitive model, 1992. Besides, the variable of context

  9. Run control techniques for the Fermilab DART data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.; Moore, C.; Pordes, R.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.; Drunen, E. van; Zioulas, G.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by the Fermilab Computing Division in collaboration with eight High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run-control which implements flexible, distributed, extensible and portable paradigms for the control monitoring of a data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting aspects of the run-control - why we chose the concepts we did, the benefits we have seen from the choices we made, as well as our experiences in deploying and supporting it for experiments during their commissioning and sub-system testing phases. We emphasize the software and techniques we believe are extensible to future use, and potential future modifications and extensions for those we feel are not. (author)

  10. Run control techniques for the Fermilab DART data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-10-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by the Fermilab Computing Division in collaboration with eight High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run-control which implements flexible, distributed, extensible and portable paradigms for the control and monitoring of data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting aspects of the run-control - why we chose the concepts we did, the benefits we have seen from the choices we made, as well as our experiences in deploying and supporting it for experiments during their commissioning and sub-system testing phases. We emphasize the software and techniques we believe are extensible to future use, and potential future modifications and extensions for those we feel are not

  11. Detector techniques and data acquisition for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071367; Cittolin, Sergio; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the technologies for LHC tracking detectors, particle identification and calorimeters will be given. In addition, the requirements of the front-end readout electronics for each type of detector will be addressed. The latest results from the R&D studies in each of the technologies will be presented. The data handling techniques needed to read out the LHC detectors and the multi-level trigger systems used to select the events of interest will be described. An overview of the LHC experiments data acquisition architectures and their current state of developments will be presented.

  12. Applying of USB interface technique in nuclear spectrum acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Huang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces applying of USB technique and constructing nuclear spectrum acquisition system via PC's USB interface. The authors choose the USB component USB100 module and the W77E58μc to do the key work. It's easy to apply USB interface technique, when USB100 module is used. USB100 module can be treated as a common I/O component for the μc controller, and can be treated as a communication interface (COM) when connected to PC' USB interface. It's easy to modify the PC's program for the new system with USB100 module. The authors can smoothly change from ISA, RS232 bus to USB bus. (authors)

  13. Acquisition and visualization techniques for narrow spectral color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, László; García, Rafael; Basa, János; Hegedüs, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new approach in narrow-band imaging (NBI). Existing NBI techniques generate images by selecting discrete bands over the full visible spectrum or an even wider spectral range. In contrast, here we perform the sampling with filters covering a tight spectral window. This image acquisition method, named narrow spectral imaging, can be particularly useful when optical information is only available within a narrow spectral window, such as in the case of deep-water transmittance, which constitutes the principal motivation of this work. In this study we demonstrate the potential of the proposed photographic technique on nonunderwater scenes recorded under controlled conditions. To this end three multilayer narrow bandpass filters were employed, which transmit at 440, 456, and 470 nm bluish wavelengths, respectively. Since the differences among the images captured in such a narrow spectral window can be extremely small, both image acquisition and visualization require a novel approach. First, high-bit-depth images were acquired with multilayer narrow-band filters either placed in front of the illumination or mounted on the camera lens. Second, a color-mapping method is proposed, using which the input data can be transformed onto the entire display color gamut with a continuous and perceptually nearly uniform mapping, while ensuring optimally high information content for human perception.

  14. Reliability of contemporary data-acquisition techniques for LEED analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Davis, H.L.

    1980-10-01

    It is becoming clear that one of the principal limitations in LEED structure analysis is the quality of the experimental I-V profiles. This limitation is discussed, and data acquisition procedures described, which for simple systems, seem to enhance the quality of agreement between the results of theoretical model calculations and experimental LEED spectra. By employing such procedures to obtain data from Cu(100), excellent agreement between computed and measured profiles has been achieved. 7 figures

  15. Image acquisition system using on sensor compressed sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravir Singh; Choi, Gwan Seong

    2018-01-01

    Advances in CMOS technology have made high-resolution image sensors possible. These image sensors pose significant challenges in terms of the amount of raw data generated, energy efficiency, and frame rate. This paper presents a design methodology for an imaging system and a simplified image sensor pixel design to be used in the system so that the compressed sensing (CS) technique can be implemented easily at the sensor level. This results in significant energy savings as it not only cuts the raw data rate but also reduces transistor count per pixel; decreases pixel size; increases fill factor; simplifies analog-to-digital converter, JPEG encoder, and JPEG decoder design; decreases wiring; and reduces the decoder size by half. Thus, CS has the potential to increase the resolution of image sensors for a given technology and die size while significantly decreasing the power consumption and design complexity. We show that it has potential to reduce power consumption by about 23% to 65%.

  16. An overview of data acquisition, signal coding and data analysis techniques for MST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the data acquisition, signal processing, and data analysis techniques that are currently in use with high power MST/ST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere/stratosphere troposphere) radars. This review supplements the works of Rastogi (1983) and Farley (1984) presented at previous MAP workshops. A general description is given of data acquisition and signal processing operations and they are characterized on the basis of their disparate time scales. Then signal coding, a brief description of frequently used codes, and their limitations are discussed, and finally, several aspects of statistical data processing such as signal statistics, power spectrum and autocovariance analysis, outlier removal techniques are discussed.

  17. Spacing Techniques in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: Short-Term Gains vs. Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments using the spacing technique (Leitner, 1972; Landauer & Bjork, 1978) in second language vocabulary acquisition. In the past, studies in this area have produced mixed results attempting to differentiate between massed, uniform and expanded intervals of spacing (Balota, Duchek, & Logan,…

  18. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  19. 75 FR 25160 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... to track and trace property items throughout their lifecycle (in acquisition and logistics business... entities to which this rule will apply. DoD invites comments from small business concerns and other...

  20. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... contractor to use the property on an independent research and development (IR&D) program rent free, if-- (a... Government for all property acquired or fabricated by the Contractor in accordance with the financing...-0029; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL41 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property...

  1. Image acquisition and planimetry systems to develop wounding techniques in 3D wound model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Ann-Kathrin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents a complex biological repair process. Established 2D monolayers and wounding techniques investigate cell migration, but do not represent coordinated multi-cellular systems. We aim to use wound surface area measurements obtained from image acquisition and planimetry systems to establish our wounding technique and in vitro organotypic tissue. These systems will be used in our future wound healing treatment studies to assess the rate of wound closure in response to wound healing treatment with light therapy (photobiomodulation. The image acquisition and planimetry systems were developed, calibrated, and verified to measure wound surface area in vitro. The system consists of a recording system (Sony DSC HX60, 20.4 M Pixel, 1/2.3″ CMOS sensor and calibrated with 1mm scale paper. Macro photography with an optical zoom magnification of 2:1 achieves sufficient resolution to evaluate the 3mm wound size and healing growth. The camera system was leveled with an aluminum construction to ensure constant distance and orientation of the images. The JPG-format images were processed with a planimetry system in MATLAB. Edge detection enables definition of the wounded area. Wound area can be calculated with surface integrals. To separate the wounded area from the background, the image was filtered in several steps. Agar models, injured through several test persons with different levels of experience, were used as pilot data to test the planimetry software. These image acquisition and planimetry systems support the development of our wound healing research. The reproducibility of our wounding technique can be assessed by the variability in initial wound surface area. Also, wound healing treatment effects can be assessed by the change in rate of wound closure. These techniques represent the foundations of our wound model, wounding technique, and analysis systems in our ongoing studies in wound healing and therapy.

  2. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35641] Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from SLA Property Management Limited...

  3. The Effect Of The Original Acquisition Of Ownership Of Immovable Property On Existing Limited Real Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Pienaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an accepted principle in South African law that movable property acquired in an original way (by operation of law is not burdened by any limited real rights, as previous limited real rights are extinguished on the vesting of ownership (mobilia non habent sequelam. It is assumed by some South African writers that the same principles are applicable to the original acquisition of immovable property and that all existing limited real rights fall away on original acquisition of ownership. In this article the nature of limited real rights to immovable property is examined, and the notion that ownership is the "mother" right on which all limited real rights are based is scrutinised critically. The nature and establishment of limited real rights are used to distinguish between the essence and effect of limited real rights in the case of immovable property. The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the Constitution. The statutory provisions regarding limited real rights in the case of prescription and expropriation are then analysed as an indication that it is not a general principle that limited real rights are extinguished automatically on the original acquisition of ownership of immovable property.

  4. Marketing practitioner’s tacit knowledge acquisition using Repertory Grid Technique (RTG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Afdhal; Adriman, Ramzi

    2018-05-01

    The tacit knowledge of Marketing practitioner’s experts is excellent resources and priceless. It takes into account their experiential, skill, ideas, belief systems, insight and speculation into management decision-making. This expertise is an individual intuitive judgment and personal shortcuts to complete the work efficiently. Tacit knowledge of Marketing practitioner’s experts is one of best problem solutions in marketing strategy, environmental analysis, product management and partner’s relationship. This paper proposes the acquisition method of tacit knowledge from Marketing practitioner’s using Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). The RGT is a software application for tacit acquisition knowledge to provide a systematic approach to capture and acquire the constructs from an individual. The result shows the understanding of RGT could make TKE and MPE get a good result in capturing and acquiring tacit knowledge of Marketing practitioner’s experts.

  5. Rapid musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging using integrated parallel acquisition techniques (IPAT) - Initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.-F.; Mueller, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using multiple receiver coil elements for time saving integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic musculoskeletal disorders. Material and methods: 6 patients with traumatic derangements of the knee, ankle and hip underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection of the knee and ankle, we used a 6-channel body array coil that was placed around the joints, for hip imaging two 4-channel body array coils and two elements of the spine array coil were combined for signal detection. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol that mainly consisted of different turbo spin-echo sequences (PD-, T 2 -weighted TSE with and without fat suppression, STIR). All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using a modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) technique with an acceleration factor of 2. Overall image quality was subjectively assessed using a five-point scale as well as the ability for detection of pathologic findings. Results: Regarding overall image quality, there were no significant differences between standard imaging and imaging using mSENSE. All pathologies (occult fracture, meniscal tear, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques. iPAT led to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Additionally, time savings with iPAT led to a decrease of pain-induced motion artifacts in two cases. Conclusion: In times of increasing cost pressure, iPAT using multiple coil elements seems to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal imaging with diagnostic performance comparable to conventional techniques. (orig.) [de

  6. Private Property Rights and Compulsory Acquisition Process in Nigeria: the Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde OTUBU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A property right is the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals. In the context of land, it is the authority of the land owner to determine its use or otherwise. On the other hand, compulsory acquisition is the process by which government obtain land from private owners for development purposes in the best interest of the community. These diametrically opposed concepts of property rights and compulsory acquisition is reconciled with the payment of compensation for the extinguishment of private property rights. Implications: In Nigeria, these two concepts have a history of mutual conflicts, resulting in congruous resolutions most of the time, until the introduction of the Land Use Act 1978. With the coming of the Act, the pendulum has tilted in favors of compulsory acquisition to the detriment of private property rights; as compensation fails to assuage the loss occasioned by expropriation. Value: The paper explored the dichotomy between private property rights and compulsory acquisition in Nigeria in the last 50 years and submitted that the process under the Land Use Act changed the equilibrium that existed between these two concepts and produced a skewed and unfavorable result to the detriment of private property rights and National economy. It finally proposed a new equitable arrangement to the quagmire.

  7. 75 FR 26822 - In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp. (``Universal Property'') because it has not filed any... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 10, 2010. It appears to the Securities and...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.20 - Acquisition of chattel property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 debt plus prior liens, if any. (2) Bids will not be made in the following... bid in by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to satisfy the FmHA or its successor... under Public Law 103-354 liquidate the property according to Subpart A of Part 1962 of this chapter and...

  9. Diffusion MRI of the neonate brain: acquisition, processing and analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannek, Kerstin [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [IRCCS Stella Maris, Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Calambrone Pisa (Italy); Colditz, Paul B. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Perinatal Research Centre, Brisbane (Australia); Rose, Stephen E. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a popular noninvasive imaging modality for the investigation of the neonate brain. It enables the assessment of white matter integrity, and is particularly suited for studying white matter maturation in the preterm and term neonate brain. Diffusion tractography allows the delineation of white matter pathways and assessment of connectivity in vivo. In this review, we address the challenges of performing and analysing neonate dMRI. Of particular importance in dMRI analysis is adequate data preprocessing to reduce image distortions inherent to the acquisition technique, as well as artefacts caused by head movement. We present a summary of techniques that should be used in the preprocessing of neonate dMRI data, and demonstrate the effect of these important correction steps. Furthermore, we give an overview of available analysis techniques, ranging from voxel-based analysis of anisotropy metrics including tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to recently developed methods of statistical analysis addressing issues of resolving complex white matter architecture. We highlight the importance of resolving crossing fibres for tractography and outline several tractography-based techniques, including connectivity-based segmentation, the connectome and tractography mapping. These techniques provide powerful tools for the investigation of brain development and maturation. (orig.)

  10. 24 CFR 1000.14 - What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable? 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.14...

  11. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  12. Screening crops for efficient phosphorus acquisition in a low phosphorus soil using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, S.; Malarvizhi, P.; Rajeswari, R.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production. Identification of cultivars with greater capacity to grow in soils having low P availability (phosphorus efficiency) will help in P management in a sustainable way. Green house experiment with maize (CO 6) and cotton (MCU 13) as test crops with four levels of phosphorus (0, 3.75, 7.50 and 15 mg P kg -1 soil) was conducted in a P deficient soil (7.2 kg ha -1 ) to study the phosphorus acquisition characteristics and to select efficient crop using 32 P radiotracer technique. Carrier free 32 P obtained as orthophosphoric acid in dilute hydrochloric acid medium from the Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai was used for labeling the soil @ 3200 kBq pot -1 . After 60 days the crops were harvested and the radioactivity was measured in the plant samples using Liquid scintillation counter (PerkinElmer - Tricarb 2810 TR). Different values of specific radioactivity and Isotopically Exchangeable Phosphorus for maize and cotton indicated that chemically different pools of soil P were utilized and maize accessing a larger pool than cotton. Maize having recorded high Phosphorus Use Efficiency, Phosphorus Efficiency and low Phosphorus Stress Factor values, it is a better choice for P deficient soils. Higher Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency of maize (59 %) than cotton (48%) can be related to the ability of maize to take up P from insoluble inorganic P forms. (author)

  13. Implementation of the neutron noise technique for subcritical reactors using a new data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellino, Pablo A.; Gomez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    A new data acquisition system was designed and programmed for nuclear kinetics parameter estimations in subcritical reactors. The system allows using any of the neutron noise techniques, since it could store the whole information available in the neutron detection system. The α Rossi, α Feynman and spectral analysis methods were performed in order to estimate the prompt neutron decay constant (and hence the reactivity). The measurements were done in the nuclear research reactor RA-1, where introducing the control rods, different reactivity levels where reached (until -7 dollars). With the three methods used, agreement was found between the estimations and the reference reactivities in each level, even when the detector efficiency was low. All the measurements were performed with a high gamma flux, although the results were found to be satisfactory. (author)

  14. RIGHT TO PROPERTY: THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT 1960 AND THE SHARIAH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Mohamad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic law recognizes both private and community property. This community rights are manifested in forms of entitlement for charitable purposes, known as waqf or trusts,  sadaqah as well as  zakat. Under the Sha‘riah, however, ownership of all property ultimately rests with God. Though individual property rights are upheld, there is a corresponding obligation to share, particularly with those in need. In Malaysia, the right to property is a constitutional right and thus, the acquiring authority cannot deprive a person of his land in an arbitrary manner. This paper discusses the extent of which the acquisition law falls in line with Shari‘ah thus preserving the right to property as determined by Shari‘ah to individuals. Similarly, the paper also looks at some basic principles sustained by the court in determining whether the working of the acquisition law falls within the constitutional guarantee provided under Article 13 of the Federal Constitution and the Sha‘riah. A study of the case law reveals that human errors due to greediness and lack of responsibility have contributed to some of the problems in land acquisition.

  15. Effects of various event building techniques on data acquisition system architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.; Booth, A.; Bowden, M.

    1990-04-01

    The preliminary specifications for various new detectors throughout the world including those at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) already make it clear that existing event building techniques will be inadequate for the high trigger and data rates anticipated for these detectors. In the world of high-energy physics many approaches have been taken to solving the problem of reading out data from a whole detector and presenting a complete event to the physicist, while simultaneously keeping deadtime to a minimum. This paper includes a review of multiprocessor and telecommunications interconnection networks and how these networks relate to event building in general, illustrating advantages of the various approaches. It presents a more detailed study of recent research into new event building techniques which incorporate much greater parallelism to better accommodate high data rates. The future in areas such as front-end electronics architectures, high speed data links, event building and online processor arrays is also examined. Finally, details of a scalable parallel data acquisition system architecture being developed at Fermilab are given. 35 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  16. Rapid musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging using integrated parallel acquisition techniques (IPAT) - Initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.-F. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Mueller, L.P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using multiple receiver coil elements for time saving integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic musculoskeletal disorders. Material and methods: 6 patients with traumatic derangements of the knee, ankle and hip underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection of the knee and ankle, we used a 6-channel body array coil that was placed around the joints, for hip imaging two 4-channel body array coils and two elements of the spine array coil were combined for signal detection. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol that mainly consisted of different turbo spin-echo sequences (PD-, T{sub 2}-weighted TSE with and without fat suppression, STIR). All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using a modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) technique with an acceleration factor of 2. Overall image quality was subjectively assessed using a five-point scale as well as the ability for detection of pathologic findings. Results: Regarding overall image quality, there were no significant differences between standard imaging and imaging using mSENSE. All pathologies (occult fracture, meniscal tear, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques. iPAT led to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Additionally, time savings with iPAT led to a decrease of pain-induced motion artifacts in two cases. Conclusion: In times of increasing cost pressure, iPAT using multiple coil elements seems to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal imaging with diagnostic performance comparable to conventional techniques. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Einsatz integrierter paralleler Akquisitionstechniken (iPAT) zur Verkuerzung der Untersuchungszeit bei muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen. Material und Methoden: 6 Patienten mit einem Knie, Sprunggelenks- oder Huefttrauma wurden bei 1,5 T

  17. Acquisition of Dental Skills in Preclinical Technique Courses: Influence of Spatial and Manual Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…

  18. Liquidus temperature and optical properties measurement by containerless techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin D.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive alloy liquidus temperatures measured by conventional, contained techniques are often in error due to reactions with containers and gaseous impurities. This paper describes a new liquidus temperature measurement technique that avoids these problems by employing containerless processing. This technique relies on precise and accurate noncontact temperature measurements (NCTM), which are made possible by spectral emissivity values. The spectral emissivities, epsilon(sub lambda), are measured along with the optical properties (real, n, and imaginary, k, components of the index of refraction) using polarimetric techniques on electromagnetically levitated specimens. Results from work done at Vanderbilt University and Intersonics on the Ti-Al system are presented to demonstrate the above techniques.

  19. Acquisition of material properties in production for sheet metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heingärtner, Jörg; Hora, Pavel; Neumann, Anja; Hortig, Dirk; Rencki, Yasar

    2013-01-01

    In past work a measurement system for the in-line acquisition of material properties was developed at IVP. This system is based on the non-destructive eddy-current principle. Using this system, a 100% control of material properties of the processed material is possible. The system can be used for ferromagnetic materials like standard steels as well as paramagnetic materials like Aluminum and stainless steel. Used as an in-line measurement system, it can be configured as a stand-alone system to control material properties and sort out inapplicable material or as part of a control system of the forming process. In both cases, the acquired data can be used as input data for numerical simulations, e.g. stochastic simulations based on real world data

  20. The need for speed: informed land acquisitions for conservation in a dynamic property market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley; Possingham, Hugh P

    2008-11-01

    Land acquisition is a common approach to biodiversity conservation but is typically subject to property availability on the public market. Consequently, conservation plans are often unable to be implemented as intended. When properties come on the market, conservation agencies must make a choice: purchase immediately, often without a detailed knowledge of its biodiversity value; survey the parcel and accept the risk that it may be removed from the market during this process; or not purchase and hope a better parcel comes on the market at a later date. We describe both an optimal method, using stochastic dynamic programming, and a simple rule of thumb for making such decisions. The solutions to this problem illustrate how optimal conservation is necessarily dynamic and requires explicit consideration of both the time period allowed for implementation and the availability of properties.

  1. Carbon filter property detection with thermal neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongbo; Han Jun; Li Wenjie

    2003-01-01

    The paper discussed the mechanism that the antigas property of the carbon filter will decrease because of its carbon bed absorbing water from the air while the carbon filter is being stored, and introduced the principle and method of detection the amount of water absorption with thermal neutron technique. Because some certain relation between the antigas property of the carbon filter and the amount of water absorption exists, the decrease degree of the carbon filter antigas property can be estimated through the amount of water absorption, offering a practicable facility technical pathway to quickly non-destructively detect the carbon filter antigas property

  2. Numerical and physical testing of upscaling techniques for constitutive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates upscaling techniques for hydraulic conductivity measurements based on accuracy and practicality for implementation in evaluating the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Analytical and numerical techniques are compared to one another, to the results of physical upscaling experiments, and to the results obtained on the original domain. The results from different scaling techniques are then compared to the case where unscaled point scale statistics are used to generate realizations directly at the flow model grid-block scale. Initital results indicate that analytical techniques provide upscaling constitutive properties from the point measurement scale to the flow model grid-block scale. However, no single analytic technique proves to be adequate for all situations. Numerical techniques are also accurate, but they are time intensive and their accuracy is dependent on knowledge of the local flow regime at every grid-block

  3. Evaluation of Medium Spatial Resolution BRDF-Adjustment Techniques Using Multi-Angular SPOT4 (Take5) Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Claverie, Martin; Vermote, Eric; Franch, Belen; He, Tao; Hagolle, Olivier; Kadiri, Mohamed; Masek, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution sensor Surface Reflectance (SR) data are affected by surface anisotropy but are difficult to adjust because of the low temporal frequency of the acquisitions and the low angular sampling. This paper evaluates five high spatial resolution Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) adjustment techniques. The evaluation is based on the noise level of the SR Time Series (TS) corrected to a normalized geometry (nadir view, 45° sun zenith angle) extracted from the multi-...

  4. Titanium. Properties, raw datum surface, physicochemical basis and fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmata, V.A.; Petrun'ko, A.N.; Galitskij, N.V.; Olesov, Yu.G.; Sandler, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the nowadays science and technology achievements the complex of titanium metallurgy problems comprising raw material base, physico-chemical basis and fabrication technique, properties and titanium usage fields is considered for the first time. A particular attention is given to raw material base, manufacturing titanium concentrates and titanium tetrachloride, metallothermal reduction, improvement of metal quality. Data on titanium properties are given, processes of titanium powder metallurgy, scrap and waste processing, problems of economics and complex raw material use are considered

  5. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (pCAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID:24608106

  6. Combined acquisition technique (CAT for neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis at low specific absorption rates (SAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Biller

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT of turbo-spin-echo (TSE and echo-planar-imaging (EPI with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. RESULTS: Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82. CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001. Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7 % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9 % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations. Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. CONCLUSION: T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.

  7. Signs management and acquisition system for measurement of thermo physics properties of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho; Neto Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Camarano, Denise das Merces

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the management and acquisition system (SGA-LMPT) developed in a Lab View platform implemented at the Laboratory for Measurement of Thermophysics Properties at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CDTN/CNEN-MG). The SGA-LMPT is a tool which guarantee the complete fulfilment of the regulatory regulations, allowing a much more quality, productivity, costs reduction and optimization of the laboratory process. Besides, the SGA-LMPT presents the necessary requirements for demonstration a management system capable to produce results technically valid. The determination of the thermal diffusivity of the UO 2 pellet fabricated with microspheres was used for demonstration of the new system adequacy for the measurement of nuclear fuel thermo physics properties. The results were discussed and compared with literature

  8. 78 FR 9451 - Academy Express, L.L.C.-Acquisition of Property-Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ..., L.L.C.--Acquisition of Property--Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc. AGENCY: Surface... authority under 49 U.S.C. 14303 to acquire the property of Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc. (Golden... approximately 400 motor coaches and more than 500 drivers. Academy is indirectly controlled by the Tedesco...

  9. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35363] R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC... is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown...

  10. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Finance Docket No. 35363] R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property... exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation...

  11. Fast magnetic resonance imaging of the knee using a parallel acquisition technique (mSENSE): a prospective performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Romaneehsen, Bernd; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph; Krummenauer, Frank; Mueller, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging strategy that uses multiple receiver coil elements and integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic and degenerative disorders of the knee and to compare this technique with a standard MR imaging protocol was evaluated. Ninety patients with suspected internal derangements of the knee joint prospectively underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection, a 6-channel array coil was used. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol consisting of different turbo spin-echo sequences proton density (PD), T 2 -weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) with and without fat suppression in three imaging planes. All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using the modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) algorithm with an acceleration factor of 2. Two radiologists independently evaluated and scored all images with regard to overall image quality, artefacts and pathologic findings. Agreement of the parallel ratings between readers and imaging techniques, respectively, was evaluated by means of pairwise kappa coefficients that were stratified for the area of evaluation. Agreement between the parallel readers for both the iPAT imaging and the conventional technique, respectively, as well as between imaging techniques was found encouraging with inter-observer kappa values ranging between 0.78 and 0.98 for both imaging techniques, and the inter-method kappa values ranging between 0.88 and 1.00 for both clinical readers. All pathological findings (e.g. occult fractures, meniscal and cruciate ligament tears, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques with comparable performance. The use of iPAT lead to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Parallel imaging using mSENSE proved to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal MR imaging of the knee joint with comparable

  12. Property Integration: Componentless Design Techniques and Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Glasgow, I.M.; Eden, Mario Richard

    2004-01-01

    integration is defined as a functionality-based, holistic approach to the allocation and manipulation of streams and processing units, which is based on tracking, adjusting, assigning, and matching functionalities throughout the process. Revised lever arm rules are devised to allow optimal allocation while...... maintaining intra- and interstream conservation of the property-based clusters. The property integration problem is mapped into the cluster domain. This dual problem is solved in terms of clusters and then mapped to the primal problem in the property domain. Several new rules are derived for graphical...... techniques. Particularly, systematic rules and visualization techniques for the identification of optimal mixing of streams and their allocation to units. Furthermore, a derivation of the correspondence between clustering arms and fractional contribution of streams is presented. This correspondence...

  13. Spatial Modeling of Geometallurgical Properties: Techniques and a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Jared L., E-mail: jdeutsch@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Palmer, Kevin [Teck Resources Limited (Canada); Deutsch, Clayton V.; Szymanski, Jozef [University of Alberta, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (Canada); Etsell, Thomas H. [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    High-resolution spatial numerical models of metallurgical properties constrained by geological controls and more extensively by measured grade and geomechanical properties constitute an important part of geometallurgy. Geostatistical and other numerical techniques are adapted and developed to construct these high-resolution models accounting for all available data. Important issues that must be addressed include unequal sampling of the metallurgical properties versus grade assays, measurements at different scale, and complex nonlinear averaging of many metallurgical parameters. This paper establishes techniques to address each of these issues with the required implementation details and also demonstrates geometallurgical mineral deposit characterization for a copper–molybdenum deposit in South America. High-resolution models of grades and comminution indices are constructed, checked, and are rigorously validated. The workflow demonstrated in this case study is applicable to many other deposit types.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Julie; Kealey, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Julie [University of Edinburgh, Child Life and Health, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kealey, Susan [Western General Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  16. Method for signal conditioning and data acquisition system, based on variable amplification and feedback technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Livio, E-mail: livio.conti@uninettunouniversity.net [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università Telematica Internazionale Uninettuno, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 39, 00186 Rome, Italy INFN Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sgrigna, Vittorio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, 84 Via della Vasca Navale, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Zilpimiani, David [National Institute of Geophysics, Georgian Academy of Sciences, 1 M. Alexidze St., 009 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Assante, Dario [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università Telematica Internazionale Uninettuno, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 39, 00186 Rome, Italy INFN Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-21

    An original method of signal conditioning and adaptive amplification is proposed for data acquisition systems of analog signals, conceived to obtain a high resolution spectrum of any input signal. The procedure is based on a feedback scheme of the signal amplification with aim at maximizing the dynamic range and resolution of the data acquisition system. The paper describes the signal conditioning, digitization, and data processing procedures applied to an a priori unknown signal in order to enucleate its amplitude and frequency content for applications in different environments: on the ground, in space, or in the laboratory. An electronic board of the conditioning module has also been constructed and described. In the paper are also discussed the main fields of application and advantages of the method with respect to those known today.

  17. Method for signal conditioning and data acquisition system, based on variable amplification and feedback technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Livio; Sgrigna, Vittorio; Zilpimiani, David; Assante, Dario

    2014-01-01

    An original method of signal conditioning and adaptive amplification is proposed for data acquisition systems of analog signals, conceived to obtain a high resolution spectrum of any input signal. The procedure is based on a feedback scheme of the signal amplification with aim at maximizing the dynamic range and resolution of the data acquisition system. The paper describes the signal conditioning, digitization, and data processing procedures applied to an a priori unknown signal in order to enucleate its amplitude and frequency content for applications in different environments: on the ground, in space, or in the laboratory. An electronic board of the conditioning module has also been constructed and described. In the paper are also discussed the main fields of application and advantages of the method with respect to those known today

  18. Dielectric properties of proteins from simulations: tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Thomas; Perahia, David

    1995-09-01

    Tools and techniques to analyze the dielectric properties of proteins are described. Microscopic dielectric properties are determined by a susceptibility tensor of order 3 n, where n is the number of protein atoms. For perturbing charges not too close to the protein, the dielectric relaxation free energy is directly related to the dipole-dipole correlation matrix of the unperturbed protein, or equivalently to the covariance matrix of its atomic displacements. These are straightforward to obtain from existing molecular dynamics packages such as CHARMM or X- PLOR. Macroscopic dielectric properties can be derived from the dipolar fluctuations of the protein, by idealizing the protein as one or more spherical media. The dipolar fluctuations are again directly related to the covariance matrix of the atomic displacements. An interesting consequence is that the quasiharmonic approximation, which by definition exactly reproduces this covariance matrix, gives the protein dielectric constant exactly. Finally a technique is reviewed to obtain normal or quasinormal modes of vibration of symmetric protein assemblies. Using elementary group theory, and eliminating the high-frequency modes of vibration of each monomer, the limiting step in terms of memory and computation is finding the normal modes of a single monomer, with the other monomers held fixed. This technique was used to study the dielectric properties of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus protein disk.

  19. Novel technique for online characterization of cartilaginous tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chun-Yuh; Yong Gu, Wei

    2011-09-01

    The goal of tissue engineering is to use substitutes to repair and restore organ function. Bioreactors are an indispensable tool for monitoring and controlling the unique environment for engineered constructs to grow. However, in order to determine the biochemical properties of engineered constructs, samples need to be destroyed. In this study, we developed a novel technique to nondestructively online-characterize the water content and fixed charge density of cartilaginous tissues. A new technique was developed to determine the tissue mechano-electrochemical properties nondestructively. Bovine knee articular cartilage and lumbar annulus fibrosus were used in this study to demonstrate that this technique could be used on different types of tissue. The results show that our newly developed method is capable of precisely predicting the water volume fraction (less than 3% disparity) and fixed charge density (less than 16.7% disparity) within cartilaginous tissues. This novel technique will help to design a new generation of bioreactors which are able to actively determine the essential properties of the engineered constructs, as well as regulate the local environment to achieve the optimal conditions for cultivating constructs.

  20. 7 CFR 1955.12 - Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chattel Property § 1955.12 Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 or at sale by another...

  1. Evaluation of Medium Spatial Resolution BRDF-Adjustment Techniques Using Multi-Angular SPOT4 (Take5 Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Claverie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution sensor Surface Reflectance (SR data are affected by surface anisotropy but are difficult to adjust because of the low temporal frequency of the acquisitions and the low angular sampling. This paper evaluates five high spatial resolution Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF adjustment techniques. The evaluation is based on the noise level of the SR Time Series (TS corrected to a normalized geometry (nadir view, 45° sun zenith angle extracted from the multi-angular acquisitions of SPOT4 over three study areas (one in Arizona, two in France during the five-month SPOT4 (Take5 experiment. Two uniform techniques (Cst, for Constant, and Av, for Average, relying on the Vermote–Justice–Bréon (VJB BRDF method, assume no variation in space of the BRDF shape. Two methods (VI-dis, for NDVI-based disaggregation and LC-dis, for Land-Cover based disaggregation are based on disaggregation of the MODIS-derived BRDF VJB parameters using vegetation index and land cover, respectively. The last technique (LUM, for Look-Up Map relies on the MCD43 MODIS BRDF products and a crop type data layer. The VI-dis technique produced the lowest level of noise corresponding to the most effective adjustment: reduction from directional to normalized SR TS noises by 40% and 50% on average, for red and near-infrared bands, respectively. The uniform techniques displayed very good results, suggesting that a simple and uniform BRDF-shape assumption is good enough to adjust the BRDF in such geometric configuration (the view zenith angle varies from nadir to 25°. The most complex techniques relying on land cover (LC-dis and LUM displayed contrasting results depending on the land cover.

  2. Data mining techniques for thermophysical properties of refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecueksille, Ecir Ugur; Selbas, Resat; Sencan, Arzu

    2009-01-01

    This study presents ten modeling techniques within data mining process for the prediction of thermophysical properties of refrigerants (R134a, R404a, R407c and R410a). These are linear regression (LR), multi layer perception (MLP), pace regression (PR), simple linear regression (SLR), sequential minimal optimization (SMO), KStar, additive regression (AR), M5 model tree, decision table (DT), M5'Rules models. Relations depending on temperature and pressure were carried out for the determination of thermophysical properties as the specific heat capacity, viscosity, heat conduction coefficient, density of the refrigerants. Obtained model results for every refrigerant were compared and the best model was investigated. Results indicate that use of derived formulations from these techniques will facilitate design and optimize of heat exchangers which is component of especially vapor compression refrigeration system

  3. VIBE with parallel acquisition technique - a novel approach to dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobritz, M.; Radkow, T.; Bautz, W.; Fellner, F.A.; Nittka, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The VIBE (volume interpolated breath-hold examination) sequence in combination with parallel acquisition technique (iPAT: integrated parallel acquisition technique) allows dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver with high temporal and spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to obtain first clinical experience with this technique for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Materials and Methods: We examined 10 consecutive patients using a 1.5 T MR system (gradient field strength 30 mT/m) with a phased-array coil combination. Following sequences- were acquired: T 2 -w TSE and T 1 -w FLASH, after administration of gadolinium, 6 VIBE sequences with iPAT (TR/TE/matrix/partition thickness/time of acquisition: 6.2 ms/ 3.2 ms/256 x 192/4 mm/13 s), as well as T 1 -weighted FLASH with fat saturation. Two observers evaluated the different sequences concerning the number of lesions and their dignity. Following lesions were found: hepatocellular carcinoma (5 patients), hemangioma (2), metastasis (1), cyst (1), adenoma (1). Results: The VIBE sequences were superior for the detection of lesions with arterial hyperperfusion with a total of 33 focal lesions. 21 lesions were found with T 2 -w TSE and 20 with plain T 1 -weighted FLASH. Diagnostic accuracy increased with the VIBE sequence in comparison to the other sequences. Conclusion: VIBE with iPAT allows MR imaging of the liver with high spatial and temporal resolution providing dynamic contrast-enhanced information about the whole liver. This may lead to improved detection of liver lesions, especially hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  4. A Report on The Data Acquisition and On-line Instrument Technique Development for FTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, B. S.; Chi, D. Y.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, S. K.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    Documents produced during the design, procurement manufacturing, and commissioning stage for the instruments such as SPND, Thermocouple, and LVDT which are installed on the In-pile section(IPS) of the fuel test loop(FTL) are gathered together. The values measured by the instruments are stored on the database of the data acquisition system(DAS) and displayed through both DAS and remote monitoring system installed on the users office. The commissioning status and the problems and items to be improved which are revealed during the commissioning stage are described. The report will be used for the development and operation of the instruments in the near future

  5. Signal Morphing techniques and possible application to Higgs properties measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Katharina Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One way of describing deviations from the Standard Model is via Effective Field Theories or pseudo-observables, where higher order operators modify the couplings and the kinematics of the interaction of the Standard Model particles. Generating Monte Carlo events for every testable set of parameters for such a theory would require computing resources beyond the ones currently available in ATLAS. Up to now, Matrix-Element based reweighting techniques have been often used to model Beyond Standard Model process starting from Standard Model simulated events. In this talk, we review the advantages and the limitations of morphing techniques to construct continuous probability model for signal parameters, interpolating between a finite number of distributions obtained from the simulation chain. The technique will be exemplified by searching for deviations from the Standard Model predictions in Higgs properties measurements.

  6. The blood-pool technique of radionuclide ventriculography: Data acquisition and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Schauenburg, W.

    1986-01-01

    For gated heart studies an in-vitro-labelling of erythrocytes is commonly used. Rest and exercise studies are acquired from LAO. Complementary studies may have different views. Besides the most common direct frame mode acquisition, there are the more flexible list mode and a hybrid mode. Concerning evaluation the ejection fraction is the leading parameter of global ventricular analysis. In local analysis a pixelwise evaluation generates functional images of phases and amplitudes (the Fourier approach developed by the Ulm group) or Noelep's trend images. Special attention has to be paid to the varying cycle length when a sine or cosine fitting (Fourier) is used for curve smoothing or phase and amplitude images. There are two opposed problems: If there are undetected QRS-complexes, the end of the representative cycle will contain early phases of subsequent cycles which must be cut off. In the case of really varying cycle length, the last images of the representative cycle must be corrected for acquisition time per frame. The total count curve may help to discriminate both cases and supplies suitable correction factors in the latter case. (orig.) [de

  7. Post-acquisition data mining techniques for LC-MS/MS-acquired data in drug metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurjad, Pooja Sukhdev; Marothu, Vamsi Krishna; Rathod, Rajeshwari

    2017-08-01

    Metabolite identification is a crucial part of the drug discovery process. LC-MS/MS-based metabolite identification has gained widespread use, but the data acquired by the LC-MS/MS instrument is complex, and thus the interpretation of data becomes troublesome. Fortunately, advancements in data mining techniques have simplified the process of data interpretation with improved mass accuracy and provide a potentially selective, sensitive, accurate and comprehensive way for metabolite identification. In this review, we have discussed the targeted (extracted ion chromatogram, mass defect filter, product ion filter, neutral loss filter and isotope pattern filter) and untargeted (control sample comparison, background subtraction and metabolomic approaches) post-acquisition data mining techniques, which facilitate the drug metabolite identification. We have also discussed the importance of integrated data mining strategy.

  8. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  9. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  10. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  11. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step in brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis. During MR image acquisition, different scanners or parameters would be used for scanning different subjects or the same subject at a different time, which may result in large intensity variations. This intensity variation will greatly undermine the performance of subsequent MRI processing and population analysis, such as image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement. In this work, we proposed a new histogram normalization method to reduce the intensity variation between MRIs obtained from different acquisitions. In our experiment, we scanned each subject twice on two different scanners using different imaging parameters. With noise estimation, the image with lower noise level was determined and treated as the high-quality reference image. Then the histogram of the low-quality image was normalized to the histogram of the high-quality image. The normalization algorithm includes two main steps: (1) intensity scaling (IS), where, for the high-quality reference image, the intensities of the image are first rescaled to a range between the low intensity region (LIR) value and the high intensity region (HIR) value; and (2) histogram normalization (HN),where the histogram of low-quality image as input image is stretched to match the histogram of the reference image, so that the intensity range in the normalized image will also lie between LIR and HIR. We performed three sets of experiments to evaluate the proposed method, i.e., image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement, and compared this with the existing intensity normalization method. It is then possible to validate that our histogram normalization framework can achieve better results in all the experiments. It is also demonstrated that the brain template with normalization preprocessing is of higher quality than the template with no normalization processing. We have proposed

  12. High-Speed Data Acquisition and Digital Signal Processing System for PET Imaging Techniques Applied to Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Benlloch, J. M.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper is framed into the Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, whose aim is to develop an innovative gamma ray sensor for early breast cancer diagnosis. Currently, breast cancer is detected using low-energy X-ray screening. However, functional imaging techniques such as PET/FDG could be employed to detect breast cancer and track disease changes with greater sensitivity. Furthermore, a small and less expensive PET camera can be utilized minimizing main problems of whole body PET. To accomplish these objectives, we are developing a new gamma ray sensor based on a newly released photodetector. However, a dedicated PEM detector requires an adequate data acquisition (DAQ) and processing system. The characterization of gamma events needs a free-running analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sampling rates of more than 50 Ms/s and must achieve event count rates up to 10 MHz. Moreover, comprehensive data processing must be carried out to obtain event parameters necessary for performing the image reconstruction. A new generation digital signal processor (DSP) has been used to comply with these requirements. This device enables us to manage the DAQ system at up to 80 Ms/s and to execute intensive calculi over the detector signals. This paper describes our designed DAQ and processing architecture whose main features are: very high-speed data conversion, multichannel synchronized acquisition with zero dead time, a digital triggering scheme, and high throughput of data with an extensive optimization of the signal processing algorithms.

  13. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law... respects and follows the policies and laws regarding worker labor protections particularly as they [[Page...

  14. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...

  15. 76 FR 74722 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations... objectives, this proposed rule adds a subpart and clause entitled Labor Law Violations to the Agriculture...

  16. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 2. [remote sensors and data acquisition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Reports, articles, and other documents announced between April and June 1974 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR), and International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA) are cited. Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are included along with studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents, and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. The components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are, described. All reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program for the time period covered are included.

