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Sample records for promotes multiple myeloma-induced

  1. [Response and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma induced by PAD/TAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tianmei; He, Haiyan; Shi, Haotian; Xi, Hao; Du, Juan; Zhang, Chunyang; Jiang, Hua; Fu, Weijun; Zhou, Fan; Hou, Jian

    2015-03-17

    To evaluate the impact of cytogenetic grouping and autologous stem cell transplantation on the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) induced by PAD (velcade+epirubicin+dexamethasone) and TAD (thalidomide+epirubicin+dexamethasone). A total of 191 patients with a definite diagnosis of MM were enrolled from May 2008 to December 2013 into this prospective study. They were non-randomly induced by PAD (n = 132) or TAD (n = 59) plus autologous stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy. Response and survival rates were also analyzed between two groups. The overall response rates of PAD and TAD groups were 84.4% (108/128) and 69.5% (41/59) (P = 0.011) respectively. The very good partial remission (VGPR) rates were 70.3% (90/128) and 32.2% (19/59) (P TAD. After PAD induction, cytogenetic grouping may further distinguish the prognosis of MM patients. For FISH high-risk patients, their PFS is prolonged by autologous stem cell transplantation.

  2. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  3. Aberrant gene promoter methylation associated with sporadic multiple colorectal cancer.

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    Victoria Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2, RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008 and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047 as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006. Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06, HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06 and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24. Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple and solitary CRC showed no relevant

  4. A strategy for health promotion at multiple corporate sites.

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    Alexy, B; Eynon, D

    1991-02-01

    1. The logistical problems associated with delivery of health promotion programs at multiple corporate sites can be addressed through the use of health education packets. 2. The role of the nurse or health coordinator is critical in assisting and guiding the employee as the health plan is executed. 3. Problematic areas related to implementation of programs at remote sites can be alleviated through careful planning and extensive communication. 4. Advertising, input from employees and staff, and follow up are important in the success of a program.

  5. Multiple distinct stimuli increase measured nucleosome occupancy around human promoters.

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    Chuong D Pham

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes can block access to transcription factors. Thus the precise localization of nucleosomes relative to transcription start sites and other factor binding sites is expected to be a critical component of transcriptional regulation. Recently developed microarray approaches have allowed the rapid mapping of nucleosome positions over hundreds of kilobases (kb of human genomic DNA, although these approaches have not yet been widely used to measure chromatin changes associated with changes in transcription. Here, we use custom tiling microarrays to reveal changes in nucleosome positions and abundance that occur when hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR binds to sites near target gene promoters in human osteosarcoma cells. The most striking change is an increase in measured nucleosome occupancy at sites spanning ∼1 kb upstream and downstream of transcription start sites, which occurs one hour after addition of hormone, but is lost at 4 hours. Unexpectedly, this increase was seen both on GR-regulated and GR-non-regulated genes. In addition, the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor (a GR co-activator was found to be important for increased occupancy upon hormone treatment and also for low nucleosome occupancy without hormone. Most surprisingly, similar increases in nucleosome occupancy were also seen on both regulated and non-regulated promoters during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells and upon activation of human CD4+ T-cells. These results indicate that dramatic changes in chromatin structure over ∼2 kb of human promoters may occur genomewide and in response to a variety of stimuli, and suggest novel models for transcriptional regulation.

  6. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

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    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  7. Promoting pneumococcal immunizations among rural Medicare beneficiaries using multiple strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth A; Harwell, Todd S; Donahue, Peg M; Weisner, M'liss A; McInerney, Michael J; Holzman, Greg S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2003-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases among adults are major contributing causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. However, adult immunizations continue to be underutilized in both urban and rural areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide education campaign and mailed reminders promoting pneumococcal immunizations to rural Medicare beneficiaries. We implemented a community-wide education campaign, and mailed reminders were sent to Medicare beneficiaries in 1 media market in Montana to increase pneumococcal immunizations. In a second distinct media market, mailed reminders only were sent to beneficiaries. The proportion of respondents aged 65 years and older aware of pneumococcal immunizations increased significantly from baseline to follow-up among respondents both in the education-plus-reminder (63% to 78%, P = 0.04) and the reminder-only (64% to 74%, P = 0.05) markets. Overall from 1998 to 1999, there was a 3.7-percentage-point increase in pneumococcal immunization claims for Medicare beneficiaries in the education-plus-reminder market and a 1.5-percentage-point increase in the reminder-only market. Medicare beneficiaries sent reminders in the education-plus-reminder market compared to those in the reminder-only market were more likely to have a claim for pneumococcal immunization in 1999 (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.28). The results suggest that these quality improvement strategies (community education plus reminders and reminders alone) modestly increased pneumococcal immunization awareness and pneumococcal immunization among rural adults. Mailed reminder exposure was associated with an increased prevalence of pneumococcal immunizations between 1998 and 1999 and was augmented somewhat by the education campaign.