  17. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  18. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1998-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  19. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1997-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of renal masses with rapid-acquisition spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilenberg, S.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Brown, J.J.; Heiken, J.P.; Mirowitz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-DTPA-enhanced rapid-acquisition spin-echo (RASE) imaging with standard spin-echo techniques for detecting renal cysts and solid renal neoplasms. RASE imaging combines a short TR (275 msec)/short TE (10 msec), single excitation pulse sequence with half-Fourier data sampling. Eighteen patients with CT evidence of renal masses were first evaluated with standard T1-and T2-weighted SE sequences. Pre- and serial postcontrast (Cd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol./kg) RASE sequences were then performed during suspended respiration. A final set of postcontrast images was obtained with the standard T1-weighted SE sequence. Each set of MR images was first reviewed separately (ie, T1, T2, pre- and post-contrast RASE, etc)

  1. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

  2. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

  3. Electronic properties of Be and Al by Compton scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, electronic properties of beryllium and aluminum are examined by using Compton scattering technique. The method is based on the irradiation of samples using a beam narrow of mono- energetic photons of 59.54 keV product of radioactive decay of Am -241 . Scattered radiation is collected by a high resolution semiconductor detector positioned at an angle of 90°. The measured spectrum is commonly called Compton profile and contains useful information about the electronic structure of the material. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations such as density functional theory showing a good agreement. However, these results show some discrepancies with many libraries used in codes such as Monte Carlo simulation. Since these libraries are based on the values tabulated by Biggs, Mendelsohn and Mann 1975 thus overestimating the scattered radiation on the material. (authors) [es

  4. Energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography: a review on acquisition, processing and display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppini, G.; Maltinti, G.; Valli, G.; Baroni, M.; Buchignan, M.; Valli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography are analyzed paying particular attention to digital video systems. The main techniques developed in recent years for selective energy imaging are reviewed following a unified approach. Discussion about advantages and limits of energy methods is carried out by a comparative analysis of computer simulated data and experimental results as obtained by standard x-ray equipments coupled to a digital video unit. Geometric phantoms are used as test object, as also images of a chest phantom are produced. Since signal-to-noise ratio degradation is one of the major problems when dealing with selective imaging, a particular effort is made to investigate noise effects. In this perspective, an original colour encoding display of energy sequences is presented. By mapping the various energy measurements on different colour bands (typically those of an RGB TV-monitor), an increased image conspicuity is obtained without a significant noise degradation: this is ensured by the energy dependence of attenuation coefficients and by the integrating characteristics of the display device

  5. Detection and compensation of organ/lesion motion using 4D-PET/CT respiratory gated acquisition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinardi, Valentino; Picchio, Maria; Di Muzio, Nadia; Gianolli, Luigi; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Messa, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the degradation effects produced by respiratory organ and lesion motion on PET/CT images and to define the role of respiratory gated (RG) 4D-PET/CT techniques to compensate for such effects. Methods: Based on the literature and on our own experience, technical recommendations and clinical indications for the use of RG 4D PET/CT have been outlined. Results: RG 4D-PET/CT techniques require a state of the art PET/CT scanner, a respiratory monitoring system and dedicated acquisition and processing protocols. Patient training is particularly important to obtain a regular breathing pattern. An adequate number of phases has to be selected to balance motion compensation and statistical noise. RG 4D PET/CT motion free images may be clinically useful for tumour tissue characterization, monitoring patient treatment and target definition in radiation therapy planning. Conclusions: RG 4D PET/CT is a valuable tool to improve image quality and quantitative accuracy and to assess and measure organ and lesion motion for radiotherapy planning.

  6. Suitability of helical multislice acquisition technique for routine unenhanced brain CT: an image quality study using a 16-row detector configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernalsteen, Danielle; Cosnard, Guy; Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Robert, Annie [Public Health School, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Epidemiologics and Medical Statistics, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [CT Clinical Science, Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT). Twenty-four patients were examined by two techniques in the same imaging session using a 16-row CT system equipped with 0.75-width detectors. Contiguous ''native'' 3-mm-thick slices were reconstructed for all acquisitions from four detectors for each slice (4 x 0.75 mm), with one channel available per detector. Two protocols were tailored to compare: (1) one-slice vs four-slice incremental images; (2) incremental vs helical four-slice images. Two trained observers independently scored 12 subjective items of IQ. Preference for the technique was assessed by one-tailed t test and the interobserver variation by two-tailed t test. The two observers gave very close IQ scores for the three techniques without significant interobserver variations. Measured IQ parameters failed to reveal any difference between techniques, and an approximate half radiation dose reduction was obtained by using the full 16-row configuration. Acquisition times were cumulatively shortened by using the multislice and the helical modality. (orig.)

  7. Suitability of helical multislice acquisition technique for routine unenhanced brain CT: an image quality study using a 16-row detector configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernalsteen, Danielle; Cosnard, Guy; Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry; Robert, Annie; Vlassenbroek, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT). Twenty-four patients were examined by two techniques in the same imaging session using a 16-row CT system equipped with 0.75-width detectors. Contiguous ''native'' 3-mm-thick slices were reconstructed for all acquisitions from four detectors for each slice (4 x 0.75 mm), with one channel available per detector. Two protocols were tailored to compare: (1) one-slice vs four-slice incremental images; (2) incremental vs helical four-slice images. Two trained observers independently scored 12 subjective items of IQ. Preference for the technique was assessed by one-tailed t test and the interobserver variation by two-tailed t test. The two observers gave very close IQ scores for the three techniques without significant interobserver variations. Measured IQ parameters failed to reveal any difference between techniques, and an approximate half radiation dose reduction was obtained by using the full 16-row configuration. Acquisition times were cumulatively shortened by using the multislice and the helical modality. (orig.)

  8. Examination of SUV of regional activity concentration for simultaneous emission/transmission acquisition using the mask technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji; Nishino, Masanari; Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To achieve quantitative accuracy of simultaneous emission/transmission (SET) acquisition using the mask technique, we determined the factor of expression that derives the true transmission data from the measured transmission and emission data. We then evaluated the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the regional activity concentration derived respectively from the SET scans and conventional scans. First, to determine the attenuation factor for the transmission source when the photons of the cylindrical phantom filled with 18 F solution reached emission memory, SET scans were performed with a dummy transmission source and under the blank status of the transmission source. Second, to evaluate the SUV, we used a hollow-sphere phantom filled with 18 F solution whose activity concentrations were approximately 3 and 5 times that of the background. Then we performed conventional and SET scans of the phantom for solutions ranging from the higher concentration to the lower concentration. All of the data were reconstructed with the decay correction, and the SUV of each sphere was derived. The results demonstrated that, when the conventional factor was used, SUV was underestimated according to the increasing activity concentration of the solution. However, when a new factor that took into account the attenuation of the transmission source was used, there was no significant difference in the SUV. We estimated the SUV derived from the SET scans was within 3% for the large spheres and within 16% for the small spheres. (author)

  9. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...

  10. Single acquisition electrical property mapping based on relative coil sensitivities: A proof-of-concept demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.P.; Sodickson, D.K.; Ipek, O.; Collins, C.M.; Gruetter, R.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeAll methods presented to date to map both conductivity and permittivity rely on multiple acquisitions to compute quantitatively the magnitude of radiofrequency transmit fields, B-1(+). In this work, we propose a method to compute both conductivity and permittivity based solely on relative

  11. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  12. Municipal property acquisition patterns in a shrinking city: Evidence for the persistence of an urban growth paradigm in Buffalo, NY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mark Silverman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine municipal property acquisition patterns in shrinking cities. We use data from the City of Buffalo’s municipal property auction records to analyze the spatial distribution of properties offered for sale in its annual tax foreclosure auction. In addition to these data, we examine demolition and building permit records. Our analysis suggests that cities like Buffalo follow strategies based on an urban growth paradigm when responding to abandonment. This paradigm operates under the assumption that growth is a constant and urban development is only limited by fiscal constraints, underdeveloped systems of urban governance, environmental degradation, and resistance by anti-growth coalitions. We recommend that planners in shrinking cities de-emphasize growth-based planning and focus on rightsizing strategies. These strategies are based on the assumption that growth is not a constant. Consequently, urban revitalization is concentrated in a smaller urban footprint.

  13. Advance development of a technique for characterizing the thermomechanical properties of thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J. K.; Stadnicki, S. J.; Hazony, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The torsional braid experiment has been interfaced with a centralized hierarchical computing system for data acquisition and data processing. Such a system, when matched by the appropriate upgrading of the monitoring techniques, provides high resolution thermomechanical spectra of rigidity and damping, and their derivatives with respect to temperature.

  14. A line array based near field imaging technique for characterising acoustical properties of elongated targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.P.G.

    1995-01-01

    With near field imaging techniques the acoustical pressure waves at distances other than the recorded can be calculated. Normally, acquisition on a two dimensional plane is necessary and extrapolation is performed by a Rayleigh integral. A near field single line instead of two dimensional plane

  15. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b) Use the clause at 252.245-7001, Tagging...

  16. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b... Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property. As prescribed in 245.107(a), use the following...

  17. Estimation of organ-absorbed radiation doses during 64-detector CT coronary angiography using different acquisition techniques and heart rates: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Kawashima, Hiroko (Dept. of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)), email: matsuk@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Noto, Kimiya; Takata, Tadanori; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki (Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa Univ. Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)); Shimono, Tetsunori (Dept. of Radiology, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Hirakata (Japan)); Matsui, Osamu (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan))

    2011-07-15

    Background: Though appropriate image acquisition parameters allow an effective dose below 1 mSv for CT coronary angiography (CTCA) performed with the latest dual-source CT scanners, a single-source 64-detector CT procedure results in a significant radiation dose due to its technical limitations. Therefore, estimating the radiation doses absorbed by an organ during 64-detector CTCA is important. Purpose: To estimate the radiation doses absorbed by organs located in the chest region during 64-detector CTCA using different acquisition techniques and heart rates. Material and Methods: Absorbed doses for breast, heart, lung, red bone marrow, thymus, and skin were evaluated using an anthropomorphic phantom and radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLDs). Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated helical and ECG-triggered non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute (bpm) and ECG-gated helical acquisitions using ECG modulation (ECGM) of the tube current were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm after placing RPLDs on the anatomic location of each organ. The absorbed dose for each organ was calculated by multiplying the calibrated mean dose values of RPLDs with the mass energy coefficient ratio. Results: For all acquisitions, the highest absorbed dose was observed for the heart. When the helical and non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 215.5, 202.2, and 66.8 mGy for helical, helical with ECGM, and non-helical acquisitions, respectively. When the helical acquisitions using ECGM were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 178.6, 139.1, and 159.3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: ECG-triggered non-helical acquisition is recommended to reduce the radiation dose. Also, controlling the patients' heart rate appropriately during ECG-gated helical acquisition with

  18. From Confiscation to Contingency Contracting: Property Acquisition on or Near the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    particularly as to food and medical supplies.31 This can severely limit the items which can be legally seized or requisitioned, and may even require that...Systems Analysis Office, Acquisition Policies During Mobilization 3 [hereinafter cited as DOD Mobilization study] (draft, March 1987) (The " Food and...aee" mach fandings halal be as Nseao adt toedeed pnas to tee effeta- dateado ltalimatlas may be taoi..e" at my a-speant mian. (hi le tic -0oa that ca

  19. Acquisition of rheological and calorimetric properties of borosilicate glass to determine the free energy of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Y.; Advocat, Th.

    2000-01-01

    No fundamental thermodynamic data, such as the entropy Δ f S T) and enthalpy Δ f H T) of formation are currently available for nuclear borosilicate glasses. They are necessary to assess the glass thermodynamic stability in water, one of the most important potential long-term glass alteration vectors. Three glass composition ranges were investigated: - 8 compositions ranging from a ternary B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 --Na 2 O (BSN) glass to the simulated SON 68 industrial glass for containment of high active nuclear wastes after reprocessing spent uranium oxide fuel from light water reactors. The basic BSN glass was gradually modified with the additives: Al 2 O 3 , CaO, ZrO 2 , Ce 2 O 3 , Li 2 O and Fe 2 O 3 , and non-radioactive surrogate fission product oxides. - A second using another BSN ternary glass to which Al 2 O 3 , MgO and a group of non-radioactive surrogate fission product oxides, representative of natural uranium GCR fuel, were added. - A third range consisting of various BSN ternary glass compositions. All the glass specimens were fabricated by melting the oxides, carbonates anal nitrates at 1273 to 1473 K in a platinum crucible. Experimental methods based on calorimetry and viscosimetry techniques were used to determine the heat capacity Cp of each glass composition, a necessary parameter in addition to the known heat capacities of the basic glass component oxides, for calculating Δ f S T) and Δ f S T). The heat capacity Cp was measured between 273 K and 1480 K through a combination of three experimental devices: a low-temperature adiabatic calorimeter, a differential scanning calorimeter, and an ice calorimeter. The glass configuration entropy S conf (T g ) necessary to obtain the glass entropy of formation (Eqn.(3)) was determined from tile glass rheological properties. A low-temperature viscosimeter was used to measure the strain ε of a glass specimen subjected to a given uniaxial stress σ to determine the viscosity η. A Couette viscosimeter was used to

  20. SU-F-J-220: Micro-CT Based Quantification of Mouse Brain Vasculature: The Effects of Acquisition Technique and Contrast Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, C; Lamba, M; Qi, Z; LaSance, K; Tipton, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive impairment from radiation therapy to the brain may be linked to the loss of total blood volume in the brain. To account for brain injury, it is crucial to develop an understanding of blood volume loss as a result of radiation therapy. This study investigates µCT based quantification of mouse brain vasculature, focusing on the effect of acquisition technique and contrast material. Methods: Four mice were scanned on a µCT scanner (Siemens Inveon). The reconstructed voxel size was 18µm3 and all protocols were Hounsfield Unit (HU) calibrated. The mice were injected with 40mg of gold nanoparticles (MediLumine) or 100µl of Exitron 12000 (Miltenyi Biotec). Two acquisition techniques were also performed. A single kVp technique scanned the mouse once using an x-ray beam of 80kVp and segmentation was completed based on a threshold of HU values. The dual kVp technique scanned the mouse twice using 50kVp and 80kVp, this segmentation was based on the ratio of the HU value of the two kVps. After image reconstruction and segmentation, the brain blood volume was determined as a percentage of the total brain volume. Results: For the single kVp acquisition at 80kVp, the brain blood volume had an average of 3.5% for gold and 4.0% for Exitron 12000. Also at 80kVp, the contrast-noise ratio was significantly better for images acquired with the gold nanoparticles (2.0) than for those acquired with the Exitron 12000 (1.4). The dual kVp acquisition shows improved separation of skull from vasculature, but increased image noise. Conclusion: In summary, the effects of acquisition technique and contrast material for quantification of mouse brain vasculature showed that gold nanoparticles produced more consistent segmentation of brain vasculature than Exitron 12000. Also, dual kVp acquisition may improve the accuracy of brain vasculature quantification, although the effect of noise amplification warrants further study.

  1. SU-F-J-220: Micro-CT Based Quantification of Mouse Brain Vasculature: The Effects of Acquisition Technique and Contrast Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, C; Lamba, M; Qi, Z; LaSance, K; Tipton, C [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cognitive impairment from radiation therapy to the brain may be linked to the loss of total blood volume in the brain. To account for brain injury, it is crucial to develop an understanding of blood volume loss as a result of radiation therapy. This study investigates µCT based quantification of mouse brain vasculature, focusing on the effect of acquisition technique and contrast material. Methods: Four mice were scanned on a µCT scanner (Siemens Inveon). The reconstructed voxel size was 18µm3 and all protocols were Hounsfield Unit (HU) calibrated. The mice were injected with 40mg of gold nanoparticles (MediLumine) or 100µl of Exitron 12000 (Miltenyi Biotec). Two acquisition techniques were also performed. A single kVp technique scanned the mouse once using an x-ray beam of 80kVp and segmentation was completed based on a threshold of HU values. The dual kVp technique scanned the mouse twice using 50kVp and 80kVp, this segmentation was based on the ratio of the HU value of the two kVps. After image reconstruction and segmentation, the brain blood volume was determined as a percentage of the total brain volume. Results: For the single kVp acquisition at 80kVp, the brain blood volume had an average of 3.5% for gold and 4.0% for Exitron 12000. Also at 80kVp, the contrast-noise ratio was significantly better for images acquired with the gold nanoparticles (2.0) than for those acquired with the Exitron 12000 (1.4). The dual kVp acquisition shows improved separation of skull from vasculature, but increased image noise. Conclusion: In summary, the effects of acquisition technique and contrast material for quantification of mouse brain vasculature showed that gold nanoparticles produced more consistent segmentation of brain vasculature than Exitron 12000. Also, dual kVp acquisition may improve the accuracy of brain vasculature quantification, although the effect of noise amplification warrants further study.

  2. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.

  3. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve

  4. Application of infrared technique in research of mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Shih, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    The infrared technique as a new method is more useful for research of materials science. This paper simply describes the techniques of infrared temperature measurement and thermography and provides the experimental data of some metals and alloys during the deformation and the fatigue process by use of the infrared sensing method. It is shown that the conventional tensile data can be correlated with infrared radiational energy change during the tensile pulling. The temperature field of metal during elastic-plastic deformation can be calculated by finite element analysis, and the thermoelastic effect of metal can be shown by thermography. The infrared technique can be used to predict the fatigue damage, monitor their propagations and give the alarm at fracture. Finally, it must be pointed out that the irreversibility of infrared emission of metal can be used as a basis of nondestructive testing. (author)

  5. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  6. 77 FR 52254 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... comments in the development of the final rule. A discussion of the comments and the changes made to the... eventual demise of other, existing property management systems. The respondent specifically recommended...

  7. In-Vivo Techniques for Measuring Electrical Properties of Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    probe Electromagnetic energy Dielectric properties Monopole antenna In-situ tissues , Antemortem/Pos tmortem studies Renal blood flow 10 ABSTRACT... mice or rats, which were positioned beneath a fixed measurement probe. Several alternative methods involving the use of semi-rigid or flexible coaxial

  8. A selection of sensing techniques for mapping soil hydraulic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Egmond, van F.M.; Bakker, G.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Brouwer, F.

    2017-01-01

    Data on soil hydraulic properties are needed as input for many models, such as models to predict unsaturated water movement and crop growth, and models to predict leaching of nutrients and pesticides to groundwater. The soil physics database of the Netherlands shows several lacunae, and a

  9. MR angiography of the carotid arteries in 3 D TOF-technique with sagittal ''double-slab'' acquisition using a new head-neck coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the value of MR angiography (MRA) in sagittal technique compared to DSA in the evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. Methods: 80 Carotid arteries in 40 symptomatic patients were prospectively studied with DSA and MRA. MRA was carried out by means of 3D time-of-flight technique with a FISP sequence (T E 6 ms/T R 80 ms, flip angle 25 , FOV 240x210 mm, matrix 157x256 mm, in-plane resolution 1.34x0.94 mm, partition thickness 1.32 mm, slab thickness 45 mm, acquisition time 7 min) using a new head-neck coil. Data acquisition was performed in sagittal orientation with the 'double-slab' technique. Imaging quality of the extracranial carotid arteries and correctness of quantification of stenosis was performed. Results: Imaging quality was good at the origin of the carotid arteries in 65%, at the bifurcation region in 98% and near the skull base in 81%. The agreement of DSA and MRA was 96% of the normal arteries (24/25), 90% of the severe stenoses (28/31) and 100% of the occluded arteries (9/9). Conclusion: MRA in sagittal 'double-slab' technique is a noninvasive technique allowing to detect normal arteries and candidates for surgery with high degree of certainity. (orig.) [de

  10. Acquisition War-Gaming Technique for Acquiring Future Complex Systems: Modeling and Simulation Results for Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien M. Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a high-level discussion and propositions of frameworks and models for acquisition strategy of complex systems. In particular, it presents an innovative system engineering approach to model the Department of Defense (DoD acquisition process and offers several optimization modules including simulation models using game theory and war-gaming concepts. Our frameworks employ Advanced Game-based Mathematical Framework (AGMF and Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework (UGAF, and related advanced simulation and mathematical models that include a set of War-Gaming Engines (WGEs implemented in MATLAB statistical optimization models. WGEs are defined as a set of algorithms, characterizing the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB, technology enablers, architectural solutions, contract type, contract parameters and associated incentives, and industry bidding position. As a proof of concept, Aerospace, in collaboration with the North Carolina State University (NCSU and University of Hawaii (UH, successfully applied and extended the proposed frameworks and decision models to determine the optimum contract parameters and incentives for a Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF contract. As a result, we can suggest a set of acquisition strategies that ensure the optimization of the PTB.

  11. Graphene Oxide flakes: methods and techniques for properties at interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Paola, Zuppella; Sara, Zuccon; Marco, Nardello; Jody, Corso Alain; Simone, Silvestrini; Michele, Maggini; Guglielmina, Pelizzo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Graphene Oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide are intriguing materials for photonics and electronic devices both for intrinsic characteristics and as precursors for the synthesis of graphene. Whatever the application and the engineering purpose, a fine control of the chemical and physical properties is required since the performances of graphene based systems depend on the reduction state of Graphene Oxide and can be strongly affected by interfaces interactions and neighboring effects. Then, a me...

  12. MR sialography: evaluation of an ultra-fast sequence in consideration of a parallel acquisition technique and different functional conditions in patients with salivary gland diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petridis, C.; Ries, T.; Cramer, M.C.; Graessner, J.; Petersen, K.U.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.; Weiss, F.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate an ultra-fast sequence for MR sialography requiring no post-processing and to compare the acquisition technique regarding the effect of oral stimulation with a parallel acquisition technique in patients with salivary gland diseases. Materials and Methods: 128 patients with salivary gland disease were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and a maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec. A single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (ss-TSE) with an acquisition time of 2.8 sec was used in transverse and oblique sagittal orientation. All images were obtained with and without a parallel imaging technique. The evaluation of the ductal system of the parotid and submandibular gland was performed using a visual scale of 1-5 for each side. The images were assessed by two independent experienced radiologists. An ANOVA with posthoc comparisons and an overall two tailed significance level of p=0.05 was used for the statistical evaluation. An intraclass correlation was computed to evaluate interobserver variability and a correlation of >0.8 was determined, thereby indicating a high correlation. Results: Depending on the diagnosed diseases and the absence of abruption of the ducts, all parts of excretory ducts were able to be visualized in all patients using the developed technique with an overall rating for all ducts of 2.70 (SD±0.89). A high correlation was achieved between the two observers with an intraclass correlation of 0.73. Oral application of a sialogogum improved the visibility of excretory ducts significantly (p<0.001). In contrast, the use of a parallel imaging technique led to a significant decrease in image quality (p=0,011). (orig.)

  13. A Technique for Developing Probabilistic Properties of Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    with those obtained from probabilistic predic- tion calculations was developed by Baladi and Barnes (Reference 11). By caloulating the magnitude and...Therefore, a technique to smooth the measured ddta without changing the intrinsic response is needed. Such a procedure was developed by Baladi and...2.2.2 Covariance Analysis of Smoothed Data A generic procedure for statistically analyzing nonlinear data was developed by Baladi and Rohani

  14. Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alqudami, Abdullah; Annapoorni, S.; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Kothari, P C; Kotnala, R K

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of iron were prepared in distilled water using very thin iron wires and sheets, by the electro-exploding wire technique. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 10 to 50 nm. However, particles of different sizes can be segregated by using ultrahigh centrifuge. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of the cubic phase of iron. These iron nanoparticles were found to exhibit fluorescence in the visible region in contrast to ...

  15. When does State Interference with Property (now Amount to Expropriation? An Analysis of the Agri SA Court's State Acquisition Requirement (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Jacobus Marais

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Section 25 of the Constitution provides two ways in which the state may interfere with property rights, namely deprivation (section 25(1 and expropriation (section 25(2. As only the latter requires compensation, there is an incentive for property holders to label any infringement upon their property as expropriation in the hope of being compensated for their losses. It is therefore essential to have a principled distinction between these two forms of state interference, especially given the danger that uncertainty in this regard can hold for legitimate land reform initiatives, which often entail severe limitations on property. In the Agri SA case the Constitutional Court recently revisited this distinction and held that the distinguishing feature of expropriation is that it entails state acquisition of property. Two aspects of this judgment are worthy of consideration. Firstly, the centrality of acquisition makes it necessary to clarify its meaning and role in our law. Secondly, the Court's effect-centred test to establish whether acquisition took place appears incapable of coherently categorising property infringements that fall within the grey area between deprivation and expropriation. To address these two questions this article is divided into two parts. Part I investigates the meaning and role of state acquisition in South African law. Pre-constitutional expropriation law reveals that expropriation is an original method of acquisition of ownership and that the objects of expropriation include ownership, limited real rights, and certain personal rights, which correspond to the meaning attributed to this requirement in Agri SA. However, post-constitutional judgments diverge from pre-constitutional law regarding the role of state acquisition, where it was merely regarded as a general hallmark of expropriation. After Agri SA state acquisition is (now the "key feature" that distinguishes expropriation from deprivation. A brief analysis of

  16. 78 FR 37660 - American Surface Lines, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Mikrut Properties, LLLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... assignment from Mikrut Properties, LLLP (MP), and to operate as a common carrier, certain rail lines that...: (a) 1.37 miles (7,215 feet) of rail line, comprised of seven tracks, extending from point of... or near Pelzer Street to a transloading facility owned and operated by MP; and (b) 0.19 miles of rail...

  17. Additive Manufacturing: An Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights on Navy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    M Records, Inc., Geffen Records, Inc., Interscope Records, Sony Music Entertainment , Inc., MCA Records, Inc., Atlantic Recording Corp…Capitol...33 E. DIGITAL FILE SHARING IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY: NAPSTER CASE...Industrial property includes patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. Copyright covers literary works, films, music , artistic works, and architectural design

  18. 75 FR 22729 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-based processes to greater use of automation. This proposed rule revises requirements for all DoD... identified in the contract, or in the absence of such identification, the item's fair-market value... of material, equipment, special tooling, special test equipment, and real property. (b) Policy for...

  19. 76 FR 6006 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... rarely occurs. Similarly, a respondent stated the need to address the materiality of the loss and that... pertaining to Government property losses. It does not require reporting of the estimated harm or materiality... assigned by the Government and identified in the contract; and adds the method for determining the...

  20. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... data base for capturing records of Government-furnished property sent on a non-reimbursable basis to a... number. (vii) Medium code; how the data is recorded, e.g., barcode, contact memory button. (viii) Value... January 1, 2004, for unique item identifier pedigree data established at delivery, as defined by DFARS 252...

  1. 7 CFR 1955.18 - Actions required after acquisition of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354's bid. (2) For all types of accounts other than SFH. When FmHA or its... Public Law 103-354 acquired the property, the account will be satisfied unless: (i) In a voluntary...) In a foreclosure where the bid is less than the account balance and a deficiency judgment will be...

  2. 76 FR 64885 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Accounting Procedures manual, along with a hyperlink to the URL. It is not necessary to add condition code...D items and will be available to users in the logistics, financial, and property accountability... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...

  3. When does State Interference with Property (now Amount to Expropriation? An Analysis of the Agri SA Court's State Acquisition Requirement (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Jacobus Marais

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Section 25 of the Constitution provides two ways in which the state may interfere with property rights, namely deprivation (section 25(1 and expropriation (section 25(2. As only the latter requires compensation, there is an incentive for property holders to label any infringement with their property as expropriation in the hope of being compensated for their losses. It is therefore essential to have a principled distinction between deprivation and expropriation, especially given the danger that uncertainty in this regard can hold for legitimate land reform initiatives, which often entail severe limitations on property. This contribution attends to Agri South Africa v Minister for Minerals and Energy 2013 4 SA 1 (CC, where the Constitutional Court recently revisited this distinction and held that the distinguishing feature of expropriation is that it entails state acquisition of property. Without state acquisition the interference can (at most amount to deprivation. Unfortunately, viewing state acquisition as the "key requirement" for expropriation is problematic. Firstly, it ignores the true nature of this feature in that it is only a consequence of a valid expropriation rather than a pre-requisite for it – at least in terms of pre-constitutional law. It is therefore inaccurate, concerning both pre- and post-constitutional expropriation case law, to regard acquisition as an indispensable requirement for expropriation. Secondly, limiting the constitutional property inquiry to whether or not the state acquired property appears inadequate as a means of solving difficult cases where the state acquires property pursuant to infringements like taxation and criminal forfeiture. As both these examples result in state acquisition, there must be another explanation of why they do not amount to expropriation.

  4. Effect of Melting Techniques on Ductile Iron castings Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effects of the charge, melting conditions, nodularizing and inoculation on the ductile iron castings properties. Results showed that the temperature and holding time of the melt in an induction furnace and the intensity of spheroidizing effect on the carbon and residual magnesium contents in the ductile iron castings. The same grade of ductile iron may be obtained using different chemical compositions. The castings of ductile iron will be ferritic as-cast only when large amount of pig iron in the charge and in addition some-steps inoculating treatment are used.

  5. Ultrathin magnetic structures II measurement techniques and novel magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism, with profound impact in technology and serving as the basis for a revolution in electronics. Our understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures has also advanced significantly. This rapid development has generated a need for a comprehensive treatment that can serve as an introduction to the field for those entering it from diverse fields, but which will also serve as a timely overview for those already working in this area. The four-volume work Ultra-Thin Magnetic

  6. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  7. A photoacoustic technique to measure the properties of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to non-invasively determine the diameter and sound speed of single cells using a combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic technique. Two cell lines, B16-F1 melanoma cells and MCF7 breast cancer cells were examined using this technique. Using a 200 MHz transducer, the ultrasound backscatter from a single cell in suspension was recorded. Immediately following, the cell was irradiated with a 532 nm laser and the resulting photoacoustic wave recorded by the same transducer. The melanoma cells contain optically absorbing melanin particles, which facilitated photoacoustic wave generation. MCF7 cells have negligible optical absorption at 532 nm; the cells were permeabilized and stained with trypan blue prior to measurements. The measured ultrasound and photoacoustic power spectra were compared to theoretical equations with the cell diameter and sound speed as variables (Anderson scattering model for ultrasound, and a thermoelastic expansion model for photoacoustics). The diameter and sound speed were extracted from the models where the spectral shape matched the measured signals. However the photoacoustic spectrum for the melanoma cell did not match theory, which is likely because melanin particles are located around the cytoplasm, and not within the nucleus. Therefore a photoacoustic finite element model of a cell was developed where the central region was not used to generate a photoacoustic wave. The resulting power spectrum was in better agreement with the measured signal than the thermoelastic expansion model. The MCF7 cell diameter obtained using the spectral matching method was 17.5 μm, similar to the optical measurement of 16 μm, while the melanoma cell diameter obtained was 22 μm, similar to the optical measurement of 21 μm. The sound speed measured from the MCF7 and melanoma cell was 1573 and 1560 m/s, respectively, which is within acceptable values that have been published in literature.

  8. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  9. Three-dimensional laser scanning technique to quantify aggregate and ballast shape properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available methods towards a more accurate and automated techniques to quantify aggregate shape properties. This paper validates a new flakiness index equation using three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning data of aggregate and ballast materials obtained from...

  10. Interdependencies of acquisition, detection, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification in varying patient sizes employing dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Daniele; Pratts-Emanuelli, Jose J.; Mileto, Achille; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Husarik, Daniela B. [University Hospital Zurich, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-03

    To assess the impact of patient habitus, acquisition parameters, detector efficiencies, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification using dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT). Two phantoms simulating small and large patients contained 20 iodine solutions mimicking vascular and parenchymal enhancement from saline isodensity to 400 HU and 30 iodine solutions simulating enhancement of the urinary collecting system from 400 to 2,000 HU. DECT acquisition (80/140 kVp and 100/140 kVp) was performed using two DECT systems equipped with standard and integrated electronics detector technologies. DECT raw datasets were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP), and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE I/V). Accuracy for iodine quantification was significantly higher for the small compared to the large phantoms (9.2 % ± 7.5 vs. 24.3 % ± 26.1, P = 0.0001), the integrated compared to the conventional detectors (14.8 % ± 20.6 vs. 18.8 % ± 20.4, respectively; P = 0.006), and SAFIRE V compared to SAFIRE I and FBP reconstructions (15.2 % ± 18.1 vs. 16.1 % ± 17.6 and 18.9 % ± 20.4, respectively; P ≤ 0.003). A significant synergism was observed when the most effective detector and reconstruction techniques were combined with habitus-adapted dual-energy pairs. In a second-generation dual-source DECT system, the accuracy of iodine quantification can be substantially improved by an optimal choice and combination of acquisition parameters, detector, and reconstruction techniques. (orig.)

  11. An Efficient Metric of Automatic Weight Generation for Properties in Instance Matching Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Seddiqui, Md. Hanif; Nath, Rudra Pratap Deb; Aono, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of heterogeneous data sources of semantic knowledge base intensifies the need of an automatic instance matching technique. However, the efficiency of instance matching is often influenced by the weight of a property associated to instances. Automatic weight generation is a non-trivial, however an important task in instance matching technique. Therefore, identifying an appropriate metric for generating weight for a property automatically is nevertheless a formidab...

  12. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Patil, Rajendra; Karmakar, Soumen; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Rane, Sunit; Gade, Wasudev; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2012-02-01

    We, herein, report the antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles for a Gram positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. Uncapped silver nanoparticles have been prepared using less-explored DC arc thermal plasma technique by considering its large scale generation capability. It is observed that the resultant nanoparticles show size as well as optical property dependent antimicrobial effect.

  13. Review of Micro/Nano Nondestructive Evaluation Technique (II): Measurement of Acoustic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Park, Ik Keun

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews the micro and nano nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique that is possible to investigate the surface and measure the acoustic properties. The technical theory, features and applications of the ultrasonic atomic force microscopy(UAFM) and scanning acoustic microscopy(SAM) are illustrated. Especially, these technologies are possible to evaluate the mechanical properties in micro/nano structure and surface through the measurement of acoustic properties in addition to the observation of surface and subsurface. Consequently, it is thought that technique developments and applications of these micro/nano NDE in advanced industrial parts together with present nondestructive industry are widely possible hereafter.

  14. Effect of quenching techniques on the mechanical properties of low carbon structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miernik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the impact of incomplete quenching technique on the mechanical properties of low carbon structural steel.Significant influence of the heating method to the α + γ field was observed on the strength and plasticity after hardening process. The best combination of mechanical properties was obtained for the 3th technique consisting of pre-heating the material to the austenite field, next cooling to the appropriate temperature in the α + γ and hardening from that dual phase region. The high level of toughness with relatively high strength were observed, compared to the properties obtained for the two other ways to quench annealing (incomplete hardening.

  15. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of structural materials: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Klima, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is presented to indicate the availability and application potentials of techniques for quantitative characterization of the mechanical properties of structural materials. The purpose is to review NDE techniques that go beyond the usual emphasis on flaw detection and characterization. Discussed are current and emerging NDE techniques that can verify and monitor entrinsic properties (e.g., tensile, shear, and yield strengths; fracture toughness, hardness, ductility; elastic moduli) and underlying microstructural and morphological factors. Most of the techniques described are, at present, neither widely applied nor widely accepted in commerce and industry because they are still emerging from the laboratory. The limitations of the techniques may be overcome by advances in applications research and instrumentation technology and perhaps by accommodations for their use in the design of structural parts.

  16. Machine-assisted verification of latent fingerprints: first results for nondestructive contact-less optical acquisition techniques with a CWL sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Krapyvskyy, Dmytro; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    A machine-assisted analysis of traces from crime scenes might be possible with the advent of new high-resolution non-destructive contact-less acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints. This requires reliable techniques for the automatic extraction of fingerprint features from latent and exemplar fingerprints for matching purposes using pattern recognition approaches. Therefore, we evaluate the NIST Biometric Image Software for the feature extraction and verification of contact-lessly acquired latent fingerprints to determine potential error rates. Our exemplary test setup includes 30 latent fingerprints from 5 people in two test sets that are acquired from different surfaces using a chromatic white light sensor. The first test set includes 20 fingerprints on two different surfaces. It is used to determine the feature extraction performance. The second test set includes one latent fingerprint on 10 different surfaces and an exemplar fingerprint to determine the verification performance. This utilized sensing technique does not require a physical or chemical visibility enhancement of the fingerprint residue, thus the original trace remains unaltered for further investigations. No particular feature extraction and verification techniques have been applied to such data, yet. Hence, we see the need for appropriate algorithms that are suitable to support forensic investigations.

  17. Problem Based Learning Technique and Its Effect on Acquisition of Linear Programming Skills by Secondary School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhanu, Shikuku Beatrice; Musasia, Amadalo Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The topic Linear Programming is included in the compulsory Kenyan secondary school mathematics curriculum at form four. The topic provides skills for determining best outcomes in a given mathematical model involving some linear relationship. This technique has found application in business, economics as well as various engineering fields. Yet many…

  18. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  19. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  20. EX6AFS: A data acquisition system for high-speed dispersive EXAFS measurements implemented using object-oriented programming techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, G.; Lee, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a computerized data-acquisition system for high-speed energy-dispersive EXAFS experiments on the X6A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The acquisition system drives the stepper motors used to move the components of the experimental setup and controls the readout of the EXAFS spectra. The system runs on a Macintosh IIfx computer and is written entirely in the object-oriented language C++. Large segments of the system are implemented by means of commercial class libraries, specifically the MacApp application framework from Apple, the Rogue Wave class library, and the Hierarchical Data Format datafile format library from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. This reduces the amount of code that must be written and enhances reliability. The system makes use of several advanced features of C++: Multiple inheritance allows the code to be decomposed into independent software components and the use of exception handling allows the system to be much more reliable in the event of unexpected errors. Object-oriented techniques allow the program to be extended easily as new requirements develop. All sections of the program related to a particular concept are located in a small set of source files. The program will also be used as a prototype for future software development plans for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines being designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source

  1. Comparison of spatial interpolation techniques to predict soil properties in the colombian piedmont eastern plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Interpolating soil properties at field-scale in the Colombian piedmont eastern plains is challenging due to: the highly and complex variable nature of some processes; the effects of the soil; the land use; and the management. While interpolation techniques are being adapted to include auxiliary information of these effects, the soil data are often difficult to predict using conventional techniques of spatial interpolation. Method: In this paper, we evaluated and compared six spatial interpolation techniques: Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW, Spline, Ordinary Kriging (KO, Universal Kriging (UK, Cokriging (Ckg, and Residual Maximum Likelihood-Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (REML-EBLUP, from conditioned Latin Hypercube as a sampling strategy. The ancillary information used in Ckg and REML-EBLUP was indexes calculated from a digital elevation model (MDE. The “Random forest” algorithm was used for selecting the most important terrain index for each soil properties. Error metrics were used to validate interpolations against cross validation. Results: The results support the underlying assumption that HCLc captured adequately the full distribution of variables of ancillary information in the Colombian piedmont eastern plains conditions. They also suggest that Ckg and REML-EBLUP perform best in the prediction in most of the evaluated soil properties. Conclusions: Mixed interpolation techniques having auxiliary soil information and terrain indexes, provided a significant improvement in the prediction of soil properties, in comparison with other techniques.

  2. Bulk microstructure and local elastic properties of carbon nanocomposites studied by impulse acoustic microscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V.; Petronyuk, Yu.; Morokov, E.; Chernozatonskii, L.; Kuzhir, P.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Bellucci, S.; Bistarelli, S.; Mastrucci, M.; Tabacchioni, I.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk microstructure and elastic properties of epoxy-nanocarbon nanocomposites for diverse types and different content of carbon nanofiller has been studied by using impulse acoustic microscopy technique. It has been shown occurrence of various types of mesoscopic structure formed by nanoparticles inside the bulk of nanocomposite materials, including nanoparticle conglomerates and nanoparticle aerogel systems. In spite of the bulk microstructure, nanocarbon composites demonstrate elastic uniformity and negligible influence of nanofiller on elastic properties of carbon nanocomposite materials.

  3. MR-sialography: optimisation and evaluation of an ultra-fast sequence in parallel acquisition technique and different functional conditions of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Aldefeld, D.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Graessner, J.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.; Petersen, K.U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To optimise a fast sequence for MR-sialography and to compare a parallel and non-parallel acquisition technique. Additionally, the effect of oral stimulation regarding the image quality was evaluated. Material and Methods: All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system. After developing a sufficient sequence for MR-sialography, a single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (ss-TSE) with an acquisition time of 2.8 sec was used in transverse and oblique sagittal orientation in 27 healthy volunteers. All images were performed with and without parallel imaging technique. The assessment of the ductal system of the submandibular and parotid gland was performed using a 1 to 5 visual scale for each side separately. Images were evaluated by four independent experienced radiologists. For statistical evaluation, an ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons was used with an overall two-tailed significance level of P=.05. For evaluation of interobserver variability, an intraclass correlation was computed and correlation >.08 was determined to indicate a high correlation. Results: All parts of salivary excretal ducts could be visualised in all volunteers, with an overall rating for all ducts of 2.26 (SD±1.09). Between the four observers a high correlation could be obtained with an intraclass correlation of 0.9475. A significant influence regarding the slice angulations could not be obtained (p=0.74). In all healthy volunteers the visibility of excretory ducts improved significantly after oral application of a Sialogogum (p 2 =0.049). The use of a parallel imaging technique did not lead to an improvement of visualisation, showing a significant loss of image quality compared to an acquistion technique without parallel imaging (p 2 =0.013). Conclusion: The optimised ss-TSE MR-sialography seems to be a fast and sufficient technique for visualisation of excretory ducts of the main salivary glands, with no elaborate post-processing needed. To improve results of MR

  4. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  5. Effect of Saline Water on Yield and Nitrogen Acquisition by Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Hamdy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet growth response to the interactive effects of salinity and N-fertilization was investigated using 15N tracer technique under greenhouse condition. Data showed that dry matter yield of sugar beet shoots and roots were frequently affected by N and water regime. Total N uptake by leaves was increased under almost water salinity treatments in spite of increasing salinity levels. It appears that in case of W I , N I I the N-uptake by roots was significantly decreased along with raising salinity levels from 4 to 8 dS/m. The portions of N derived from fertilizer (whole plant) showed that the trend was affected by salinity level of irrigation water, and fertilization treatments. The highest amount of N derived from fertilizer was obtained with the 4 dS/m level under N I I with the two water regimes. The efficient use of fertilizer-N was slightly but positively affected by raising salinity levels of irrigation water. Sugar percent was increased with increasing salinity levels of irrigation water under both N I and N I I treatments, but it was higher in case of N I than NII under different salinity levels. Generally, Irrigation with saline water in combination with water regime of 75-80% of field capacity and splitting nitrogen technique are better for enhancement of sugar beet production grown under such adverse conditions

  6. A new simple technique for improving the random properties of chaos-based cryptosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bosque, M.; Pérez-Resa, A.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Celma, S.

    2018-03-01

    A new technique for improving the security of chaos-based stream ciphers has been proposed and tested experimentally. This technique manages to improve the randomness properties of the generated keystream by preventing the system to fall into short period cycles due to digitation. In order to test this technique, a stream cipher based on a Skew Tent Map algorithm has been implemented on a Virtex 7 FPGA. The randomness of the keystream generated by this system has been compared to the randomness of the keystream generated by the same system with the proposed randomness-enhancement technique. By subjecting both keystreams to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tests, we have proved that our method can considerably improve the randomness of the generated keystreams. In order to incorporate our randomness-enhancement technique, only 41 extra slices have been needed, proving that, apart from effective, this method is also efficient in terms of area and hardware resources.