  8. Illegitimate WNT signaling promotes proliferation of multiple myeloma cells

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    Derksen, Patrick W. B.; Tjin, Esther; Meijer, Helen P.; Klok, Melanie D.; Mac Gillavry, Harold D.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Lokhorst, Henk M.; Bloem, Andries C.; Clevers, Hans; Nusse, Roel; van der Neut, Ronald; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2004-01-01

    The unrestrained growth of tumor cells is generally attributed to mutations in essential growth control genes, but tumor cells are also influenced by signals from the environment. In multiple myeloma (MM), the factors and signals coming from the bone marrow microenvironment are possibly even essential for the growth of the tumor cells. As targets for intervention, these signals may be equally important as mutated oncogenes. Given their oncogenic potential, WNT signals form a class of paracrine growth factors that could act to influence MM cell growth. In this paper, we report that MM cells have hallmarks of active WNT signaling, whereas the cells have not undergone detectable mutations in WNT signaling genes such as adenomatous polyposis coli and β-catenin (CTNNB1). We show that the malignant MM plasma cells overexpress β-catenin, including its N-terminally unphosphorylated form, suggesting active β-catenin/T cell factor-mediated transcription. Further accumulation and nuclear localization of β-catenin, and/or increased cell proliferation, was achieved by stimulation of WNT signaling with either Wnt3a, LiCl, or the constitutively active S33Y mutant of β-catenin. In contrast, by blocking WNT signaling by dominant-negative T cell factor, we can interfere with the growth of MM cells. We therefore suggest that MM cells are dependent on an active WNT signal, which may have important implications for the management of this incurable form of cancer. PMID:15067127

  9. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching: Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior model, we find that consumers systematically visit multiple stores to take advantage of two types of store complementarity.With 'fixed cost complementarity', consumers alternate visits to highly preferr...

  10. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching : Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior

  11. Rational polypharmacology: systematically identifying and engaging multiple drug targets to promote axon growth

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    Al-Ali, Hassan; Lee, Do-Hun; Danzi, Matt C.; Nassif, Houssam; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Zuercher, Bill; Drewry, David H.; Lee, Jae K.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Bixby, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons regrow their axons poorly following injury, resulting in irreversible functional losses. Identifying therapeutics that encourage CNS axon repair has been difficult, in part because multiple etiologies underlie this regenerative failure. This suggests a particular need for drugs that engage multiple molecular targets. Although multi-target drugs are generally more effective than highly selective alternatives, we lack systematic methods for discovering such drugs. Target-based screening is an efficient technique for identifying potent modulators of individual targets. In contrast, phenotypic screening can identify drugs with multiple targets; however, these targets remain unknown. To address this gap, we combined the two drug discovery approaches using machine learning and information theory. We screened compounds in a phenotypic assay with primary CNS neurons and also in a panel of kinase enzyme assays. We used learning algorithms to relate the compounds’ kinase inhibition profiles to their influence on neurite outgrowth. This allowed us to identify kinases that may serve as targets for promoting neurite outgrowth, as well as others whose targeting should be avoided. We found that compounds that inhibit multiple targets (polypharmacology) promote robust neurite outgrowth in vitro. One compound with exemplary polypharmacology, was found to promote axon growth in a rodent spinal cord injury model. A more general applicability of our approach is suggested by its ability to deconvolve known targets for a breast cancer cell line, as well as targets recently shown to mediate drug resistance. PMID:26056718

  12. Regulation of the syncytin-1 promoter in human astrocytes by multiple sclerosis-related cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Astone, Vito; Khalili, Kamel; Serra, Caterina; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Dolei, Antonina

    2007-01-01

    Syncytin-1 has a physiological role during early pregnancy, as mediator of trophoblast fusion into the syncytiotrophoblast layer, hence allowing embryo implantation. In addition, its expression in nerve tissue has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Syncytin-1 is the env glycoprotein of the ERVWE1 component of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), located on chromosome 7q21-22, in a candidate region for genetic susceptibility to MS. The mechanisms of ERVWE1 regulation in nerve tissue remain to be identified. Since there are correlations between some cytokines and MS outcome, we examined the regulation of the syncytin-1 promoter by MS-related cytokines in human U-87MG astrocytic cells. Using transient transfection assays, we observed that the MS-detrimental cytokines TNFα, interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 activate the ERVWE1 promoter, while the MS-protective interferon-β is inhibitory. The effects of cytokines are reduced by the deletion of the cellular enhancer domain of the promoter that contains binding sites for several transcription factors. In particular, we found that TNFα had the ability to activate the ERVWE1 promoter through an NF-κB-responsive element located within the enhancer domain of the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and ChIP assays showed that TNFα enhances the binding of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, to its cognate site within the promoter. The effect of TNFα is abolished by siRNA directed against p65. Taken together, these results illustrate a role for p65 in regulating the ERVWE1 promoter and in TNFα-mediated induction of syncytin-1 in multiple sclerosis

  13. Methylation of class II transactivator gene promoter IV is not associated with susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis

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    Lincoln Matthew R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. In this study we sought to assess whether or not methylation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV could contribute to MS disease aetiology. Methods In DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a sample of 50 monozygotic disease discordant MS twins the MHC2TA promoter IV was sequenced and analysed by methylation specific PCR. Results No methylation or sequence variation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV was found. Conclusion The results of this study cannot support the notion that methylation of the pIV promoter of MHC2TA contributes to MS disease risk, although tissue and timing specific epigenetic modifications cannot be ruled out.

  14. Multiple sclerosis patients need and want information on exercise promotion from healthcare providers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An APOA1 promoter polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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    Koutsis, G; Panas, M; Giogkaraki, E; Karadima, G; Sfagos, C; Vassilopoulos, D

    2009-02-01

    Elevated ApoA1 levels have been associated with decreased dementia risk. The A-allele of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism has been associated with elevated ApoA1 levels. We sought to investigate the effect of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism on cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 138 patients with MS and 43 controls were studied and underwent neuropsychological assessment with Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery and the Stroop test. All patients were genotyped for APOA1. APOA1 A-allele carriers displayed superior overall cognitive performance compared with non-carriers (P 0.008) and had a three-fold decrease in the relative risk of overall cognitive impairment (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.74). Regarding performance on individual cognitive domains, although APOA1 A-allele carriers performed better than non-carriers on all tests, this was significant only for semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task (P 0.036 and 0.018, respectively). We found an association of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism with cognitive performance in MS. This effect was most prominent on semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task.

  16. Promotion of Self-Transcendence in a Multiple Sclerosis Peer Support Groups

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    Tahereh Ashktorab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-transcendence can organize the challenges of multiple sclerosis patients to achieve and maintain a constant state of well-being and sense of integrity in the disease process. As a research based on self-transcendence didn't done in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peer groups on promoting selftranscendence level in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a before and after quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 33 patients with confirmed MS participated in three peer support groups: 10 men in male group, 11 women in female group and 12 men and women in mixed group. Eight weekly sessions and each session was 2 hours were held. Data collection tool was Self-Transcendence Scale (STS with 15 item and Cronbach's coefficient was 0.68 that after modifying, it increased to 0.81. Patients completed self administered questionnaires pre- and post of sessions. Results: Results showed that peer support groups promote the self-transcendence (p=0.001 with increases in mean self-transcendence scores in all 3 groups (men group: 0.008, women group 0.005 and mixed group: 0.003. Comparing scores before and after intervention demonstrated that self-transcendence increased equally in all groups. Conclusion: The results showed an improving in self-transcendence in peer support group participants at the end of the intervention. The results can be used in areas of nursing education and management. It is proposed that the self-transcendence assessment to be done in other chronic disease in order to evaluate its efficiency.

  17. Contributions of vitamin D response elements and HLA promoters to multiple sclerosis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David; Castley, Alison; Tschochner, Monika; James, Ian; Qiu, Wei; Sayer, David; Christiansen, Frank T; Witt, Campbell; Mastaglia, Frank; Carroll, William; Kermode, Allan

    2012-08-07

    The identification of a vitamin D-responsive (VDRE) motif within the HLA-DRB1*15:01 promoter region provides an attractive explanation for the combined effects of HLA-DR inheritance and vitamin D exposure on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We therefore sought to incorporate HLA-DRB1 promoter variation, including the VDRE motif, in an assessment of HLA-DRB1-associated MS risk. We utilized 32 homozygous HLA cell lines (covering 17 DRB1 alleles) and 53 heterozygote MS samples (20 DRB1 alleles) for HLA-DRB1 promoter sequencing. The influence of HLA-DRB1 variation on MS risk was then assessed among 466 MS cases and 498 controls. The majority of HLA*DRB1 alleles (including HLA-DRB1*15:01) express the functional VDRE motif, apart from HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 alleles that comprise the HLA-DR53 serologic group. Allele-specific variation within functional X-box and Y-box motifs was also associated with serologically defined HLA-DR haplotypes. Incorporating these results in an analysis of MS risk, we identified a strong protective effect of HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 (DR53) alleles (p = 10(-12)) and elevated risk associated with DRB1*15 and *16 (DR51) and *08 (DR8) alleles (p < 10(-18)). HLA-DRB1 groups corresponding to serologic HLA-DR profiles as well as promoter polymorphism haplotypes effectively stratified MS risk over an 11-fold range, suggesting functional relationships between risk-modifying HLA-DRB1 alleles. An independent contribution of VDRE motif variation to increase MS risk was not discernible, although vitamin D-dependent regulation of HLA-DR expression may still play an important role given that HLA-DRB1*04/*07/*09 (DR53) alleles that express the "nonresponsive" VDRE motif were associated with significantly reduced risk of MS.

  18. Multiple promoters and alternative splicing: Hoxa5 transcriptional complexity in the mouse embryo.

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    Yan Coulombe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The genomic organization of Hox clusters is fundamental for the precise spatio-temporal regulation and the function of each Hox gene, and hence for correct embryo patterning. Multiple overlapping transcriptional units exist at the Hoxa5 locus reflecting the complexity of Hox clustering: a major form of 1.8 kb corresponding to the two characterized exons of the gene and polyadenylated RNA species of 5.0, 9.5 and 11.0 kb. This transcriptional intricacy raises the question of the involvement of the larger transcripts in Hox function and regulation.We have undertaken the molecular characterization of the Hoxa5 larger transcripts. They initiate from two highly conserved distal promoters, one corresponding to the putative Hoxa6 promoter, and a second located nearby Hoxa7. Alternative splicing is also involved in the generation of the different transcripts. No functional polyadenylation sequence was found at the Hoxa6 locus and all larger transcripts use the polyadenylation site of the Hoxa5 gene. Some larger transcripts are potential Hoxa6/Hoxa5 bicistronic units. However, even though all transcripts could produce the genuine 270 a.a. HOXA5 protein, only the 1.8 kb form is translated into the protein, indicative of its essential role in Hoxa5 gene function. The Hoxa6 mutation disrupts the larger transcripts without major phenotypic impact on axial specification in their expression domain. However, Hoxa5-like skeletal anomalies are observed in Hoxa6 mutants and these defects can be explained by the loss of expression of the 1.8 kb transcript. Our data raise the possibility that the larger transcripts may be involved in Hoxa5 gene regulation.Our observation that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts possess a developmentally-regulated expression combined to the increasing sum of data on the role of long noncoding RNAs in transcriptional regulation suggest that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts may participate in the control of Hox gene expression.