  7. Tailored Welding Technique for High Strength Al-Cu Alloy for Higher Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, N. S.; Raman, R.

    AA2014 aluminum alloy, with 4.5% Cu as major alloying element, offers highest strength and hardness values in T6 temper and finds extensive use in aircraft primary structures. However, this alloy is difficult to weld by fusion welding because the dendritic structure formed can affect weld properties seriously. Among the welding processes, AC-TIG technique is largely used for welding. As welded yield strength was in the range of 190-195 MPa, using conventional TIG technique. Welding metallurgy of AA2014 was critically reviewed and factors responsible for lower properties were identified. Square-wave AC TIG with Transverse mechanical arc oscillation (TMAO) was postulated to improve the weld strength. A systematic experimentation using 4 mm thick plates produced YS in the range of 230-240 MPa, has been achieved. Through characterization including optical and SEM/EDX was conducted to validate the metallurgical phenomena attributable to improvement in weld properties.

  8. THE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF COATING-SUBSTRATE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga CHRONOWSKA-PRZYWARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research techniques for the analysis of both mechanical and tribological properties of thin coatings applied on highly loaded machine elements. In the Institute of Machine Design and Exploitation, AGH University of Science and Technology students of the second level of Mechanical Engineering study tribology attending laboratory class. Students learn on techniques for mechanical and tribological testing of thin, hard coatings deposited by PVD and CVD technologies. The program of laboratories contains micro-, nanohardness and Young's modulus measurements by instrumental indentations and analysys of coating to substrate adhesion by scratch testing. The tribological properties of the coating-substrate systems are studied using various techniques, mainly in point contact load conditions with ball-on-disc and block-on-ring tribomiters as well as using ball cratering method in strongly abrasive suspensions.

  9. In-situ measurement of mechanical properties of structural components using cyclic ball indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Panwar, Sanjay; Rupani, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Material properties of components change during service due to environmental conditions. Measurement of mechanical properties of the components is important for assessing their fitness for service. In many instances, it is not possible to remove sizable samples from the component for doing the measurement in laboratory. In-situ technique for measurement of mechanical properties has great significance in such cases. One of the nondestructive methods that can be adopted for in-situ application is based on cyclic ball indentation technique. It involves multiple indentation cycles (at the same penetration location) on a metallic surface by a spherical indenter. Each cycle consists of indentation, partial unload and reload sequences. Presently, commercial systems are available for doing indentation test on structural component for limited applications. But, there is a genuine need of remotely operable compact in-situ property measurement system. Considering the importance of such applications Reactor Engineering Division of BARC has developed an In-situ Property Measurement System (IProMS), which can be used for in-situ measurement of mechanical properties of a flat or tubular component. This paper highlights the basic theory of measurement, qualification tests on IProMS and results from tests done on flat specimens and tubular component. (author)

  10. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Diaz, D; Merino, C; Velázquez, M M

    2015-11-11

    Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  11. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  12. Property-driven functional verification technique for high-speed vision system-on-chip processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshunguyimfura, Victor; Yang, Jie; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of functional verification in a fast, reliable, and effective manner is a challenging task in a vision chip verification process. The main reason for this challenge is the stepwise nature of existing functional verification techniques. This vision chip verification complexity is also related to the fact that in most vision chip design cycles, extensive efforts are focused on how to optimize chip metrics such as performance, power, and area. Design functional verification is not explicitly considered at an earlier stage at which the most sound decisions are made. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic property-driven verification technique. The implementation of all verification components is based on design properties. We introduce a low-dimension property space between the specification space and the implementation space. The aim of this technique is to speed up the verification process for high-performance parallel processing vision chips. Our experimentation results show that the proposed technique can effectively improve the verification effort up to 20% for the complex vision chip design while reducing the simulation and debugging overheads.

  13. Evaluation of irradiation damage effect by applying electric properties based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, B.; Sevini, F.

    2004-01-01

    The most important effect of the degradation by radiation is the decrease in the ductility of the pressure vessel of the reactor (RPV) ferritic steels. The main way to determine the mechanical behaviour of the RPV steels is tensile and impact tests, from which the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and its increase due to neutron irradiation can be calculated. These tests are destructive and regularly applied to surveillance specimens to assess the integrity of RPV. The possibility of applying validated non-destructive ageing monitoring techniques would however facilitate the surveillance of the materials that form the reactor vessel. The JRC-IE has developed two devices, focused on the measurement of the electrical properties to assess non-destructively the embrittlement state of materials. The first technique, called Seebeck and Thomson Effects on Aged Material (STEAM), is based on the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient, characteristic of the material and related to the microstructural changes induced by irradiation embrittlement. With the same aim the second technique, named Resistivity Effects on Aged Material (REAM), measures instead the resistivity of the material. The purpose of this research is to correlate the results of the impact tests, STEAM and REAM measurements with the change in the mechanical properties due to neutron irradiation. These results will make possible the improvement of such techniques based on the measurement of material electrical properties for their application to the irradiation embrittlement assessment

  14. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  15. Surface properties and corrosion behavior of Co-Cr alloy fabricated with selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xian-zhen; Chen, Jie; Xiang, Nan; Wei, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We sought to study the corrosion behavior and surface properties of a commercial cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy which was fabricated with selective laser melting (SLM) technique. For this purpose, specimens were fabricated using different techniques, such as SLM system and casting methods. Surface hardness testing, microstructure observation, surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test were carried out to evaluate the corrosion properties and surface properties of the specimens. We found that microstructure of SLM specimens was more homogeneous than that of cast specimens. The mean surface hardness values of SLM and cast specimens were 458.3 and 384.8, respectively; SLM specimens showed higher values than cast ones in hardness. Both specimens exhibited no differences in their electrochemical corrosion properties in the artificial saliva through potentiodynamic curves and EIS, and no significant difference via XPS. Therefore, we concluded that within the scope of this study, SLM-fabricated restorations revealed good surface properties, such as proper hardness, homogeneous microstructure, and also showed sufficient corrosion resistance which could meet the needs of dental clinics.

  16. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Passive acquisition of leukocyte proteins is associated with changes in phosphorylation of cellular proteins and cell-cell adhesion properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibzadeh, S. S.; Kong, Q. F.; Kapur, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, we show that interaction of neoplastic epithelial cells with vesicles derived from leukocytes results in passive acquisition by tumor cells of a diverse group of leukocyte proteins. Vesicles shed from leukocytes were heterogeneous and exhibited the specific proteins expressed on leukocyte subsets. Accordingly, epithelial cells differentially acquired leukocyte proteins associated with vesicles. Ultrastructural localization demonstrated that acquired proteins were associated wi...

  18. Studying the structural and optical properties of Zn O:Cu prepared by APCVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manssor, M.

    2012-01-01

    Undoped and Cu-doped Zn O ant (3-9 wt.%) thin films have been prepared by APCVD technique on glass substrates at 500 degree.The structural and optical properties of these films were studied. The results of the structural tests showed that these films are of a polycrystalline hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation in the (002) direction, the optical properties included transmittance, energy gap, ob sorption coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient, the energy gap values were found to decrease from (3.25 to 3.15 eV) and the average transmittance was found about (90%) in the visible region. (author).

  19. Influence of preparation technique of ceramic superconductors on structure, mechanical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomandl, G.; Kohl, R.

    1991-01-01

    Sol-Gel-like preparation techniques using citrate-, citrate/ethylenglycol- as well as ethylhexanoate precursors and the addition of fluorine were tested with regard to homogeneity and properties of HTSC-ceramics. A few single- and polycrystalline materials were coated with YBaCuOxide- and Bi Sr Ca Cu Oxide-films using ethylhexanoate-precursors. Interdiffusion reactions were investigated affecting the electrical properties. The best results in YBaCuOxide system were obtained using polycrystalline magnesia and silver as substrate materials. Bulk ceramics with a high degree of orientation were fabricated by reaction sintering and simultaneous external pressure. (orig.) With 44 refs., 6 tabs., 81 figs [de

  20. Mechanical properties of metallic ribbons investigated by depth sensing indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, Ladislav; Dobrzanski, Leszek A.; Zubko, Pavol; Konieczny, Jaroslaw

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents mechanical properties of two kinds of Co-based and one Fe-based metallic ribbons by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) technique. Investigations were carried out on two kinds ternary alloy Co 77 Si 11,5 B 11,5 and Fe 78 Si 13 B 9 and multicomponent Co 68 Fe 4 Mo 1 Si 13,5 B 13,5 , which are so-called 'zero-magnetostriction' materials. Metallic ribbons were investigated in amorphous state and partially crystallized state after annealing in 400deg. C in argon atmosphere. Heating of ribbons obtained by melt spinning technique was performed to check its effect on changes of mechanical properties

  1. Physics properties of TiO_2 films produced by dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teloeken, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Tabarelli, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) as a photocatalyst to produce hydrogen has been of great interest because of their chemical stability, low cost and non-toxicity. TiO_2 occurs in three different crystal forms: rutile, anatase and brokita. Among these, the anatase phase generally exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior, while the rutile phase is the most stable. Among the various techniques of deposition, dip-coating technique produces films with good photocatalytic properties, using simple and inexpensive equipment. In this work TiO_2 films were obtained by dip-coating. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, contact angle measurements and photocurrent. The microstructure and physical properties were evaluated in relation of the temperature and the addition of an additive. (author)

  2. Rotary bending fatigue properties of Inconel 718 alloys by ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyong Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM technique on fatigue properties of SAE AMS 5662 (solution treatment of Inconel 718 alloys. The fatigue properties of the specimens were investigated using a rotary bending fatigue tester. Results revealed that the UNSM-treated specimens showed longer fatigue life in comparison with those of the untreated specimens. The improvement in fatigue life of the UNSM-treated specimens is attributed mainly to the induced compressive residual stress, increased hardness, reduced roughness and refined grains at the top surface. Fractured surfaces were analysed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM in order to give insight into the effectiveness of UNSM technique on fracture mechanisms and fatigue life.

  3. Optimal parameters determination of the orbital weld technique using microstructural and chemical properties of welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, A.; Echevarria, J.F.; Rondon, S.; Leiva, P.; Sendoya, F.A.; Amalfi, J.; Lopez, M.; Dominguez, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the main parameters of thermal cycle in Orbital Automatic Weld, as a particular process of the GTAW Weld technique. Also is concerned with the investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties of welded joints made with Orbital Technique in SA 210 Steel, a particular alloy widely use during the construction of Economizers of Power Plants. A number of PC software were used in this sense in order to anticipate the main mechanical and structural characteristics of Weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The papers also might be of great value during selection of optimal Weld parameters to produce sound and high quality Welds during the construction / assembling of structural components in high requirements industrial sectors and also to make a reliable prediction of weld properties

  4. The Influence of Various Deposition Techniques on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of the Titanium Dioxide Thin Fil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Baudyš, M.; Krýsa, J.; Šolcová, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2013), s. 452-458 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP104/09/P165 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titanium dioxide * photoelectrochemical properties * deposition techniques Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2013

  5. Acoustic window planning for ultrasound acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Virga, Salvatore; Rackerseder, Julia; Frisch, Benjamin; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous robotic ultrasound has recently gained considerable interest, especially for collaborative applications. Existing methods for acquisition trajectory planning are solely based on geometrical considerations, such as the pose of the transducer with respect to the patient surface. This work aims at establishing acoustic window planning to enable autonomous ultrasound acquisitions of anatomies with restricted acoustic windows, such as the liver or the heart. We propose a fully automatic approach for the planning of acquisition trajectories, which only requires information about the target region as well as existing tomographic imaging data, such as X-ray computed tomography. The framework integrates both geometrical and physics-based constraints to estimate the best ultrasound acquisition trajectories with respect to the available acoustic windows. We evaluate the developed method using virtual planning scenarios based on real patient data as well as for real robotic ultrasound acquisitions on a tissue-mimicking phantom. The proposed method yields superior image quality in comparison with a naive planning approach, while maintaining the necessary coverage of the target. We demonstrate that by taking image formation properties into account acquisition planning methods can outperform naive plannings. Furthermore, we show the need for such planning techniques, since naive approaches are not sufficient as they do not take the expected image quality into account.

  6. Measuring technique of super high temperature thermal properties of reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Baba, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hideo; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, thermal properties of reactor core materials used for water cooled reactors and FBR were tried to develop a technique to measure their melt states at less than 3,000degC in order to contribute more correct evaluation of the reactor core behavior at severe accident. Then, a thermal property measuring method of high temperature melt by using floating method was investigated and its fundamental design was begun to investigate under a base of optimum judgement on the air flow floating throw-down method. And, in order to measure emissivity of melt specimen surface essential for correct temperature measurement using the throw down method, a spectroscopic emissivity measuring unit using an ellipsometer was prepared and induced. On the thermal properties measurement using the holding method, a specimen container to measure thermal diffusiveness of the high temperature melts by using laser flashing method was tried to prepare. (G.K.)

  7. Structural and optical properties of WTe2 single crystals synthesized by DVT technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pathak, V. M.; Soalanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.

    2018-05-01

    Layered transition metal di-chalcogenide (LTMDCs) crystals have attracted much attention due to their potential in optoelectronic device applications recently due to realization of their monolayer based structures. In the present investigation we report growth of WTe2 single crystals by direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. These crystals are then characterized by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) to study stoichiometric composition after growth. The structural properties are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) is used to confirm orthorhombic structure of grown WTe2 crystal. Surface morphological properties of the crystals are also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical properties of the grown crystals are studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy which gives direct band gap of 1.44 eV for grown WTe2 single crystals.

  8. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  9. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik; Hilbig, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)

  10. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE 23 Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T 2 * -decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T 2 * -decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T 2 * -decay and less image artefacts when B 0 -inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T 1 -, T 2 * - and Inversion-Recovery- 23 Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and 23 Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T 1 =29.0±0.3 ms; T 2s * ∼4 ms; T 2l * ∼31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T 1 =58.1±0.6 ms; T 2 * =55±3 ms (B 0 =3 T)). T 1 - und T 2 * -relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, 23 Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical properties of porous silicon by depth-sensing nanoindentation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhenqian; Hu Ming; Zhang Wei; Zhang Xurui; Yang Haibo

    2009-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) was prepared using the electrochemical corrosion method. Thermal oxidation of the as-prepared PS samples was performed at different temperatures for tuning their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of as-prepared and oxidized PS were thoroughly investigated by depth-sensing nanoindentation techniques with the continuous stiffness measurements option. The morphology of as-prepared and oxidized PS was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and the effect of observed microstructure changes on the mechanical properties was discussed. It is shown that the hardness and Young's elastic modulus of as-prepared PS exhibit a strong dependence on the preparing conditions and decrease with increasing current density. In particular, the mechanical properties of oxidized PS are improved greatly compared with that of as-prepared ones and increase with increasing thermal oxidation temperature. The mechanism responsible for the mechanical property enhancement is possibly the formation of SiO 2 cladding layers encapsulating on the inner surface of the incompact sponge PS to decrease the porosity and strengthen the interconnected microstructure

  12. Transport and calorimetric properties of AISI 321 by pulse thermal diffusivity and calorimetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovic, N.L.; Maglic, K.D.; Stanimirovic, A.M.; Vukovic, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the thermophysical properties of AISI 321 stainless steel was the last part of work within the IAEA-coordinated Research Programme for the Establishment of a Database of Thermophysical Properties of LW and HW Reactor Materials (IAEA CRP) effected at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca (NIV). The AISI 321 stainless steel belongs to the group of construction materials whose thermophysical and calorimetric properties have significance for the IAEA CRP. Because there have been few investigations of the thermal properties of this material, the CRP foresaw the need for new measurements, which are reported in this paper. Experimental research performed at NIV consisted of the investigation of thermal diffusivity, electric resistivity, and specific heat capacity of this austenitic stainless steel. The thermal diffusivity was measured by the laser pulse technique, and the elastic resistivity and specific heat capacity were determined by use of millisecond-resolution pulse calorimetry. All measurements were performed from ambient temperature to above 1000 o C, within which temperature range the material maintains its structure and stable thermophysical properties. Values for the thermal conductivity were computed from data on the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and the room-temperature density. (author)

  13. Analysis of micro-mechanical properties and microstructure of low-alloy steel using nanoindentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kweon, D. I.; Choi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Materials for nuclear reactor degrades continuously through microstructural changes by high operation temperature and irradiation. Strength properties is the most important factor for the selection of materials and the determination of degradation degree. Adhesion properties affected by strengthening particles with the range of nm size, strength distribution in microstructres couldn't have been easily tested by the conventional mechanical testing methods. Nanoindentation technique with the μN load range and the nm residual indent size range is very useful to determine those properties. Indentation was done with AFM for indenter positioning. Hardness values could be obtained from the analysis of indentation load-depth curves and AFM images of each phases were used for characterization of phases. Finally, overall strength of multiphase materials was predicted by evaluating the micro phase constituent properties. The volume fractions of each phase were evaluated through analyzing the shape and size of each phases on AFM image. Rule-of-mixture method was applied to the prediction of overall strength. Finally, the influence of grain boundary for strength properties was analyzed from several experiments

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Qualitative Properties of Lavash Bread Types During Storage by Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kamaliroosta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of flat breads depends in part on the textural and structural properties of breads during storage. These properties are largely affected by flour quality. This research aimed at evaluating textural and structural properties of Lavash bread types during storage by different techniques, comparing these methods and determination of correlation between their results. Materials and Methods: Three Lavash flours (named strong, medium and weak flours with different physical, chemical and rheological properties were performed. Determination of texture hardness of Lavash breads (Lavash A, Lavash B and Lavash C made of strong, medium and weak flours respectively during storage carried out by Texture analyzer, evaluation of breads porosity and their changes process during storage performed by ultrasonic nondestructive technique, assessment of breads microstructure made by SEM, evaluation of starch gelatinization and retro gradation performed by DSC and the sensory evaluation of breads made by trained panelist. Results: Lavash B made from medium flour had less hardness, lower transition of ultrasonic wave velocity and less values of elastic modulus, reduced values of enthalpy and lower average of temperatures, more pores diameter and area of images and higher points of sensory evaluation than Lavash A and Lavash C breads during storage time. The results of mentioned tests (devices and sensory tests had significant correlation to each other. Conclusion: Desirable quality characterization and higher shelf life of Lavash B was due to flour qualitative characteristics of this type of bread to obtain dough with appropriate elasticity and excellent sheeting capability. Ultrasonic non-destructive method is recommended to use instead of other methods for assessing texture, cell structure and elastic properties of bread after baking and during storage time. This method is fast, non-destructive and cheaper than other methods and

  15. Characterization-Based Molecular Design of Bio-Fuel Additives Using Chemometric and Property Clustering Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Subin; Solvason, Charles C.; Eden, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, multivariate characterization data such as infrared spectroscopy was used as a source of descriptor data involving information on molecular architecture for designing structured molecules with tailored properties. Application of multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis allowed capturing important features of the molecular architecture from enormous amount of complex data to build appropriate latent variable models. Combining the property clustering techniques and group contribution methods based on characterization (cGCM) data in a reverse problem formulation enabled identifying candidate components by combining or mixing molecular fragments until the resulting properties match the targets. The developed methodology is demonstrated using molecular design of biodiesel additive, which when mixed with off-spec biodiesel produces biodiesel that meets the desired fuel specifications. The contribution of this work is that the complex structures and orientations of the molecule can be included in the design, thereby allowing enumeration of all feasible candidate molecules that matched the identified target but were not part of original training set of molecules.

  16. Tailoring properties of lossy-mode resonance optical fiber sensors with atomic layer deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiel, Kamil; Koba, Marcin; Masiewicz, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The paper shows application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique as a tool for tailoring sensorial properties of lossy-mode-resonance (LMR)-based optical fiber sensors. Hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and tantalum oxide (TaxOy), as high-refractive-index dielectrics that are particularly convenient for LMR-sensor fabrication, were deposited by low-temperature (100 °C) ALD ensuring safe conditions for thermally vulnerable fibers. Applicability of HfO2 and ZrO2 overlays, deposited with ALD-related atomic level thickness accuracy for fabrication of LMR-sensors with controlled sensorial properties was presented. Additionally, for the first time according to our best knowledge, the double-layer overlay composed of two different materials - silicon nitride (SixNy) and TaxOy - is presented for the LMR fiber sensors. The thin films of such overlay were deposited by two different techniques - PECVD (the SixNy) and ALD (the TaxOy). Such approach ensures fast overlay fabrication and at the same time facility for resonant wavelength tuning, yielding devices with satisfactory sensorial properties.

  17. A three-dimensional microstructuring technique exploiting the positive photoresist property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Koji; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) thick-photoresist microstructuring technique that exploits the effect of exposure wavelength on dissolution rate distributions in a thick-film diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) photoresist. In fabricating 3D microstructure with specific applications, it is important to control the spatial dissolution rate distribution in the photoresist layer, since the lithographic performance for 3D microstructuring is largely determined by the details of the dissolution property. To achieve this goal, the effect of exposure wavelength on dissolution rate distributions was applied for 3D microstructuring. The parametric experimental results demonstrated (1) the advantages of the fabrication technique for 3D microstructuring and (2) the necessity of a dedicated simulation approach based on the measured thick-photoresist property for further verification. Thus, a simple and practical photolithography simulation model that makes use of the Fresnel diffraction theory and an empirically characterized DNQ photoresist property was adopted. Simulations revealed good quantitative agreement between the photoresist development profiles of the standard photolithography and the moving-mask UV lithography process. The simulation and experimental results conclude that the g-line (λ = 436 nm) process can reduce the dimensional limitation or complexity of the photolithography process for the 3D microstructuring which leads to nanoscale microstructuring.

  18. Optical properties of WO3 thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO 3 thin films. WO 3 thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO 3 thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO 3 thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO 3 /Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO 3 thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO 3 thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO 3 film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light

  19. Optical properties of WO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com, E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films. WO{sub 3} thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO{sub 3}/Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO{sub 3} thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO{sub 3} film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light.

  20. Characterization-Based Molecular Design of Bio-Fuel Additives Using Chemometric and Property Clustering Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Subin; Solvason, Charles C.; Eden, Mario R., E-mail: edenmar@auburn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States)

    2014-06-10

    In this work, multivariate characterization data such as infrared spectroscopy was used as a source of descriptor data involving information on molecular architecture for designing structured molecules with tailored properties. Application of multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis allowed capturing important features of the molecular architecture from enormous amount of complex data to build appropriate latent variable models. Combining the property clustering techniques and group contribution methods based on characterization (cGCM) data in a reverse problem formulation enabled identifying candidate components by combining or mixing molecular fragments until the resulting properties match the targets. The developed methodology is demonstrated using molecular design of biodiesel additive, which when mixed with off-spec biodiesel produces biodiesel that meets the desired fuel specifications. The contribution of this work is that the complex structures and orientations of the molecule can be included in the design, thereby allowing enumeration of all feasible candidate molecules that matched the identified target but were not part of original training set of molecules.

  1. Characterization-Based Molecular Design of Biofuel Additives Using Chemometric and Property Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin eHada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multivariate characterization data such as infrared (IR spectroscopy was used as a source of descriptor data involving information on molecular architecture for designing structured molecules with tailored properties. Application of multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA allowed capturing important features of the molecular architecture from complex data to build appropriate latent variable models. Combining the property clustering techniques and group contribution methods (GCM based on characterization data in a reverse problem formulation enabled identifying candidate components by combining or mixing molecular fragments until the resulting properties match the targets. The developed methodology is demonstrated using molecular design of biodiesel additive which when mixed with off-spec biodiesel produces biodiesel that meets the desired fuel specifications. The contribution of this work is that the complex structures and orientations of the molecule can be included in the design, thereby allowing enumeration of all feasible candidate molecules that matched the identified target but were not part of original training set of molecules.

  2. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  3. Combinatorial techniques to efficiently investigate and optimize organic thin film processing and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieberger, Florian; Kolb, Tristan; Neuber, Christian; Ober, Christopher K; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2013-04-08

    In this article we present several developed and improved combinatorial techniques to optimize processing conditions and material properties of organic thin films. The combinatorial approach allows investigations of multi-variable dependencies and is the perfect tool to investigate organic thin films regarding their high performance purposes. In this context we develop and establish the reliable preparation of gradients of material composition, temperature, exposure, and immersion time. Furthermore we demonstrate the smart application of combinations of composition and processing gradients to create combinatorial libraries. First a binary combinatorial library is created by applying two gradients perpendicular to each other. A third gradient is carried out in very small areas and arranged matrix-like over the entire binary combinatorial library resulting in a ternary combinatorial library. Ternary combinatorial libraries allow identifying precise trends for the optimization of multi-variable dependent processes which is demonstrated on the lithographic patterning process. Here we verify conclusively the strong interaction and thus the interdependency of variables in the preparation and properties of complex organic thin film systems. The established gradient preparation techniques are not limited to lithographic patterning. It is possible to utilize and transfer the reported combinatorial techniques to other multi-variable dependent processes and to investigate and optimize thin film layers and devices for optical, electro-optical, and electronic applications.

  4. Combinatorial Techniques to Efficiently Investigate and Optimize Organic Thin Film Processing and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Werner Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present several developed and improved combinatorial techniques to optimize processing conditions and material properties of organic thin films. The combinatorial approach allows investigations of multi-variable dependencies and is the perfect tool to investigate organic thin films regarding their high performance purposes. In this context we develop and establish the reliable preparation of gradients of material composition, temperature, exposure, and immersion time. Furthermore we demonstrate the smart application of combinations of composition and processing gradients to create combinatorial libraries. First a binary combinatorial library is created by applying two gradients perpendicular to each other. A third gradient is carried out in very small areas and arranged matrix-like over the entire binary combinatorial library resulting in a ternary combinatorial library. Ternary combinatorial libraries allow identifying precise trends for the optimization of multi-variable dependent processes which is demonstrated on the lithographic patterning process. Here we verify conclusively the strong interaction and thus the interdependency of variables in the preparation and properties of complex organic thin film systems. The established gradient preparation techniques are not limited to lithographic patterning. It is possible to utilize and transfer the reported combinatorial techniques to other multi-variable dependent processes and to investigate and optimize thin film layers and devices for optical, electro-optical, and electronic applications.

  5. Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-02-21

    increasing knowledge about its enzymatic properties and the regulation of its expression, little is known about its function. We have generated transgenic animals that express an autoactivating mutant of rat SL1 targeted to the epithelial compartment of the mammary gland. Phenotypically, SL1 transgenic mice display increased branching morphogenesis and lactogenic differentiation at prepubertal stages and premature involution during late pregnancy. Branching morphogenesis requires the invasion of epithelial cells into the adipose tissue, a process reminiscent of invasion of stromal compartments by tumor cells. Strikingly, a large number of SL1 transgenic animals also develop mammary tumors of various histotypes, including invasive adenocarcinomas. Because tumor development is a late response of SL1 transgenic mice to overexpression of the transgene, it remains unclear whether SL1 plays a direct role in tumor growth and/or invasion or whether the observed tumors are a consequence of other molecular alterations in the microenvironment of the mammary gland before the onset of tumor growth. Studies performed with synthetic inhibitors of MMP activity and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have shown that suppression of MMP activity also suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. In many cases, the level of SL1 expression in tumors of the mammary gland and other tissues is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. However, the only direct evidence for the nature of the MMPs involved was provided by the demonstration that function-blocking antibodies against gelatinase A and antisense inhibition of matrilysin expression decreased the invasiveness of tumor cells in a reconstituted basement membrane assay. These studies encouraged us to investigate whether SL1 plays a direct role in invasion of ECM. We used two carcinoma cell lines, TCL1 and SCg6 that formed rapidly growing, invasive tumors in vivo and migrated through Matrigel and collagen gels in culture

  6. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  7. Mechanical properties of ultra thin metallic films revealed by synchrotron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Patric Alfons

    2007-07-20

    A prerequisite for the study of the scaling behavior of mechanical properties of ultra thin films is a suitable testing technique. Therefore synchrotron-based in situ testing techniques were developed and optimized in order to characterize the stress evolution in ultra thin metallic films on compliant polymer substrates during isothermal tensile tests. Experimental procedures for polycrystalline as well as single crystalline films were established. These techniques were used to systematically investigate the influence of microstructure, film thickness (20 to 1000 nm) and temperature (-150 to 200 C) on the mechanical properties. Passivated and unpassivated Au and Cu films as well as single crystalline Au films on polyimide substrates were tested. Special care was also dedicated to the microstructural characterization of the samples which was very important for the correct interpretation of the results of the mechanical tests. Down to a film thickness of about 100 to 200 nm the yield strength increased for all film systems (passivated and unpassivated) and microstructures (polycrystalline and singlecrystalline). The influence of different interfaces was smaller than expected. This could be explained by a dislocation source model based on the nucleation of perfect dislocations. For polycrystalline films the film thickness as well as the grain size distribution had to be considered. For smaller film thicknesses the increase in flow stress was weaker and the deformation behavior changed because the nucleation of perfect dislocations became unfavorable. Instead, the film materials used alternative mechanisms to relieve the high stresses. For regular and homogeneous deformation the total strain was accommodated by the nucleation and motion of partial dislocations. If the deformation was localized due to initial cracks in a brittle interlayer or local delamination, dislocation plasticity was not effective enough to relieve the stress concentration and the films showed

  8. Study of microstructure and electrical properties of bulk YBCO prepared by melt textured growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonal, M. R.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Tewari, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Gyore, A.; Vajda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Bulk YBCO components were prepared using Melt Texture Growth (MTG) technique. Components were fabricated using MTG by addition of Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y211) and Ag to YBCO, which leads to improved grain size without affecting superconducting properties. Green compacts prepared by cold isostatic pressing were pre-sintered at 930°C before subjecting melt texturing. Cooling rates lower than 1 °C.h −1 was used, in between (peritectic) temperature of about 995 and 1025°C, to obtain large grained components. Microstructure studies in details were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), Orientation Imaging Microscope (OIM) and TEM correlated with electrical properties like Critical current density (J c )

  9. Fabrication of Al–TiC composites by hot consolidation technique: its microstructure and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Mohapatra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-based metal matrix composites reinforced with different volume fraction of TiC particles as reinforcement was synthesized by the hot consolidation process. The titanium carbide used in this study was synthesized directly from the titanium ore (ilmenite, FeTiO3 by carbothermic reduction process through thermal plasma technique. The field emission scanning electron micrographs (FESEM reveals the homogeneous distribution of TiC particles in the Al-matrix. Enhanced Young's modulus and mechanical properties with appreciable ductility were observed in the composite samples. The significant increases in the mechanical properties of the composites demonstrate the effectiveness of the low-density TiC reinforcement.

  10. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Jang, Leewoon; Jeon, Juwon; Kim, Myoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Inhwan; Kwak, Joonseop; Lee, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of zinc-oxide thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique have been investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films with a wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation were grown in aqueous solution at 90 .deg. C on sapphire substrates with a p-GaN buffer layer by using the hydrothermal technique. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed a sharp bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.366 eV with a very narrow peak width. The temperature-dependent variations of the emission energy and of the integrated intensity were studied. The activation energy of the bound exciton complex was calculated to be 7.35 ± 0.5 meV from the temperature dependent quenching of the integral intensities.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of gels. Application to protein nucleation control in the gel acupuncture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Abel; Juárez-Martínez, Gabriela; Hernández-Pérez, Tomás; Batina, Nikola; Mundo, Manuel; McPherson, Alexander

    1999-09-01

    In this work, we present a new approach using analytical and optical techniques in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of silica gel, as well as the measurement of the pore size in the network of the gel by scanning electron microscopy. The gel acupuncture technique developed by García-Ruiz et al. (Mater. Res. Bull 28 (1993) 541) García-Ruiz and Moreno (Acta Crystallogr. D 50 (1994) 484) was used throughout the history of crystal growth. Several experiments were done in order to evaluate the nucleation control of model proteins (thaumatin I from Thaumatococcus daniellii, lysozyme from hen egg white and catalase from bovine liver) by the porous network of the gel. Finally, it is shown how the number and the size of the crystals obtained inside X-ray capillaries is controlled by the size of the porous structure of the gel.

  12. Photoacoustic technique for the characterization of plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of gold nanoholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petronijevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply photo-acoustic (PA technique to examine plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of nanoholes etched in gold/chromium layer upon a glass substrate. The pitch of these arrays lies in the near IR, and this, under appropriate wave vector matching conditions in the visible region, allows for the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP guided along a dielectric – metal surface. SPP offered new approaches in light guiding and local field intensity enhancement, but their detection is often difficult due to the problematic discrimination of their contribution from the overall scattering. Here PA measures the energy absorbed due to the non-radiative decay of SPPs. We report on the absorption enhancement by presenting the spatial mapping of absorption under the incidence angles and wavelength that correspond to the efficient excitation of SPPs. Moreover, a comparison with optical transmission measurements is carried out, underlining the applicability and sensitivity of PA technique.

  13. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  14. Application of finite element techniques in predicting the acoustic properties of turbofan inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Sigman, R. K.; Zinn, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed for predicting the acoustic performance of turbofan inlets carrying a subsonic axisymmetric steady flow. The finite element method combined with the method of weighted residuals is used in predicting the acoustic properties of variable area, annular ducts with or without acoustic treatments along their walls. An approximate solution for the steady inviscid flow field is obtained using an integral method for calculating the incompressible potential flow field in the inlet with a correction to account for compressibility effects. The accuracy of the finite element technique was assessed by comparison with available analytical solutions for the problems of plane and spinning wave propagation through a hard walled annular cylinder with a constant mean flow.

  15. Automation of scanning technique by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamira, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    The gamma scan technique is a nuclear test allowing the analysis of the internal mechanical properties of distillation columns used in petrochemical industries. Such technique is performed manually. So we propose in this work to automate the gamma scan procedure test by using a PLC. In addition, supervision and data acquisition interfaces are proposed.

  16. Structural investigation and simulation of acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using artificial intelligence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.S.; Abdeen, Mostafa A.M.; Marzouk, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Simulation the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). → The glass network is strengthened by enhancing the linkage of Te-O chains. The tellurite network will also come to homogenization, because of uniform distribution of Nb 5+ ions among the Te-O chains, though some of the tellurium-oxide polyhedra still link each other in edge sharing. → Excellent agreements between the measured values and the predicted values were obtained for over 50 different tellurite glass compositions. → The model we designed gives a better agreement as compared with Makishima and Machenzie model. - Abstract: The developments in the field of industry raise the need for simulating the acoustic properties of glass materials before melting raw material oxides. In this paper, we are trying to simulate the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). The artificial neural network (ANN) technique is introduced in the current study to simulate and predict important parameters such as density, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli (longitudinal and shear moduli). The ANN results were found to be in successful good agreement with those experimentally measured parameters. Then the presented ANN model is used to predict the acoustic properties of some new tellurite glasses. For this purpose, four glass systems xNb 2 O 5 -(1 - x)TeO 2 , 0.1PbO-xNb 2 O 5 -(0.9 - x)TeO 2 , 0.2PbO-xNb 2 O 5 -(0.8 - x)TeO 2 and 0.05Bi 2 O 3 -xNb 2 O 5 -(0.95 - x)TeO 2 were prepared using melt quenching technique. The results of ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli showed that the addition of Nb 2 O 5 as a network modifier provides oxygen ions to change [TeO 4 ] tbps into [TeO 3 ] tps.

  17. Structural investigation and simulation of acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using artificial intelligence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaafar, M.S., E-mail: mohamed_s_gaafar@hotmail.com [Ultrasonic Department, National Institute for Standards, Giza (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Majmaah University, Zulfi (Saudi Arabia); Abdeen, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: mostafa_a_m_abdeen@hotmail.com [Dept. of Eng. Math. and Physics, Faculty of Eng., Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Marzouk, S.Y., E-mail: samir_marzouk2001@yahoo.com [Arab Academy of Science and Technology, Al-Horria, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > Simulation the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). > The glass network is strengthened by enhancing the linkage of Te-O chains. The tellurite network will also come to homogenization, because of uniform distribution of Nb{sup 5+} ions among the Te-O chains, though some of the tellurium-oxide polyhedra still link each other in edge sharing. > Excellent agreements between the measured values and the predicted values were obtained for over 50 different tellurite glass compositions. > The model we designed gives a better agreement as compared with Makishima and Machenzie model. - Abstract: The developments in the field of industry raise the need for simulating the acoustic properties of glass materials before melting raw material oxides. In this paper, we are trying to simulate the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). The artificial neural network (ANN) technique is introduced in the current study to simulate and predict important parameters such as density, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli (longitudinal and shear moduli). The ANN results were found to be in successful good agreement with those experimentally measured parameters. Then the presented ANN model is used to predict the acoustic properties of some new tellurite glasses. For this purpose, four glass systems xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(1 - x)TeO{sub 2}, 0.1PbO-xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(0.9 - x)TeO{sub 2}, 0.2PbO-xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(0.8 - x)TeO{sub 2} and 0.05Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(0.95 - x)TeO{sub 2} were prepared using melt quenching technique. The results of ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli showed that the addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} as a network modifier provides oxygen ions to change [TeO{sub 4}] tbps into [TeO{sub 3}] tps.

  18. Structure and properties of composite iron-based coatings obtained by the electromechanical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinskii, N. A.

    2007-09-01

    The influence of the electrolyte temperature and current density on the content of inclusions of powder particles in composite coatings obtained by the electrochemical technique has been investigated. It has been found that the wear resistance of iron coatings with inclusions of powder particles of aluminum, kaolin, and calcium silicate increases from 5 to 10 times compared to coating without inclusions of disperse particles, and the friction coefficient therewith decreases from 0.097 to 0.026. It has been shown that the mechanical properties of iron obtained by the method of electrochemical deposition depend on their fine structure. The regimes of deposition of iron-based coatings have been optimized.

  19. D Models for All: Low-Cost Acquisition Through Mobile Devices in Comparison with Image Based Techniques. Potentialities and Weaknesses in Cultural Heritage Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, C.; Lo Turco, M.; Bocconcino, M. M.; Donato, V.; Galizia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections) could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques (also produced by the same device) combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  20. 3D MODELS FOR ALL: LOW-COST ACQUISITION THROUGH MOBILE DEVICES IN COMPARISON WITH IMAGE BASED TECHNIQUES. POTENTIALITIES AND WEAKNESSES IN CULTURAL HERITAGE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Santagati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM techniques (also produced by the same device combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  1. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  2. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. High temperature dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate by cavity perturbation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Liu, Chenhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Chemistry and Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Zhang, Libo, E-mail: libozhang77@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); and others

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Cavity perturbation technique is employed to measure the dielectric properties. • Microwave absorption capability of ZnO is poor from 20 °C to 850 °C. • Dielectric properties of spent absorbent and zinc sulfate are influenced by temperature especially in high temperature stage. • Penetration depths and heating curve indicate spent adsorbent and ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} are excellent microwave absorber. • The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly by microwave-regeneration directly. - Abstract: Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate are investigated by cavity perturbation technique at 2450 MHz from 20 °C to approximately 1000 °C. Two weight loss stages are observed for spent adsorbent by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) analysis, and zinc sulfate is decomposed to ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO at about 750 °C and 860 °C. Microwave absorption capability of ZnSO{sub 4} increases with increasing temperature and declines after ZnO generation on account of the poor dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent are dependent on apparent density and noticed an interestingly linearly relationship at room temperature. The three parameters increase gently from 20 °C to 400 °C, but a sharp increase both in real part and imaginary part are found subsequently due to the volatiles release and regeneration of carbon. And material conductivity is improved, which contributes to the π-electron conduction appearance. Relationship between penetration depth and temperature further elaborate spent adsorbent is an excellent microwave absorber and the microwave absorption capability order of zinc compounds is ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO. Heating characteristics suggest that heating rate is related with dielectric properties of materials. The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly and the surface is smoother after microwave-regeneration.

  4. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition systems are discussed for molecular biology experiments using synchrotron radiation sources. The data acquisition system requirements are considered. The components of the solution are described including hardwired solutions and computer-based solutions. Finally, the considerations for the choice of the computer-based solution are outlined. (U.K.)

  5. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  6. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  7. Towards the development of rapid screening techniques for shale gas core properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Mark R.; Vane, Christopher; Kemp, Simon; Harrington, Jon; Cuss, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas has been produced for many years in the U.S.A. and forms around 8% of total their natural gas production. Recent testing for gas on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire UK suggests there are potentially large reserves which could be exploited. The increasing significance of shale gas has lead to the need for deeper understanding of shale behaviour. There are many factors which govern whether a particular shale will become a shale gas resource and these include: i) Organic matter abundance, type and thermal maturity; ii) Porosity-permeability relationships and pore size distribution; iii) Brittleness and its relationship to mineralogy and rock fabric. Measurements of these properties require sophisticated and time consuming laboratory techniques (Josh et al 2012), whereas rapid screening techniques could provide timely results which could improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of exploration. In this study, techniques which are portable and provide rapid on-site measurements (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy) have been calibrated against standard laboratory techniques (Rock-Eval 6 analyser-Vinci Technologies) and Powder whole-rock XRD analysis was carried out using a PANalytical X'Pert Pro series diffractometer equipped with a cobalt-target tube, X'Celerator detector and operated at 45kV and 40mA, to predict properties of potential shale gas material from core material from the Bowland shale Roosecote, south Cumbria. Preliminary work showed that, amongst various mineralogical and organic matter properties of the core, regression models could be used so that the total organic carbon content could be predicted from the IR spectra with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6% organic carbon, the free hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6 mgHC/g rock, the bound hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 2.4 mgHC/g rock, mica content

  8. Predicting the Mechanical Properties of Viscose/Lycra Knitted Fabrics Using Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to predict the mechanical properties of viscose/lycra plain knitted fabrics by using fuzzy expert system. In this study, a fuzzy prediction model has been built based on knitting stitch length, yarn count, and yarn tenacity as input variables and fabric mechanical properties specially bursting strength as an output variable. The factors affecting the bursting strength of viscose knitted fabrics are very nonlinear. Hence, it is very challenging for scientists and engineers to create an exact model efficiently by mathematical or statistical model. Alternatively, developing a prediction model via ANN and ANFIS techniques is also difficult and time consuming process due to a large volume of trial data. In this context, fuzzy expert system (FES is the promising modeling tool in a quality modeling as FES can map effectively in nonlinear domain with minimum experimental data. The model derived in the present study has been validated by experimental data. The mean absolute error and coefficient of determination between the actual bursting strength and that predicted by the fuzzy model were found to be 2.60% and 0.961, respectively. The results showed that the developed fuzzy model can be applied effectively for the prediction of fabric mechanical properties.