  19. Plutella xylostella granulovirus late gene promoter activity in the context of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He-Lin; Hu, Yuan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Lu-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Within Baculoviridae, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of replication in betabaculoviruses, despite extensive studies in alphabaculoviruses. In this study, the promoters of nine late genes of the betabaculovirus Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV) were cloned into a transient expression vector and the alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome, and compared with homologous late gene promoters of AcMNPV in Sf9 cells. In transient expression assays, all PlxyGV late promoters were activated in cells transfected with the individual reporter plasmids together with an AcMNPV bacmid. In infected cells, reporter gene expression levels with the promoters of PlxyGV e18 and AcMNPV vp39 and gp41 were significantly higher than those of the corresponding AcMNPV or PlxyGV promoters, which had fewer late promoter motifs. Observed expression levels were lower for the PlxyGV p6.9, pk1, gran, p10a, and p10b promoters than for the corresponding AcMNPV promoters, despite equal numbers of late promoter motifs, indicating that species-specific elements contained in some late promoters were favored by the native viral RNA polymerases for optimal transcription. The 8-nt sequence TAAATAAG encompassing the ATAAG motif was conserved in the AcMNPV polh, p10, and pk1 promoters. The 5-nt sequence CAATT located 4 or 5 nt upstream of the T/ATAAG motif was conserved in the promoters of PlxyGV gran, p10c, and pk1. The results of this study demonstrated that PlxyGV late gene promoters could be effectively activated by the RNA polymerase from AcMNPV, implying that late gene expression systems are regulated by similar mechanisms in alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviruses.

  20. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

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    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. Copyright © 2016 Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

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    Ahmed Al-Jazzar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1 promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor (HDTR transgene (Tg have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2, was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone.

  2. Combined therapy of interferon plus ribavirin promotes multiple adaptive solutions in hepatitis C virus.

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    Cuevas, José M; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Bracho, María A; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Carnicer, Fernando; Olmo, Juan Del; Ortega, Enrique; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents several regions involved potentially in evading antiviral treatment and host immune system. Two regions, known as PKR-BD and V3 domains, have been proposed to be involved in resistance to interferon. Additionally, hypervariable regions in the envelope E2 glycoprotein are also good candidates to participate in evasion from the immune system. In this study, we have used a cohort of 22 non-responder patients to combined therapy (interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin) for which samples obtained just before initiation of therapy and after 6 or/and 12 months of treatment were available. A range of 25-100 clones per patient, genome region and time sample were obtained. The predominant amino acid sequences for each time sample and patient were determined. Next, the sequences of the PKR-BD and V3 domains and the hypervariable regions from different time samples were compared for each patient. The highest levels of variability were detected at the three hypervariable regions of the E2 protein and, to a lower extent, at the V3 domain of the NS5A protein. However, no clear patterns of adaptation to the host immune system or to antiviral treatment were detected. In summary, although high levels of variability are correlated to viral adaptive response, antiviral treatment does not seem to promote convergent adaptive changes. Consequently, other regions must be involved in evasion strategies likely based on a combination of multiple mechanisms, in which pools of changes along the HCV genome could confer viruses the ability to overcome strong selective pressures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants…

  4. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  5. The respiratory syncytial virus polymerase has multiple RNA synthesis activities at the promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Noton

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is an RNA virus in the Family Paramyxoviridae. Here, the activities performed by the RSV polymerase when it encounters the viral antigenomic promoter were examined. RSV RNA synthesis was reconstituted in vitro using recombinant, isolated polymerase and an RNA oligonucleotide template representing nucleotides 1-25 of the trailer complement (TrC promoter. The RSV polymerase was found to have two RNA synthesis activities, initiating RNA synthesis from the +3 site on the promoter, and adding a specific sequence of nucleotides to the 3' end of the TrC RNA using a back-priming mechanism. Examination of viral RNA isolated from RSV infected cells identified RNAs initiated at the +3 site on the TrC promoter, in addition to the expected +1 site, and showed that a significant proportion of antigenome RNAs contained specific nucleotide additions at the 3' end, demonstrating that the observations made in vitro reflected events that occur during RSV infection. Analysis of the impact of the 3' terminal extension on promoter activity indicated that it can inhibit RNA synthesis initiation. These findings indicate that RSV polymerase-promoter interactions are more complex than previously thought and suggest that there might be sophisticated mechanisms for regulating promoter activity during infection.

  6. Using multiple schedules during functional communication training to promote rapid transfer of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Fuhrman, Ashley M; Querim, Angie C

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and therapists. With 2 children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Buying in multiple stores : Shopping strategies beyond price promotions and their effects on Store Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery-store switching has typically been viewed as evidence of cherry-picking behavior, with consumers switching stores to benefit from temporary promotional offers. However, research reveals that it may also result from a longer-term planning process based on stable store characteristics. Even in

  8. Quantitative Methylation Profiles for Multiple Tumor Suppressor Gene Promoters in Salivary Gland Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Megan L.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Shao, Chunbo; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Chuang, Alice Y.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Westra, William H.; Liegeois, Nanette J.; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David; Ha, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methylation profiling of tumor suppressor gene (TSGs) promoters is quickly becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for the early detection, prognosis, and even prediction of clinical response to treatment. Few studies address this in salivary gland tumors (SGTs); hence the promoter methylation profile of various TSGs was quantitatively assessed in primary SGT tissue to determine if tumor-specific alterations could be detected. Methodology DNA isolated from 78 tumor and 17 normal parotid gland specimens was assayed for promoter methylation status of 19 TSGs by fluorescence-based, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). The data were utilized in a binary fashion as well as quantitatively (using a methylation quotient) allowing for better profiling and interpretation of results. Principal Findings The average number of methylation events across the studied genes was highest in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), with a methylation value of 9.6, compared to the normal 4.5 (ptrend for increasing methylation in APC, Mint 1, PGP9.5, RAR-β, and Timp3. Conclusions/Significance Screening promoter methylation profiles in SGTs showed considerable heterogeneity. The methylation status of certain markers was surprisingly high in even normal salivary tissue, confirming the need for such controls. Several TSGs were found to be associated with malignant SGTs, especially SDC. Further study is needed to evaluate the potential use of these associations in the detection, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of these rare tumors. PMID:20520817

  9. Multiple promoters drive tissue-specific expression of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Alena; Bruce, A. W.; Doležal, Vladimír; Tuček, Stanislav; Buckley, N. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2004), s. 88-98 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : M2 muscarinic receptor * neuron-restrictive silence factor * promoter Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.824, year: 2004

  10. Quantitative promoter methylation analysis of multiple cancer-related genes in renal cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of cancer-associated genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis and may serve as a cancer biomarker. In this study we aimed at defining a quantitative gene promoter methylation panel that might identify the most prevalent types of renal cell tumors. Methods A panel of 18 gene promoters was assessed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP in 85 primarily resected renal tumors representing the four major histologic subtypes (52 clear cell (ccRCC, 13 papillary (pRCC, 10 chromophobe (chRCC, and 10 oncocytomas and 62 paired normal tissue samples. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation levels were determined and correlated with standard clinicopathological parameters. Results Significant differences in methylation levels among the four subtypes of renal tumors were found for CDH1 (p = 0.0007, PTGS2 (p = 0.002, and RASSF1A (p = 0.0001. CDH1 hypermethylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to chRCC and oncocytoma (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0034, respectively, whereas PTGS2 methylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to pRCC (p = 0.004. RASSF1A methylation levels were significantly higher in pRCC than in normal tissue (p = 0.035. In pRCC, CDH1 and RASSF1A methylation levels were inversely correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.031 and nuclear grade (p = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion The major subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms display differential aberrant CDH1, PTGS2, and RASSF1A promoter methylation levels. This gene panel might contribute to a more accurate discrimination among common renal tumors, improving preoperative assessment and therapeutic decision-making in patients harboring suspicious renal masses.

  11. Quantitative promoter methylation analysis of multiple cancer-related genes in renal cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Vera L; Henrique, Rui; Ribeiro, Franclim R; Pinto, Mafalda; Oliveira, Jorge; Lobo, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of cancer-associated genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis and may serve as a cancer biomarker. In this study we aimed at defining a quantitative gene promoter methylation panel that might identify the most prevalent types of renal cell tumors. A panel of 18 gene promoters was assessed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) in 85 primarily resected renal tumors representing the four major histologic subtypes (52 clear cell (ccRCC), 13 papillary (pRCC), 10 chromophobe (chRCC), and 10 oncocytomas) and 62 paired normal tissue samples. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation levels were determined and correlated with standard clinicopathological parameters. Significant differences in methylation levels among the four subtypes of renal tumors were found for CDH1 (p = 0.0007), PTGS2 (p = 0.002), and RASSF1A (p = 0.0001). CDH1 hypermethylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to chRCC and oncocytoma (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0034, respectively), whereas PTGS2 methylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to pRCC (p = 0.004). RASSF1A methylation levels were significantly higher in pRCC than in normal tissue (p = 0.035). In pRCC, CDH1 and RASSF1A methylation levels were inversely correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.031) and nuclear grade (p = 0.022), respectively. The major subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms display differential aberrant CDH1, PTGS2, and RASSF1A promoter methylation levels. This gene panel might contribute to a more accurate discrimination among common renal tumors, improving preoperative assessment and therapeutic decision-making in patients harboring suspicious renal masses

  12. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sree Pokkuluri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000. The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata and MCC (modified clonal classifier to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992 datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006 dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000 and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002 datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.

  13. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  14. Health promotion for young people with profound and multiple learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathy; Carter, Simone; Myers, Elizabeth; Rocca, Nicola

    2018-02-07

    Research confirms that children and young people with severe learning disabilities do not have the same level of access to high-quality care, health education and health promotion activities as children and young people without disabilities. This article discusses a quality improvement, action research project to investigate alternative approaches to health promotion that enhance the health and well-being of children and young people with complex neurodisabilities. The project involved assessment of school records and completion by staff of an eight-question survey. It found that the proactive approach of school nurses in raising awareness and understanding through questioning was positively received, and reinforced how meaningful and relevant information could be delivered to these young people. The project also had unexpected benefits, including more integrated team working, increased knowledge, greater awareness and understanding of the importance of health promotion participation, and student satisfaction. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  15. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jemielity

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4 specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS. TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple health behavior change: promoting physical activity and nutrition among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Sallis, James F

    2004-05-01

    Targeting multiple behaviors for change may provide significant health benefits. This study compared interventions targeting physical activity and nutrition (PAN) concurrently versus physical activity (PA) alone. Adolescents (N=138) were randomized to the PAN or PA intervention or control condition (n=46 per group). Primary outcomes were change in PA accelerometer and 3-day dietary recording from baseline to 3-month follow-up. The PAN and PA interventions were efficacious in supporting boys' (pdecrement to PA promotion when a nutrition intervention was added, neither do they reveal any additional benefit. More studies comparing single versus multibehavioral interventions are needed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  17. Automatic feedback to promote safe walking and speech loudness control in persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.

  18. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  19. Mechanism of Action of Bortezomib and the New Proteasome Inhibitors on Myeloma Cells and the Bone Microenvironment: Impact on Myeloma-Induced Alterations of Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Accardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by a high capacity to induce alterations in the bone remodeling process. The increase in osteoclastogenesis and the suppression of osteoblast formation are both involved in the pathophysiology of the bone lesions in MM. The proteasome inhibitor (PI bortezomib is the first drug designed and approved for the treatment of MM patients by targeting the proteasome. However, recently novel PIs have been developed to overcome bortezomib resistance. Interestingly, several preclinical data indicate that the proteasome complex is involved in both osteoclast and osteoblast formation. It is also evident that bortezomib either inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL or stimulates the osteoblast differentiation. Similarly, the new PIs including carfilzomib and ixazomib can inhibit bone resorption and stimulate the osteoblast differentiation. In a clinical setting, PIs restore the abnormal bone remodeling by normalizing the levels of bone turnover markers. In addition, a bone anabolic effect was described in responding MM patients treated with PIs, as demonstrated by the increase in the osteoblast number. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical evidence on the effects of bortezomib and other new PIs on myeloma bone disease.