  9. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  10. Dynamic electrostatic force microscopy technique for the study of electrical properties with improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragliano, C; Heskes, D; Stefancich, M; Chiesa, M; Souier, T

    2013-01-01

    The need to resolve the electrical properties of confined structures (CNTs, quantum dots, nanorods, etc) is becoming increasingly important in the field of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we propose an approach based on amplitude modulated electrostatic force microscopy to obtain measurements at small tip–sample distances, where highly nonlinear forces are present. We discuss how this improves the lateral resolution of the technique and allows probing of the electrical and surface properties. The complete force field at different tip biases is employed to derive the local work function difference. Then, by appropriately biasing the tip–sample system, short-range forces are reconstructed. The short-range component is then separated from the generic tip–sample force in order to recover the pure electrostatic contribution. This data can be employed to derive the tip–sample capacitance curve and the sample dielectric constant. After presenting a theoretical model that justifies the need for probing the electrical properties of the sample in the vicinity of the surface, the methodology is presented in detail and verified experimentally. (paper)

  11. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  12. Fracture properties of ThO2-UO2 pellets by Hertzian indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Rath, B.N.; Balakrishnan, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Fracture toughness (K Ic ) and fracture surface energy (γ s ) of ThO 2 -UO 2 pellets with varying UO 2 contents were measured using Hertzian indentation technique. The knowledge of fracture toughness (K Ic ) and fracture surface energy values are important for fuel designers since these values are used in fuel modeling. Cracks in nuclear fuel act as a path for fission gas release and enhances fuel cladding mechanical interaction. Microstructural features like grain size and presence of second phase play a significant role in controlling the fracture behavior. Since the fracture properties of nuclear materials are of primary design consideration, it is important that these properties should be evaluated with good precision. There have been several attempts to use Hertzian indentation for evaluating the fracture toughness of brittle materials. The main principle of this method depends on the interaction of the elastic stress field with a pre-existing surface flaw of the sample. One significant advantage of Hertzian indentation over that of Vickers is that the substrate's deformation is entirely elastic until fracture occurs. This avoids the complications arising from the ill-defined residual stress that is normally associated with indentations brought about by pointed indenters like that of Vickers. The material properties that may be determined by this test include (a) fracture toughness and fracture surface energy of the near surface material, (b) the densities and sizes of surface cracks, and (c) residual stresses in the near surface material. This paper deals with experimental procedure for the evaluation of fracture properties of ThO 2 -UO 2 of varying U content and results thus obtained are also presented. The K Ic values thus obtained are explained in terms of their microstructures and the U content. (author)

  13. Preparation, characterization and optoelectronic properties of nanodiamonds doped zinc oxide nanomaterials by a ball milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hameed; Sohail, Muhammad; Malik, Uzma; Ali, Naveed; Bangash, Masroor Ahmad; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the very important metal oxides (MOs) for applications in optoelectronic devices which work in the blue and UV regions. However, to meet the challenges of obtaining ZnO nanomaterials suitable for practical applications, various modifications in physico-chemical properties are highly desirable. One of the ways adopted for altering the properties is to synthesize composite(s) of ZnO with various reinforcements. Here we report on the tuning of optoelectronic properties of ZnO upon doping by nanodiamonds (NDs) using the ball milling technique. A varying weight percent (wt.%) of NDs were ball milled for 2 h with ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a simple precipitation method. The effects of different parameters, the calcination temperature of ZnO, wt.% of NDs and mechanical milling upon the optoelectronic properties of the resulting ZnO-NDs nanocomposites have been investigated. The ZnO-NDs nanocomposites were characterized by IR spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The UV-vis spectroscopy revealed the alteration in the bandgap energy (Eg ) of ZnO as a function of the calcination temperature of ZnO, changing the concentration of NDs, and mechanical milling of the resulting nanocomposites. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a decrease in the deep level emission (DLE) peaks and an increase in near-band-edge transition peaks as a result of the increasing concentration of NDs. The decrease in DLE and increase in band to band transition peaks were due to the strong interaction between the NDs and the Zn+; consequently, the Zn+ concentration decreased on the interstitial sites.

  14. Seismic data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Nadre, V.N.; Rao, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Details of seismic data acquisition systems developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported. The seismic signals acquired belong to different signal bandwidths in the band from 0.02 Hz to 250 Hz. All these acquisition systems are built around a unique technique of recording multichannel data on to a single track of an audio tape and in digital form. Techniques of how these signals in different bands of frequencies were acquired and recorded are described. Method of detecting seismic signals and its performance is also discussed. Seismic signals acquired in different set-ups are illustrated. Time indexing systems for different set-ups and multichannel waveform display systems which form essential part of the data acquisition systems are also discussed. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Comparative studies on mechanical properties of WC-Co composites sintered by SPS and conventional techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristinskiy Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS is an extremely fast solidification technique for compounds that are difficult to sinter within the material group metals, ceramics, or composites thereof, SPS uses a uniaxial pressure and a very rapid heating cycle to consolidate these materials. With SPS the main benefit is the ability to control the WC grain size due to the short sintering times at high temperature. Additionally, its allows to avoid negative reactions between WC and cobalt and to minimize the formation of undesirable phases in sintered composites. The WC-6wt.% Co cermet prepared by SPS processing achieves the enhanced mechanical properties with the hardness of 18.3 GPa and the fracture toughness of 15.5 MPa·m1/2 in comparison to standard reference tungsten carbide/cobalt material.

  16. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  17. Microstructure and thermal properties of Cu-SiC composite materials depending on the sintering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper investigates the relationship between the microstructure and thermal properties of copper-silicon carbide composites obtained through hot pressing (HP and spark plasma sintering (SPS techniques. The microstructural analysis showed a better densification in the case of composites sintered in the SPS process. TEM investigations revealed the presence of silicon in the area of metallic matrix in the region close to metal-ceramic boundary. It is the product of silicon dissolving process in copper occurring at an elevated temperature. The Cu-SiC interface is significantly defected in composites obtained through the hot pressing method, which has a major influence on the thermal conductivity of materials.

  18. Measurements of nonlinear optical properties of PVDF/ZnO using Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed, E-mail: haidshan62@gmail.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul (Iraq)

    2015-10-15

    The nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer are investigated. PVDF/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by mixing different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles, as the filler, with PVDF, as the polymer matrix, using casting method. Acetone was used as a solvent for the polymer. FTIR spectra of the samples were analyzed thus confirming the formation of α and β phases. The absorbance spectra of the samples were obtained, thereby showing high absorption in the UV region. The linear absorption coefficient was calculated. The single-beam Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the PVDF/ZnO nanocomposite samples. We observed that the nonlinear refractive index is in the order of 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/W with the negative sign, whereas the nonlinear absorption coefficient is in the order of 10{sup -8} cm/W. (author)

  19. Evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties of zirconia ceramics by an indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.; Upadhyaya, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics have wide range engineering applications at room and elevated temperatures. For understanding the mechanical behaviour, the indentation technique was adapted for quick evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties. A Vicker's diamond indentor with 10 N load was employed for hot hardness and creep measurement up to 1300 deg. The fatigue data were evaluated at room temperature by repeated indentation with a constant load (10-2500N) at the same location for a dwell time of 5s until it resulted in the formation of a lateral chip on the sample surface. Thus, the number of cycles for chip formation at a specific indentation load was obtained. The fracture toughness was evaluated at room temperature with a load of 300N using a Vicker's diamond indentor. The results of hot hardness, creep, fatigue, and fracture data ol 3Y-TZP and Mg-PSZ are discussed along with their microstructural features. (authors)

  20. i-CELIV technique for investigation of charge carriers transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Važgėla, J., E-mail: julius.vazgela@ff.vu.lt; Genevičius, K.; Juška, G.

    2016-10-20

    The extraction of the injected charge carriers by linearly increasing voltage (i-CELIV) is a promising method for separate analysis of the holes and electrons transport properties in the bulk heterojunction layers. We are demonstrating how to establish the mobility dependence on the electric field and obtain more precise results by performing corrections in transit time by this technique. [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) bulk heterojunctions with different blend ratios were experimentally tested with i-CELIV method. The hole and electron mobilities were found to be heavily imbalanced in the optimised 3:1 PCBM:PCPDTBT bulk heterojunction.

  1. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  2. Hot Press as a Sustainable Direct Recycling Technique of Aluminium: Mechanical Properties and Surface Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Nur Kamilah; Lajis, Mohd Amri; Ahmad, Azlan

    2017-08-03

    Meltless recycling technique has been utilized to overcome the lack of primary resources, focusing on reducing the usage of energy and materials. Hot press was proposed as a novel direct recycling technique which results in astoundingly low energy usage in contrast with conventional recycling. The aim of this study is to prove the technical feasibility of this approach by characterizing the recycled samples. For this purpose, AA6061 aluminium chips were recycled by utilizing hot press process under various operating temperature (T s = 430, 480, and 530 °C) and holding times (t s = 60, 90, and 120 min). The maximum mechanical properties of recycled chip are Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 266.78 MPa, Elongation to failure (ETF) = 16.129%, while, for surface integrity of the chips, the calculated microhardness is 81.744 HV, exhibited at T s = 530 °C and t s = 120 min. It is comparable to theoretical AA6061 T4-temper where maximum UTS and microhardness is increased up to 9.27% and 20.48%, respectively. As the desired mechanical properties of forgings can only be obtained by means of a final heat treatment, T5-temper, aging after forging process was employed. Heat treated recycled billet AA6061 (T5-temper) are considered comparable with as-received AA6061 T6, where the value of microhardness (98.649 HV) at 175 °C and 120 min of aging condition was revealed to be greater than 3.18%. Although it is quite early to put a base mainly on the observations in experimental settings, the potential for significant improvement offered by the direct recycling methods for production aluminium scrap can be clearly demonstrated. This overtures perspectives for industrial development of solid state recycling processes as environmentally benign alternatives of current melting based practices.

  3. Modified Welding Technique of a Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Alloy for Higher Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B. R.; Gupta, R. K.; Biju, S.; Sinha, P. P.

    GTAW process is used for welding of pressure vessels made of hypo-eutectic Al-Cu alloy AA2219 containing 6.3% Cu. As welded Yield strength of the alloy was found to be in the range of 140-150 MPa, using conventional single pass GTAW technique on both AC and DCSP modes. Interestingly, it was also found that weld-strength decreased with increase in thickness of the weld coupons. Welding metallurgy of AA2219 Al alloy was critically reviewed and factors responsible for lower properties were identified. Multipass GTAW on DCSP mode was postulated to improve the weld strength of this alloy. A systematic experimentation using 12 mm thick plates was carried out and YS of 200 MPa has been achieved in the as welded condition. Thorough characterization including optical and electron microscopy was conducted to validate the metallurgical phenomena attributable to improvement in weld strength. This paper presents the conceptual understanding of welding metallurgy of AA2219 alloy and validation by experiments, which could lead to better weld properties using multipass GTAW on DCSP mode.

  4. Thermal property characterization of fine fibers by the 3-omega technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu; Jensen, Colby; Munro, Troy; White, Benjamin; Ban, Heng; Chirtoc, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    The 3 omega method is one of few reliable measurement techniques for thermal characterization of micro to nanoscale suspended wires or fibers and has been applied for measurements of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires. However, the models described in the past were either complicated for analysis or simplified from a more complete solution. In addition, the past models cannot be implemented directly when using a more reliable measurement configuration with a Wheatstone bridge. In this work, a simpler, explicit model, is developed to describe the heat transfer process through a suspended wire for measurement of its thermal properties. Generic trends and values of the 3ω harmonic voltage amplitude and phase responses clearly indicate the frequency limits for thermal conductivity and heat capacity determination and ideal conditions for thermal diffusivity estimation. Based on a sensitivity analysis, these limits are confirmed and appropriate frequency ranges for thermal conductivity and diffusivity are recommended. Radiation influence on the measurement results is quantified and correlated to a dimensionless radiation parameter. Two methods are presented to determine sample thermal properties independent of lateral heat losses and validated by numerical experiments using COMSOL. Uncertainty analysis was also derived by Taylor series expansion with calculated parameter sensitivities. - Highlights: • An improved model for suspended wire 3 omega measurement. • Quantification on the radiation induced measurement error. • Numerical simulation validating the improved model. • Sensitivity analysis to find measurement range minimizing uncertainty

  5. Influence of Heartwood on Wood Density and Pulp Properties Explained by Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a tool to predict some pulp properties e.g., pulp yield, Kappa number, ISO brightness (ISO 2470:2008, fiber length and fiber width, using the sapwood and heartwood proportion in the raw-material. For this purpose, Acacia melanoxylon trees were collected from four sites in Portugal. Percentage of sapwood and heartwood, area and the stem eccentricity (in N-S and E-W directions were measured on transversal stem sections of A. melanoxylon R. Br. The relative position of the samples with respect to the total tree height was also considered as an input variable. Different configurations were tested until the maximum correlation coefficient was achieved. A classical mathematical technique (multiple linear regression and machine learning methods (classification and regression trees, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machines were tested. Classification and regression trees (CART was the most accurate model for the prediction of pulp ISO brightness (R = 0.85. The other parameters could be predicted with fair results (R = 0.64–0.75 by CART. Hence, the proportion of heartwood and sapwood is a relevant parameter for pulping and pulp properties, and should be taken as a quality trait when assessing a pulpwood resource.

  6. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Dental Alloys Fabricated by Three CAD/CAM-Based Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Ri Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr alloys produced by three CAD/CAM-based processing techniques were investigated in comparison with those produced by the traditional casting technique. Four groups of disc- (microstructures or dumbbell- (mechanical properties specimens made of Co-Cr alloys were prepared using casting (CS, milling (ML, selective laser melting (SLM, and milling/post-sintering (ML/PS. For each technique, the corresponding commercial alloy material was used. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated via X-ray diffractometry, optical and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile test according to ISO 22674 (n = 6. The microstructure of the alloys was strongly influenced by the manufacturing processes. Overall, the SLM group showed superior mechanical properties, the ML/PS group being nearly comparable. The mechanical properties of the ML group were inferior to those of the CS group. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-Cr alloys were greatly dependent on the manufacturing technique as well as the chemical composition. The SLM and ML/PS techniques may be considered promising alternatives to the Co-Cr alloy casting process.

  7. Evaluating interfacial adhesion properties of Pt/Ti thin-film by using acousto-optic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Sung [Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Didie, David; Yoshida, Sanichiro [Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We propose an acousto-optic technique for the nondestructive evaluation of adhesion properties of a Pt/Ti thin-film interface. Since there are some problems encountered when using prevailing techniques to nondestructively evaluate the interfacial properties of micro/nano-scale thin-films, we applied an interferometer that combined the acoustic and optical methods. This technique is based on the Michelson interferometer but the resultant surface of the thin film specimen makes interference instead of the mirror when the interface is excited from the acoustic transducer at the driving frequency. The thin film shows resonance-like behavior at a certain frequency range, resulting in a low-contrast fringe pattern. Therefore, we represented quantitatively the change in fringe pattern as a frequency spectrum and discovered the possibility that the interfacial adhesion properties of a thin film can be evaluated using the newly proposed technique.

  8. Successive Transfers Relating to Movable Tangible Assets and Acquisition of Property under Article 937, Paragraph (1 of the Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Ioan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparently article 1275, paragraph (1 of the Civil Code covers all situations that may arise in practice, without making a distinction for the constituent or transferring contracts if they are of the same or of different nature. However, we appreciate that article 1275 of the Civil Code does not apply in all situations of successive transfers relating to movable tangible property granted by the same legal subject. Corroborating this text with the norms in article 937 paragraph (1 of the Civil Code and article1273 paragraph (1 of the Civil Code it leads to the solution according to which article 1275 of the Civil Code regards only the cases where the transfer of successive property are of the same nature, the onerous primary act has not resulted in immediate transmission of real previous right of the document with the free subsidiary title and when the primal act is free, and the alternative is onerous. It is excluded, thus from the application of the rule in question when the primary onerous act had as effect the immediate transmission of the real right and then, but without having occurred the delivery of the asset by the acquirer, it was concluded a document with a free title, subsidiary.

  9. 32 CFR 644.102 - Examples of involuntary acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Examples of involuntary acquisitions. 644.102... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Involuntary Acquisition by the United States § 644.102 Examples... property, as prescribed by Pub. L. 91-646. Examples of involuntary acquisition are: (a) Damage to real...

  10. Data-Driven RDF Property Semantic-Equivalence Detection Using NLP Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, Mariano; Mihindukulasooriya, Nandana; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2016-01-01

    DBpedia extracts most of its data from Wikipedia’s infoboxes. Manually-created “mappings” link infobox attributes to DBpedia ontology properties (dbo properties) producing most used DBpedia triples. However, infoxbox attributes without a mapping produce triples with properties in a different namespace (dbp properties). In this position paper we point out that (a) the number of triples containing dbp properties is significant compared to triples containing dbo properties for the DBpedia instan...

  11. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Soil Properties in Varzaneh Region of Isfahan Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mahmoodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of remote sensing for soil assessment and monitoring started with the launch of the first Landsat satellite. Since then many other polar orbiting Earth-observation satellites such as the Landsat series, have been launched and their imagery have been used for a wide range of soil mapping. The broad swaths and regular revisit frequencies of these multispectral satellites mean that they can be used to rapidly detect changes in soil properties. Arid and semi-arid lands cover more than 70 percent of Iran and are very prone to desertification. Due to the broadness, remoteness, and harsh condition of these lands, soil studies using ground-based techniques appear to be limited. Remote sensing imagery with its cost and time-effectiveness has been suggested and used as an alternative approach for more than four decades. Flood irrigation is one of the most common techniques in Isfahan province in which 70% of water is lost through evaporation. This system has increased soil salinization and desert-like conditions in the region. For principled decision making on agricultural product management, combating desertification and its consequences and better use of production resources to achieve sustainable development; understanding and knowledge of the origin, amount and area of salinity, the percentage of calcite, gypsum and other mineral of soil in each region is essential. Therefore, this study aimed to map the physical and chemical characteristics of soils in Vazaneh region of Isfahan province, Iran. Materials and Methods : Varzaneh region with 75000 ha located in central Iran and lies between latitudes 3550234 N and 3594309 N and longitudes 626530 E to 658338 E. The climate in the study area is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. The mean daily maximum temperature ranges from 35°C in summer to approximately 17°C in winter and mean daily minimum temperature ranges from 5°C in summer to about -24.5°C in winter. The mean

  12. Investigation of some physical properties of ZnO nanofilms synthesized by micro-droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamzaoui

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using a simple micro-droplets technique from a solution prepared by dissolving zinc acetate di-hydrate [Zn(CH3COO2, 2H2O] in methanol. Microdroplets were deposited on glass substrates heated at 100 °C, the obtained samples of ZnO films were investigated by XRD, AES, AFM, ellipsometry and PL. XRD patterns reveal the wurtzite structure of ZnO where the lattice parameters a and c, calculated from XRD signals, show a nanometric character of ZnO nanoparticles. The chemical composition of ZnO film surfaces was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. From Auger signals, oxygen (O-KLL and zinc (Zn-LMM Auger transitions indicate well the presence of Zn-O bonding. The surface topography of the samples was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM where ZnO nanoparticles of average size ranging between 20 and 80 nm were determined. Some optical properties as dielectric constants, refractive index, extinction coefficient as well as the optical band gap were determined from ellipsometry analysis. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of both Cauchy parameters and Wemple & Di-Dominico single oscillator model. The photoluminescence (PL measurements exhibited two emission peaks. The first at 338 nm, corresponding to the band gap of ZnO, is due to excitonic emission while the second around 400 nm, is attributed to the single ionized oxygen vacancies. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, Micro droplets technique, AFM, Auger spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence (PL

  13. Selective Laser Melting Technique of Co-Cr Dental Alloys: A Review of Structure and Properties and Comparative Analysis with Other Available Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukis, Theodoros; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George; Al-Wazzan, Khalid; Rifaiy, Mohammed Al; Al Jabbari, Youssef S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of selective laser melting (SLM) procedure on the properties of dental structures made of Co-Cr alloys and to evaluate its quality and compare it to those produced by conventional casting and milling fabrication techniques. A computerized database search using PubMed and Scopus was conducted for peer-reviewed scientific research studies regarding the use of SLM in Co-Cr dental alloys with no restrictions for publication years. The search engines provided hundreds of results, and only 48 scientific research papers, case studies, or literature reviews were considered relevant for this review. The innovative manufacturing concept of SLM offers many advantages compared with casting and milling fabrication techniques. SLM provides different microstructure from casting and milling with minimal internal porosity and internal fitting, marginal adaptation, and comparable bond strength to porcelain. Mechanical and electrochemical properties of SLM structures are enhanced compared to cast, while clinical longevity of single-metal ceramic crowns is comparable to Au-Pt dental alloy. The SLM technique provides dental prosthetic restorations more quickly and less expensively without compromising their quality compared with restorations prepared by casting and milling techniques. The current SLM devices provide metallic restorations made of Co-Cr alloys for removable and fixed partial dentures without compromising the alloy or restoration properties at a fraction of the time and cost, showing great potential to replace the aforementioned fabrication techniques in the long term; however, further clinical studies are essential to increase the acceptance of this technology by the worldwide dental community. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. L-C Measurement Acquisition Method for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement acquisition method for aerospace systems that eliminates the need for sensors to have physical connection to a power source (i.e., no lead wires) or to data acquisition equipment. Furthermore, the method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The sensors consist of a capacitor, C(p), whose capacitance changes with changes to a physical property, p, electrically connected to an inductor, L. The method uses an antenna to broadcast electromagnetic energy that electrically excites one or more inductive-capacitive sensors via Faraday induction. This method facilitates measurements that were not previously possible because there was no practical means of providing power and data acquisition electrical connections to a sensor. Unlike traditional sensors, which measure only a single physical property, the manner in which the sensing element is interrogated simultaneously allows measurement of at least two unrelated physical properties (e.g., displacement rate and fluid level) by using each constituent of the L-C element. The key to using the method for aerospace applications is to increase the distance between the L-C elements and interrogating antenna; develop all key components to be non-obtrusive and to develop sensing elements that can easily be implemented. Techniques that have resulted in increased distance between antenna and sensor will be presented. Fluid-level measurements and pressure measurements using the acquisition method are demonstrated in the paper.

  15. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  16. PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.D.; Naik, K.V.; Jain, S.K.; Pathak, R.V.; Suman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Multiparameter data acquisition (MPA) systems which analyse nuclear events with respect to more than one property of the event are essential tools for the study of some complex nuclear phenomena requiring analysis of time coincident spectra. For better throughput and accuracy each parameter is digitized by its own ADC. A stand alone low cost IBM PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system developed by the authors makes use of Address Recording technique for acquiring data from eight 12 bit ADC's in the PC Memory. Two memory buffers in the PC memory are used in ping-pong fashion so that data acquisition in one bank and dumping of data onto PC disk from the other bank can proceed simultaneously. Data is acquired in the PC memory through DMA mode for realising high throughput and hardware interrupt is used for switching banks for data acquisition. A comprehensive software package developed in Turbo-Pascal offers a set of menu-driven interactive commands to the user for setting-up system parameters and control of the system. The system is to be used with pelletron accelerator. (author). 5 figs

  17. Mucoadhesive Properties of Thiolated Pectin-Based Pellets Prepared by Extrusion-Spheronization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Luiz Lopes; de Oliveira, Aline Carlos; do Nascimento, Carolina Machado Ozório Lopes; Silva, Luís Antônio Dantas; Gaeti, Marilisa Pedroso Nogueira; Lima, Eliana Martins; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia; Marreto, Ricardo Neves

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mucoadhesive pellets on a thiolated pectin base using the extrusion-spheronization technique. Thiolation of pectin was performed by esterification with thioglycolic acid. The molecular weight and thiol group content of the pectins were determined. Pellets containing pectin, microcrystalline cellulose, and ketoprofen were prepared and their mucoadhesive properties were evaluated through a wash-off test using porcine intestinal mucosa. The in vitro ketoprofen release was also evaluated. Thiolated pectin presented a thiol group content of 0.69 mmol/g. Thiolation caused a 13% increase in polymer molecular weight. Pellets containing thiolated pectin were still adhering to the intestinal mucosa after 480 min and showed a more gradual release of ketoprofen. Conversely, pellets prepared with nonthiolated pectin showed rapid disintegration and detached after only 15 min. It can be concluded that thiolated pectin-based pellets can be considered a potential platform for the development of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems for the oral route. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia prepared by spray drying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Gokhale, N.M.; Dayal, Rajiv; Lazl, Ramji

    2002-01-01

    Ceria stabilized zirconia powders with ceria concentration varying from 6 to 16 mol% were synthesized using spray drying technique. Powders were characterized for their particle size distribution and specific surface area. The dense sintered ceramics fabricated using these powders were characterized for their microstructure, crystallite size and phase composition. The flexural strength, fracture toughness and micro-hardness of sintered ceramics were measured. High fracture toughness and flexural strength were obtained for sintered bodies with 12 mol% of CeO 2 . Flexural strength and fracture toughness were dependent on CeO 2 concentration, crystallite size and phase composition of sintered bodies. Correlation of data has indicated that the transformable tetragonal phase is the key factor in controlling the fracture toughness and strength of ceramics. It has been demonstrated that the synthesis method is effective to prepare nanocrystalline tetragonal ceria stabilized zirconia powders with improved mechanical properties. Ce-ZrO 2 with 20 wt% alumina was also prepared with flexural strength, 1200 MPa and fracture toughness 9.2 MPa√m. (author)

  19. Optical and Electrical Properties of Tin-Doped Cadmium Oxide Films Prepared by Electron Beam Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Wakkad, M. M.; Hasaneen, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    Tin-doped cadmium oxide films were deposited by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature. As composition and structure change due to the dopant ratio and annealing temperature, the carrier concentration was varied around 1020 cm-3, and the mobility increased from less than 10 to 45 cm2 V-1 s-1. A transmittance value of ˜83% and a resistivity value of 4.4 ×10-4 Ω cm were achieved for (CdO)0.88(SnO2)0.12 film annealed at 350 °C for 15 min., whereas the maximum value of transmittance ˜93% and a resistivity value of 2.4 ×10-3 Ω cm were obtained at 350 °C for 30 min. The films exhibited direct band-to-band transitions, which corresponded to optical band gaps of 3.1-3.3 eV.

  20. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of electrochromic vanadium oxide by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, C E; Tarwal, N L; Shinde, P S; Patil, P S; Deshmukh, H P

    2009-01-01

    A new improved pulsed spray pyrolysis technique (PSPT) was employed to deposit a vanadium oxide (V 2 O 5 ) thin film from a methanolic vanadium chloride precursor onto glass and conducting F : SnO 2 coated glass substrates. The structural, morphological, electrical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the film deposited at 573 K were studied. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of the V 2 O 5 phase. The V 2 O 5 film (thickness ∼118 nm) is polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy reveals compact granular morphology consisting of ∼80-100 nm size grains. The film is transparent in the visible region (average %T ∼70%) with an optical band gap energy of 2.47 eV involving both direct and indirect optical transitions. The room temperature electrical resistivity (conductivity) of the film is 1.6 x 10 8 Ω cm (6.25 x 10 -9 S cm -1 ) with an activation energy of 0.67 eV in the temperature range 300-550 K. It exhibited cathodic electrochromism in the lithium containing electrolyte (0.5 M LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate).

  2. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped diamond films deposited using HF CVD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.

  3. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: gbvila@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  4. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  5. High Temperature Elastic Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) Steel Using Impulse Excitation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Raju, Subramanian; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-03-01

    The polycrystalline elastic constants of an indigenous variant of 9Cr-1W-based reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel have been determined as a function of temperature from 298 K to 1323 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using impulse excitation technique (IET). The three elastic constants namely, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus B, exhibited significant softening with increasing temperature, in a pronounced non-linear fashion. In addition, clearly marked discontinuities in their temperature variations are noticed in the region, where ferrite + carbides → austenite phase transformation occurred upon heating. Further, the incidence of austenite → martensite transformation upon cooling has also been marked by a step-like jump in both elastic E and shear moduli G. The martensite start M s and M f finish temperatures estimated from this study are, M s = 652 K (379 °C) and M f =580 K (307 °C). Similarly, the measured ferrite + carbide → austenite transformation onset ( Ac 1) and completion ( Ac 3) temperatures are found to be 1126 K and 1143 K (853 °C and 870 °C), respectively. The Poisson ratio μ exhibited distinct discontinuities at phase transformation temperatures; but however, is found to vary in the range 0.27 to 0.29. The room temperature estimates of E, G, and μ for normalized and tempered microstructure are found to be 219 GPa, 86.65 GPa, and 0.27, respectively. For the metastable austenite phase, the corresponding values are: 197 GPa, 76.5 GPa, and 0.29, respectively. The measured elastic properties as well as their temperature dependencies are found to be in good accord with reported estimates for other 9Cr-based ferritic-martensitic steel grades. Estimates of θ D el , the elastic Debye temperature and γ G, the thermal Grüneisen parameter obtained from measured bulk elastic properties are found to be θ D el = 465 K (192 °C) and γ G = 1.57.

  6. Measurements and properties of ice particles and carbon dioxide bubbles in aqueous mixture utilizing optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou O.

    Optical techniques are used to determine the size, shape and many other properties of particles ranging from the micro to a nano-level. These techniques have endless applications. This research is based on a project assigned by a "Vendor" that wants anonymity. The Leica optical microscope and the Dark Field Polarizing Metallurgical Microscope is used to determine the size and count of ice crystals (Vendors products) in multiple time frames. Since the ice temperature influences, its symmetry and the shape is subject to changes at room temperature (300 K) and the atmospheric pressure that is exerted on the ice crystals varies. The ice crystals are in a mixture of water, electrolytes and carbon dioxide with the optical spectroscopy (Qpod2) and Spectra suite, the optical density of the ice crystals is established from the absorbance and transmission measurements. The optical density in this case is also referred to as absorption; it is plotted with respect to a frequency (GHz), wavelength (nm) or Raman shift (1/cm) which shows the light colliding with the ice particles and CO2. Depending on the peaks positions, it is possible to profile the ice crystal sizes using a mean distribution plots. The region of absorbency wavelength expected for the ice is in the visible range; the water molecules in the (UV) Ultra-violet range and the CO2 in the (IR) infrared region. It is also possible to obtain the reflection and transmission output as a percentage change with the wavelengths ranging from 200 to 1100 nm. The refractive index of the ice can be correlated to the density based on the optical acoustic theorem, or Mie Scattering Theory. The viscosity of the ice crystals and the solutions from which the ice crystals are made of as well are recorded with the SV-10 viscometer. The baseline viscosity is used as reference and set lower than that of the ice crystals. The Zeta potential of the particles present in the mixture are approximated by first finding the viscosity of the

  7. The design and validation of a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible device for obtaining mechanical properties of plantar soft tissue via gated acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Evan D; Stebbins, Michael J; Cavanagh, Peter R; Haynor, David R; Chu, Baocheng; Fassbind, Michael J; Isvilanonda, Vara; Ledoux, William R

    2015-10-01

    Changes in the mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissue in people with diabetes may contribute to the formation of plantar ulcers. Such ulcers have been shown to be in the causal pathway for lower extremity amputation. The hydraulic plantar soft tissue reducer (HyPSTER) was designed to measure in vivo, rate-dependent plantar soft tissue compressive force and three-dimensional deformations to help understand, predict, and prevent ulcer formation. These patient-specific values can then be used in an inverse finite element analysis to determine tissue moduli, and subsequently used in a foot model to show regions of high stress under a wide variety of loading conditions. The HyPSTER uses an actuator to drive a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible hydraulic loading platform. Pressure and actuator position were synchronized with gated magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Achievable loading rates were slower than those found in normal walking because of a water-hammer effect (pressure wave ringing) in the hydraulic system when the actuator direction was changed rapidly. The subsequent verification tests were, therefore, performed at 0.2 Hz. The unloaded displacement accuracy of the system was within 0.31%. Compliance, presumably in the system's plastic components, caused a displacement loss of 5.7 mm during a 20-mm actuator test at 1354 N. This was accounted for with a target to actual calibration curve. The positional accuracy of the HyPSTER during loaded displacement verification tests from 3 to 9 mm against a silicone backstop was 95.9% with a precision of 98.7%. The HyPSTER generated minimal artifact in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Careful analysis of the synchronization of the HyPSTER and the magnetic resonance imaging scanner was performed. With some limitations, the HyPSTER provided key functionality in measuring dynamic, patient-specific plantar soft tissue mechanical properties. © IMechE 2015.

  8. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of mineral aggregates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available processed to reconstruct 3-D models of the aggregate particles. The models were further analyzed to determine the form properties. In this paper, two analysis approaches, based on aggregate physical properties and spherical harmonic analysis, were employed...

  9. Three-dimensional seismic survey planning based on the newest data acquisition design technique; Saishin no data shutoku design ni motozuku sanjigen jishin tansa keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minehara, M; Nakagami, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Theory of parameter setting for data acquisition is arranged, mainly as to the seismic generating and receiving geometry. This paper also introduces an example of survey planning for three-dimensional land seismic exploration in progress. For the design of data acquisition, fundamental parameters are firstly determined on the basis of the characteristics of reflection records at a given district, and then, the layout of survey is determined. In this study, information through modeling based on the existing interpretation of geologic structures is also utilized, to reflect them for survey specifications. Land three-dimensional seismic survey was designed. Ground surface of the surveyed area consists of rice fields and hilly regions. The target was a nose-shaped structure in the depth about 2,500 m underground. A survey area of 4km{times}5km was set. Records in the shallow layers could not obtained when near offset was not ensured. Quality control of this distribution was important for grasping the shallow structure required. In this survey, the seismic generating point could be ensured more certainly than initially expected, which resulted in the sufficient security of near offset. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... and fiscal neutrality, group-related issues, holding-structure issues, employees, stock exchange listing issues, and corporate nationality....

  11. Fabrication and properties of samarium doped calcium sulphate thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reghima, Meriem [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Guasch, Cathy [Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Azzaza, Sonia; Alleg, Safia [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Spectroscopie des Solides (LM2S), Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Kamoun-Turki, Najoua [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia)

    2016-10-01

    Using low cost spray pyrolysis technique, polycrystalline CaSO{sub 4} thin films were successfully grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1 μm. Samarium doping has been performed on CaSO{sub 4} thin films to explore luminescence properties. The characterizations of these films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical measurements. The structural analyses reveal the existence of hexagonal CaSO{sub 4} phase with a (200) preferred orientation belonging to CaS compound for substrate temperatures below 350 °C. It is shown that the crystallinity of the sprayed thin films can be improved by increasing substrate temperature up to 250 °C. Warren-Averbach analysis has been applied on X-ray diffractogram to determine structural parameters involving the phase with its amount, the grain size and the lattice parameters using Maud software. The surface topography shows a rough surface covered by densely packed agglomerated clusters having faceted and hexagonal shapes. Energy dispersive microscopy measurements confirm the presence of calcium and sulfur in equal proportions as well as high percentage of oxygen. Photoluminescence at room temperature revealed that luminescence peaks are attributed to the intrinsic emission of pure CaSO{sub 4} phase. - Highlights: • Warren Averbach analysis reveal the presence of hcp structure of CaSO{sub 4} phase. • A mixture of CaSO{sub 4} and CaHO{sub 4.5}S phases has been detected for lower T{sub s}. • For increasing T{sub s}, the CaHO{sub 4.5}S phase has been disappeared. • The origin of PL peaks has been identified.

  12. 49 CFR 24.102 - Basic acquisition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valuation only if the offer to acquire the property is $10,000, or less. (See appendix A, § 24.102(n).) [70... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.102 Basic acquisition...

  13. Owning genetic information and gene enhancement techniques: why privacy and property rights may undermine social control of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A D

    2000-04-01

    In this article I argue that the proper subjects of intangible property claims include medical records, genetic profiles, and gene enhancement techniques. Coupled with a right to privacy these intangible property rights allow individuals a zone of control that will, in most cases, justifiably exclude governmental or societal invasions into private domains. I argue that the threshold for overriding privacy rights and intangible property rights is higher, in relation to genetic enhancement techniques and sensitive personal information, than is commonly suggested. Once the bar is raised, so-to-speak, the burden of overriding it is formidable. Thus many policy decisions that have been recently proposed or enacted--citywide audio and video surveillance, law enforcement DNA sweeps, genetic profiling, national bans on genetic testing and enhancement of humans, to name a few--will have to be backed by very strong arguments.

  14. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Whole Heart Coronary MR Angiography Using Free-Breathing 3D Balanced Turbo-Field-Echo with SENSE and the Half-Fourier Acquisition Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Jang, Yang Soo; Ko, Young Guk

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with using 3D balanced turbo-field-echo (b-TFE) with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique for identifying stenoses of the coronary artery. Twenty-one patients who underwent both whole heart coronary MRA examinations and conventional catheter coronary angiography examinations were enrolled in the study. The whole heart coronary MRA images were acquired using a navigator gated 3D b-TFE sequence with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique to reduce the acquisition time. The imaging slab covered the whole heart (80 contiguous slices with a reconstructed slice thickness of 1.5 mm) along the transverse axis. The quality of the images was evaluated by using a 5-point scale (0 - uninterpretable, 1 - poor, 2 - fair, 3 - good, 4 - excellent). Ten coronary segments of the heart were evaluated in each case; the left main coronary artery (LM), and the proximal, middle and distal segments of the left anterior descending (LAD), the left circumflex (LCX) and the right coronary artery (RCA). The diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary MRA for detecting significant coronary artery stenosis was determined on the segment-bysegment basis, and it was compared with the results obtained by conventional catheter angiography, which is the gold standard. The mean image quality was 3.7 in the LM, 3.2 in the LAD, 2.5 in the LCX, and 3.3 in the RCA, respectively (the overall image quality was 3.0 ± 0.1). 168 (84%) of the 201 segments had an acceptable image quality (≥ grade 2). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the whole heart coronary MRA images for detecting significant stenosis were 81.3%, 92.1%, 91.1%, 97.9%, and 52.0%, respectively. The mean coronary MRA acquisition time was 9 min 22 sec (± 125 sec). Whole heart coronary MRA is a feasible technique, and it has good potential to

  15. Quantitative diffusion MRI using reduced field-of-view and multi-shot acquisition techniques: Validation in phantoms and prostate imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Holmes, James; Rabanillo, Iñaki; Guidon, Arnaud; Wells, Shane; Hernando, Diego

    2018-04-17

    To evaluate the reproducibility of quantitative diffusion measurements obtained with reduced Field of View (rFOV) and Multi-shot EPI (msEPI) acquisitions, using single-shot EPI (ssEPI) as a reference. Diffusion phantom experiments, and prostate diffusion-weighted imaging in healthy volunteers and patients with known or suspected prostate cancer were performed across the three different sequences. Quantitative diffusion measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient, and diffusion kurtosis parameters (healthy volunteers), were obtained and compared across diffusion sequences (rFOV, msEPI, and ssEPI). Other possible confounding factors like b-value combinations and acquisition parameters were also investigated. Both msEPI and rFOV have shown reproducible quantitative diffusion measurements relative to ssEPI; no significant difference in ADC was observed across pulse sequences in the standard diffusion phantom (p = 0.156), healthy volunteers (p ≥ 0.12) or patients (p ≥ 0.26). The ADC values within the non-cancerous central gland and peripheral zone of patients were 1.29 ± 0.17 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s and 1.74 ± 0.23 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s respectively. However, differences in quantitative diffusion parameters were observed across different number of averages for rFOV, and across b-value groups and diffusion models for all the three sequences. Both rFOV and msEPI have the potential to provide high image quality with reproducible quantitative diffusion measurements in prostate diffusion MRI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Validation of Improved Techniques for Cloud Property Retrieval from Environmental Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustafson, Gary

    2000-01-01

    ...) develop extensible cloud property retrieval algorithms suitable for expanding existing cloud analysis capabilities to utilize data from new and future environmental satellite sensing systems; (2...

  17. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.501 Early acquisition. (a) Real property... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4); (5) The State determined and the FHWA concurs...

  18. Effect of thermal spray processing techniques on the microstructure and properties of Ni-based amorphous coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Moon, B.M.; Fleury, E.; Ahn, H.S.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, W.T.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Metallic amorphous materials have been widely developed thanks to the outstanding properties including high chemical stability, mechanical strength, and magnetic properties. However, with the exception of a few compositions, the limiting factor is the critical cooling rate for the formation of the amorphous phase. For many applications, it is only the contact surface properties that are important, thus the use, of coating techniques such as thermal sprayings has several attractive features. In this paper, we present the microstructure of Ni-based amorphous coatings prepared by laser cladding and vacuum plasma spraying. The utilization of plasma spraying to deposit atomized powder enabled the formation of fully amorphous coating, laser cladding resulted in mostly crystallized structures. Glass forming ability and wear properties of the coatings were discussed as a function of the coating microstructure. (orig.)

  19. Life management of Zr 2.5% Nb pressure tube through estimation of fracture properties by cyclic ball indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2015-01-01

    In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) fuel bundles are located inside horizontal pressure tubes. Pressure tubes made up of Zr 2.5 wt% Nb undergo degradation during in-service environmental conditions. Measurement of mechanical properties of degraded pressure tubes is important for assessing its fitness for further service in the reactor. The only way to accomplish this important objective is to develop a system based on insitu measurement technique. Considering the importance of such measurement, an In-situ Property Measurement System (IProMS) based on cyclic ball indentation technique has been designed and developed indigenously. The remotely operable system is capable of carrying out indentation trial on the inside surface of the pressure tube and to estimate important mechanical properties like yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness etc. It is known that fracture toughness is one of the important life limiting parameters of the pressure tube. Hence, five spool pieces of Zr 2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube of different mechanical properties have been used for estimation of fracture toughness by ball indentation method. Curved Compact Tension (CCT) specimens were also prepared from the five spool pieces for measurement of fracture toughness from conventional tests. The conventional fracture toughness values were used as reference data. A methodology has been developed to estimate the fracture properties of Zr 2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube material from the analysis of the ball indentation test data. This paper highlights the comparison between tensile properties measured from conventional tests and IProMS trials and relates the fracture toughness parameters measured from conventional tests with the IProMS estimated fracture properties like Indentation Energy to Fracture. (author)

  20. Microstructural evolution and surface properties of nanostructured Cu-based alloy by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanov, Auezhan, E-mail: amanov_a@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In-Sik [R& D Group, Mbrosia Co., Ltd., Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Young-Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A nanostructured surface was produced by UNSM technique. • Porosities were eliminated from the surface by UNSM technique. • Extremely high hardness obtained at the top surface after UNSM treatment. • Friction and wear behavior was improved by UNSM technique. • Resistance to scratch behavior was improved by UNSM technique. - Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness of about 180 μm was successfully produced in Cu-based alloy using an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. Cu-based alloy was sintered onto low carbon steel using a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the severe plastic deformation introduced by UNSM technique resulted in nano-sized grains in the topmost surface layer and deformation twins. It was also found by atomic force microscope (AFM) observations that the UNSM technique provides a significant reduction in number of interconnected pores. The effectiveness of nanostructured surface layer on the tribological and micro-scratch properties of Cu-based alloy specimens was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribometer and micro-scratch tester, respectively. Results exhibited that the UNSM-treated specimen led to an improvement in tribological and micro-scratch properties compared to that of the sintered specimen, which may be attributed to the presence of nanostructured surface layer having an increase in surface hardness and reduction in surface roughness. The findings from this study are expected to be implemented to the automotive industry, in particular connected rod bearings and bushings in order to increase the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  1. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Comparative study on structural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by three different low-cost techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)], E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.com; Philominathan, P. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Highly crystalline and transparent cadmium sulphide films were fabricated at relatively low temperature by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer (generally used for cosmetics). The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the films were studied and compared with that prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis using air as carrier gas and chemical bath deposition. The films deposited by the simplified spray have preferred orientation along (1 0 1) plane. The lattice parameters were calculated as a = 4.138 A and c = 6.718 A which are well agreed with that obtained from the other two techniques and also with the standard data. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap were found as 85% and 2.43 eV, respectively. The structural and optical properties of the films fabricated by the simplified spray are found to be desirable for opto-electronic applications.

  3. Effect of Coil Current on the Properties of Hydrogenated DLC Coatings Fabricated by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Xianying; Bian, Baoan; Ying, Minju; Jianwu, Liu

    2018-01-01

    We successfully prepared hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) with a thickness higher than 25 μm on stainless steel using a filtered cathode vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The structural and mechanical properties of DLC were systematically analyzed using different methods such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness, nanohardness, and friction and wear tests. The effect of coil current on the arc voltage, ion current, and mechanical properties of resultant films was systematically investigated. The novelty of this study is the fabrication of DLC with Vickers hardness higher than 1500 HV, in the meanwhile with the thickness higher than 30 μm through varying the coil current with FCVA technique. The results indicated that the ion current, deposition rate, friction coefficient, and Vickers hardness of DLC were significantly affected by the magnetic field inside the filtered duct.

  4. Photoelectric properties of GaAs materials studied by pulsed laser techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguir, Khalifa

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the photoelectric properties of single-crystal or epitaxial GaAs (N doped or P doped) materials. The objective is to characterize and to improve the electric quality of these materials and associated components, notably for the production of high performance solar cells for ground-based or space-based applications. More particularly, this research aimed at using an excitation by a pulsed laser to analyse recombination and trapping properties of carriers created by photo-excitation, and also at studying the effect of low doses of particle irradiation on the carrier properties. Thus, the author describes conduction characteristics of two different N-type epitaxial layers, discusses carrier excitation and recombination processes which may occur in semiconductors, and proposes an overview of trapping phenomena. Photoelectric properties of the considered epitaxial layers are then studied and discussed

  5. Comparison of optical properties of Eu3+ ions in the silica gel glasses obtained by different preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendziewicz, J.; Sokolnicki, J.; Keller, B.; Borzechowska, M.; Strek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Silica-gel glasses doped with Eu 3+ ions were obtained by different preparation techniques. The absorption, emission and excitation spectra of the obtained glasses were measured in the range of 77-300 K. The energy levels diagrams of Eu 3+ ions were derived. An intensity analysis of f-f transitions was performed. In particular, polymeric structure behaviour of europium compounds entrapped in silica gel glasses was temperature controlled during the preparation of glasses. Their optical properties were investigated. (author)

  6. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking. .

  7. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  8. Uncertainty analysis technique of dynamic response and cumulative damage properties of piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kohei; Aoki, Shigeru; Hara, Fumio; Hanaoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Tadashi.

    1982-01-01

    It is a technologically important subject to establish the method of uncertainty analysis statistically examining the variation of the earthquake response and damage properties of equipment and piping system due to the change of input load and the parameters of structural system, for evaluating the aseismatic capability and dynamic structural reliability of these systems. The uncertainty in the response and damage properties when equipment and piping system are subjected to excessive vibration load is mainly dependent on the irregularity of acting input load such as the unsteady vibration of earthquakes, and structural uncertainty in forms and dimensions. This study is the basic one to establish the method for evaluating the uncertainty in the cumulative damage property at the time of resonant vibration of piping system due to the disperse of structural parameters with a simple model. First, the piping models with simple form were broken by resonant vibration, and the uncertainty in the cumulative damage property was evaluated. Next, the response analysis using an elasto-plastic mechanics model was performed by numerical simulation. Finally, the method of uncertainty analysis for response and damage properties by the perturbation method utilizing equivalent linearization was proposed, and its propriety was proved. (Kako, I.)

  9. MR-sialography: optimisation and evaluation of an ultra-fast sequence in parallel acquisition technique and different functional conditions of salivary glands; MR-Sialographie: Optimierung und Bewertung ultraschneller Sequenzen mit paralleler Bildgebung und oraler Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Aldefeld, D.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G. [Radiologisches Zentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Kopf- und Hautzentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Petersen, K.U. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To optimise a fast sequence for MR-sialography and to compare a parallel and non-parallel acquisition technique. Additionally, the effect of oral stimulation regarding the image quality was evaluated. Material and Methods: All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system. After developing a sufficient sequence for MR-sialography, a single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (ss-TSE) with an acquisition time of 2.8 sec was used in transverse and oblique sagittal orientation in 27 healthy volunteers. All images were performed with and without parallel imaging technique. The assessment of the ductal system of the submandibular and parotid gland was performed using a 1 to 5 visual scale for each side separately. Images were evaluated by four independent experienced radiologists. For statistical evaluation, an ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons was used with an overall two-tailed significance level of P=.05. For evaluation of interobserver variability, an intraclass correlation was computed and correlation >.08 was determined to indicate a high correlation. Results: All parts of salivary excretal ducts could be visualised in all volunteers, with an overall rating for all ducts of 2.26 (SD{+-}1.09). Between the four observers a high correlation could be obtained with an intraclass correlation of 0.9475. A significant influence regarding the slice angulations could not be obtained (p=0.74). In all healthy volunteers the visibility of excretory ducts improved significantly after oral application of a Sialogogum (p<0.001; {eta}{sup 2}=0.049). The use of a parallel imaging technique did not lead to an improvement of visualisation, showing a significant loss of image quality compared to an acquistion technique without parallel imaging (p<0.001; {eta}{sup 2}=0.013). Conclusion: The optimised ss-TSE MR-sialography seems to be a fast and sufficient technique for visualisation of excretory ducts of the main salivary glands, with no elaborate post

  10. A dual triangular pyramidal indentation technique based on FEA solutions for Material property evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo; Hyun, Hong Chul [Sogana Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng; Lee, Hyungyil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we suggest a method for material property evaluation by dual triangular pyramidal indenters using the reverse analysis. First, we demonstrated that load displacement curves of conical and triangular pyramidal indenters are different for the same material. For this reason, an independent research on the triangular pyramidal indenter is needed. From FE indentation analyses on various materials, we then investigated the relationships among material properties, indentation parameters and load displacement curves. From this, we established property evaluation formula using dual triangular pyramidal indenters having two different half included angles. The approach provides the values of elastic modulus, yield strength and strain hardening exponent within an average error of 3% for various materials.

  11. Prediction of Five Softwood Paper Properties from its Density using Support Vector Machine Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting paper properties based on a limited number of measured variables can be an important tool for the industry. Mathematical models were developed to predict mechanical and optical properties from the corresponding paper density for some softwood papers using support vector machine regression with the Radial Basis Function Kernel. A dataset of different properties of paper handsheets produced from pulps of pine (Pinus pinaster and P. sylvestris and cypress species (Cupressus lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica beaten at 1000, 4000, and 7000 revolutions was used. The results show that it is possible to obtain good models (with high coefficient of determination with two variables: the numerical variable density and the categorical variable species.

  12. Investigation of preparation technique and tribological properties of CrN piston rings coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhihai; Zhang Ping; Zhao Junjun; Du Jun; Niu Qingyin

    2009-01-01

    By using multi-ion plating, CrN films were made on surface of piston rings to improve its tribological properties and service life. Effects of nitrogen content to prepare the film on hardness and phase structure were studied. The high-temperature tribological properties of Cr plating and CrN films were compared with CETR friction tester. The results show that nitrogen partial pressure significantly affects the mechanical properties of CrN films. With increasing N 2 partial pressure, preferential growth orientation of the film changed from Cr 2 N(211) to CrN(220) phase, leading to two hardness peaks corresponding to the Cr 2 N and CrN phases,respectively. Having higher high-temperature wear resistance and lower friction coefficient than Cr plating, the CrN films are suitable for piston rings under high temperature conditions. (authors)

  13. Thermophysical properties by a pulse-heating reflectometric technique: Niobium, 1100 to 2700 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, F.; Spisiak, J.; Bussolino, G.C.; Gualano, M.

    1999-01-01

    Pulse heating experiments were performed on niobium strips, taking the specimens from room temperature to the melting point is less than one second. The normal spectral emissivity of the strips was measured by integrating sphere reflectometry, and, simultaneously, experimental data (radiance temperature, current, voltage drop) for thermophysical properties were collected with submillisecond time resolution. The normal spectral emissivity results were used to compute the true temperature of the niobium strips; the heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and hemispherical total emissivity were evaluated in the temperature range 1,100 to 2,700 K. The results are compared with literature data obtained in pulse-heating experiments. It is concluded that combined measurements of normal spectral emissivity and of thermophysical properties on strip specimens provide results of the same quality as obtained using tubular specimens with a blackbody. The thermophysical property results on niobium also validate the normal spectral emissivity measurements by integrating sphere reflectometry

  14. Dynamic MRI of the liver with parallel acquisition technique. Characterization of focal liver lesions and analysis of the hepatic vasculature in a single MRI session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Sutter, R.; Lutz, A.M.; Willmann, J.K.; Seifert, B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively evaluate the performance of breath-hold contrast-enhanced 3D dynamic parallel gradient echo MRI (pMRT) for the characterization of focal liver lesions (standard of reference: histology) and for the analysis of hepatic vasculature (standard of reference: contrast-enhanced 64-detector row computed tomography; MSCT) in a single MRI session. Materials and method: two blinded readers independently analyzed preoperative pMRT data sets (1.5T-MRT) of 45 patients (23 men, 22 women; 28 - 77 years, average age, 48 years) with a total of 68 focal liver lesions with regard to image quality of hepatic arteries, portal and hepatic veins, presence of variant anatomy of the hepatic vasculature, as well as presence of portal vein thrombosis and hemodynamically significant arterial stenosis. In addition, both readers were asked to identify and characterize focal liver lesions. Imaging parameters of pMRT were: TR/TE/matrix/slice thickness/acquisition time: 3.1 ms/1.4 ms/384 x 224/4 mm/15 - 17 s. MSCT was performed with a pitch of 1.2, an effective slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512 x 512. Results: based on histology, the 68 liver lesions were found to be 42 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 20 metastases, 3 cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCC) as well as 1 dysplastic nodule, 1 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and 1 atypical hemangioma. Overall, the diagnostic accuracy was high for both readers (91 - 100%) in the characterization of these focal liver lesions with an excellent interobserver agreement (κ-values of 0.89 [metastases], 0.97 [HCC] and 1 [CCC]). On average, the image quality of all vessels under consideration was rated good or excellent in 89% (reader 1) and 90% (reader 2). Anatomical variants of the hepatic arteries, hepatic veins and portal vein as well as thrombosis of the portal vein were reliably detected by pMRT. Significant arterial stenosis was found with a sensitivity between 86% and 100% and an excellent interobserver agreement (κ

  15. Magnetic properties of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangregorio, C.; Fernandez, C. de Julian; Battaglin, G.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Co, Ni and Co x Ni 1-x alloy nanoparticles with different composition (0 < x < 1), prepared by the sol-gel route, were investigated. ZFC and FC magnetization measurements show that the blocking temperature increases with the Co content, while a maximum in the anisotropy constant was found for x=0.7. Room temperature FMR measurements, suggest that in samples with larger Co content (x≥0.66) interparticle interactions play a relevant role in determining their magnetic properties

  16. Magnetic properties of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangregorio, C. E-mail: claudio.sangregorio@unifi.it; Fernandez, C. de Julian; Battaglin, G.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of Co, Ni and Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} alloy nanoparticles with different composition (0 < x < 1), prepared by the sol-gel route, were investigated. ZFC and FC magnetization measurements show that the blocking temperature increases with the Co content, while a maximum in the anisotropy constant was found for x=0.7. Room temperature FMR measurements, suggest that in samples with larger Co content (x{>=}0.66) interparticle interactions play a relevant role in determining their magnetic properties.

  17. Development and application of measurement techniques for evaluating localised magnetic properties in electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. J.; Anderson, P. I.; Gao, Y.; Robinson, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a measurement probe which couples local flux density measurements obtained using the needle probe method with the local magnetising field attained via a Hall effect sensor. This determines the variation in magnetic properties including power loss and permeability at increasing distances from the punched edge of 2.4% and 3.2% Si non-oriented electrical steel sample. Improvements in the characterisation of the magnetic properties of electrical steels would aid in optimising the efficiency in the design of electric machines.

  18. Influence of the properties of granite and sandstone in the desalination process by electrokinetic technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pozo-Antonio, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    ) achieved in both stones.From the results obtained, it was possible to find those inherent factors to each stone which could have an influence on the efficacy of the treatment. With this technique it was possible to reduce the salt concentration in the granite almost to 100%. However, in the sandstone...... samples the decreases were not equally high, mainly at the intermediate levels where slight enrichments were observed. The results indicate that although the used technique is efficient for salt removal regardless of the porosimetric distribution of the rock, the better interconnection between the pores...... in the granite samples (favored a faster desalination process)....

  19. Development of a Small Punch Test Technique for an Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Materials in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Sik; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Choo, Yong-Sun; Hong, Kwon-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized specimens have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical properties of steels and plastics. Especially for a study on the irradiation effects in nuclear materials, the small specimen test techniques have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, it is essential that the test techniques be developed and verified to extract the mechanical properties information from small specimens. Among the test techniques using small specimens, the small punch (SP) test technique using small disc-sized specimen has been successfully used to estimate the tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength), DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature), fracture toughness and creep properties of metals irradiated in a reactor or a proton accelerator. In this paper, the existing SP test techniques are reviewed and summarized. In addition, the information on the development of the SP test procedure is obtained to evaluate the radiation effects on the mechanical properties of nuclear materials in a hot cell

  20. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites prepared by a sol-gel autocombustion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Piccaluga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites with different concentrations (15, 30, and 50 wt %) and sizes (7, 16, and 28 nm) of ferrite particles have been studied by static magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The results indicate a superparamagnetic behavio...

  1. Evaluation of flow properties in the weldments of vanadium alloys using a novel indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) testing, was successfully employed to determine the flow properties of the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welds of the V-4Cr-4Ti (large heat no. 832665) and the V-5Cr-5Ti (heat 832394) alloys. ABI test results showed a clear distinction among the properties of the fusion zone, HAZ, and base metal in both GTA and EB welds of the two alloys. GTA and EB welds of both V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys show strengthening of both the fusion zone and the HAZ (compared to base metal) with the fusion zone having higher strength than the HAZ. These data correlate well with the Brinell hardness. On the other hand, GTA welds of both alloys, after a post-weld heat treatment of 950{degrees}C for 2 h, show a recovery of the properties to base metal values with V-5Cr-5Ti showing a higher degree of recovery compared to V-4Cr-4Ti. These measurements correlate with the reported recovery of the Charpy impact properties.

  2. Continued Data Acquisition Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This task focused on improving techniques for integrating data acquisition of secondary particles correlated in time with detected cosmic-ray muons. Scintillation detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) capability show the most promise as a detector technology based on work in FY13. Typically PSD parameters are determined prior to an experiment and the results are based on these parameters. By saving data in list mode, including the fully digitized waveform, any experiment can effectively be replayed to adjust PSD and other parameters for the best data capture. List mode requires time synchronization of two independent data acquisitions (DAQ) systems: the muon tracker and the particle detector system. Techniques to synchronize these systems were studied. Two basic techniques were identified: real time mode and sequential mode. Real time mode is the preferred system but has proven to be a significant challenge since two FPGA systems with different clocking parameters must be synchronized. Sequential processing is expected to work with virtually any DAQ but requires more post processing to extract the data.

  3. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  4. Determining the mechanical properties of electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers using AFM and a novel fiber anchoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R.; Banerjee, Soham; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin, E-mail: gutholdm@wfu.edu

    2016-02-01

    Due to its low cost, biocompatibility and slow bioresorption, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) continues to be a suitable material for select biomedical engineering applications. We used a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/optical microscopy technique to determine key mechanical properties of individual electrospun PCL nanofibers with diameters between 440–1040 nm. Compared to protein nanofibers, PCL nanofibers showed much lower adhesion, as they slipped on the substrate when mechanically manipulated. We, therefore, first developed a novel technique to anchor individual PCL nanofibers to micrometer-sized ridges on a substrate, and then mechanically tested anchored nanofibers. When held at constant strain, tensile stress relaxed with fast and slow relaxation times of 1.0 ± 0.3 s and 8.8 ± 3.1 s, respectively. The total tensile modulus was 62 ± 26 MPa, the elastic (non-relaxing) component of the tensile modulus was 53 ± 36 MPa. Individual PCL fibers could be stretched elastically (without permanent deformation) to strains of 19–23%. PCL nanofibers are rather extensible; they could be stretched to a strain of at least 98%, and a tensile strength of at least 12 MPa, before they slipped off the AFM tip. PCL nanofibers that had aged for over a month at ambient conditions became stiffer and less elastic. Our technique provides accurate nanofiber mechanical data, which are needed to guide construction of scaffolds for cells and other biomedical devices. - Highlights: • Developed technique to anchor single nanofibers on microridges • Determined mechanical properties of e-spun PCL fibers • E-spun PCL fibers have similar mechanical properties as wet fibrin fibers. • E-spun PCL fiber total elastic modulus is ~ 60 MPa. • E-spun PCL fiber extensibility is > 100%.

  5. On some surprising statistical properties of a DNA fingerprinting technique called AFLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, G.

    2010-01-01

    AFLP is a widely used DNA fingerprinting technique, resulting in band absence - presence profiles, like a bar code. Bands represent DNA fragments, sampled from the genome of an individual plant or other organism. The DNA fragments travel through a lane of an electrophoretic gel or microcapillary

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zongo, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available . The experiments were performed by using single beam Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 10 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses excitation. From the open-aperture Z-scan data, we derived that the laccaic dye samples exhibit strong two photon absorption (2PA). The nonlinear...

  7. Mechanical properties of the collagen network in human articular cartilage as measured by osmotic stress technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basser, P.J.; Schneiderman, R.; Bank, R.A.; Wachtel, E.; Maroudas, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an isotropic osmotic stress technique to assess the swelling pressures of human articular cartilage over a wide range of hydrations in order to determine from these measurements, for the first time, the tensile stress in the collagen network, P(c), as a function of hydration. Osmotic

  8. Assessing Morphological and Physiological Properties of Forest Species Using High Throughput Plant Phenotyping and Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, A.; Hiller, J.; Morgan, P.; Awada, T.; Stoerger, V.

    2017-12-01

    High throughput plant phenotyping is increasingly being used to assess morphological and biophysical traits of economically important crops in agriculture. In this study, the potential application of this technique in natural resources management, through the characterization of woody plants regeneration, establishment, growth, and responses to water and nutrient manipulations was assessed. Two woody species were selected for this study, Quercus prinoides and Quercus bicolor. Seeds were collected from trees growing at the edge of their natural distribution in Nebraska and Missouri, USA. Seeds were germinated in the greenhouse and transferred to the Nebraska Innovation Campus Lemnatec3D High Throughput facility at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Seedlings subjected to water and N manipulations, were imaged twice or three times a week using four cameras (Visible, Fluorescence, Infrared and Hyperspectral), throughout the growing season. Traditional leaf to plant levels ecophysiological measurements were concurrently acquired to assess the relationship between these two techniques. These include gas exchange (LI 6400 and LI 6800, LICOR Inc., Lincoln NE), chlorophyll content, optical characteristics (Ocean Optics USB200), water and osmotic potentials, leaf area and weight and carbon isotope ratio. In the presentation, we highlight results on the potential use of high throughput plant phenotyping techniques to assess the morphology and physiology of woody species including responses to water availability and nutrient manipulation, and its broader application under field conditions and natural resources management. Also, we explore the different capabilities imaging provides us for modeling the plant physiological and morphological growth and how it can complement the current techniques

  9. Optimal properties for coated titanium implants with the hydroxyapatite layer formed by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmlova, Lucia; Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Bartova, Jirina; Pesakova, V.; Adam, M.

    1999-02-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique allow to 'tailor' bioceramic coat for metal implants by the change of deposition conditions. Each attribute is influenced by the several deposition parameters and each parameter change several various properties. Problem caused that many parameters has an opposite function and improvement of one property is followed by deterioration of other attribute. This study monitor influence of each single deposition parameter and evaluate its importance form the point of view of coat properties. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless-steel deposition chamber was used. Deposition conditions (ambient composition and pressures, metallic substrate temperature, energy density and target-substrate distance) were changed according to the film properties. A non-coated titanium implant was used as a control. Films with promising mechanical quality underwent an in vitro biological tests -- measurement of proliferation activity, observing cell interactions with macrophages, fibroblasts, testing toxicity of percolates, observing a solubility of hydroxyapatite (HA) coat. Deposition conditions corresponding with the optimal mechanical and biochemical properties are: metal temperature 490 degrees Celsius, ambient-mixture of argon and water vapor, energy density 3 Jcm-2, target-substrate distance 7.5 cm.

  10. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Design, development and applications of novel techniques for studying surface mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    Research is reviewed for the adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of materials and examples of the results presented. The ceramic and metallic materials studied include silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys. The design and operation of a torsion balance adapted for study of adhesion from the Cavendish balance are discussed first. The pull-off force (adhesion) and shear force (friction) required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces of the materials were examined at various temperatures in a vacuum. The surface chemistry of the materials was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Properties and environmental conditions of the surface regions which affect adhesion and friction-such as surface segregation, composition, crystal structure, surface chemistry, and temperature were also studied.

  12. Microencapsulation of rifampicin: A technique to preserve the mechanical properties of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ruiz, Pablo; Carbó-Laso, Esther; Del Real-Romero, Juan Carlos; Arán-Ais, Francisca; Ballesteros-Iglesias, Yolanda; Paz-Jiménez, Eva; Sánchez-Navarro, Magdalena; Pérez-Limiñana, María Ángeles; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Two-stage exchange with antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers remains the gold standard for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Rifampicin is highly efficient on stationary-phase staphylococci in biofilm; however, its addition to PMMA to manufacture spacers prevents polymerization and reduces mechanical properties. Isolation of rifampicin during polymerization by microencapsulation could allow manufacturing rifampicin-loaded bone cement maintaining elution and mechanical properties. Microcapsules of rifampicin with alginate, polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (PHBV), ethylcellulose and stearic acid (SA) were synthesized. Alginate and PHBV microcapsules were added to bone cement and elution, compression, bending, hardness, setting time and microbiological tests were performed. Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were performed, considering a p cement specimens containing alginate microcapsules eluted more rifampicin than PHBV microcapsules or non-encapsulated rifampicin over time (p Cement with alginate microcapsules showed similar behavior in hardness tests to control cement over the study period (73 ± 1.68H D ). PMMA with alginate microcapsules exhibited the largest zones of inhibition in microbiological tests. Statistically significant differences in mean diameters of zones of inhibition between PMMA loaded with alginate-rifampicin (p = 0.0001) and alginate-PHBV microcapsules (p = 0.0001) were detected. Rifampicin microencapsulation with alginate is the best choice to introduce rifampicin in PMMA preserving mechanical properties, setting time, elution, and antimicrobial properties. The main applicability of this study is the opportunity for obtaining rifampicin-loaded PMMA by microencapsulation of rifampicin in alginate microparticles, achieving high doses of rifampicin in infected tissues, increasing the successful of PJI treatment. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res

  13. New test structures and techniques for measurement of mechanical properties of MEMS materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.; Yuan, Bin; Vaidyanathan, Ranji; Edwards, Richard L.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents techniques and procedures for addressing the three major problems of mechanical testing of the thin films used in surface micromachined microelectromechanical systems--specimen handling, friction, and strain measurement. The polysilicon tensile specimens are fabricated with two supporting side strips on silicon wafers at the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina. The tensile specimen is released by etching away the wafer, and the two support strips are cut after the specimen is glued in the test machine. Friction is reduced by a linear air bearing in the load train, and strain is measured with a noncontacting technique based on laser interferometry between two gold lines on the tensile specimen. The Young's modulus of polysilicon is 170 +/- 7 GPa and the strength is 1.21 +/- 0.16 GPa from a series of 29 tests. preliminary measurements have been made of Poisson's ratio and the fatigue behavior, and an attempt is underway to measure the fracture toughness.

  14. Synthesis of Curcumin Glycosides with Enhanced Anticancer Properties Using One-Pot Multienzyme Glycosylation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Gong, So Youn; Dhakal, Dipesh; Le, Tuoi Thi; Jung, Na Rae; Jung, Hye Jin; Oh, Tae Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2017-09-28

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound, widely acclaimed for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancerous properties. However, its use has been limited due to its low-aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability, rapid clearance, and low cellular uptake. In order to assess the effect of glycosylation on the pharmacological properties of curcumin, one-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic glycosylation reactions with UDP- α-D-glucose or UDP-α-D-2-deoxyglucose as donor substrate were employed. The result indicated significant conversion of curcumin to its glycosylated derivatives: curcumin 4'- O -β- glucoside, curcumin 4',4''-di- O -β-glucoside, curcumin 4'- O -β-2-deoxyglucoside, and curcumin 4',4''-di- O -β-2-deoxyglucoside. The products were characterized by ultra-fast performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution quadruple-time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and NMR analyses. All the products showed improved water solubility and comparable antibacterial activities. Additionally, the curcumin 4'- O -β-glucoside and curcumin 4'- O -β-2-deoxyglucoside showed enhanced anticancer activities compared with the parent aglycone and diglycoside derivatives. This result indicates that glycosylation can be an effective approach for enhancing the pharmaceutical properties of different natural products, such as curcumin.

  15. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  16. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of aggregates used in pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and volume of an aggregate particle, the sphericity computed by using orthogonal dimensions of an aggregate particle, and the flat and elongated ratio computed by using longest and smallest dimensions of an aggregate particle. The second approach employed.... Further validation of the laser-based technique was achieved by correlating the laser-based aggregate form indices with the results from two current standard tests; the flakiness index and the flat and elongated particles ratio tests. The laser...

  17. Hydromechanical properties of some mortars used in some ecologic construction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha , Dashnor; Vladimir Nicolae , Ungureanu; Belayachi , Naima; Duc Phi , Do

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents results of hydromechanical characterization tests performed on some mortars used in eco-construction practice. Typically, such mortars could be found in buildings constructed following so called GREB technique that uses straw bales as structural and insulating elements in addition to a wood frame. The full experimental program includes thermal, mechanical and hydraulic - hygroscopic tests. Mechanical tests, including uniaxial compression test and th...

  18. Structure and Properties of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes/Polystyrene Composites Prepared via Coagulation Precipitation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Mazov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation technique was applied for preparation of multiwall carbon nanotube- (MWNT-containing polystyrene (PSt composite materials with different MWNT loading (0.5–10 wt.%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were used for investigation of the morphology and structure of produced composites. It was shown that synthesis of MWNT/PSt composites using coagulation technique allows one to obtain high dispersion degree of MWNT in the polymer matrix. According to microscopy data, composite powder consists of the polystyrene matrix forming spherical particles with diameter ca. 100–200 nm, and the surface of MWNT is strongly wetted by the polymer forming thin layer with 5–10 nm thickness. Electrical conductivity of MWNT/PSt composites was investigated using a four-probe technique. Observed electrical percolation threshold of composite materials is near to 10 wt.%, mainly due to the insulating polymer layer deposited on the surface of nanotubes. Electromagnetic response of prepared materials was investigated in broadband region (0.01–4 and 26–36 GHz. It was found that MWNT/PSt composites are almost radiotransparent for low frequency region and possess high absorbance of EM radiation at higher frequencies.

  19. Simultaneous acquisition of three NMR spectra in a single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simultaneous acquisition of three NMR spectra in a single experiment ... set, which is based on a combination of different fast data acquisition techniques such as G-matrix ..... The sign and intensity of the CHn resonance depends on the delay.

  20. Pseudoproxy Experiments Using the BARCAST Reconstruction Technique: Effects on Spatiotemporal Persistence Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, T.; Divine, D.; Rypdal, M.; Werner, J.; Rypdal, K.

    2016-12-01

    A modified two-dimensional stochastic-diffusive energy balance model (EBM) defined on a sphere was used for generating pseudoproxy/instrumental data and target data for surface temperature. The EBM is described in Rypdal et al. (2015). The target field has prescribed long-range memory (LRM) properties in time, and a frequency-dependent autocorrelation function in space. The Bayesian hierarchical model BARCAST, was used to generate surface temperature field reconstructions of an area corresponding to the European landmass for the past millennium. BARCAST has a built-in multivariate AR(1) model for the evolution of the temperature field, with an exponential, spatial covariance function, (Tingley & Huybers, 2010). The AR(1) process has a short-range memory, and we seek to find out how the competing spatiotemporal models influence the persistence of the reconstruction. A number of pseudoproxy experiments were performed with a fixed proxy network, using different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and colors of noise, (white/red). To study the persistence properties, the power-law relation of the power spectral density for LRM processes was used: S(f) f-β. The spectral exponent β was estimated both for local data and the spatial mean of the full region. The local β for the target varies between (0.1, 0.4), and for the spatial mean β 0.6. Results for the reconstructions show that the local and global memory is influenced by the noise color and level. Low noise levels or absence of noise results in reconstructions that exhibit similar properties as the target, while for higher noise levels the reconstructions have memory properties of a white/red character, (SNR=0.3 by standard deviation). Since an SNR of 0.5-0.25 is considered realistic for real proxy records, this implies that estimates of temporal persistence from proxy-based reconstructions reflect the proxy noise to a high degree, and not the signal as desired. Rypdal et al., 2015: Spatiotemporal Long-Range Persistence

  1. Adsorption properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides thin films grown by laser based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, A., E-mail: andreeapurice@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Filipescu, M.; Nedelcea, A.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser techniques MAPLE and PLD can successfully be used to produce LDHs thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydration treatments of the PLD and MAPLE deposited films lead to the LDH reconstruction effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ni retention from aqueous solution occurs in the films via a dissolution-reconstruction mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are suitable for applications in remediation of contaminated drinking water or waste waters. - Abstract: Powdered layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely studied due to their applications as catalysts, anionic exchangers or host materials for inorganic and/or organic molecules. Assembling nano-sized LDHs onto flat solid substrates forming thin films is an expanding area of research due to the prospects of novel applications as sensors, corrosion-resistant coatings, components in optical and magnetic devices. Continuous and adherent thin films were grown by laser techniques (pulsed laser deposition - PLD and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation - MAPLE) starting from targets of Mg-Al LDHs. The capacity of the grown thin films to retain a metal (Ni) from contaminated water has been also explored. The thin films were immersed in an Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with Ni concentrations of 10{sup -3}% (w/w) (1 g/L) and 10{sup -4}% (w/w) (0.1 g/L), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were the techniques used to characterize the prepared materials.

  2. A comparative study on the property determination of metal matrix composites using ultrasonic and eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic and eddy current methods were developed for the quantitative determination of material properties in particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. The proposed techniques employed measurements of ultrasonic velocity and eddy current conductivity, together with theoretical models which relate the effective anisotropic properties of the composites to their microstructures. The approach was used for a wide range of SiC particulate reinforced Al matrix(SiC p /Al) composites to estimate the particulate volume fractions of the composites. The SiC p volume fraction was calculated by coupling the measured velocity and conductivity with their corresponding model predictions. Both methods were shown to be reliable in determining the reinforcement volume fractions. However, the ultrasonic method was found to be better than the eddy current method, since the electrical conductivity was sensitive to the presence of intermetallic compounds formed during processing stage.

  3. Study of magnetic and electrical properties of La doped Mn-Zn nanoferrites synthesized by co-precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Neena; Thakur, Atul; Thakur, Preeti

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum manganese zinc ferrite powder of the composition Mn 0.4 Zn 0.6 La 0.4 Fe 1.6 O 4 were synthesized via co-precipitation technique. Metallic chlorides of manganese, zinc and iron in which Lanthanum is doped were taken. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) base was used as precipitant agent. The calcinations (presintering) were performed at 700℃ for 3h and sintering at different temperatures 900℃, 850℃, 800℃ also for 3h. The structural investigation of the prepared sample was performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). For studying magnetic properties vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used. Electrical properties were studied by DC resistivity set up. (author)

  4. Structural and mechanical properties of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite film prepared by dual plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaohui; Zhang Xu; Wu Xianying; Li Qiang; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H film, with an unusual combination of superhardness, high elastic modulus and high elastic recovery, are prepared by using the dual plasma technique. The effects of the filter coil current on the compositional, structural and mechanical properties of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman analyses show that deposition rate, composition and nanostructure of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films could be changed by varying the filter coil current. Fortunately, by selecting the proper value for the filter coil current, 2.5 A, one could remarkably enhance mechanical properties of films such as the superhardness (66.4 GPa), the high elastic modulus (510 GPa) and the high elastic recovery (83.3%)

  5. Model-based Sensor Data Acquisition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Sathe, Saket; Papaioannou, Thanasis G.; Jeung, Ho Young; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, due to the proliferation of sensor networks, there has been a genuine need of researching techniques for sensor data acquisition and management. To this end, a large number of techniques have emerged that advocate model-based sensor data acquisition and management. These techniques use mathematical models for performing various, day-to-day tasks involved in managing sensor data. In this chapter, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques for model-based sensor data acquisition...

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin oxide-based composite by rheological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zeqiang; Li Xinhai; Xiong Lizhi; Wu Xianming; Xiao Zhuobing; Ma Mingyou

    2005-01-01

    Novel rheological technique was developed to synthesize tin oxide-based composites. The microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. The particles of tin oxide-based materials form an inactive matrix. The average size of the particles is about 150 nm. The material delivers a charge capacity of more than 570 mAh g -1 . The capacity loss per cycle is about 0.15% after being cycled 30 times. The good electrochemical performance indicates that this kind of tin oxide-based material is promising anode for lithium-ion battery

  7. Study on wetting properties of periodical nanopatterns by a combinative technique of photolithography and laser interference lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yung-Lang

    2010-03-01

    This study presents the wetting properties, including hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and anisotropic behavior, of water droplets on the silicon wafer surface with periodical nanopatterns and hierarchical structures. This study fabricates one- and two-dimensional periodical nanopatterns using laser interference lithography (LIL). The fabrication of hierarchical structures was effectively achieved by combining photolithography and LIL techniques. Unlike conventional fabrication methods, the LIL technique is mainly used to control the large-area design of periodical nanopatterns in this study. The minimum feature size for each nanopattern is 100 nm. This study shows that the wetting behavior of one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and hierarchical patterns can be obtained, benefiting the development of surface engineering for microfluidic systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of electromagnetic properties of BiFeO3 by Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) technique at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Efe, Ipek

    2017-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique is one of the most sensitive techniques to study about the electric and magnetic fields at the individual lattice points. It benefits from the hyperfine interactions between the probe atom and its neighborhood. Multiferroic materials have been intensively studied to promote and understand the possibility of controlling magnetic properties by electric fields instead of magnetic fields which opens the path to faster, smaller, and more energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as memory elements, high-frequency magnetic devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for data-storage technologies. BiFeO3 is one of the famous and important multiferroic materials since it shows both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature. In this study, we report on the first time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements carried out on polycrystalline BiFeO3 samples using the nuclear probe 181Hf(181Ta) after implantati...

  9. Optimization of Micro-Alloying Elements for Mechanical Properties in Normalized Cast Steel Using Taguchi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokkalingam B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taguchi method is used to find out the effect of micro alloying elements like vanadium, niobium and titanium on the hardness and tensile strength of the normalized cast steel. Based on this method, plan of experiments were made by using orthogonal arrays to acquire the data on hardness and tensile strength. The signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA are used to investigate the effect of these micro alloying elements on these two mechanical properties of the micro alloyed normalized cast steel. The results indicated that in the micro alloyed normalized cast steel both these properties increases when compared to non-micro-alloyed normalized cast steel. The effect of niobium addition was found to be significantly higher to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength when compared to other micro alloying elements. The maximum hardness of 200HV and the maximum tensile strength of 780 N/mm2 were obtained in 0.05%Nb addition micro alloyed normalized cast steel. Micro-alloyed with niobium normalized cast steel have the finest and uniform microstructure and fine pearlite colonies distributed uniformly in the ferrite. The optimum condition to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength were determined. The results were verified with experiments.

  10. Characterization of thermal, optical and carrier transport properties of porous silicon using the photoacoustic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Chan Kok; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan; Abidin Talib, Zainal; Kassim, Anuar

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the porous silicon layer was prepared by the electrochemical anodization etching process on n-type and p-type silicon wafers. The formation of the porous layer has been identified by photoluminescence and SEM measurements. The optical absorption, energy gap, carrier transport and thermal properties of n-type and p-type porous silicon layers were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from photoacoustic measurements. The values of thermal diffusivity, energy gap and carrier transport properties have been found to be porosity-dependent. The energy band gap of n-type and p-type porous silicon layers was higher than the energy band gap obtained for silicon substrate (1.11 eV). In the range of porosity (50-76%) of the studies, our results found that the optical band-gap energy of p-type porous silicon (1.80-2.00 eV) was higher than that of the n-type porous silicon layer (1.70-1.86 eV). The thermal diffusivity value of the n-type porous layer was found to be higher than that of the p-type and both were observed to increase linearly with increasing layer porosity

  11. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  12. Development of the ultra-microhardness technique for evaluating stress-strain properties of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, K.; Shinohara, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Yamada, M.; Arai, M.

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed for evaluating the strain-hardening exponent (n) and the 0.2% yield stress (σ 0.2 ) for fcc metals solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. To this end, ultra-microhardness (H um ) and Vickers hardness (H v ) measurements together with tensile tests were carried out for Ni and Al with various n and σ 0.2 . The value of H v is proportional to H um at the load P, and the proportional constant depends on P but scarcely on metals. The ratio of H um (P)/H um 0 (P) is scaled solely by n as a linear function independent of the specific metal, where H um 0 (P) is the value of H um (P) of specimens which show no strain-hardening. Based on the results and Cahoon's relation which relates H v , σ 0.2 and n, the values of n and σ 0.2 are evaluated solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. The proposed equation can be explained in terms of a constitutive equation for polycrystalline metals. ((orig.))

  13. Size Controlled CaF2 Nanocubes and Their Dosimetric Properties Using Photoluminescence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa D. Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic chemical coprecipitation route for the preparation of well-crystallized size controlled nano- and microcrystalline cubes of CaF2 is reported. Crystalline cubes in the range of 2 μm–20 nm could be synthesized and their sizes were controlled by varying the solvent : cosolvent ratio. The as-synthesized CaF2 nanocubes were characterized by different techniques. Photoluminescence (PL emission spectrum of CaF2 nanocrystalline powder showed strong emission band at 415 nm. Moreover, the effect of Eu as a dopant on the emission spectrum of CaF2 was investigated. This dopant was found to get incorporated in its Eu2+ and Eu3+ forms. The as-produced nanocubes were exposed to UV irradiation and the corresponding PL emission was studied. Excellent results are obtained, where CaF2:Eu nanocubes were found to be highly sensitive and might be suitable for esteeming the doses of UV irradiation using the PL technique.

  14. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  15. 23 CFR 710.309 - Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition. 710.309 Section 710.309 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.309 Acquisition. The process of acquiring real property includes...

  16. Optoelectronic properties of cadmium sulfide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Iqbal, M.A.; Hussain, S.T.; Waris, M.; Munair, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The substrate temperature in depositions of thin films plays a vital role in the characteristics of deposited films. We studied few characteristics of cadmium sulphide thin film deposited at different temperature (150 deg. C- 300 deg. C) on corning 7059 glass substrate. We measured transmittance, absorbance, band gap and reflectance via UV spectroscopy. It was found that the transmittance for 300 nm to 1100 nm was greater than 80%. The resistivity and mobility was calculated by Vander Pauw method which were 10-80 cm and 2-60 cm/sup 2/V/sup -1/S/sup -1/ respectively. The thermoelectric properties of the film were measured by hot and cold probe method which shows the N-type nature of the film. (author)

  17. Structural and mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited by the dual plasma technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaohui Wang; Xu Zhang; Xianying Wu; Huixing Zhang; Xiaoji Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Direct current metal filtered cathodic vacuum are (FCVA) and acetylene gas (C2H2) were wielded to synthesize Ti-containing amorphous carbon films on Si (100). The influence of substrate bias voltage and acetylene gas on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the films were investigated. The results show that the phase of TiC in the (111) preferential crystallo-graphic orientation exists in the film, and rite main existing pattern of carbon is sp2. With increasing the acetylene flow rate, the con-tents of Ti and TiC phase of the film gradually reduce; however, the thickness of the film increases. When the substrate bias voltage reaches -600 V, the internal stress of the film reaches 1.6 GPa. The micro-hardness and elastic modulus of the film can reach 33.9 and 237.6 GPa, respectively, and the friction coefficient of the film is 0.25.

  18. Investigation of magneto-optical properties of ferrofluids by laser light scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E.K., E-mail: elina.nep@gmail.com [Department of Quantum Electronics, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, A.V.; Velichko, E.N. [Department of Quantum Electronics, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Pleshakov, I.V.; Kuzmin, Yu I. [Department of Quantum Electronics, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Saint-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of magnetooptical characteristics of ferrofluids is an important task aimed at the development of novel optoelectronic systems. This article reports on the results obtained in the experimental studies of the factors that affect the intensity and spatial distribution of the laser radiation scattered by magnetic particles and their agglomerates in a magnetic field. Laser correlation spectroscopy and direct measurements of laser radiation scattering for studies of the interactions and magnetooptical properties of magnetic particles in solutions were employed. The objects were samples of nanodispersed magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) suspended in kerosene and in water. Our studies revealed some new behavior of magnetic particles in external magnetic and light fields, which make ferrofluids promising candidates for optical devices.