  20. Autoantigen La promotes efficient RNAi, antiviral response, and transposon silencing by facilitating multiple-turnover RISC catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-11-04

    The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading the Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct the Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used the human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Progressive practice promotes motor learning and repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability across multiple days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Madsen, Mads Alexander Just; Bojsen-Møller, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Background: A session of motor skill learning is accompanied by transient increases in corticospinal excitability (CSE), which are thought to reflect acute changes in neuronal connectivity associated with improvements in sensorimotor performance. Factors influencing changes in excitability...... and motor skill with continued practice remain however to be elucidated. Objective/Hypothesis: Here we investigate the hypothesis that progressive motor practice during consecutive days can induce repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability and promote motor skill learning. Methods: Changes...... in motor performance and CSE were assessed during 4 consecutive days of skill learning and 8 days after the last practice session. CSE was assessed as area under recruitment curves (RC) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Two groups of participants (n = 12) practiced a visuomotor tracking...

  2. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention promoting multiple maternal and neonatal care practices in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwal Ram C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of delivering multiple, complex messages to promote maternal and newborn health in the terai region of Nepal was addressed through training Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs to counsel pregnant women and their families using a flipchart and a pictorial booklet that was distributed to clients. The booklet consists of illustrated messages presented on postcard-sized laminated cards that are joined by a ring. Pregnant women were encouraged to discuss booklet content with their families. Methods We examined use of the booklet and factors affecting adoption of practices through semi-structured interviews with district and community-level government health personnel, staff from the Nepal Family Health Program, FCHVs, recently delivered women and their husbands and mothers-in-law. Results The booklet is shared among household members, promotes discussion, and is referred to when questions arise or during emergencies. Booklet cards on danger signs and nutritious foods are particularly well-received. Cards on family planning and certain aspects of birth preparedness generate less interest. Husbands and mothers-in-law control decision-making for maternal and newborn care-seeking and related household-level behaviors. Conclusions Interpersonal peer communication through trusted community-level volunteers is an acceptable primary strategy in Nepal for promotion of household-level behaviors. The content and number of messages should be simplified or streamlined before being scaled-up to minimize intervention complexity and redundant communication.

  3. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  4. Klf5 deletion promotes Pten deletion-initiated luminal-type mouse prostate tumors through multiple oncogenic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqian; Dong, Eric N; Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-11-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer-mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5.

  5. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates multiple signaling pathways to promote lung cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Wang, Zhengxin

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in proteins. WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77), also known as p44, MEP50, or WD45, forms a stoichiometric complex with PRMT5. The PRMT5/p44 complex is required for cellular proliferation of lung and prostate epithelial cells during earlier stages of development and is re-activated during prostate and lung tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms by which PRMT5 and p44 promote cellular proliferation are unknown. Expression of PRMT5 and p44 in lung and prostate cancer cells was silenced and their target genes were identified. The regulation of target genes was validated in various cancer cells during lung development and tumorigenesis. Altered expression of target genes was achieved by ectopic cDNA expression and shRNA-mediated silencing. PRMT5 and p44 regulate expression of a specific set of genes encoding growth and anti-growth factors, including receptor tyrosine kinases and antiproliferative proteins. Genes whose expression was suppressed by PRMT5 and p44 encoded anti-growth factors and inhibited cell growth when ectopically expressed. In contrast, genes whose expression was enhanced by PRMT5 and p44 encoded growth factors and increased cell growth when expressed. Altered expression of target genes is associated with re-activation of PRMT5 and p44 during lung tumorigenesis. Our data provide the molecular basis by which PRMT5 and p44 regulate cell growth and lay a foundation for further investigation of their role in lung tumor initiation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2632-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. Human Neural Precursor Cells Promote Neurologic Recovery in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a viral model of the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS, we show that intraspinal transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hNPCs results in sustained clinical recovery, although hNPCs were not detectable beyond day 8 posttransplantation. Improved motor skills were associated with a reduction in neuroinflammation, decreased demyelination, and enhanced remyelination. Evidence indicates that the reduced neuroinflammation is correlated with an increased number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs within the spinal cords. Coculture of hNPCs with activated T cells resulted in reduced T cell proliferation and increased Treg numbers. The hNPCs acted, in part, through secretion of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2. These findings indicate that the transient presence of hNPCs transplanted in an animal model of MS has powerful immunomodulatory effects and mediates recovery. Further investigation of the restorative effects of hNPC transplantation may aid in the development of clinically relevant MS treatments.