  19. Microstructural and electrical properties of cordierite-based ceramics obtained after two-step sintering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordierite-based ceramic materials are attracting much interest for their various applications in industry, for manufacturing multilayer circuit boards, catalytic converters, filters, thermal insulation, kiln furniture, components of portable electronic devices, etc. In order to reduce production costs and modify cordierite-based materials, mechanical activation can be used. In this study, microstructural and electrical properties of mechanically activated MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system have been analyzed. The mixtures of MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 powders were mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill for the time periods from 0 to 160 min. Morphological investigations have been performed on the obtained powders. The effects of activation and two-step sintering process on microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Electrical measurements showed variations of the dielectric constant (εr and loss tangent (tan δ as a function of time of mechanical treatment.

  20. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Renata Facundes da

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  1. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  2. Mechanical properties of micro-sized copper bending beams machined by the focused ion beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motz, C.; Schoeberl, T.; Pippan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micro-sized bending beams with thicknesses, t, from 7.5 down to 1.0 μm were fabricated with the focused ion beam technique from a copper single crystal with an {1 1 1} orientation. The beams were loaded with a nano-indenter and the force vs. displacement curves were recorded. A strong size effect was found where the flow stress reaches almost 1 GPa for the thinnest beams. A common strain gradient plasticity approach was used to explain the size effect. However, the strong t -1.14 dependence of the flow stress could not be explained by this model. Additionally, the combination of two other dislocation mechanisms is discussed: the limitation of available dislocation sources and a dislocation pile-up at the beam centre. The contribution of the pile-up stress to the flow stress gives a t -1 dependence, which is in good agreement with the experimental results

  3. Comparison of Two Powder Processing Techniques on the Properties of Cu-NbC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ Cu-NbC composite was successfully synthesized from Cu, Nb, and C powders using ball milling and high pressure torsion (HPT techniques. The novelty of the new approach, HPT, is the combination of high compaction pressure and large shear strain to simultaneously refine, synthesize, and consolidate composite powders at room temperature. The HPTed Cu-NbC composite was formed within a short duration of 20 min without Fe contamination from the HPT’s die. High porosity of 3–9%, Fe and niobium oxidations, from grinding media and ethanol during ball milling led to low electrical conductivity of the milled Cu-NbC composite. The electrical conductivity of the HPTed Cu-NbC composite showed a value 50% higher than that of milled Cu-NbC composite of the same composition.

  4. Humidity sensing properties of WO3 thick film resistor prepared by screen printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, Arun S

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline WO 3 Thick films are fabricated by screen printing technique. • Monoclinic phases were the majority in formation of films. • The peak at 1643 cm −1 shows stretching vibrations attributed to W-OH of adsorbed H 2 O. • Absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds. • Increase in resistance with decrease in RH when exposed to 20–100% RH. - Abstract: Thick films of tungsten oxide based were prepared using standard screen printing technique. To study the effect of temperature on the thick films were fired at different temperature for 30 min in air atmosphere. The WO 3 thick films were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX for elemental analysis. The formation of mixed phases of the film together with majority of monoclinic phase was observed. IR spectra confirm the peak at 1643 cm −1 clearly shows stretching vibrations attributed to the W-OH bending vibration mode of the adsorbed water molecules. The absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds (i.e. ν [W-O inter -W]). The peak located at 983 cm −1 belong to W=O terminal of cluster boundaries. A change in the resistance was observed with respect to the relative humidity when the WO 3 thick films were exposed to a wide humidity range of 20–100%. An increasing firing temperature of WO 3 film increases with the sensitivity. The parameters such as sensitivity and hysteresis of the WO 3 film sensors have been evaluated

  5. Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy as efficient technique for the determination of optical properties of polystyrene intermixed with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deris, Jamileh [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Shaaker, E-mail: Hajati@mail.yu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj 3177983634 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of nano-metalized polymer. • Determination of real part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of imaginary part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of refractive index and coefficient of extinction of the sample. • Determination of reflection and absorption coefficients of nano-metalized Polymer. - Abstract: The electronic properties (electron inelastic cross section, energy loss function) of a nano-metalized polystyrene obtained by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) in a previous study [J. Deris, S. Hajati, S. Tougaard, V. Zaporojtchenko, Appl. Surf. Sci. 377 (2016) 44–47], which relies on the Yubero-Tougaard method, were used in the complementary application of Kramers-Kronig transformation to determine its optical properties such as the real part (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary part (ε{sub 2}) of the dielectric function (ε), refractive index (n), coefficients of extinction (k), reflection (R) and absorption (μ). The degree of intermixing of polystyrene thin film and gold nanoparticles of sizes 5.5 nm was controlled by annealing the sample to achieve a morphology in which the nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed within polystyrene. It is worth noting that no data are available on the optical properties of metalized polymers such as gold nanoparticles intermixed with polystyrene. Therefore, this work is of high importance in terms of both the sample studied here and the method applied. The advantage of the method applied here is that no information on the lateral distribution of the nanocomposite sample is required. This means that the REELS technique has been presented here to suitably, efficiently and easily obtain the optical properties of such nano-metalized polymer in which the metal nanoparticles have been vertically well distributed (homogeneous in depth). Therefore, for vertically homogeneous and

  6. VIBE with parallel acquisition technique - a novel approach to dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the liver; VIBE mit paralleler Akquisitionstechnik - eine neue Moeglichkeit der dynamischen kontrastverstaerkten MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobritz, M.; Radkow, T.; Bautz, W.; Fellner, F.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Nittka, M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: The VIBE (volume interpolated breath-hold examination) sequence in combination with parallel acquisition technique (iPAT: integrated parallel acquisition technique) allows dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver with high temporal and spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to obtain first clinical experience with this technique for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Materials and Methods: We examined 10 consecutive patients using a 1.5 T MR system (gradient field strength 30 mT/m) with a phased-array coil combination. Following sequences- were acquired: T{sub 2}-w TSE and T{sub 1}-w FLASH, after administration of gadolinium, 6 VIBE sequences with iPAT (TR/TE/matrix/partition thickness/time of acquisition: 6.2 ms/ 3.2 ms/256 x 192/4 mm/13 s), as well as T{sub 1}-weighted FLASH with fat saturation. Two observers evaluated the different sequences concerning the number of lesions and their dignity. Following lesions were found: hepatocellular carcinoma (5 patients), hemangioma (2), metastasis (1), cyst (1), adenoma (1). Results: The VIBE sequences were superior for the detection of lesions with arterial hyperperfusion with a total of 33 focal lesions. 21 lesions were found with T{sub 2}-w TSE and 20 with plain T{sub 1}-weighted FLASH. Diagnostic accuracy increased with the VIBE sequence in comparison to the other sequences. Conclusion: VIBE with iPAT allows MR imaging of the liver with high spatial and temporal resolution providing dynamic contrast-enhanced information about the whole liver. This may lead to improved detection of liver lesions, especially hepatocellular carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die VIBE-Sequenz (Volume Interpolated Breath-hold Examination) in Kombination mit paralleler Bildgebung (iPAT) ermoeglicht eine dynamische kontrastmittel-gestuetzte Untersuchung der Leber in hoher zeitlicher und oertlicher Aufloesung. Ziel war es, erste klinische Erfahrungen mit dieser Technik in der Detektion fokaler

  7. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Fang; Li, Jing-Ming

    2017-06-02

    Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon ( Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality.

  8. The effect of processing techniques on microstructural and tribological properties of copper-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vencl, Aleksandar; Rajkovic, Viseslava; Zivic, Fatima; Mitrović, Slobodan; Cvijović-Alagić, Ivana; Jovanovic, Milan T.

    2013-01-01

    Three copper-based alloys, i.e. two composites reinforced with Al 2 O 3 particles and fabricated through PM route and Cu–Cr–Zr alloy processed by the vacuum melting and casting technique were the object of this investigation. Light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. The ball-on-disc nanotribometer served for wear and friction tests applying low sliding speeds (6, 8 and 10 mm/s) at constant load (1 N). The objective of the paper was to investigate the effect of different processing techniques on microstructure, thermal stability and the tribological characteristics of composites and copper ingot alloy. Nano-sized Al 2 O 3 particles (less than 100 nm in size) are present not only in the copper matrix of Cu–2.5 wt.% Al composite, obtained by internal oxidation, but they are also formed at the grain boundaries preventing the grain growth and providing very small grain size. During the high temperature annealing (in the range 300–950 o C) composites behaved much better than the ingot alloy. The highest thermal stability showed Cu–2.5 wt.% Al composite. The pinning effect of nano-sized Al 2 O 3 particles prevents the grain growth slowing down recrystallization of this composite up to 900 o C. Micro-sized Al 2 O 3 particles in Cu–5 wt.% Al 2 O 3 composite, processed by mechanical annealing, are not effective in preventing dislocation motion and the grain growth, whereas microstructure of Cu–0.4 wt.% Cr–0.08 wt.% Zr ingot alloy was completely recrystallized around 550 o C. Cu–2.5 wt.% Al composite showed the best wear resistance, approximately 2.5 times higher than that of Cu–5 wt.% Al 2 O 3 composite. High hardness and nano-sized Al 2 O 3 particles size combined with the fine-grain structure are the main parameters leading to the improved wear resistance of the Cu–2.5Al composite.

  9. Transport Properties of LCMO Granular Films Deposited by the Pulsed Electron Deposition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Leiming; XU Bin; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    By finely controlling the deposition parameters in the pulsed electron deposition process,granular La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) film was grown on silicon substrates.The substrate temperature,ambient pressure in the deposition chamber and acceleration potential for the electron beam were all found to affect the grain size of the film,resulting in different morphologies of the samples.Transport properties of the obtained granular films,especially the magnetoresistance (MR),were studied.Prominent low-field MR was observed in all samples,indicating the forming of grain boundaries in the sample.The low-field MR show great sensitive to the morphology evolution,which reaches the highest value of about 40% for the sample with the grain size of about 250 nm.More interestingly,positive-MR (p-MR) was also detected above 300 K when low magnetic field applying,whereas it disappeared with higher magnetic field applied up to 1.5 and 2 Tesla.Instead of the spinpolarized tunneling process being commonly regarded as a responsible reason,lattice mismatch between LCMO film and silicon substrate appears to be the origin of the p-MR

  10. A study of preparation techniques and properties of bulk nanocomposites based on aqueous albumin dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A. Yu.; Dedkova, A. A.; Ichkitidze, L. P.; Podgaetskii, V. M.; Selishchev, S. V.

    2013-08-01

    Bulk nanocomposites prepared from an aqueous albumin dispersion with carbon nanotubes by removing the liquid component from the dispersion have been investigated. The composites were obtained by thermostating and exposure to LED and IR diode laser radiation. The nanocomposites obtained under laser irradiation retain their shape and properties for several years, in contrast to the composites fabricated in different ways (which decompose into small fragments immediately after preparation). The low density of the composites under study (˜1200 kg/m3), which is close to the density of water, is due to their high porosity. The hardness of stable nanocomposites (˜300 MPa) was found to be at the same level as the hardness of polymethylmethacrylate, aluminum, and iron and close to the hardness of human bone tissue. The cluster quasiordering of the inner structure of nanocomposites revealed by atomic force microscopy indicates the possibility of forming a bulk nanotube framework in them, which can be caused by the effect of the electric field of laser radiation and ensure their stability and hardness. The presence of a framework in nanocomposites provides conditions for self-assembly of biological tissues and makes it possible to apply laser-prepared nanocomposites as a component of surgical implants.

  11. Properties of parameter estimation techniques for a beta-binomial failure model. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Buranapan, W.; Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    Of considerable importance in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants are methods to estimate the probability of failure-on-demand, p, of a plant component that normally is inactive and that may fail when activated or stressed. Properties of five methods for estimating from failure-on-demand data the parameters of the beta prior distribution in a compound beta-binomial probability model are examined. Simulated failure data generated from a known beta-binomial marginal distribution are used to estimate values of the beta parameters by (1) matching moments of the prior distribution to those of the data, (2) the maximum likelihood method based on the prior distribution, (3) a weighted marginal matching moments method, (4) an unweighted marginal matching moments method, and (5) the maximum likelihood method based on the marginal distribution. For small sample sizes (N = or < 10) with data typical of low failure probability components, it was found that the simple prior matching moments method is often superior (e.g. smallest bias and mean squared error) while for larger sample sizes the marginal maximum likelihood estimators appear to be best

  12. Synthesis, structure and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite by sol-gel combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of a thin coating fabricated by mixing Mn-Zn ferrite with epoxy resin (EP) were studied. The spinel ferrites Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) were synthesized with citrate acid as complex agent by sol-gel combustion method. The microstructure and surface morphology of Mn-Zn ferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the fabricated ferrite/EP composites were investigated in terms of their contributions to the absorbing properties in the low frequency (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The microwave absorption of the prepared ferrite/EP composites could be tailored by matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss and by controlling the doped metal ratio. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.2 are found to show higher reflection loss compared with the composites with other compositions. It is proposed that the prepared composites can potentially be applied in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field.

  13. Structure and Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by PACVD Technique on Light Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tański T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations presented in this paper describe surface treatment performed on samples of heat-treated cast magnesium and aluminium alloy. The structure and chemical composition as well as the functional and mechanical properties of the obtained gradient/monolithic films were analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, the ball-on-disk tribotester and scratch testing. Moreover, investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the samples was carried out by means of potentiodynamic polarisation curves in 1-M NaCl solution. The coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition did not reveal any delamination or defects and they adhere closely to the substrate. The coating thickness was in a range of up to 2.5 microns. Investigations using Raman spectra of the DLC films confirmed a multiphase character of the diamond-like carbon layer, revealing the sp2 and sp3 electron hybridisation responsible for both the hardness and the friction coefficient. The best wear resistance test results were obtained for the magnesium alloy substrate - AZ61, for which the measured value of the friction path length was equal to 630 m.

  14. Magnetic properties of nickel nanowires decorated with cobalt nanoparticles fabricated by two step electrochemical deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaz, K., E-mail: maaz@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Duan, J.L. [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Karim, S. [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Chen, Y.H.; Yao, H.J.; Mo, D.; Sun, Y.M. [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Liu, J., E-mail: j.liu@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate fabrication and magnetic characterization of novel nanostructures composed of Ni nanowires decorated with Co nanoparticles by two step etching and electrochemical deposition in polycarbonate template. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of nickel nanowires with diameter of 62 nm which are surrounded by cobalt nanoparticles of about 15 nm in diameter. By electron microscopy analyses it is evident that the nanoparticles are distributed on the surface of the nanowires. Analysis of magnetization data indicates that ferromagnetic Ni nanowires exhibit an easy axis of magnetization parallel to the wire long-axis while the angular dependence of coercivity indicates that magnetization reversal occurs through the curling process in these nanowires. An exchange bias accompanied by vertical shift in magnetization was observed below ∼20 K, measured under a cooling field of 1 kOe, which is attributed to the spin interactions between the spin-glass like surface layer and ferromagnetic core of the nanowires and nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Co-decorated Ni nanowires were fabricated by two-step electrodeposition technique. • The nanoparticles are distributed on the surface of nanowires. • Magnetization reversal occurs through the curling process in the nanowires. • Temperature dependent coercivity follows thermal activation model.

  15. Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.

  16. Optical and Electrical Properties of Copper Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films have been synthesized on to glass substrates at different temperatures in the range 250-450 °C by spray pyrolysis technique from aqueous solution using cupric acetate Cu(CH3COO2·H2O as a precursor. The structure of the deposited CuO thin films characterized by X-ray diffraction, the surface morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscope, the presence of elements was detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the optical transmission spectra was recorded by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and electrical resistivity was studied by Van-der Pauw method. All the CuO thin films, irrespective of growth temperature, showed a monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation, and the crystallite size was about 8.4784 Å for the thin film synthesized at 350 °C. The optical transmission of the as-deposited film is found to decrease with the increase of substrate temperature, the optical band gap of the thin films varies from 1.90 to 1.60 eV and the room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 30 to18 Ohm·cm for the films grown at different substrate temperatures.

  17. Z-depth integration: a new technique for manipulating z-depth properties in composited scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Kayla; Whittinghill, David

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a new technique in the production pipeline of asset creation for virtual environments called Z-Depth Integration (ZeDI). ZeDI is intended to reduce the time required to place elements at the appropriate z-depth within a scene. Though ZeDI is intended for use primarily in two-dimensional scene composition, depth-dependent "flat" animated objects are often critical elements of augmented and virtual reality applications (AR/VR). ZeDI is derived from "deep image compositing", a capacity implemented within the OpenEXR file format. In order to trick the human eye into perceiving overlapping scene elements as being in front of or behind one another, the developer must manually manipulate which pixels of an element are visible in relation to other objects embedded within the environment's image sequence. ZeDI improves on this process by providing a means for interacting with procedurally extracted z-depth data from a virtual environment scene. By streamlining the process of defining objects' depth characteristics, it is expected that the time and energy required for developers to create compelling AR/VR scenes will be reduced. In the proof of concept presented in this manuscript, ZeDI is implemented for pre-rendered virtual scene construction via an AfterEffects software plug-in.

  18. Improving Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Palladium-Coated Using a Low Cost Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzegar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of SnO2 nanowires were successfully prepared by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD process on quartz substrates. Afterwards, a thin  layer of palladium (Pd as a catalyst was coated on top of nanowires. For the deposition of Pd, a simple and low cost technique of spray pyrolysis was employed, which caused an intensive enhancement on the sensing response of fabricated sensors. Prepared sensor devices were exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG and vapor of ethanol (C2H5OH. Results indicate that SnO2 nanowires sensors coated with Pd as a catalyst show decreasing in response time (~40s to 1000ppm of LPG at a relatively low operating temperature (200o C. SnO2 /Pd nanowire devices show gas sensing response time and recovery time as short as 50s and 10s respectively with a high sensitivity value of ~120 for C2H5OH, that is remarkable in comparison with other reports.

  19. Mechanical and biodegradable properties of porous titanium filled with poly-L-lactic acid by modified in situ polymerization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Ishii, Daisuke

    2011-10-01

    Porous titanium (pTi) can possess a low Young's modulus equal to that of human bone, depending on its porosity. However, the mechanical strength of pTi deteriorates greatly with increasing porosity. On the other hand, certain medical polymers exhibit biofunctionalities, which are not possessed intrinsically by metallic materials. Therefore, a biodegradable medical polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), was used to fill in the pTi pores using a modified in-situ polymerization technique. The mechanical and biodegradable properties of pTi filled with PLLA (pTi/PLLA) as fabricated by this technique and the effects of the PLLA filling were evaluated in this study. The pTi pores are almost completely filled with PLLA by the developed process (i.e., technique). The tensile strength and tensile Young's modulus of pTi barely changes with the PLLA filling. However, the PLLA filling improves the compressive 0.2% proof stress of pTi having any porosity and increases the compressive Young's modulus of pTi having relatively high porosity. This difference between the tensile and compressive properties of pTi/PLLA is considered to be caused by the differing resistances of PLLA in the pores to tensile and compressive deformations. The PLLA filled into the pTi pores degrades during immersion in Hanks' solution at 310 K. The weight loss due to PLLA degradation increases with increasing immersion time. However, the rate of weight loss of pTi/PLLA during immersion decreases with increasing immersion time. Hydroxyapatite formation is observed on the surface of pTi/PLLA after immersion for ≥8 weeks. The decrease in the weight-loss rate may be caused by weight gain due to hydroxyapatite formation and/or the decrease in contact area with Hanks' solution caused by its formation on the surface of pTi/PLLA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study of structural and mechanical properties of Al–Cu composites prepared by vacuum and microwave sintering techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penchal Reddy Matli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the aluminum metal matrix composite reinforced with copper particulates (3, 6 and 9 vol.% were fabricated by high energy ball milling, followed by vacuum sintering (VS and microwave sintering techniques (MS separately. The effects of Cu content and preparation methods on the microstructure and compression mechanical behavior of Al–Cu matrix composites were investigated. The microstructural characterizations revealed a homogeneous distribution of Cu particles in the Al matrix and also fine microstructures of microwave sintered samples. The microwave sintered specimen exhibited the highest hardness and better mechanical properties compared to vacuum sintered specimens. Furthermore, the hardness and compressive strength increased 137.2% and 30.3% for the microwave sintered Al–9 vol.% Cu composite, respectively. The increase in mechanical properties with the increasing volume fraction of Cu particulates can be ascribed to the presence of harder Cu particles reinforcement. The developed materials of the microwave sintered Al–Cu composite in this investigation could be successfully used for industrial applications due to improved mechanical properties. Keywords: Al matrix composites, Microwave sintering, Microstructure, Mechanical behavior

  1. Ethosomal nanocarriers: the impact of constituents and formulation techniques on ethosomal properties, in vivo studies, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Ibrahim M; Darwis, Yusrida; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Assi, Reem Abou; Khan, Arshad A

    2016-01-01

    Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.

  2. Determining the mechanical properties of electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers using AFM and a novel fiber anchoring technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Banerjee, Soham; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Due to its low cost, biocompatibility and slow bioresorption, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) continues to be a suitable material for select biomedical engineering applications. We used a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/optical microscopy technique to determine key mechanical properties of individual electrospun PCL nanofibers with diameters between 440-1040nm. Compared to protein nanofibers, PCL nanofibers showed much lower adhesion, as they slipped on the substrate when mechanically manipulated. We, therefore, first developed a novel technique to anchor individual PCL nanofibers to micrometer-sized ridges on a substrate, and then mechanically tested anchored nanofibers. When held at constant strain, tensile stress relaxed with fast and slow relaxation times of 1.0±0.3s and 8.8±3.1s, respectively. The total tensile modulus was 62±26MPa, the elastic (non-relaxing) component of the tensile modulus was 53±36MPa. Individual PCL fibers could be stretched elastically (without permanent deformation) to strains of 19-23%. PCL nanofibers are rather extensible; they could be stretched to a strain of at least 98%, and a tensile strength of at least 12MPa, before they slipped off the AFM tip. PCL nanofibers that had aged for over a month at ambient conditions became stiffer and less elastic. Our technique provides accurate nanofiber mechanical data, which are needed to guide construction of scaffolds for cells and other biomedical devices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Room and ultrahigh temperature structure-mechanical property relationships of tungsten alloys formed by field assisted sintering technique (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Paul N.; Alagic, Sven [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Kulkarni, Anil [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Matson, Lawrence [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States); Singh, Jogender, E-mail: jxs46@arl.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Tungsten based alloys have become of critical importance in a number of applications including plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, rocket nozzles for aerospace applications, and in kinetic energy penetrators in the defense industry. Formation of components for these uses by powder metallurgical techniques has proven challenging, due to tungsten's relatively poor sinterability. Here we report the use of field assisted sintering technique (FAST) to produce high density, fine grain alloys with mechanical properties comparable or superior to that of components produced by conventional techniques. Alloys of pure tungsten, W-3 vol%TiC, W-5 vol%TiC, and W-10 vol%Ta were synthesized at 2100 °C, 35 MPa for 25 min using FAST. Microstructural characterization revealed effective reduction of grain size with TiC addition and preferential diffusion of oxygen into the center of tantalum particles in tantalum containing alloys. Tensile testing of alloys revealed TiC addition to W resulted in substantially improved ultimate tensile strength at the cost of ductility in comparison at temperatures up to 1926 °C (3500 °F) however this strengthening effect was lost at 2204 °C (4000 °F). Addition of 10 vol%Ta to W resulted in reduced hardness at room temperature, but substantially increased yield strength at the cost of slightly reduced ductility at 1926 °C and 2204 °C.

  4. Continuous Modeling Technique of Fiber Pullout from a Cement Matrix with Different Interface Mechanical Properties Using Finite Element Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ferreira Friedrich

    Full Text Available Abstract Fiber-matrix interface performance has a great influence on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite. This influence is mainly presented during fiber pullout from the matrix. As fiber pullout process consists of fiber debonding stage and pullout stage which involve complex contact problem, numerical modeling is a best way to investigate the interface influence. Although many numerical research works have been conducted, practical and effective technique suitable for continuous modeling of fiber pullout process is still scarce. The reason is in that numerical divergence frequently happens, leading to the modeling interruption. By interacting the popular finite element program ANSYS with the MATLAB, we proposed continuous modeling technique and realized modeling of fiber pullout from cement matrix with desired interface mechanical performance. For debonding process, we used interface elements with cohesive surface traction and exponential failure behavior. For pullout process, we switched interface elements to spring elements with variable stiffness, which is related to the interface shear stress as a function of the interface slip displacement. For both processes, the results obtained are very good in comparison with other numerical or analytical models and experimental tests. We suggest using the present technique to model toughening achieved by randomly distributed fibers.

  5. Photovoltaic properties of undoped ZnO thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, S.J. [Applied Science Private Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics; Abu El-Haija, N.M.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N. [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as a window material, transparent electrode and active layer in different types of solar cells, UV emitters, and UV sensors. In addition to being low cost, ZnO is more abundant than indium tin oxide. ZnO is non toxic and has a high chemical stability in reduction environments. When ZnO films are made without any intentional doping, they exhibit n-type conductivity. ZnO thin films can be prepared by reactive sputtering, laser ablation, chemical-vapour deposition, laser molecular-beam epitaxy, thermal evaporation, sol-gel, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis, with the latter being simple, inexpensive and adaptable to large area depositions. In this work ZnCl{sub 2} was used as a source of Zn where it was dissolved in distilled water. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated due to their important characteristic for solar cell applications. Polycrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis using a home-made spraying system at substrate temperature of 450 degrees C. The films were characterized by recording and analyzing their I-V plots, their transmittance, X-ray diffraction and SEM micrographs. There resistivity was found to be about 200 ohms per cm and their bandgap energy about 3.27 eV. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure and are highly ordered with a preferential orientation (002). SEM images revealed that the substrates are continuously covered and the surface of the film is uniform. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Spectroscopic techniques for measuring ion diode space-charge distributions and ion source properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filuk, A B; Bailey, J E; Adams, R G [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    The authors are using time- and space-resolved visible spectroscopy to measure applied-B ion diode dynamics on the 20 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. Doppler broadening of fast Li atoms, as viewed parallel to the anode, is used in a charge-exchange model to obtain the Li{sup +} ion divergence within 100 {mu}m of the anode surface. The characteristic Stark/Zeeman shifts in spectra of alkali neutrals or singly-ionized alkaline-earths are used to measure the strong electric (10{sup 9} V/m) an magnetic ({approx} 6 T) fields in the diode gap. Large Stark shifts within 0.5 mm of the anode indicate the LiF emits with a finite field threshold rather than with Child-Langmuir-type emission, and the small slope in the electric field indicates an unexpected build-up of electrons near the anode. In the diode gap, the authors aim to unfold fields to quantify the time-dependent ion and electron space-charge distributions that determine the ion beam properties. Observed electric field non-uniformities give local beam deflections that can be comparable to the total beam microdivergence. The authors are implementing active laser absorption and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy on low-density Na atoms injected into the diode gap prior to the power pulse. The small Doppler broadening in the Na spectra should allow simultaneous electric and magnetic field mapping with improved spatial resolution. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs.

  7. Synthesis, structure and electromagnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrite by sol–gel combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of a thin coating fabricated by mixing Mn–Zn ferrite with epoxy resin (EP) were studied. The spinel ferrites Mn 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) were synthesized with citrate acid as complex agent by sol–gel combustion method. The microstructure and surface morphology of Mn–Zn ferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the fabricated ferrite/EP composites were investigated in terms of their contributions to the absorbing properties in the low frequency (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The microwave absorption of the prepared ferrite/EP composites could be tailored by matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss and by controlling the doped metal ratio. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.2 are found to show higher reflection loss compared with the composites with other compositions. It is proposed that the prepared composites can potentially be applied in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field. - Highlights: • We designed and synthesized Mn 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.8), with citrate acid as complex agent by the sol–gel combustion method. • Citrate acid as the complex agent overcomes the aggregation of ferrite resulting in high purity and homogeneous particles. • We investigated the electromagnetic absorbing performance of a fabricated thin coating by introducing Mn–Zn ferrite into epoxy resin (EP). • The Mn 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 composite coatings could achieve the satisfactory absorbing value of −17 dB at 800 MHz. • The prepared composites can potentially be used for the application in electromagnetic microwave absorbing field

  8. Multi spectral scaling data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Anita; Patil, R.D.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy applications, it is often desired to acquire data at high rate with high resolution. With the availability of low cost computers, it is possible to make a powerful data acquisition system with minimum hardware and software development, by designing a PC plug-in acquisition board. But in using the PC processor for data acquisition, the PC can not be used as a multitasking node. Keeping this in view, PC plug-in acquisition boards with on-board processor find tremendous applications. Transputer based data acquisition board has been designed which can be configured as a high count rate pulse height MCA or as a Multi Spectral Scaler. Multi Spectral Scaling (MSS) is a new technique, in which multiple spectra are acquired in small time frames and are then analyzed. This paper describes the details of this multi spectral scaling data acquisition system. 2 figs

  9. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    , especially in treatments with organic amendments and woodchip mulch. While in plots with this mulch, the wetting front only reaches a few centimetres in depth. This was probably due to the preferential orientation of woodchips pores parallel to the soil surface, which decreases the percolation to deeper soil layers. Neither treatment reached a wetting front like RS but, in view of the parameters related to good physical soil properties (pores distribution, infiltration and wetting front depth) the combination of SA-NM can allow a high soil moisture content to facilitate the plant cover establishment. It is right to conclude that sewage sludge is the most adequate treatment for restoring areas degraded by mining activities in a semiarid climate.

  10. Quantifying dynamic mechanical properties of human placenta tissue using optimization techniques with specimen-specific finite-element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Miller, Carl S; Nazmi, Giseli; Pearlman, Mark D; Schneider, Lawrence W; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2009-11-13

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fetal deaths resulting from maternal trauma in the United States, and placental abruption is the most common cause of these deaths. To minimize this injury, new assessment tools, such as crash-test dummies and computational models of pregnant women, are needed to evaluate vehicle restraint systems with respect to reducing the risk of placental abruption. Developing these models requires accurate material properties for tissues in the pregnant abdomen under dynamic loading conditions that can occur in crashes. A method has been developed for determining dynamic material properties of human soft tissues that combines results from uniaxial tensile tests, specimen-specific finite-element models based on laser scans that accurately capture non-uniform tissue-specimen geometry, and optimization techniques. The current study applies this method to characterizing material properties of placental tissue. For 21 placenta specimens tested at a strain rate of 12/s, the mean failure strain is 0.472+/-0.097 and the mean failure stress is 34.80+/-12.62 kPa. A first-order Ogden material model with ground-state shear modulus (mu) of 23.97+/-5.52 kPa and exponent (alpha(1)) of 3.66+/-1.90 best fits the test results. The new method provides a nearly 40% error reduction (p<0.001) compared to traditional curve-fitting methods by considering detailed specimen geometry, loading conditions, and dynamic effects from high-speed loading. The proposed method can be applied to determine mechanical properties of other soft biological tissues.

  11. Evaluation of three different decontamination techniques on biofilm formation, and on physical and chemical properties of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Carolina Bosso; Dos Santos, Andressa; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Giannini, Marcelo; Girotto, Emerson Marcelo; Ferracane, Jack Liborio

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated three different sterilization/disinfection techniques for resin composites on bacterial growth and surface modification after decontamination. Two resin composites were sterilized/disinfected with three different techniques: UV light, 1% chloramine T, and 70% ethanol. Four different times were used for each technique to determine the shortest time that the solution or UV light was effective. The influence of sterilization/disinfection technique on bacterial growth was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic activity, using the AlamarBlue™ assay, bacterial viability, and SEM images from biofilms of Streptococcus mutans. The surface change, after the process, was analyzed with ATR/FTIR and SEM images. The solutions used for decontamination (1% chloramine-T and 70% ethanol) were analyzed with 1 H-NMR to identify any resin compounds leached during the process. One minute of decontamination was efficient for all three methods tested. Chloramine-T increased the surface porosity on resin composites, no changes were observed for UV light and 70% ethanol, however, 1 H-NMR identified leached monomers only when 70% ethanol was used. No chemical change of the materials was found under ATR/FTIR analyses after the decontamination process. Chloramine-T, with no previous wash, increased the bacterial viability for both resin composites and increased the bacterial metabolism for the resin composite without fluoride. UV light had no interference on the resin composites properties tested using 1 min of exposure compared to the other decontamination methods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 945-953, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of infrared spectroscopy techniques: developing an efficient method for high resolution analysis of sediment properties from long records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Rosén, Peter; Kliem, Pierre; Ohlendorf, Christian; Persson, Per; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of sediment samples in visible to mid-infrared spectra is ideal for high-resolution records. It requires only small amounts (0.01-0.1g dry weight) of sample material and facilitates rapid and cost efficient analysis of a wide variety of biogeochemical properties on minerogenic and organic substances (Kellner et al. 1998). One of these techniques, the Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (DRIFTS), has already been successfully applied to lake sediment from very different settings and has shown to be a promising technique for high resolution analyses of long sedimentary records on glacial-interglacial timescales (Rosén et al. 2009). However, the DRIFTS technique includes a time-consuming step where sediment samples are mixed with KBr. To assess if alternative and more rapid infrared (IR) techniques can be used, four different IR spectroscopy techniques are compared for core catcher sediment samples from Laguna Potrok Aike - an ICDP site located in southernmost South America. Partial least square (PLS) calibration models were developed using the DRIFTS technique. The correlation coefficients (R) for correlations between DRIFTS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties show values of 0.80 for biogenic silica (BSi), 0.95 for total organic carbon (TOC), 0.91 for total nitrogen (TN), and 0.92 for total inorganic carbon (TIC). Good statistical performance was also obtained by using the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ATR-FTIRS technique which requires less sample preparation. Two devices were used, the full-sized Bruker Equinox 252 and the smaller and less expensive Bruker Alpha. R for ATR-FTIRS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties were 0.87 (BSi), 0.93 (TOC), 0.90 (TN), and 0.91 (TIC) for the Alpha, and 0.78 (TOC), 0.85 (TN), 0.79 (TIC) for the Equinox 252 device. As the penetration depth of the IR beam is frequency dependent, a firm surface contact of

  13. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  14. Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.

  15. The use of thermovision technique to estimate the properties of highly filled polyolefins composites with calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowska, Paulina; Klozinski, Arkadiusz [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Technology and Chemical Engineering, Polymer Division Pl. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 2, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, Paulina.Jakubowska@put.poznan.pl (Poland)

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the possibility of thermovision technique usage for estimating thermal properties of ternary highly filled composites (PE-MD/iPP/CaCO{sub 3}) and polymer blends (PE-MD/iPP) during mechanical measurements. The ternary, polyolefin based composites that contained the following amounts of calcium carbonate: 48, 56, and 64 wt % were studied. All materials were applying under tensile cyclic loads (x1, x5, x10, x20, x50, x100, x500, x1000). Simultaneously, a fully radiometric recording, using a TESTO infrared camera, was created. After the fatigue process, all samples were subjected to static tensile test and the maximum temperature at break was also recorded. The temperature values were analyzed in a function of cyclic loads and the filler content. The changes in the Young’s modulus values were also investigated.

  16. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite foams produced by an ultrasonic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, A., E-mail: am_salehi85@yahoo.com [Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babakhani, A., E-mail: babakhani@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zebarjad, S. Mojtaba, E-mail: mojtabazebarjad@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    In this study, nanocomposite foams reinforced with different weight percentages of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%) were fabricated using the ultrasonic and stir casting techniques. For this purpose heat treated TiH{sub 2} was used as foaming agent. Microstructural studies were done by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Hardness evaluation of precursor nanocomposites showed that the hardness was significantly increased by the addition of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and Al–0.75 wt% SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite makes the highest hardness. Evaluation of compressive behavior of Al–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite foams showed that the plateau stress increases more than 3 times as the foam relative density increases from 0.09 to 0.16. Energy absorption of Al–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite foams has been found to be dependent on both relative density and structural properties.

  17. Surface plasmon resonances, optical properties, and electrical conductivity thermal hystersis of silver nanofibers produced by the electrospinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Nasser A M; Woo, Kee-Do; Kanjwal, Muzafar A; Choi, Kyung Eun; Khil, Myung Seob; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-10-21

    In the present study, silver metal nanofibers have been successfully prepared by using the electrospinning technique. Silver nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning a sol-gel consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) and silver nitrate. The dried nanofiber mats have been calcined at 850 degrees C in an argon atmosphere. The produced nanofibers do have distinct plasmon resonance compared with the reported silver nanoparticles. Contrary to the introduced shapes of silver nanoparticles, the nanofibers have a blue-shifted plasmon resonance at 330 nm. Moreover, the optical properties study indicated that the synthesized nanofibers have two band gap energies of 0.75 and 2.34 eV. An investigation of the electrical conductivity behavior of the obtained nanofibers shows thermal hystersis. These privileged physical features greatly widen the applications of the prepared nanofibers in various fields.

  18. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... barter, of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the Government; or (2) Government...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.107 - Amount lent for acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount lent for acquisitions. 1710.107 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.107 Amount lent for acquisitions. The maximum amount that will be lent for an acquisition is limited to the value of the property, as determined by RUS. If the...

  20. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  1. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, S.; GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.

    2017-01-01

    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  2. Investigation of Dynamic Properties of Water-Saturated Sand by the Results of the Inverse Experiment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragov, A. M.; Balandin, Vl. V.; Kotov, V. L.; Balandin, Vl. Vl.

    2018-04-01

    We present new experimental results on the investigation of the dynamic properties of sand soil on the basis of the inverse experiment technique using a measuring rod with a flat front-end face. A limited applicability has been shown of the method using the procedure for correcting the shape of the deformation pulse due to dispersion during its propagation in the measuring rod. Estimates of the pulse maximum have been obtained and the results of comparison of numerical calculations with experimental data are given. The sufficient accuracy in determining the drag force during the quasi-stationary stage of penetration has been established. The parameters of dynamic compressibility and resistance to shear of water-saturated sand have been determined in the course of the experimental-theoretical analysis of the maximum values of the drag force and its values at the quasi-stationary stage of penetration. It has been shown that with almost complete water saturation of sand its shear properties are reduced but remain significant in the practically important range of penetration rates.

  3. Enhancement of the optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Mohamed, S. H.

    2005-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized in numerous industrial applications due to its unique combined properties of transparency to visible light and electrical conductivity. ITO films were deposited on glass substrates by an electron beam evaporation technique at room temperature from bulk samples, with different thicknesses. The film with 1500 Å thick was selected to perform annealing in the temperature range of 200 400 °C and annealing for varying times from 15 to 120 min at 400 °C. The X-ray diffraction of the films was analyzed in order to investigate its dependence on thickness, and annealing. Electrical and optical measurements were also carried out. Transmittance, optical energy gap, refractive index, carrier concentration, thermal emissivity and resistivity were investigated. It was found that the as-deposited films with different thicknesses were highly absorbing and have relatively poor electrical properties. The films become opaque with increasing the film thickness. After thermal annealing, the resistance decreases and a simultaneous variation in the optical transmission occurs. A transmittance value of 85.5% in the IR region and 82% in the visible region of the spectrum and a resistivity of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω Cm were obtained at annealing temperature of 400 °C for 120 min.

  4. Thermodynamic properties and solidification kinetics of intermetallic Ni7Zr2 alloy investigated by electrostatic levitation technique and theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Hu, L.; Yang, S. J.; Wang, W. L.; Wei, B.

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties, including the density, volume expansion coefficient, ratio of specific heat to emissivity of intermetallic Ni 7 Zr 2 alloy, have been measured using the non-contact electrostatic levitation technique. These properties vary linearly with temperature at solid and liquid states, even down to the obtained maximum undercooling of 317 K. The enthalpy, glass transition, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and surface tension were obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ni 7 Zr 2 has a relatively poor glass forming ability, and the glass transition temperature is determined as 1026 K. The inter-diffusivity of Ni 7 Zr 2 alloy fitted by Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann law yields a fragility parameter of 8.49, which indicates the fragile nature of this alloy. Due to the competition of increased thermodynamic driving force and decreased atomic diffusion, the dendrite growth velocity of Ni 7 Zr 2 compound exhibits double-exponential relationship to the undercooling. The maximum growth velocity is predicted to be 0.45 m s −1 at the undercooling of 335 K. Theoretical analysis reveals that the dendrite growth is a diffusion-controlled process and the atomic diffusion speed is only 2.0 m s −1

  5. Effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on the tribological properties of TiN coated HSS using CAE PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, A.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-Speed Steel (HSS) is a material that used in various Hi-Tech industries for many reasons. The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of TiN (Titanium Nitride)-coated HSS. Using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) technique coated samples. The goal of this work is to determine usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve tribological properties of HSS, as vastly use in cutting tool industry for various applications. A Pin-on-Disc test showed that the minimum value recorded for friction coefficient was reduced from 0.294 to 0.239 when the nitrogen gas flow rate was increased from 100 sccm to 200 sccm. The decrease in friction coefficient resulted from the reduction in macrodroplets by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate during deposition. The worn surface morphology of the TiN coated HSS was observed on a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and the elemental composition on the wear scar were investigated by means of EDXS. (Author)

  6. Magneto-optical properties of BiFeO3 thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Indigeneously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) set up has been exploited to study the magnetic field dependent optical properties of BiFeO 3 thin films. BiFeO 3 thin films have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by using pulsed laser deposition technique. The surface plasmon modes in prism/Au/BiFeO 3 /air structure have been excited in Kretschmann configuration at the interface of Au/BiFeO 3 thin films. The SPR reflectance curves obtained for prism/Au/BiFeO 3 /air structure were utilized to investigate the optical properties of BiFeO 3 thin films at optical frequency (λ=633 nm) as a function of applied magnetic field. SPR curves shows a continuous shift towards lower angles with increasing applied magnetic field, which indicate the promising application of ferromagnetic BiFeO 3 film as a magnetic field sensor. Complex dielectric constant of deposited BiFeO 3 film was determined by fitting the experimental SPR data with Fresnel's equations. The variation of complex dielectric constant and refractive index of BiFeO 3 film was studied with increase in magnetic field, and the sensitivity of magnetic field sensor was found to be about 0.52 RIU/T

  7. Magneto-optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Indigeneously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) set up has been exploited to study the magnetic field dependent optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films. BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by using pulsed laser deposition technique. The surface plasmon modes in prism/Au/BiFeO{sub 3}/air structure have been excited in Kretschmann configuration at the interface of Au/BiFeO{sub 3} thin films. The SPR reflectance curves obtained for prism/Au/BiFeO{sub 3}/air structure were utilized to investigate the optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ=633 nm) as a function of applied magnetic field. SPR curves shows a continuous shift towards lower angles with increasing applied magnetic field, which indicate the promising application of ferromagnetic BiFeO{sub 3} film as a magnetic field sensor. Complex dielectric constant of deposited BiFeO{sub 3} film was determined by fitting the experimental SPR data with Fresnel's equations. The variation of complex dielectric constant and refractive index of BiFeO{sub 3} film was studied with increase in magnetic field, and the sensitivity of magnetic field sensor was found to be about 0.52 RIU/T.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel nanowires grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide template by electrochemical deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha Pratama, Sendi; Kurniawan, Yudhi; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Takase, Kouichi; Darma, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    We study the formation of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template by the electrochemical deposition technique. Here, the initial AAO template was grown by anodization of aluminium substrate in sulphuric acid solution. The cross-section, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Ni NWs system were characterized by field-emission SEM, XRD, and SQUID. As a result, the highly-ordered Ni NWs are observed with the uniform diameter of 27 nm and the length from 31 to 163 nm. Based on XRD spectra analysis, Ni NWs have the face-centered cubic structure with the lattice parameter of 0.35 nm and average crystallite size of 17.19 nm. From SQUID measurement at room temperature, by maintaining the magnetic field perpendicular to Ni NWs axis, the magnetic hysteresis of Ni NWs system show the strong ferromagnetism with the coercivity and remanence ratio of ∼148 Oe and ∼0.23, respectively. The magnetic properties are also calculated by means of generalized gradient approximation methods. From the calculation result, we show that the ferromagnetism behavior comes from Ni NWs without any contribution from AAO template or the substrate. This study opens the potential application of Ni NWs system for novel functional magnetic devices.