  7. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  8. Resveratrol Promotes Remyelination in Cuprizone Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Biochemical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaiad, Heba R; Nooh, Mohammed M; El-Sawalhi, Maha M; Shaheen, Amira A

    2017-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disease, representing a major cause of neurological disability in young adults. Resveratrol is a stilbenoid polyphenol, known to pass blood brain barrier and exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in several brain injuries. Cuprizone model of MS is particularly beneficial in studying demyelination/remyelination. Our study examined the potential neuroprotective and pro-remyelination effects of resveratrol in cuprizone-intoxicated C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were fed with chow containing 0.7 % cuprizone for 7 days, followed by 3 weeks on 0.2 % cuprizone diet. Resveratrol (250 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for 3 weeks starting from the second week. At the end of the experiment, animals were tested on rotarod to evaluate changes in balance and motor coordination. Mice were then sacrificed to measure the brain content of glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adenosine triphosphate, and phospho-inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor κB-α. The activities of cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. The gene expression of myelin basic protein, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, oligodendrocyte transcription factor-1 (Olig1), NF-κB p65 subunit, and tumor necrosis factor-α was also estimated. Luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stained brain sections were blindly scored to assess the myelin status. Resveratrol effectively enhanced motor coordination and balance, reversed cuprizone-induced demyelination, improved mitochondrial function, alleviated oxidative stress, and inhibited NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, resveratrol increased Olig1 expression that is positively correlated to active remyelination. The present study may be the first to indicate a pro-remyelinative effect for resveratrol which might represent a potential additive benefit in treating MS.

  9. Promoting Physical Activity Through a Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Intervention in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and feasibility of a multifactorial intervention to increase lifestyle physical activity in nonambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) based on wheelchair optimization, propulsion skill/technique training, and behavioral strategies based on social cognitive theory. Randomized controlled trial, 3-month postintervention follow-up. Home and general community, and university research laboratory. Nonambulatory individuals with MS (N=14; mean age ± SD, 53.6±8.7y) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). After baseline testing, the IG participants received custom-fit, ultralightweight manual wheelchairs with propulsion/skills training, followed by 3 months of at-home use with the custom ultralightweight wheelchair and weekly phone calls to deliver support through a multifactorial intervention. The CG participants received no training and used their own wheelchairs at home during this time. All subjects were assessed at baseline and 3 months later for fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), upper extremity strength (digital handheld dynamometer), and propulsion technique (on a treadmill [0.5m/s] with instrumented wheels). Two 1-week bouts of physical activity were measured in both groups from home with wrist-worn accelerometry at the beginning (IG and CG in own wheelchairs) and end (IG in study wheelchair, CG in own) of the 3-month period of home use. The intervention was well tolerated, and no adverse events were reported. The IG demonstrated increased strength (P=.008) and a trend toward less fatigue (P=.068), both with large effect sizes (d>0.8), as well as reduced application of braking torque during propulsion (P=.003) with a moderate/large effect size (d=.73), compared with the CG. Findings suggest a 3-month physical activity intervention based on manual wheelchair propulsion and training is safe and feasible for some wheelchair users living with MS and may produce secondary benefits in strength

  10. An examination of the Apo-1/Fas promoter Mva I polymorphism in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Yabe Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apo-1/Fas (CD95 molecule is an apoptosis-signaling cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor family. Both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL are expressed in activated mature T cells, and prolonged cell activation induces susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The Apo-1/Fas gene is located in a chromosomal region that shows linkage in multiple sclerosis (MS genome screens, and studies indicate that there is aberrant expression of the Apo-1/Fas molecule in MS. Methods Mva I polymorphism on the Apo-1/Fas promoter gene was detected by PCR-RFLP from the DNA of 114 Japanese patients with conventional MS and 121 healthy controls. We investigated the association of the Mva I polymorphism in Japanese MS patients using a case-control association study design. Results We found no evidence that the polymorphism contributes to susceptibility to MS. Furthermore, there was no association between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and clinical course (relapsing-remitting course or secondary-progressive course. No significant association was observed between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and the age at disease onset. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that Apo-1/Fas promoter gene polymorphisms are not conclusively related to susceptibility to MS or the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with MS.

  11. Pim kinases phosphorylate multiple sites on Bad and promote 14-3-3 binding and dissociation from Bcl-XL

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    Hastie C James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pim-1, 2 and 3 are a group of enzymes related to the calcium calmodulin family of protein kinases. Over-expression of Pim-1 and Pim-2 in mice promotes the development of lymphomas, and up-regulation of Pim expression has been observed in several human cancers. Results Here we show that the pim kinases are constitutively active when expressed in HEK-293 cells and are able to phosphorylate the Bcl-2 family member Bad on three residues, Ser112, Ser136 and Ser155 in vitro and in cells. In vitro mapping showed that Pim-2 predominantly phosphorylated Ser112, while Pim-1 phosphorylated Ser112, but also Ser136 and Ser155 at a reduced rate compared to Ser112. Pim-3 was found to be the least specific for Ser112, and the most effective at phosphorylating Ser136 and Ser155. Pim-3 was also able to phosphorylate other sites in Bad in vitro, including Ser170, another potential in vivo site. Mutation of Ser136 to alanine prevented the phosphorylation of Ser112 and Ser155 by Pim kinases in HEK-293 cells, suggesting that this site must be phosphorylated first in order to make the other sites accessible. Pim phosphorylation of Bad was also found to promote the 14-3-3 binding of Bad and block its association with Bcl-XL. Conclusion All three Pim kinase family members predominantly phosphorylate Bad on Ser112 and in addition are capable of phosphorylating Bad on multiple sites associated with the inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of Bad in HEK-293 cells. This would be consistent with the proposed function of Pim kinases in promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell death.