  9. Evaluation of strength property variations across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints using automated ball indentation (ABI) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraju, S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, BARCF, Kalpakkam (India); GaneshKumar, J.; Vasantharaja, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Vasudevan, M., E-mail: dev@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-05-17

    The variations of strength properties across 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints fabricated by different arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activated tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) have been evaluated employing automatic ball indentation (ABI) technique. ABI tests were conducted at 298 K across various zones of the weld joints comprising of base metal, weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ) regions. The flow curves obtained from ABI tests were correlated with corresponding conventional tensile test results. In general, the tensile strength decreased systematically across the weld joint from weld metal to base metal. Inter critical HAZ exhibited the least strength implying that it is the weakest zone. The incomplete phase transformation in the ICHAZ during weld thermal cycle caused the softening. The A-TIG weld metal exhibited higher UTS and strain hardening values due to higher carbon in the martensite. The strain hardening exponent exhibited only slight variation across the various regions of the weld joints. A-TIG weld joint exhibited higher weld metal and HAZ strength, marginally higher UTS to YS ratio in the weld metal and HAZ compared to that of the other two processes. Hence, among the three welding processes chosen, A-TIG welding process is found to be superior in producing a 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint with better strength properties.

  10. Physical, Mechanical, and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf/Polymer Composites Produced Using a Vacuum Infusion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to renewable issues, environmental concerns, and the financial problems of synthetic fibres, the development of high-performance engineering products made from natural resources is increasing all over the world. Lately, kenaf fibre has been used among many different types of natural resources in various shapes. Unidirectional long fibres or randomly oriented short fibre shapes are the most common type of kenaf fibres that have been investigated in previous works. This work characterises and evaluates the physical, mechanical, and morphological properties of plain woven kenaf fabric and its composites with three types of thermoset resin at 0°/90° and 45°/−45° orientation, in order to assess their suitability as lignocellulosic reinforced polymer composites. A vacuum infusion manufacturing technique was used to prepare the specimens with fibre weight content of 35% ± 2%. Eight specimens were prepared for each test, and five replications were adopted. A total of 78 samples were tested in this study. The results show that the composites with 0°/90° had the highest tensile, flexural strengths, and modulus. The morphological properties of composite samples were analysed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and these clearly demonstrated the better interfacial adhesion between the woven kenaf and the epoxy matrix.

  11. Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Esteban, E-mail: esbro@ifm.liu.se [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Flores-Ruiz, Francisco J. [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden and Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Di Giulio, Massimo [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, Francisco; Lorusso, Antonella; Perrone, Alessio [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce, Italy and INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, the authors compare the morphological, structural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques onto Si (111) substrates. Films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface probe microscopy, and x-ray diffraction in θ-2θ geometry to determine their morphology, root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, and microstructure, respectively. TE films showed a percolated morphology with densely packed fibrous grains while PLD films had a granular morphology with a columnar and tightly packed structure in accordance with the zone growth model of Thornton. Moreover, PLD films presented a more polycrystalline structure with respect to TE films, with RMS roughness of 14 and 10 nm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus vary from 2.1 to 0.8 GPa and from 14 to 10 GPa for PLD and TE films, respectively. A reciprocal friction test has shown that PLD films have lower friction coefficient and wear rate than TE films. Our study has demonstrated for first time that, at the microscale, Pb films do not show the same simple lubricious properties measured at the macroscale.

  12. Effect of consolidation techniques on the properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with nano Ni-coated SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolkassem, Shimaa A.; Elkady, Omayma A.; Elsayed, Ayman H.; Hussein, Walaa A.; Yehya, Hosam M.

    2018-06-01

    Al /Ni-SiC composite was prepared via powder metallurgy technique. SiC particles were coated with 10 wt% nano nickel by electroless deposition, then mixed by three percents (5, 10 and 15 wt%) with Al powder in a ball mill using 10:1 ball to powder ratio for 5 h. Three types of sintering techniques were used to prepare the composite. Uniaxial cold compacted samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace at 600 °C for 1 h. The second group was the vacuum sintered samples which were post-processed by hot isostatic press (HIP) at 600 °C for 1hr under the pressure of 190 MPa. The third group was the hot pressed samples that were consolidated at 550 °C under the uniaxial pressure of 840 MPa. The results showed that the hot pressed samples have the highest densification values (97-100%), followed by the HIP samples (94-98%), then come the vacuum sintered ones (92-96%). X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) indicated the presence of Al and Al3Ni, which means that all SiC particles were encapsulated with nickel as short peaks for SiC were observed. Hardness results revealed that HIP samples have the highest hardness values. The magnetization properties were improved by increasing SiC/Ni percent, and HIP samples showed the highest magnetization parameter values.

  13. Electrical properties of Au/CdZnTe/Au detectors grown by the boron oxide encapsulated Vertical Bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturici, A.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Gerardi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Benassi, G. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, 42019 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bettelli, M.; Calestani, D. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Zambelli, N. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, 42019 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Zappettini, A. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Principato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2016-09-11

    In this work we report on the results of electrical characterization of new CdZnTe detectors grown by the Boron oxide encapsulated Vertical Bridgman technique (B-VB), currently produced at IMEM-CNR (Parma, Italy). The detectors, with gold electroless contacts, have different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm) and the same electrode layout, characterized by a central anode surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. Investigations on the charge transport mechanisms and the electrical contact properties, through the modeling of the measured current–voltage (I–V) curves, were performed. Generally, the detectors are characterized by low leakage currents at high bias voltages even at room temperature: 34 nA/cm{sup 2} (T=25 °C) at 10,000 V/cm, making them very attractive for high flux X-ray measurements, where high bias voltage operation is required. The Au/CdZnTe barrier heights of the devices were estimated by using the interfacial layer-thermionic-diffusion (ITD) model in the reverse bias voltage range. Comparisons with CdZnTe detectors, grown by Traveling Heater Method (THM) and characterized by the same electrode layout, deposition technique and resistivity, were also performed.

  14. Mechanical properties of MeV ion-irradiated SiC/SiC composites characterized by indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Park, K.H.; Kim, W.; Kishimoto, H.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites have been considered as a structural material for advanced fusion concepts. In the core of fusion reactor, those SiC/SiC composites are experienced the complex attacks such as strong neutron, high temperature and transmuted gases. One of the vital data for designing the SiC/SiC composites to the fusion reactor is mechanical properties under the severe neutron irradiation. In this work, various SiC/SiC composites were prepared by the different fabrication processes like CVI (chemical vapor infiltration), WA-CVI (SiC whisker assisted CVI) and hot-pressed method. The expected neutron irradiation was simulated by a silicon self-ion irradiation at a DuET facility; Dual-beam for Energy Technologies, Kyoto University. The irradiation temperature were 600 deg. C and 1200 deg. C, and the irradiation does were 5 dpa and 20 dpa, respectively. The 5.1 MeV Si ions were irradiated to the intrinsic CVI-SiC, SiC whisker reinforced SiC and SiC composites produced by hot-press method. The mechanical properties like hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were characterized by an indentation technique. The ion irradiation caused the increase of the hardness and fracture toughness, which was dependent on the irradiation temperature. SiC whisker reinforcement in the SiC matrix accelerated the increase of the fracture toughness by the ion irradiation. For SiC/SiC composites after the ion irradiation, this work will provide the additional data for the mechanical properties as well as the effect of SiC whisker reinforcement. (authors)

  15. Ethosomal nanocarriers: the impact of constituents and formulation techniques on ethosomal properties, in vivo studies, and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaqi IM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim M Abdulbaqi, Yusrida Darwis, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Reem Abou Assi, Arshad A Khan School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/ transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems. Keywords: ethosomes, transdermal, lipid-based vesicles, delivery systems

  16. Accidental perforation of the lateral femoral cortex in ACL reconstruction: an investigation of mechanical properties of different fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Mirco; Heletta, Sebastian; Raschke, Michael J; Schliemann, Benedikt; Osada, Nani; Petersen, Wolf; Zantop, Thore

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the medial portal technique with cortical fixation and hybrid fixation after penetration of the lateral cortex by use of different drill sizes. In this biomechanical study a porcine in vitro model was used. The testing protocol consisted of a cyclic loading protocol (1,000 cycles, 50 and 250 N) and subsequent ultimate failure testing. Number of cyclic loadings survived, stiffness, yield load, maximum load, and graft elongation, as well as failure mode, were analyzed after ACL reconstruction with 5- to 9-mm soft-tissue grafts. In the control group, conventional penetration of the lateral cortex with a 4.5-mm drill and cortical fixation were performed. In the tested groups, the lateral cortex was penetrated with a drill matching the graft size. In the first part of the study, we used cortical fixation. In the second part, we used hybrid fixation with an interference screw. In the first part of the study, ACL reconstruction with 5- to 6-mm perforation of the lateral cortex showed no significant differences in ultimate failure load after cyclic loading compared with the control group (P > .05). Specimens with reconstruction with 7- to 9-mm perforation of the lateral cortex and cortical fixation did not survive the cyclic loading protocol. In the second part of the study, with a hybrid fixation technique, ultimate failure testing after cyclic loading of specimens with 7- to 9-mm penetration showed no significant differences in tested parameters compared with the control group (P > .05). After penetration of the lateral cortex with a drill size of more than 6 mm, cortical ACL fixation results in poor mechanical properties. Hybrid fixation increases the mechanical properties significantly after penetration with a 7- to 9-mm drill. We advise caution to avoid penetration of the lateral femoral cortex when using cortical flip-button fixation. In case of

  17. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  18. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  19. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  20. Preparation and Property Evaluation of Conductive Hydrogel Using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol/Polyethylene Glycol/Graphene Oxide for Human Electrocardiogram Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conductive hydrogel combined with Ag/AgCl electrode is widely used in the acquisition of bio-signals. However, the high adhesiveness of current commercial hydrogel causes human skin allergies and pruritus easily after wearing hydrogel for electrodes for a long time. In this paper, a novel conductive hydrogel with good mechanical and conductive performance was prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles. A cyclic freezing–thawing method was employed under processing conditions of −40 °C (8 h and 20 °C (4 h separately for three cycles in sequence until a strong conductive hydrogel, namely, PVA/PEG/GO gel, was obtained. Characterization (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the assembled hydrogel was successfully prepared with a three-dimensional network structure and, thereafter, the high strength and elasticity due to the complete polymeric net formed by dense hydrogen bonds in the freezing process. The as-made PVA/PEG/GO hydrogel was then composited with nonwoven fabric for electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. The ECG acquisition data indicated that the prepared hydrogel has good electro-conductivity and can obtain stable ECG signals for humans in a static state and in motion (with a small amount of drift. A comparison of results indicated that the prepared PVA/PEG/GO gel obtained the same quality of ECG signals with commercial conductive gel with fewer cases of allergies and pruritus in volunteer after six hours of wear.

  1. Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Frasch, Manfred; Leptin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are booming a strategy of choice for organizations attempting to maintain a competitive advantage. Previous research on mergers and acquisitions declares that acquirers do not normally benefit from acquisitions. Targets, on the other hand, have a tendency of gaining positive returns in the few days surrounding merger announcements due to several characteristic on the acquisitions deal. The announcement period wealth effect on acquiring firms, however, is as cle...

  2. Comparison of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of CoCrMo alloy obtained via selective laser melting (SLM) and casting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergulhao, Marcello Vertamatti; Podesta, Carlos Eduardo; Neves, Mauricio David Martins das, E-mail: marcellovertamatti@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Advances in processes using the powder metallurgy techniques are making this technology competitive compared to the other traditional manufacturing processes, especially in medicine area. The additive manufacturing technique - selective laser melting (SLM) was applied in a biomaterial of CoCrMo alloy (ASTM F75), to study the mechanical properties and microstructural characterization in comparison between the conventional technique - lost wax casting. The gas atomized powder was investigated by their physical (as apparent density, bulk density and flow rate) and the chemical properties (SEM-EDS and X-ray fluorescence). Specimens of standard samples were manufactured using these techniques to evaluate the mechanical properties as yield strength, maximum tensile, rupture tensile, elongation, elastic modulus, transverse rupture strength and the Vickers hardness. Before the mechanical tests the microstructure of specimens were examined using optical microscope (OM) and SEM-EDS. The results of mechanical properties showed a higher values in the SLM specimens compared with the obtained in the cast specimens. The micrographs revealed a typical morphology of consolidation process, like as the characterized by selected layer used in the SLM technique and the primary and secondary dendrites arms in the casting technique. (author)

  3. Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Su, Jing; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Gaige; Pei, Shixin; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Junfeng; Lai, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnMgO thin film and ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film have been prepared by sol–gel method. ► The intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO thin film is enhanced two times compared with that of pure ZnO thin film. ► Compared with ZnMgO thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film shows better crystallization and optical properties. ► ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel method have potential applications in many optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO thin film, Mg-doped ZnO (ZnMgO) thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO and ZnMgO/ZnO composite thin films were prepared by sol–gel technique. The structural and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The results showed that the incorporation of Mg increased the strain, broadened the optical bandgap, and improved the intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin film. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ultraviolet emission peak was also increased due to Mg-doping at the same time. Compared with pure ZnO and ZnMgO thin films, the ZnO/ZnMgO thin film showed better crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission performance, smaller strains and higher transmittance in the visible range.

  4. In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like PXRD, PSA, FT-IR, UV–Vis spectroscopy, TGA/DTG, and DSC. Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1=6.552 µm, d(0.5=38.299 µm, d(0.9=173.712 µm and D(4,3=67.122 µm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 °C from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 °C. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 °C along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  5. Measurement of Creep Properties of Ultra-High-Temperature Materials by a Novel Non-Contact Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Lee, Jonghyun; Rogers, Jan R.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    A non-contact technique for measuring the creep properties of materials has been developed and validated as part of a collaboration among the University of Massachusetts, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Electrostatic Levitation Facility (ESL), and the University of Tennessee. This novel method has several advantages over conventional creep testing. The sample is deformed by the centripetal acceleration from the rapid rotation, and the deformed shapes are analyzed to determine the strain. Since there is no contact with grips, there is no theoretical maximum temperature and no concern about chemical compatibility. Materials may be tested at the service temperature even for extreme environments such as rocket nozzles, or above the service temperature for accelerated testing of materials for applications such as jet engines or turbopumps for liquid-fueled engines. The creep measurements have been demonstrated to 2400 C with niobium, while the test facility, the NASA MSFC ESL, has processed materials up to 3400 C. Furthermore, the ESL creep method employs a distribution of stress to determine the stress exponent from a single test, versus the many tests required by conventional methods. Determination of the stress exponent from the ESL creep tests requires very precise measurement of the surface shape of the deformed sample for comparison to deformations predicted by finite element models for different stress exponents. An error analysis shows that the stress exponent can be determined to about 1% accuracy with the current methods and apparatus. The creep properties of single-crystal niobium at 1985 C showed excellent agreement with conventional tests performed according to ASTM Standard E-139. Tests on other metals, ceramics, and composites relevant to rocket propulsion and turbine engines are underway.

  6. #%In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II) gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    #

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis ( PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1)=6.552 μm, d(0.5)=38.299 μm, d(0.9)=173.712 μm and D(4,3)=67.122 μm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 ℃ from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 ℃. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 ℃ along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  7. Assessment of plastic flow and fracture properties with small specimens test techniques for IFMIF-designed specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)

  8. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazideh, M.R., E-mail: Mohammadrezasazideh@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, R. Zarei, E-mail: r.zarei1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • SnS thin films produced by thermal evaporation method using glancing angle deposition technique. • At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range. • FESEM images showed drastic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle deposition. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  9. Dual isotope, single acquisition parathyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafillou, M.; McDonald, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine parathyroid imaging using Thallium-201(TI) and Technetium-99m(Tc) is an often used imaging modality for the detection of parathyroid adenomas and hyper parathyroidism. The conventional Tl/Tc subtraction technique requires 2 separate injections and acquisitions which are then normalised and subtracted from each other. This lengthy technique is uncomfortable for patients and can result in false positive scan results due to patient movement between and during the acquisition process. We propose a simplified injection and single acquisition technique, that reduces the chance of movement and thus reduces the chance of false positive scan results. The technique involves the injection of Tc followed by the Tl injection 10 minutes later. After a further 10 min wait, imaging is performed using a dual isotope acquisition, with window (W) 1 set on 140 keV 20%W 5% off peak and W2 peaked for 70 keV 20%W., acquired for 10 minutes. We have imaged 27 patients with this technique, 15 had positive parathyroid imaging. Of the 15, 11 had positive ultrasound correlation. Of the remaining 4, 2 have had positive surgical findings for adenomas, the other 2 are awaiting follow-up. Of the 12 patients with negative parathyroid imaging, 2 have been shown to be false - negative with surgery. In conclusion, the single acquisition technique suggested by us is a valid method of imaging parathyroids that reduces the chance of false positive results due to movement

  10. Technological Similarity, Post-acquisition R&D Reorganization, and Innovation Performance in Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to disentangle the mechanisms through which technological similarity between acquiring and acquired firms influences innovation in horizontal acquisitions. We develop a theoretical model that links technological similarity to: (i) two key aspects of post-acquisition reorganization...... of acquired R&D operations – the rationalization of the R&D operations and the replacement of the R&D top manager, and (ii) two intermediate effects that are closely associated with the post-acquisition innovation performance of the combined firm – improvements in R&D productivity and disruptions in R......&D personnel. We rely on PLS techniques to test our theoretical model using detailed information on 31 horizontal acquisitions in high- and medium-tech industries. Our results indicate that in horizontal acquisitions, technological similarity negatively affects post-acquisition innovation performance...

  11. Effect of sol concentration on the properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, M.; Mridha, S.; Basak, D.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO thin films are deposited on the glass substrates by sol-gel drain coating technique by varying the concentration of the sol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the effect of sol concentration on the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. The results show that with increase in sol concentration, the value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (0 0 2) peak decreases while the strain first increases and then decreases. The sol with higher concentration results in the increase in the grain size. The studies on the optical properties show that the band gap value increases from 3.27 to 3.3 eV when the sol concentration changes from 0.03 to 0.1 M. The photoconductivity studies reveal that the film for 0.05 M sol shows the maximum photoresponse for ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (<400 nm) which is co-related with the deep-level defects. The growth and decay of the photocurrent is found to be slowest for the same film

  12. Characterization and photocatalytic properties of cotton fibers modified with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were prepared using the sol–gel method. Cotton fibers were loaded with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique. The prepared ZnO NPs and ZnO-coated cotton were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The self-cleaning property of ZnO-coated cotton and the photocatalytic removal of methyl orange dye from the contaminated water and cotton fibers were studied by measuring the optical absorbance after exposure to sunlight and Philips 200W lamp illumination. The results showed that the cotton loaded with ZnO nanoparticles could efficiently decompose 73% of methyl orange dye in the sunlight and 30.7% in the lamp illumination after 12 hours. ZnO nanoparticles decomposed methyl orange dye by 92.7% in the sunlight and 26.4% in the lamp illumination after 7 hours.

  13. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A.; Pérez-Arrieta, M.L.; Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z.; Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Falcony, C.

    2012-01-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10 −3 –10 −2 Ω·cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 °C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 Å·min −1 at a substrate temperature of 450 °C. - Highlights: ► Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). ► USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. ► USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. ► We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. ► Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  14. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E., E-mail: ezaleta@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Perez-Arrieta, M.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Fisica, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Mexico (Mexico); Balderas-Xicohtencatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-12-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 A{center_dot}min{sup -1} at a substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  15. Effect of indium doping level on certain physical properties of CdS films deposited using an improved SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.com [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur-613 503, Tamil Nadu (India); Senthamilselvi, V. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur-613 503, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Kunthavai Naachiyaar Government College for Women (Autonomous), Thanjavur-613 007, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-04-01

    The influence of indium (In) doping levels (0, 2, …, 8 at.%) on certain physical properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited using an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (ISILAR) method has been studied. In this improved SILAR technique, a fresh anionic solution was introduced after a particular number of dipping cycles in order to achieve good stoichiometry. All the deposited films exhibited cubic phase with (1 1 1) plane as preferential orientation. The calculated crystallite size values are found to be decreased from 54.80 nm to 23.65 nm with the increase in In doping level. The optical study confirmed the good transparency (80%) of the film. A most compact and pinhole free smooth surface was observed for the CdS films with 8 at.% of In doping level. The perceived photoluminescence (PL) bands endorsed the lesser defect crystalline nature of the obtained CdS:In films. The chemical composition analysis (EDAX) showed the near stoichiometric nature of this ISILAR deposited CdS:In films.

  16. Effect of indium doping level on certain physical properties of CdS films deposited using an improved SILAR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Senthamilselvi, V.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of indium (In) doping levels (0, 2, …, 8 at.%) on certain physical properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited using an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (ISILAR) method has been studied. In this improved SILAR technique, a fresh anionic solution was introduced after a particular number of dipping cycles in order to achieve good stoichiometry. All the deposited films exhibited cubic phase with (1 1 1) plane as preferential orientation. The calculated crystallite size values are found to be decreased from 54.80 nm to 23.65 nm with the increase in In doping level. The optical study confirmed the good transparency (80%) of the film. A most compact and pinhole free smooth surface was observed for the CdS films with 8 at.% of In doping level. The perceived photoluminescence (PL) bands endorsed the lesser defect crystalline nature of the obtained CdS:In films. The chemical composition analysis (EDAX) showed the near stoichiometric nature of this ISILAR deposited CdS:In films.

  17. Thermomechanical and Photophysical Properties of Crystal-Violet-Dye/H2O Based Dissolutions via the Pulsed Laser Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Torres-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different thermoelastic parameters, for example, the acoustic attenuation and the speed of sound, are fundamental for instrumental calibration and quantitative characterization of organic-based dissolutions. In this work, these parameters as functions of the concentration of an organic dye (crystal-violet: CV in distillated water (H2O based dissolutions are investigated. The speed of sound was measured by the pulsed-laser photoacoustic technique (PLPA, which consists in the generation of acoustic-waves by the optical absorption of pulsed light in a given material (in this case a liquid sample. The thermally generated sound-waves traveling through a fluid are detected with two piezoelectric sensors separated by a known distance. An appropriate processing of the photoacoustic signals allows an adequate data analysis of the generated waves within the system, providing an accurate determination of the speed of sound as function of the dye-concentration. The acoustic attenuation was calculated based on the distance of the two PZT-microphones to an acoustic-source point and performing linear-fitting of the experimental data (RMS-amplitudes as function of the dye-concentration. An important advantage of the PLPA-method is that it can be implemented with poor or null optical transmitting materials permitting the characterization of the mechanical and concentration/aggregate properties of dissolved organic compounds.

  18. Effect of casting solvents on the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermouni, B.; Ache, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was used to study the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers obtained by casting them in four different solvents: toluene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, and methyl ethyl ketone. The positron annihilation rates plotted as a function of temperature show in all films irregularities at -70 and +85 0 C which were attributed to the onset of motions in the polybutadiene and polystyrene domaines, respectively. In addition to that, two irregularities were observed at -14 and +10 0 C if a poor solvent, such as ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone, was used, while films cast in a good solvent such as toluene or carbon tetrachloride show only one additional irregularity on the lambda 2 -T curves at -14 0 C. The latter results were explained in terms of the interfacial model by assuming that these irregularities correspond to the glass transition of interlayer phases between the pure polystyrene and the pure polybutadiene phases. The one which shows the irregularity at -14 0 C could be the phase in which polybutadiene is the major component, while the transition at +10 0 C can be attributed to a phase in which polystyrene is the dominating factor

  19. Physical properties and characterization of RuSr2GdCu2O8 (Ru-1212) grown by top seeded melt textured technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthayakumar, S.; Santhosh, P.; Gombos, M.; Babu, M. Ramesh; Jayavel, R.; Vecchione, A.; Pace, S.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have been made in optimizing growth conditions for bulk textured growth of RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 (Ru-1212) employing top seeded growth technique (TSG). Thermal stability and peritectic temperature (T p ) have been determined by TG-DTA analysis. The study facilitates appropriate thermal treatments to yield good quality sample. The structural study of the as grown sample has been carried out by X-ray diffraction technique. Morphological study by polarized optical microscope (PLOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveals the growth mechanism. Subsequently, the stoichiometry has been confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The observed characterization results show the influence of superconducting property on growth technique and allow one to correlate between the physical properties and experimental technique.

  20. Dynamic Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Free-Breathing: Feasibility of a Cartesian T1-Weighted Acquisition Technique With Compressed Sensing and Additional Self-Navigation Signal for Hard-Gated and Motion-Resolved Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Bucher, Andreas M; Wichmann, Julian L; Nickel, Dominik; Polkowski, Christoph; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a free-breathing dynamic liver imaging technique using a prototype Cartesian T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence with compressed sensing and simultaneous acquisition of a navigation signal for hard-gated and motion state-resolved reconstruction. A total of 43 consecutive oncologic patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years; 44% female) underwent free-breathing dynamic liver imaging for the evaluation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer using a prototype Cartesian VIBE sequence (field of view, 380 × 345 mm; image matrix, 320 × 218; echo time/repetition time, 1.8/3.76 milliseconds; flip angle, 10 degrees; slice thickness, 3.0 mm; acquisition time, 188 seconds) with continuous data sampling and additionally acquired self-navigation signal. Data were iteratively reconstructed using 2 different approaches: first, a hard-gated reconstruction only using data associated to the dominating motion state (CS VIBE, Compressed Sensing VIBE), and second, a motion-resolved reconstruction with 6 different motion states as additional image dimension (XD VIBE, eXtended dimension VIBE). Continuous acquired data were grouped in 16 subsequent time increments with 11.57 seconds each to resolve arterial and venous contrast phases. For image quality assessment, both CS VIBE and XD VIBE were compared with the patient's last staging dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging including a breathhold (BH) VIBE as reference standard 4.5 ± 1.2 months before. Representative quality parameters including respiratory artifacts were evaluated for arterial and venous phase images independently, retrospectively and blindly by 3 experienced radiologists, with higher scores indicating better examination quality. To assess diagnostic accuracy, same readers evaluated the presence of metastatic lesions for XD VIBE and CS VIBE compared with reference BH examination in a second session. Compared with CS VIBE, XD VIBE

  1. Introduction : language acquisition and sociolinguistic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Foulkes, Paul

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The special issue appears in a new scientific landscape of innovative attempts to link sociolinguistics and cognitive psycholinguistics. Studies on acquisition of variation have been conducted since the late 1960s, but the changing scientific landscape gives them a new impetus. On the one hand, our work draws on and contributes to sociolinguistics. As a result, it focuses on the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns conceived of as properties shared by communities of...

  2. Analysis of the SIAM Infrared Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G.

    1974-02-01

    This report describes and presents the results of an analysis of the performance of the infrared acquisition system for a Self-Initiated Antiaircraft Missile (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmission, and background radiance are given. Acquisition probabilities are expressed in terms of the system signal-to-noise ratio. System performance against aircraft and helicopter targets is analyzed, and background discrimination techniques are discussed. 17 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Influence of precursor concentration on physical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using nebulizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, M.; Amalraj, L.; Anitha, N. [Virudhunagar Hindu Nadar' s Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous), Department of Physics, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-12-15

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were prepared with different concentrations of precursor solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 M, respectively) at the optimized temperature (200 C) using the nebulized spray pyrolysis technique to obtain better crystallinity in polycrystalline thin films on amorphous glass substrates. The XRD characterization of those samples revealed a preferential orientation along the (111) plane having a cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed that all the as-deposited thin films have spherical shaped grains. The transmittance of the as-deposited CdO thin films had decreased from 88 to 71% for longer wavelength regions (600-900 nm) as the precursor concentration had increased and then increased for higher precursor concentration. The optical band gap was found to lie between 2.45 and 2.40 eV belonging to direct transition for those thin films. The presence of Cd-O bond (540 cm{sup -1}) was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The emission properties of CdO thin films were studied by luminescence spectrum recorded at room temperature. A maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity values of 4.743 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and 1.06 x 10{sup -3} Ω-cm, respectively, were obtained for 0.2 M precursor concentration. These CdO thin films have high optical transmittance and high room temperature conductivity, which can be used as the TCO and Solar cell (window layer) material. (orig.)

  4. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites synthesized by double sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.A. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Uddin, M.M., E-mail: mohi@cuet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Khan, M.N.I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, F.U.-Z. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Haque, S.M. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2017-02-15

    The Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites, (0.0≤x≤0.30), have been synthesized by the standard double sintering technique from the oxide nanopowders of Ni, Zn, Fe and Sn. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DC resistivity and dielectric measurements. From XRD data, the single cubic spinel phase has been confirmed for x≤0.1, whereas for x>0.1 an extra intermediate phase has been detected along with the cubic spinel phase of Ni-Zn ferrite. The grain size is increased due to Sn substitution in Ni-Zn ferrites. DC resistivity as a function of temperature has been measured by two probe method. The semiconducting nature has been found operative in the samples. The DC resistivity was found to decrease whilst the dielectric constant increased with increasing Sn content in Ni-Zn ferrites. The unusual behavior of the dielectric loss factor of the ferrites was explained by the Rezlescu model. The electrical relaxation of the ferrites has been studied in terms of electric modulus formalism and the time for dielectric relaxation was calculated. The contribution of grain resistance has been studied from the Cole-Cole plot. The suitability to use the as prepared samples in the miniaturized memory devices based capacitive components or energy storage principles are confirmed from the values of dielectric constant. - Highlights: • Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites with cubic spinel structure have been synthesized. • a{sub th} is calculated and well compared with a{sub expt}. • Dielectric unusual behavior has been successfully explained by the Rezlescu model. • Long τ (ns) is determined, can be utilized for memory and spintronics devices.

  5. Manipulation of local optical properties and structures in molybdenum-disulfide monolayers using electric field-assisted near-field techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Junji; Fukumura, Musashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Maniwa, Yutaka; Yomogida, Yohei; Yanagi, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-05

    Remarkable optical properties, such as quantum light emission and large optical nonlinearity, have been observed in peculiar local sites of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, and the ability to tune such properties is of great importance for their optoelectronic applications. For that purpose, it is crucial to elucidate and tune their local optical properties simultaneously. Here, we develop an electric field-assisted near-field technique. Using this technique we can clarify and tune the local optical properties simultaneously with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 nm due to the electric field from the cantilever. The photoluminescence at local sites in molybdenum-disulfide (MoS 2 ) monolayers is reversibly modulated, and the inhomogeneity of the charge neutral points and quantum yields is suggested. We successfully etch MoS 2 crystals and fabricate nanoribbons using near-field techniques in combination with an electric field. This study creates a way to tune the local optical properties and to freely design the structural shapes of atomic monolayers using near-field optics.

  6. Using Apparent Density of Paper from Hardwood Kraft Pulps to Predict Sheet Properties, based on Unsupervised Classification and Multivariable Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofélia Anjos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paper properties determine the product application potential and depend on the raw material, pulping conditions, and pulp refining. The aim of this study was to construct mathematical models that predict quantitative relations between the paper density and various mechanical and optical properties of the paper. A dataset of properties of paper handsheets produced with pulps of Acacia dealbata, Acacia melanoxylon, and Eucalyptus globulus beaten at 500, 2500, and 4500 revolutions was used. Unsupervised classification techniques were combined to assess the need to perform separated prediction models for each species, and multivariable regression techniques were used to establish such prediction models. It was possible to develop models with a high goodness of fit using paper density as the independent variable (or predictor for all variables except tear index and zero-span tensile strength, both dry and wet.

  7. A comparison of conventional mechanical testing techniques with innovative testing techniques for the evaluation of mechanical properties of NPP structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, P.A.; Kopriva, R.

    2015-01-01

    The innovative testing methods of Small Punch (SP) and Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) tests are based on the determination of material properties from sub-sized samples. These methods are promising to evaluate the components of nuclear power plants since they preserve the structural integrity of the component. The SP test is a semi-destructive method that employs miniaturised plate-shaped samples of various geometries. The method is based on the penetration of a sample with a semi-spherical punch. The sample deflection is measured throughout the test. The ABI test is a fully automatic test based on multiple indentations at a single penetration location on a polished sample surface with a spherical indenter of various diameters. The purpose of the test is to determine the tensile properties of materials in a non-destructive and localised fashion. A comparison has been made between SP, ABI and conventional tensile tests on the measurement of yield strength for the A533B (JRQ) ferritic steel which is a base metal of the pressure vessels of western PWR. The results show an excellent correlation for both innovative methods and the conventional tensile tests

  8. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  9. Making Acquisition Measurable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    Corporation. All rights reserved End Users Administrator/ Maintainer (A/M) Subject Matter Expert ( SME ) Trainer/ Instructor Manager, Evaluator, Supervisor... CMMI ) - Acquisition (AQ) © 2011 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved 13 CMMI -Development Incremental iterative development (planning & execution...objectives Constructing games highlighting particular aspects of proposed CCOD® acquisition, and conducting exercises with Subject Matter Experts ( SMEs

  10. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  11. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, C.D.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed for a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  12. Data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, D.C.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed around a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming, the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  13. Transparent conducting properties of Ni doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaoud, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Louardi, A.; Chtouki, T. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquees de Kenitra (ENSAK) (Morocco)

    2013-01-15

    Undoped and Ni doped zinc oxide (Ni-ZnO) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of anhydrous zinc acetate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COOH){sub 2} and hexahydrated nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O) as sources of zinc and nickel, respectively. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at (450 Degree-Sign C). The effect of the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Ni doped ZnO thin film was studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that both the undoped and Ni doped ZnO films were crystallized in the hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along the [002] direction perpendicular to the substrate. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a relatively dense surface structure composed of crystallites in the spherical form whose average size decreases when the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases. The optical study showed that all the films were highly transparent. The optical transmittance in the visible region varied between 75 and 85%, depending on the dopant concentrations. The variation of the band gap versus the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio showed that the energy gap decreases from 2.95 to 2.72 eV as the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases from 0 to 0.02 and then increases to reach 3.22 eV for [Ni]/[Zn] = 0.04. The films obtained with the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio = 0.02 showed minimum resistivity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm at room temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical transmittance of Ni doped ZnO varies between 75 and 85%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy gap of these films decreases from 2.95 to 2.72 eV as the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases from 0 to 0.02. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy gap increases to reach 3.22 eV for [Ni]/[Zn] = 0.04. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films obtained with [Ni]/[Zn] ratio = 0.02 show minimum resistivity of 2

  14. Inductive acquisition of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which (1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the environment (classification systems). Both the explanation of computer-based reasoning and the bottleneck (Feigenbaum, 1979) of knowledge acquisition are major issues in expert-systems research. The author contributed to these areas of research in two ways: 1. He implemented an expert-system shell, the Mugol environment, which facilitates knowledge acquisition by inductive inference and provides automatic explanation of run-time reasoning on demand. RuleMaster, a commercial version of this environment, was used to advantage industrially in the construction and testing of two large classification systems. 2. He investigated a new techniques called 'sequence induction' that can be used in construction of control systems. Sequence induction is based on theoretical work in grammatical learning. He improved existing grammatical learning algorithms as well as suggesting and theoretically characterizing new ones. These algorithms were successfully applied to acquisition of knowledge for a diverse set of control systems, including inductive construction of robot plans and chess end-gam strategies.

  15. Future data acquisition at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulford, W.C.A.; Quinton, S.P.H.; Johnson, M.W.; Norris, J.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past year ISIS beam intensity has increased steadily to 100 microamps during periods of good running. With the instrument users finding it comparatively easy to set up data-collection runs, we are facing an ever increasing volume of incoming data. Greatly improved detector technology, mainly involving large areas of zinc sulfide phosphor, are expected to contribute much to the capacity of new diffractometers as well as provide an enhancement path for many of the existing ones. It is clear that we are fast reaching the point where if we continue to use our current technology data collection techniques, our computer systems will no longer be able to migrate the data to long-term storage, let alone enable their analysis at a speed compatible with continuous use of the ISIS instruments. The most effect method to improve this situation is to reduce the volume of data flowing between the data acquisition electronics and the front end minicomputers, and to provide facilities to monitor data acquisition within the data acquisition electronics. Processing power must be incorporated closer to the point of data collection. Ways of doing this are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  16. 41 CFR 109-26.501-53 - Acquisitions by transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquisitions by transfer. 109-26.501-53 Section 109-26.501-53 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND...

  17. Investigation of the effects of particle size on the mechanical properties of porous and tin infiltrated niobium rods fabricated by a thermoplastic-powder metallurgy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, A.

    1978-12-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of particle size on the properties of both porous and tin infiltrated niobium rods fabricated by a thermoplastic-powder metallurgy technique. The residual porosity, extrusion pressure, tensile strength, and ductility were found to be dependent on the particle size distribution. All of these parameters were found to increase with increasing particle size. The influence of sintering time at a temperature of 2250 0 C was also studied. With increasing sintering time, the residual porosity and tensile strength decreased, whereas the ductility increased. The procedures for fabricating infiltrated niobium rods and the various tests employed to determine their properties are described

  18. Solid-state structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene derivatives, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data in conjunction with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhigang; Xu Mingcan; Cheung, Eugene Y.; Platts, James A.; Harris, Kenneth D.M.; Constable, Edwin C.; Housecroft, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzyl alcohol and 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone have been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. Structural similarities and contrasts within this family of materials are elucidated. The work illustrates the value of utilizing information from other sources, including spectroscopic data and computational techniques, as a means of augmenting the structural knowledge established from the powder X-ray diffraction data

  19. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  20. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of SA 333 Gr.6, AISI 304 and Zr-2.5% Nb through Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, K.S.; Rath, B.N.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Ramadasan, E.; Kulkarni, R.V.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2009-08-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique has been employed in evaluating the tensile property data on three materials, namely SA333 Gr.6 carbon steel (used as PHT piping), AISI 304 (used as calandria vessel) and Zr-2.5% Nb (used as coolant tube) in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) with a view to exploring the applicability of ABI technique in providing reliable mechanical property data. The exercise was carried out in cooperation with a second laboratory where conventional tension tests alone were conducted such that the output of the study could be independently monitored and evaluated in an unbiased manner. The results generated in the authors' laboratory were found to be fully in agreement with what were obtained through conventional tension tests. Thus the study has been successful in establishing the reliability of the data obtained through miniature route especially in the case of coolant tube which has immense applications. (author)

  2. Influence of CeO2 on structural properties of glasses by using ultrasonic technique: comparison between the local sand and SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laopaiboon, Raewat; Bootjomchai, Cherdsak

    2013-04-01

    Comparison between the local sand and SiO2 with different compositions of CeO2 on the structural properties of glasses was carried out by using ultrasonic technique. The ultrasonic velocities were measured by the pulse echo technique with a frequency of 4 MHz and at room temperature. From these obtained velocities and densities, various elastic moduli, micro-hardness and Poisson's ratio were calculated. The interesting point of the bulk modulus (SiO2 glass system) decreases at x = 1.25 mol.% initially before it turns to increase between x = 3.75 and x = 5.00 mol.%. While the bulk modulus of the local sand glass system is near constant. FTIR spectra were used to study the structural properties of the prepared glass system. The results supported our discussion of the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) and bridging oxygens (BO). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on wetting properties of periodical nanopatterns by a combinative technique of photolithography and laser interference lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yung-Lang; Hsu, Chin-Chi; Chang, Tien-Li; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the wetting properties, including hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and anisotropic behavior, of water droplets on the silicon wafer surface with periodical nanopatterns and hierarchical structures. This study fabricates one

  4. Monitoring kinetic and frequency-domain properties of eyelid responses in mice with magnetic distance measurement technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.L. den Ouden; G. Perry; S.M. Highstein; C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractClassical eye-blink conditioning in mutant mice can be used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning. To measure the kinetic and frequency domain properties of conditioned (tone - periorbital shock procedure) and unconditioned eyelid responses

  5. 26 CFR 1.528-2 - Organized and operated to provide for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and care of association property. 1.528-2 Section 1.528-2... acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and care of association property. (a) Organized and... association are the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance, and care of association property. In...

  6. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  7. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  8. Mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone based on the automated ball indentation technique and graphics processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airong; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong

    2018-02-01

    Cortical bone provides the main form of support in humans and other vertebrates against various forces. Thus, capturing its mechanical properties is important. In this study, the mechanical properties of cortical bone were investigated by using automated ball indentation and graphics processing at both the macroscopic and microstructural levels under dry conditions. First, all polished samples were photographed under a metallographic microscope, and the area ratio of the circumferential lamellae and osteons was calculated through the graphics processing method. Second, fully-computer-controlled automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed to explore the micro-mechanical properties of the cortical bone at room temperature and a constant indenter speed. The indentation defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Finally, the macroscopic mechanical properties of the cortical bone were estimated with the graphics processing method and mixture rule. Combining ABI and graphics processing proved to be an effective tool to obtaining the mechanical properties of the cortical bone, and the indenter size had a significant effect on the measurement. The methods presented in this paper provide an innovative approach to acquiring the macroscopic mechanical properties of cortical bone in a nondestructive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of property taxation policies within Greece and Cyprus evaluating the use of GIS, CAMA, and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims to examine how CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing are integrated to assist property taxation. Real property tax apart from its fiscal dimension is directly linked to geographic location. The value of the land and other immovable features such as buildings and structures is determined from specific parameters. All these immovable assets are visible and have specific geographic location & coordinates, materials, occupied area, land-use & utility, ownership & occupancy status and finally a specific value (ad valorem property taxation system) according to which the property tax is levied to taxpayers. Of high importance in the tax imposing procedure is that the use of CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing tools is capable of providing effective and efficient collection of this property value determining data. Furthermore, these tools can track changes during a property's lifecycle such parcel subdivision into plots, demolition of a building and development of a new one or track a change in the planning zone. The integration of these systems also supports a full range of business processes on revenue mobilization ranging from billing to taxpayers objections management.

  10. Microstructure and associated properties of YBa2Cu3Ox superconductors prepared by melt-processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-processed bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO) superconductors are of considerable interest. We have studied the microstructure and levitation force of melt-processed YBCO, YBCO plus Y 2 BaCuO 5 , and YBCO plus Pt samples. Large single crystalline samples, grown using a seeding technique, were also studied. The levitation force is highest in melt-processed samples made by the seeding technique. 6 figs, 24 refs

  11. A Survey of Model-based Sensor Data Acquisition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Sathe, Saket; Papaioannou, Thanasis; Jeung, Hoyoung; Aberer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, due to the proliferation of sensor networks, there has been a genuine need of researching techniques for sensor data acquisition and management. To this end, a large number of techniques have emerged that advocate model-based sensor data acquisition and management. These techniques use mathematical models for performing various, day-to-day tasks involved in managing sensor data. In this chapter, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques for model-based sensor data acquisition...

  12. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. ..... particle verbs are recognized in language processing differs from the way morphologically ..... In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11.

  13. Effect of shoulder abduction angle on biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendons with 3 types of double-row technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Fukuhara, Tetsutaro; Jun, Bong Jae; Watanabe, Chisato; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2011-03-01

    After rotator cuff repair, the shoulder is immobilized in various abduction positions. However, there is no consensus on the proper abduction angle. To assess the effect of shoulder abduction angle on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendons among 3 types of double-row techniques. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-two fresh-frozen porcine shoulders were used. A simulated rotator cuff tear was repaired by 1 of 3 double-row techniques: conventional double-row repair, transosseous-equivalent repair, and a combination of conventional double-row and bridging sutures (compression double-row repair). Each specimen underwent cyclic testing followed by tensile testing to failure at a simulated shoulder abduction angle of 0° or 40° on a material testing machine. Gap formation and failure loads were measured. Gap formation in conventional double-row repair at 0° (1.2 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly greater than that at 40° (0.5 ± 0.3mm, P = .01). The yield and ultimate failure loads for conventional double-row repair at 40° were significantly larger than those at 0° (P row repair (P row repair was the greatest among the 3 double-row techniques at both 0° and 40° of abduction. Bridging sutures have a greater effect on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendon at a low abduction angle, and the conventional double-row technique has a greater effect at a high abduction angle. Proper abduction position after rotator cuff repair differs between conventional double-row repair and transosseous-equivalent repair. The authors recommend the use of the combined technique of conventional double-row and bridging sutures to obtain better biomechanical properties at both low and high abduction angles.

  14. Effect of different drying techniques on flowability characteristics and chemical properties of natural carbohydrate-protein Gum from durian fruit seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhosseini Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A natural carbohydrate biopolymer was extracted from the agricultural biomass waste (durian seed. Subsequently, the crude biopolymer was purified by using the saturated barium hydroxide to minimize the impurities. Finally, the effect of different drying techniques on the flow characteristics and functional properties of the purified biopolymer was investigated. The present study elucidated the main functional characteristics such as flow characteristics, water- and oil-holding capacity, solubility, and foaming capacity. Results In most cases except for oven drying, the bulk density decreased, thus increasing the porosity. This might be attributed to the increase in the inter-particle voids of smaller sized particles with larger contact surface areas per unit volume. The current study revealed that oven-dried gum and freeze-dried gum had the highest and lowest compressibility index, thus indicating the weakest and strongest flowability among all samples. In the present work, the freeze-dried gum showed the lowest angle of repose, bulk, tapped and true density. This indicates the highest porosity degree of freeze dried gum among dried seed gums. It also exhibited the highest solubility, and foaming capacity thus providing the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics among all drying techniques. Conclusion The present study revealed that freeze drying among all drying techniques provided the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics for durian seed gum.

  15. The importance of the property total cost on the formulation of the policy for acquisition of the government enterprises from the energy sector; A importancia do custo total de propriedade na formulacao da politica de aquisicao das empresas estatais do setor de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Andre Cristiano Silva; Ignacio, Anibal Alberto Vilcapoma; Fernandes, Elton; Sampaio, Lea Maria Dantas; Araujo, Renato Samuel Barbosa de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Cardoso, Flavio Correa; Moreira, Pedro de Souza; Silva, Sergio Vargas da [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Aquisicoes de Materiais

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the approach to total cost of the property (TCP) as an instrument for the formulation of policies for acquisitions of the Brazilian electric sector enterprises. Also the article discusses legal aspects which rules the acquisition processes such as the Law 8666/93, the Decree 2745/98 and the Law Sarbanes and Oxley which regulates the enterprises which stocks in the US stock exchanges. This article points out in the direction to alternatives and perspectives for the formulation of a new policy of acquisition not priorizing the less buying price, but also the life cycle of the product, viewing the reduction of the total costs of the enterprises assets, as the high investments are forecasted for the electric sector.

  16. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  17. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  18. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  19. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  20. Effect of buffer thickness on properties of In0.8Ga0.2As/InP with two-step growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tiemin; Miao Guoqing; Jin Yixin; Yu Shuzhen; Jiang Hong; Li Zhiming; Song Hang

    2009-01-01

    In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As was grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on InP(1 0 0) substrate with two-step growth technique. Effect of buffer thickness on crystalline quality, surface morphology, electrical property and stress of In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As epilayer was analyzed, and properties of the In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As epilayer were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hall measurements and Raman scattering. The experiments showed that the properties of the In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As epilayer had close relation to the buffer thickness and the optimum buffer thickness was about 100 nm

  1. Annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide film obtained by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarminio, Jair; Silva, Paulo Rogerio Catarini da, E-mail: scarmini@uel.br, E-mail: prcsilva@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Gelamo, Rogerio Valentim, E-mail: rogelamo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Mario Antonio Bica de, E-mail: bmoraes@mailhost.ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Vanadium oxide films amorphous, nonstoichiometric and highly absorbing in the optical region were deposited on ITO-coated glass and on silicon substrates, by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD) and oxidized by ex-situ annealing in a furnace at 200, 300, 400 and 500 deg C, under an atmosphere of argon and rarefied oxygen. X-ray diffraction, Raman and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy as well as optical transmission were employed to characterize the amorphous and annealed films. When annealed at 200 and 300 deg C the as-deposited opaque films become transparent but still amorphous. Under treatments at 400 and 500 deg C a crystalline nonstoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure is formed. All the annealed films became semiconducting, with their optical absorption coefficients changing with the annealing temperature. An optical gap of 2.25 eV was measured for the films annealed at 400 and 500 deg C. The annealing in rarefied oxygen atmosphere proved to be a useful and simple ex-situ method to modulate the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide films deposited by HFMOD technique. This technique could be applied to other amorphous and non-absorbing oxide films, replacing the conventional and sometimes expensive method of modulate desirable film properties by controlling the film deposition parameters. Even more, the HFMOD technique can be an inexpensive alternative to deposit metal oxide films. (author)

  2. 23 CFR 710.503 - Protective buying and hardship acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective buying and hardship acquisition. 710.503 Section 710.503 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.503 Protective buying and...

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on electrical properties of poly (methyl methacrylate): titanium dioxide nanocomposite films using spin coating deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, L N; Habibah, Z; Herman, S H; Rusop, M

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite poly (methyl methacrylate) :titanium dioxide (PMMA :TiO 2 ) film were deposited on glass substrate. The effect of annealing temperature, especially on electrical, dielectric and the morphological properties of the thin films were investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurement, impedance spectroscopy, and FESEM. The annealing temperature is varies from 120°C, 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C. The electrical properties results showing when nanocomposite film annealed at '20°C produce the lowest current. Meanwhile, when the annealing temperature increased, the current increased drastically and this indicates the PMMA:TiO 2 nanocomposite film are no longer having insulating properties. The dielectric properties also indicate that film annealed at 120°C has the best dielectric properties compared to other temperature. The FESEM results show that as the temperature increased, the PMMA:TiO 2 nanocomposite film started to create a phase separation between the PMMA matrix and TiO 2 nanoparticles

  4. Effect of material preparation technique on properties of articles out of granular mass on the ZrO2 base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaulov, A.G.; Taranukha, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated is the influence of the powder grain forms on the properties of articles of zirconium dioxide. The grain form was determined after roasted briquettes refining in various devices. Studying the properties of articles of zirconium dioxide powders with various grain form shows, that the laminar grain form causes anisotropy. Isometric grains cause the formation of more circular pores in finished articles, angular-laminar grains lead to formation of elongated pores of irregular form. The introduction into the charge of 30% monoclinic zirconium dioxide increases both the thermal resistance and the gas permiability, especially if the articles are made of masses, consisting of angular laminar grains

  5. Properties of a novel radiophotoluminescent readout system using a cw modulated UV laser diode and phase-sensitive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.; Kurobori, T.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have proposed and constructed a novel readout system for measuring a dose-dependent radiophotoluminescence (RPL) signal of a silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeter. The present reader consists of a modulated continuous-wave (cw) ultraviolet (UV) laser diode at 375 nm as an excitation and a phase-sensitive technique using a lock-in amplifier. Preliminary results using a home-made reader are compared with those of the conventional technique based on a combination of a pulsed UV N 2 laser excitation at 337 nm and a photon counting system.

  6. Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, P.; Zapletal, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Trojanová, Z.; Greger, M.; Roupcová, Pavla; Podrábský, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2016), s. 1-15, č. článku 880. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : biodegradable magnesium alloy * Mg-Zn-Ca * squeeze casting * ECAP processing * microstructure * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/11/880

  7. Use of simulation techniques to detect changes in property value after the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.H.; Gamble, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this simulation is to predict the sale price of properties in various geographical cells after the accident and compare them with the actual sales. Tests for significance were made in twenty cells. Several were significantly higher and only those north of the plant were significantly lower

  8. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  9. Synthesis, structural investigation and magnetic properties of Zn2+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, A.V.; Barkule, R.S.; Shengule, D.R.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural morphology and magnetic properties of the Co 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (0.0≤x≥1.0) spinel ferrite system synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique using nitrates of respective metal ions have been studied. The ratio of metal nitrates to citric acid was taken at 1:3. The as prepared powder of cobalt zinc ferrite was sintered at 600 °C for 12 h after TG/DTA thermal studies. Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis of the X-ray (EDAX) technique. Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD data. The average crystallite size (t), lattice constant (a) and other structural parameters of zinc substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were calculated from XRD followed by SEM and FTIR. It is observed that the sol–gel auto-combustion technique has many advantages for the synthesis of technologically applicable Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The present investigation clearly shows the effect of the synthesis method and possible relation between magnetic properties and microstructure of the prepared samples. Increase in nonmagnetic Zn 2+ content in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is followed by decrease in n B , M s and other magnetic parameters. Squareness ratio for the Co-ferrite was 1.096 at room temperature. - Highlights: • Co–Zn nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Structural properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, and FTIR. • Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by EDAX analysis. • Magnetic parameters were measured by the pulse field hysteresis loop technique

  10. Synthesis, structural investigation and magnetic properties of Zn{sup 2+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, A.V., E-mail: nano9993@gmail.com [Vivekanand Arts and Sardar Dalipsingh Commerce and Science College, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India); Barkule, R.S.; Shengule, D.R. [Vivekanand Arts and Sardar Dalipsingh Commerce and Science College, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India); Jadhav, K.M., E-mail: drjadhavkm@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, 431004 Maharastra (India)

    2014-05-01

    Structural morphology and magnetic properties of the Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≥1.0) spinel ferrite system synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique using nitrates of respective metal ions have been studied. The ratio of metal nitrates to citric acid was taken at 1:3. The as prepared powder of cobalt zinc ferrite was sintered at 600 °C for 12 h after TG/DTA thermal studies. Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive analysis of the X-ray (EDAX) technique. Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD data. The average crystallite size (t), lattice constant (a) and other structural parameters of zinc substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were calculated from XRD followed by SEM and FTIR. It is observed that the sol–gel auto-combustion technique has many advantages for the synthesis of technologically applicable Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The present investigation clearly shows the effect of the synthesis method and possible relation between magnetic properties and microstructure of the prepared samples. Increase in nonmagnetic Zn{sup 2+} content in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is followed by decrease in n{sub B}, M{sub s} and other magnetic parameters. Squareness ratio for the Co-ferrite was 1.096 at room temperature. - Highlights: • Co–Zn nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Structural properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, and FTIR. • Compositional stoichiometry was confirmed by EDAX analysis. • Magnetic parameters were measured by the pulse field hysteresis loop technique.

  11. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  12. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1999-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1998-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A Framework for the Specification of Acquisition Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, B

    2001-01-01

    .... The timing properties associated with the items receives special treatment. The value of a framework is that one can develop specifications of various acquisition models, such as waterfall, spiral, or incremental, as instances of that framework...

  15. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  16. Architecture of an acquisition system-multiprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postec, H.

    1987-07-01

    To follow the huge increasing of concerned parameters in nuclear detection systems, acquisition systems become bigger and have to present very good rapidity performance. At Ganil, four detection systems have been set in Nautilus reaction chamber, that lead to experiment configurations with 700 parameters to process. In front of present acquisition system limitation, a device more relevant to lecture of a large number of channels show off necessary. Functionalities already operating in other systems and hardware already used have been chosen; specific technical solutions were aldo developed to use the most recent techniques and to take in account the four detection system structure of the device [fr

  17. Cationic effect on dye-sensitized solar cell properties using electrochemical impedance and transient absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Bedja, Idriss

    2017-01-01

    Redox-couple polymer electrolytes, (poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile) blend/MI-I 2 , where M  =  Li or K, were prepared by the solution cast method. Owing to the plasticizing property of K + ions, the K + ion-based electrolyte exhibited better electrical conductivity than the Li + ion-based electrolyte, which did however exhibit better photovoltaic properties. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed faster redox species diffusions and interfacial processes in the Li + ion-based dye-sensitized solar cells than in the K + ion-based ones. Transient absorption spectroscopy ascertained faster dye-regeneration by the Li + ion-based electrolyte than the K + ion-based electrolyte. (paper)

  18. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  19. Effect of annealing on the electrical, optical and structural properties of cadmium stannate thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, R.; Krishnakumar, V.; Gokulakrishnan, V.; Ramamurthi, K.; Jeganathan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of cadmium stannate (Cd 2 SnO 4 ) were deposited by spray pyrolysis method on the Corning substrates at substrate temperature of 525 o C. Further, the films were annealed at 600 o C in vacuum for 30 min. These films were characterized for their structural, electrical and optical properties. The experimental results showed that the post-deposition annealing in vacuum has a significant influence on the properties of the films. The average grain size of the film was increased from 27.3 to 35.0 nm on heat treatment. The average optical transmittance in the visible region (500-850 nm) is decreased from 81.4% to 73.4% after annealing in vacuum. The minimum resistivity achieved in the present study for the vacuum annealed films is the lowest among the reported values for the Cd 2 SnO 4 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method.

  20. Genesis and properties of wetland soils by VIS-NIR-SWIR as a technique for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demattê, José Alexandre Melo; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Terra, Fabrício da Silva; Marques, Karina Patrícia Prazeres; Fongaro, Caio Troula; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-07-15

    Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators. Nine soil profiles from the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso State, Brazil) and one from the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) were investigated. Spectral morphology interpretation allowed identifying horizon differences regarding shape, absorption features and reflectance intensity. Some pedogenetic processes of wetland soils related to organic carbon accumulation and oxide iron variation were identified by spectra. Principal Component Analysis allowed discriminating soils from wetland and outside this area (oxidic environment). Quantification of organic carbon was possible with R 2 of 0.90 and low error. Quantification of clay content was masked by soils with organic carbon content over 2% where it was not possible to quantify with high R 2 and low error both properties when dataset has soil samples with high organic carbon content. By reflectance spectroscopy, important

  1. Mechanical properties of thin silicon films deposited on glass and plastic substrates studied by depth sensing indentation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršíková, V.; Sládek, P.; Sťahel, P.; Buršík, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 352, 9-20 (2006), s. 1242-1245 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0274; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : amorphous semiconductors * silicon * mechanical properties Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2006

  2. Ethosomal nanocarriers: the impact of constituents and formulation techniques on ethosomal properties, in vivo studies, and clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulbaqi, Ibrahim M; Darwis, Yusrida; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Assi, Reem Abou; Khan, Arshad A

    2016-01-01

    Ibrahim M Abdulbaqi, Yusrida Darwis, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Reem Abou Assi, Arshad A Khan School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone exte...

  3. Comparative microstructure and electrical property studies of lead scandium tantalate thin films as prepared by LDCVD, sol-gel and sputtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Donohue, P P; Zhang, Q; Williams, D J; Anthony, C J; Whatmore, R W; Todd, M A

    2003-01-01

    Lead scandium tantalate (PST) thin films for uncooled infrared (IR) detector applications have been deposited by liquid delivery chemical vapour deposition (LDCVD), sputtering and sol-gel techniques. The sol-gel and sputtered films were deposited at low temperature into a non-ferroelectric phase with the required perovskite structure being formed using a high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA). In contrast to this, the LDCVD films were deposited at high temperature directly into the perovskite phase but were found to still require a high temperature RTA step to optimize their merit for IR detection. Detailed structural and electrical characterization of the PST films deposited by these different methods have revealed that there is no simple relationship between microstructure and electrical properties. The sol-gel and LDCVD techniques produce thin films with excellent microstructures, as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, but inferior electrical properties and relatively low merit figures. By contrast, the sputtered and then rapid thermal annealed films have inferior microstructures, characterized by extensive voiding, but excellent electrical properties and high merit figures

  4. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Pavel; Zapletal, Josef; Fintová, Stanislava; Trojanová, Zuzanka; Greger, Miroslav; Roupcová, Pavla; Podrábský, Tomáš

    2016-10-28

    New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys.

  6. Improving optical properties of silicon nitride films to be applied in the middle infrared optics by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering deposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Hsiao, Chien-Nan

    2014-02-01

    Silicon nitride films are prepared by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBMS) deposition technique. Different unbalance coefficients and pulse on/off ratios are applied to improve the optical properties of the silicon nitride films. The refractive indices of the Si3N4 films vary from 2.17 to 2.02 in the wavelength ranges of 400-700 nm, and all the extinction coefficients are smaller than 1×10(-4). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry measurements reveal the amorphous structure of the Si3N4 films with extremely low hydrogen content and very low absorption between the near IR and middle IR ranges. Compared to other deposition techniques, Si3N4 films deposited by the combined HIPIMS/UBMS deposition technique possess the highest refractive index, the lowest extinction coefficient, and excellent structural properties. Finally a four-layer coating is deposited on both sides of a silicon substrate. The average transmittance from 3200 to 4800 nm is 99.0%, and the highest transmittance is 99.97% around 4200 nm.

  7. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    KAUST Repository

    Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; Lemine, O. M.; Bououdina, M.; Zhang, Bei; El Mir, Lassaad

    2013-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    KAUST Repository

    Omri, Karim

    2013-08-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of the original acquisition of ownership of immovable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the ...

  10. Effect of the electrochemical technique on nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposition, its structural, morphological and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chettah, Hamdane; Abdi, Djamila, E-mail: naimadjam@hotmail.com

    2013-06-30

    This article reports the influence of the electrochemical technique on the electrodeposition of nanoscopic zinc oxide from aqueous mixed bath of zinc nitrate and potassium chloride at 70 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were elaborated via cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry techniques. This study shows structural and morphological differences in films deposited according to both methods. Thin and adherent films obtained via cyclic voltamperometry have been obtained after 100 cycles, and those obtained using the chronoampermetric method grown at potential of − 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl during 1 h. The structural characterisation of such films was performed using X-ray diffraction, which showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along the (002) axis for deposits obtained via cyclic voltamperometry presenting nanometric grain sizes (42 nm). Atomic force microscopy was used to study surface morphology and estimate the surface roughness factor for two deposits. Photoelectrochemical study indicates that both kinds of films had n-type electrical conductivity and presents high photoanodic-generated currents. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide films were electrodeposited on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates at 70 °C. • Two electrochemical techniques were used cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry. • X-ray diffraction showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure. • Preferential orientation along the (002) axis for cyclic voltamperometry films. • Deposits had n-type electrical conductivity and high photoanodic-generated currents.

  11. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  12. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  13. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three impo...... in this study, is an important step forward in merger and acquisition (M&A) research. Moreover, numerous research findings offer tactical implications for international acquirers.......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  14. Conformational and Structural Properties of High Functionality Dendrimer-like Star Polymers Synthesized from Living Polymerization Techniques; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pople, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of dendritic-linear hybrid macromolecules is described. The synthetic strategy employs living ring-opening polymerization in combination with selective and quantitative organic transformations for the preparation of new molecular architectures similar to classical star polymers and dendrimers. The polymers were constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) initiated from the surface hydroxyl groups of dendrimers derived from bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) in the presence of stannous 2-ethyl hexanoate (Sn(Oct)2). In this way, star and hyperstar poly(e-caprolactones) were elaborated depending on the generation of dendrimer employed. The ROP from these hydroxy groups was found to be a facile process leading to controlled molecular weight, low dispersity products (Mw/Mn) and lt; 1.15. In addition to the use of dendrimers as building blocks to star polymers, functional dendrons derived from bis-MPA were attached to chain ends of the star polymers, yielding structures that closely resemble that of the most advanced dendrimers. Measurements of the solution properties (hydrodynamic volume vs. molecular weight) on the dendritic-linear hybrids show a deviation from linearity, with a lower than expected hydrodynamic volume, analogous to the solution properties of dendrimers of high generation number. The onset of the deviation begins with the polymers initiated from the second generation dendrimer of bis-MPA and becomes more exaggerated with the higher generations. It was found that polymerization amplifies the nonlinear solution behavior of dendrimers. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements revealed that the radius of gyration scaled with arm functionality (f) as f 2/3, in accordance with the Daoud-Cotton model for many arm star polymer

  15. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-05

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm(-1) and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature dependant thermal and mechanical properties of a metal-phase change layer interface using the time resolved pump probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, V; Battaglia, J-L; Kusiak, A; Rossignol, C; Wiemer, C

    2011-01-01

    Time Resolved Pump Probe (TRPP) technique has been implemented to study the thermal and mechanical properties of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) film deposited on a silicon substrate. According to the knowledge of the thermal properties of the GST layer, the temperature dependant Thermal Boundary Resistance (TBR) at the metal-GST interface is evaluated. Measuring the acoustic oscillation and more particularly its damping leads to characterize the adhesion at the metal - GST interface. This quantity can be efficiently related to the temperature dependent TBR in the 25 deg. C - 400 deg. C range. The TBR increases with temperature and follows the changes of the crystalline structure of materials. A linear relation between the acoustic reflection coefficient and the logarithm of the thermal boundary resistance is found.

  17. Development of a Composite Technique for Preconditioning of 41Cr4 Steel Used as Gear Material: Examination of Its Microstructural Characteristics and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial 41Cr4 (ISO standard steel was treated by a composite technique. An intermediate layer was introduced firstly at the 41Cr4 steel surface by traditional carburizing and nitriding. Then a hard Cr coating was brush-plated on the intermediate layer. Finally, the coating layer was modified by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB, followed by quenching and subsequent tempering treatment. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were characterized. The results show that a nanocrystalline Cr coating is formed at the 41Cr4 steel surface by the treatment of the new composite technique. Such nanocrystalline Cr coating has acceptable hardness and high corrosion resistance performance, which satisfies the demands of the gears working under high speed and corrosive environment. The composite process proposed in this study is considered as a new prospect method due to the multifunction layer design on the gear surface.

  18. Theoretical Study on Synchronous Characterization of Surface and Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Thin-Film/Substrate Systems with Residual Stress Based on Pressure Blister Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the pressure blister test technique, a theoretical study on the synchronous characterization of surface and interfacial mechanical properties of thin-film/substrate systems with residual stress was presented, where the problem of axisymmetric deformation of a blistering film with initial stress was analytically solved and its closed-form solution was presented. The expressions to determine Poisson’s ratios, Young’s modulus, and residual stress of surface thin films were derived; the work done by the applied external load and the elastic energy stored in the blistering thin film were analyzed in detail and their expressions were derived; and the interfacial adhesion energy released per unit delamination area of thin-film/substrate (i.e., energy release rate was finally presented. The synchronous characterization technique presented here has theoretically made a big step forward, due to the consideration for the residual stress in surface thin films.

  19. Future data acquisition at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulford, W.C.A.; Quinton, S.P.H.; Johnson, M.W.; Norris, J.

    1989-01-01

    Data collection techniques at ISIS are fast reaching the point where the current computer systems will no longer be able to migrate the data to long-term storage, let alone enable their analysis at a speed compatible with continuous use of the ISIS instruments. The current data acquisition electronics (DAE 1) and migration path work effectively but have a number of inherent difficulties: (1) Seven instruments are equipped with VAX computers as their Front End Minicomputers (FEM). Unfortunately these machines usually possess insufficient processor power to perform some of the more complex data reduction. This means that the raw data have necessarily to be networked to the HUB computer before analysis. (2) The size of bulk store memory is restricted to 16 Mbytes by the 24 bit address field of Multibus. (3) The DAE error detection and analysis system of FEM is crude. It is clear that the most effective method to improve on this situation is to reduce the data volume flowing between the DAE and the FEM and to provide facilities to monitor data acquisition within the DAE. For these purposes processing power must be incorporated closer to the point of data collection. It has been decided to implement processing elements within DAE 2 (the next generation of DAE) in the form of intelligent memory boards. 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Data acquisition system for MEGHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, S.P.G.; Hunt, R.A.; Smith, D.; Rae, W.D.M.; Clarke, N.M.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B.R.; Jagpal, S.S.; Singer, S.M.; Watson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-channel data acquisition system has been commissioned for the Charissa 'MEGHA' detector array. It is designed to read multiparameter events where there are many potential channels (320) but where only a fraction of these are active in any typical event. Custom-built pre- and main amplifiers process the amplitude (energy) signal from each detector and the system records both amplitude and time of arrival for each signal within an event. The signal amplitude is converted to time using the standard Wilkinson technique and then combined with its time of arrival into a single time trace. These traces are converted by multi-hit TDCs, which only convert the active channels and thus reduce the processing load. Additional custom-built CAMAC modules organise the TDC output into a suitable form for storage and transmission to a network of processor terminals over standard ethernet. This paper presents a description of the data acquisition system from preamplifier through to final storage in a VME-based system and subsequent distribution to a network of Sun terminals over ethernet. The system performance is illustrated with results from heavy-ion elastic scattering recorded with position sensitive strip detectors

  1. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of P-type Sb2Te3 thick film processed by a screen-printing technique and a subsequent annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Jin; We, Ju Hyung; Kim, Jin Sang; Kim, Gyung Soo; Cho, Byung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report on thermoelectric properties of screen-printed Sb 2 Te 3 thick film. • Subsequent annealing process determines thermoelectric properties of Sb 2 Te 3 film. • Annealing in tellurium powder ambient contributes to tellurium-rich Sb 2 Te 3 film. • Annealing in tellurium powder ambient enhances carrier mobility of Sb 2 Te 3 film. -- Abstract: We herein report the thermoelectric properties of Sb 2 Te 3 thick film fabricated by a screen-printing technique and a subsequent annealing process. Each step of the screen-printing fabrication process of Sb 2 Te 3 thick film is described in detail. It was found that the subsequent annealing process must be carefully designed to achieve good thermoelectric properties of the screen-printed film. The results show that the annealing of the screen-printed Sb 2 Te 3 thick film together with tellurium powder in the same process chamber significantly improves the carrier mobility by increasing the average scattering time of the carrier in the film, resulting in a large improvement of the power factor. By optimizing the annealing process, we achieved a maximum thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, of 0.32 at room temperature, which is slightly higher than that of bulk Sb 2 Te 3 . Because screen-printing is a simple and low-cost process and given that it is easy to scale up to large sizes, this result will be useful for the realization of large, film-type thermoelectric devices

  3. Influence of Fiber Content on Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf Reinforced PVB Film Produced Using a Hot Press Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the results of experimental investigation carried out on mechanical and morphological properties of plain woven kenaf fiber reinforced PVB film which was prepared by hot press technique. The composites were prepared with various fiber contents: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% (by weight, with the processing parameters 165°C, 20 min, and at a pressure of 8 MPa applied on the material. Tensile, flexural, and Charpy impact properties were studied as well as morphological properties of impact fracture surface. With the increase in kenaf fibers content up to 40%, the PVB composites have shown lower tensile and flexural strength accompanied with reduction in the ultimate strain of the composite. The results showed that impact properties were affected in markedly different ways by using various kenaf contents and decrease with the increase in kenaf fiber content up to 40%; however, high impact strength was observed even with 40% kenaf fiber content. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy for impact samples was utilised to demonstrate the different failures in the fracture surfaces for various kenaf fibers contents.

  4. Synthesis of ZnO based nanopowders via a non-hydrolytic sol gel technique and their densification behaviour and varistor properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereef Anas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal nanocrystalline varistor grade ZnO particles with size 50 nm and the specific surface area of 28 m2/g have been prepared by non-aqueous gelation technique involving diethylene glycol and triethanolamine. The as-prepared varistor nanopowders were analyzed with the support of XRD, TG/DTA, FTIR, TMA, SEM and TEM. Varistor discs were fabricated by pressing and their densification was studied at 850, 950, 1050 and 1150°C. The evolution of varistor microstructures, extent of grain growth and the influence of microstructure on the I-V properties were explored and presented.

  5. Structural characteristics and physical properties of diortho(pyro)silicate crystals of lanthanides yttrium and scandium grown by the Czochralski technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' eva, G.V.; Karapetyan, V.E.; Korovkin, A.M.; Merkulyaeva, T.I.; Peschanskaya, I.A.; Savinova, I.P.; Feofilov, P.P. (Gosudarstvennyj Opticheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    1982-03-01

    Optically uniform monocrystals of diortho (pyro) silicates of lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium were grown by the Czochralski technique. Four structural types of Ln/sub 2/(Si/sub 2/O/sub 7/) crystals were determined by the roentgenographic method. The presence of structural subgroups was also supported by the method of spectroscopic probes. Structural parameters were determined and data on certain physical properties (fusion temperature, density, refractive indices, transparency) of investigated crystals were presented. The generation of induced emission at lambda=1.057 ..mu..m was obtained in La/sub 2/(Si/sub 2/O/sub 7/)-Nd/sup 3 +/ crystal.

  6. Investigation of Structure and Dynamics in Disordered Materials Using Containerless Techniques with In-Situ Quantum Beam and Thermophysical Property Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kohara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of levitation (containerless techniques can enable new scientific discoveries because deeply undercooled and metastable liquids can be achieved over a wide temperature range. This review article summarizes the state-of-art instrumentation for structure measurements at synchrotron radiation/neutron sources and for thermophysical property measurements not only on the ground but also in microgravity utilizing the International Space Station (ISS. Furthermore, we introduce recent scientific topics on high-temperature oxide liquids and oxide glasses synthesized from levitated undercooled liquids by the use of quantum beam measurements analyzed using advanced computation.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hypo/hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys synthesized using a near-net shape forming technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Ling, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, three aluminum-silicon alloys containing 7, 10 and 19 wt % silicon were synthesized using a novel technique commonly known as disintegrated melt deposition technique. The results following processing revealed that a yield of at least 80% can be achieved after defacing the shrinkage cavity from the as-processed ingots. Microstructural characterization studies conducted on the as-processed samples revealed an increase in the volume fraction of porosity with an increase in silicon content. Porosity levels of 1.07, 1.51 and 2.65% attained in the case of Al-7Si, Al-10Si, and Al-19Si alloys indicates the near-net shape forming capability of the disintegrated melt deposition technique. The results of aging studies conducted on the aluminum-silicon alloys revealed similar aging kinetics irrespective of different silicon content. Results of ambient temperature mechanical tests demonstrate an increase in matrix microhardness and 0.2% yield stress and decrease in ductility with an increase in silicon content in aluminum. Furthermore, the results of an attempt to investigate the effect of extrusion on Al-19Si alloy revealed that the extrusion process significantly assists in reducing porosity and improving microstructural uniformity, 0.2% yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and ductility when compared to the as-processed Al-19Si alloy. The results of microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of aluminum-silicon alloys were finally correlated with the amount of silicon in aluminum and secondary processing technique. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of Polyimide/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Films via an Ion-Exchange Technique and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Mu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide (PI composite films with ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the surface layer were prepared by alkali hydrolyzation following ion exchange in Zn(NO32 solution and thermal treatment of the zinc ion-doped PI films in air atmosphere. The effect of alkali treatment, ion exchange, and thermal treatment conditions was investigated in relation to the amount of zinc atomic loading, morphology, photoluminescence (PL, and thermal properties of the PI/ZnO composite films using ICP, XPS, FE-SEM, TEM, Raman microscope, TGA, and DSC. ZnO nanoparticles were formed slowly and dispersed uniformly in the surface-modified layers of PI films with an average diameter of 20 nm. The PL spectra of all the PI/ZnO nanocomposite films obtained at 350°C/7 h possessed a weak ultraviolet emission peak and a broad and strong visible emission band. The PI/ZnO nanocomposite films maintained the excellent thermal property of the host PI films.

  9. Fabrication and Physical Properties of Titanium Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Composites on Polyether Ether Ketone by RF Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupangtha, W.; Boonyawan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings have been used very successfully in a variety of applications because of their excellent properties, such as the high hardness meaning good wear resistance and also used for covering medical implants. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that contributes to the restoration of bone tissue, which together with titanium nitride may contribute to obtaining a superior composite in terms of mechanical and bone tissue interaction matters. This paper aims to explain how to optimize deposition conditions for films synthesis on PEEK by varying sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate and direction, deposition time, d-s (target-to-substrate distance) and 13.56 MHz RF power. The plasma conditions used to deposit films were monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Titanium nitride/Hydroxyapatite composite films were performed by gas mixture with nitrogen and argon ratio of 1:3 and target-to-substrate distance at 8 cm. The gold colour, as-deposited film was found on PEEK with high hardness and higher surface energy than uncoated PEEK. X-ray diffraction characterization study was carried to study the crystal structural properties of these composites.

  10. Microstructures and creep properties of Mg–4Al–(1–4) La alloys produced by different casting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Sun Yangshan; Xue Feng; Qiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures, mechanical properties and creep resistance of Mg–4Al–(1–4) La alloys produced by permanent mold casting and high pressure die casting (HPDC) were investigated. In addition to solute atoms in α-Mg matrix, Al element may exist in the form of three different intermetallic phases in the present alloys depending on the experimental conditions. In both casting states, the increase of La addition results in a rise in the volume fraction of Al 11 La 3 eutectic, and simultaneously Mg 17 Al 12 phase, including divorced eutectic in as-cast state and discontinuous precipitation after creep, is suppressed until completely disappears. This leads to a gradual increase in creep resistance. The formation of more Mg 17 Al 12 phase in HPDC alloys is considered a major factor in causing their worse creep properties by comparison with that of the permanent mold casting alloys when La content is in a lower level below 2 wt.%. By contrast, the HPDC alloys show better creep resistance with La content added above 2 wt.% owing to the formation of denser network distribution of Al 11 La 3 phase along grain/dendrite boundaries as a result of more rapid solidification rate and higher solidification pressure. For the alloys studied, grain/dendrite boundary sliding is suggested to be a possible controlling mechanism responsible for creep deformation at elevated temperatures.

  11. Mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwire used in the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Xin-hua; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chun-bo; Yan, Kuo; Guo, Yong-liang

    2013-01-01

    As the only active component in final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the activation of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires is one of the factors that affect the torque expression. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nickel-titanium wire used in the final treatment phase in simulated oral environments to forecast the treatment outcomes. The mechanical properties of 171 thermal nickel-titanium wires of 0.35 mm (0.014-in) in diameters with different deflection of 40 mm in length were investigated with three-point bending test. The samples were divided into 2 groups: as-received and bended groups. In the bended group, samples were divided into 7 subgroups according to the amounts of deflection and named by the canine angulations (-25°, -19°, -13°, -7°, -1°, +5°, +11°). The deflection of wires was made by inserting the wires into the deep tunnel of Tip-Edge Plus brackets positioned in plaster casts with different canine angulations to mimic the use of nickel-titanium wires in the final treatment phase. Immersed the bended group in artificial saliva (pH 6.8) and preserved at 37.0°C. Eight durations of incubation were tested: 1 to 8 weeks. Three analogous samples of each group and subgroups were tested per week. Stiffness (YS:E) and the load-deflection characteristics of unloading plateau section were obtained. Significant changes in specific mechanical properties were observed in long-term immersed and large deflected wires compared with as-received groups. Both immersion time and deflection affected the mechanical properties of wires in the simulated oral environment, and the two factors had synergistic effect. In groups -25°, -19° and -13°, stiffness (YS:E) increased then decreased and average plateau force and ratio of variance decreased then increased correspondingly at specific time. In the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium wire are associated with the

  12. A review of formulation techniques that impact the disintegration and mechanical properties of oradispersible drug delivery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyikana, Martina; Choonara, Yahya E; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    The drug treatment of acute disorders such as neuropathic pain, migraines, insomnia, vomiting, allergic rhinitis or erectile dysfunction requires an immediate pharmacological effect that may be achieved through parenteral drug administration. However, the parenteral route is not always convenient for reasons that are well known. Therefore, in the recent past there has been a barrage of interest in formulating new, non-invasive, reliable and convenient oradispersible drug delivery technologies (ODDTs). Research in this area has focused extensively on developing ODDTs that are capable of releasing drugs immediately when they come into contact with saliva. This disregards the necessity of water during administration and several other advantages that is an attribute that makes this technology lucrative for groups such as pediatrics, geriatrics, psychiatrics and unconscious patients. Many reviews have been compiled on the salient features of ODDTs. However, none to date has focused on the actual formulation techniques used to produce these technologies and how this may impact their disintegration and physical stability for fulfilling their purpose. Therefore this review provides a concise incursion on the recent formulation techniques, excipients used as well as methods of testing the performance of ODDTs and critically assesses these in terms of improving their performance.

  13. Establishing structure-property correlations and classification of base oils using statistical techniques and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, G.S.; Sastry, M.I.S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Sarpal, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes various classification techniques like cluster analysis, principal component (PC)/factor analysis to classify different types of base stocks. The API classification of base oils (Group I-III) has been compared to a more detailed NMR derived chemical compositional and molecular structural parameters based classification in order to point out the similarities of the base oils in the same group and the differences between the oils placed in different groups. The detailed compositional parameters have been generated using 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Further, oxidation stability, measured in terms of rotating bomb oxidation test (RBOT) life, of non-conventional base stocks and their blends with conventional base stocks, has been quantitatively correlated with their 1 H NMR and elemental (sulphur and nitrogen) data with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The MLR based model developed using NMR and elemental data showed a high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for both training (R=0.859) and validation (R=0.880) data sets. The ANN based model, developed using fewer number of input variables (only 1 H NMR data) also showed high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for training (R=0.881), validation (R=0.860) and test (R=0.955) data sets

  14. Formation and properties of epitaxial CdSe, ZnSe quantum dots. Conventional molecular beam epitaxy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Suddhasatta

    2008-01-16

    This thesis systematically investigates three such alternative approaches, along with conventional MBE, with emphasis on the formation-mechanism of QDs, and optimization of their morphological and optical attributes. it is shown here that no distinct 3D islands are formed in MBE growth of CdSe on ZnSe. While CdSe heteroepitaxy occurs in the multilayer-mode at T{sub G}=300 C, a reentrant recovery of the layer-by-layer mode is reported in this thesis, for growth at T{sub G}<{proportional_to}240 C. In the second variant technique, formation of large and distinct islands is demonstrated by deposition of amorphous selenium (a-Se) onto a 2D CdSe epilayer at room temperature and its subsequent desorption at a higher temperature (T{sub D}=230 C). The process steps of the third variant technique, developed in course of this work, are very similar to those of the previous one-the only alteration being the substitution of selenium with tellurium as the cap-forming-material. (orig.)

  15. ACQUISITIONS LIST, MAY 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS ACQUISITIONS LIST IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF EDUCATION. OVER 300 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING MAINLY FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) ACHIEVEMENT, (2) ADOLESCENCE, (3) CHILD DEVELOPMENT, (4)…

  16. MAST data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Counsell, G.; Cunningham, G.; Manhood, S.J.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) presently collects up to 400 MB of data in about 3000 data items per shot, and subsequent fast growth is expected. Since the start of MAST operations (in 1999) the system has changed dramatically. Though we continue to use legacy CAMAC hardware, newer VME, PCI, and PXI based sub-systems collect most of the data now. All legacy software has been redesigned and new software has been developed. Last year a major system improvement was made-replacement of the message distribution system. The new message system provides easy connection of any sub-system independently of its platform and serves as a framework for many new applications. A new data acquisition controller provides full control of common sub-systems, central error logging, and data acquisition alarms for the MAST plant. A number of new sub-systems using Linux and Windows OSs on VME, PCI, and PXI platforms have been developed. A new PXI unit has been designed as a base sub-system accommodating any type of data acquisition and control devices. Several web applications for the real-time MAST monitoring and data presentation have been developed

  17. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  18. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  19. Decentralized Blended Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of blending and deblending is reviewed, making use of traditional and dispersed source arrays. The network concept of distributed blended acquisition is introduced. A million-trace robot system is proposed, illustrating that decentralization may bring about a revolution in the way we

  20. MPS Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiseman, S.E.; Miller, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the data acquisition system used with the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven. Detailed information is provided on that part of the system which connects the detectors to the data handler; namely, the detector electronics, device controller, and device port optical isolator