  12. The impact of self-transcendence on physical health status promotion in multiple sclerosis patients attending peer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JadidMilani, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; AbedSaeedi, Zhila; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-transcendence on the physical health of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients attending peer support groups. This study was a quasi-experimental before-and-after design including 33 MS patients in three groups: 10 men in the men-only group, 11 women in the women-only group, and 12 men and women in the mixed group. Participants were required to attend eight weekly sessions of 2 h each. Instruments included the physical health section of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. Peer support group attendance was found to have a significant positive effect on the physical health and self-transcendence of MS patients when comparing average scores before and after attendance. Regression analysis showed that improvement in self-transcendence predicted improvement in physical health. Results show the positive effects of peer support groups on self-transcendence and physical health in MS patients, and suggest that improvement in well-being can be gained by promoting self-transcendence and physical health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Recurrent TERT promoter mutations identified in a large-scale study of multiple tumor types are associated with increased TERT expression and telomerase activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Zhaohui; He, Xu-Jun; Diplas, Bill H.; Yang, Rui; Killela, Patrick J.; Liang, Junbo; Meng, Qun; Ye, Zai-Yuan; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Ting; Xu, Li; He, Xiang-Lei; Zhao, Zhong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hui-Ju; Ma, Ying-Yu; Xia, Ying-Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Ru-Xuan; Jin, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Kuo; Xu, Ji; Yu, Sheng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Si-Zhen; Jiao, Yu-Chen; Yan, Hai; Tao, Hou-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several somatic mutation hotspots were recently identified in the TERT promoter region in human cancers. Large scale studies of these mutations in multiple tumor types are limited, in particular in Asian populations. This study aimed to: analyze TERT promoter mutations in multiple tumor types in a large Chinese patient cohort, investigate novel tumor types and assess the functional significance of the mutations. Methods TERT promoter mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing for 13 different tumor types and 799 tumor tissues from Chinese cancer patients. Thymic epithelial tumors, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, and gastric schwannoma were included, for which the TERT promoter has not been previously sequenced. Functional studies included TERT expression by RT-qPCR, telomerase activity by the TRAP assay, and promoter activity by the luciferase reporter assay. Results TERT promoter mutations were highly frequent in glioblastoma (83.9%), urothelial carcinoma (64.5%), oligodendroglioma (70.0%), medulloblastoma (33.3%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (31.4%). C228T and C250T were the most common mutations. In urothelial carcinoma, several novel rare mutations were identified. TERT promoter mutations were absent in GIST, thymic epithelial tumors, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, gastric schwannoma, cholangiocarcinoma, gastric and pancreatic cancer. TERT promoter mutations highly correlated with upregulated TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in adult gliomas. These mutations differentially enhanced the transcriptional activity of the TERT core promoter. Conclusions TERT promoter mutations are frequent in multiple tumor types and have similar distributions in Chinese cancer patients. The functional significance of these mutations reflect the importance to telomere maintenance and hence tumorigenesis, making them potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25843513

  14. PSMB4 promotes multiple myeloma cell growth by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Peihao; Guo, Honggang [Department of Hematology, Navy General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Guangchao [School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Stomatology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyi2033@163.com [Department of Hematology, Navy General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Proteasomal subunit PSMB4, was recently identified as potential cancer driver genes in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanism of PSMB4 on carcinogenesis process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of PSMB4 in multiple myeloma (MM). We found a significant up-regulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of PSMB4 promoted cell growth and colony forming ability of MM cells, whereas inhibition of PSMB4 led to a decrease of such events. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the up-regulation of miR-21 and a positive correlation between the levels of miR-21 and PSMB4 in MM. Re-expression of miR-21 markedly rescued PSMB4 knockdown-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and clone-formation. Additionally, while enforced expression of PSMB4 profoundly increased NF-κB activity and the level of miR-21, PSMB4 knockdown or NF-κB inhibition suppressed miR-21 expression in MM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PSMB4 regulated MM cell growth in part by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling, which may represent promising targets for novel specific therapies. - Highlights: • First reported upregulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4 promoted MM cell growth and colony forming ability. • Further found miR-21 was up-regulated by PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4-induced miR-21 expression was modulated by NF-κB. • PSMB4-NF-κB-miR-21 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of MM.

  15. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

    2009-01-20

    Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  16. The Vasa Homolog RDE-12 engages target mRNA and multiple argonaute proteins to promote RNAi in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Masaki; Stanney, William; Gu, Weifeng; Seth, Meetu; Mello, Craig C

    2014-04-14

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins are key nuclease effectors of RNAi. Although purified AGOs can mediate a single round of target RNA cleavage in vitro, accessory factors are required for small interfering RNA (siRNA) loading and to achieve multiple-target turnover. To identify AGO cofactors, we immunoprecipitated the C. elegans AGO WAGO-1, which engages amplified small RNAs during RNAi. These studies identified a robust association between WAGO-1 and a conserved Vasa ATPase-related protein RDE-12. rde-12 mutants are deficient in RNAi, including viral suppression, and fail to produce amplified secondary siRNAs and certain endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). RDE-12 colocalizes with WAGO-1 in germline P granules and in cytoplasmic and perinuclear foci in somatic cells. These findings and our genetic studies suggest that RDE-12 is first recruited to target mRNA by upstream AGOs (RDE-1 and ERGO-1), where it promotes small RNA amplification and/or WAGO-1 loading. Downstream of these events, RDE-12 forms an RNase-resistant (target mRNA-independent) complex with WAGO-1 and may thus have additional functions in target mRNA surveillance and silencing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Constitutive activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells contributes to osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; He, Jin; Wang, Ji; Cao, Yabing; Ling, Jianhua; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Zheng, Yuhuan; Lan, Yongsheng; Hong, Sungyoul; Matthews, Jairo; Starbuck, Michael W; Navone, Nora M; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Lin, Pei; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma and affects more than 80% of patients. However, current therapy is unable to completely cure and/or prevent bone lesions. Although it is accepted that myeloma cells mediate bone destruction by inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that constitutive activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in myeloma cells is responsible for myeloma-induced osteolysis. Our results show that p38 is constitutively activated in most myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells from patients. Myeloma cells with high/detectable p38 activity, but not those with low/undetectable p38 activity, injected into SCID or SCID-hu mice caused bone destruction. Inhibition or knockdown of p38 in human myeloma reduced or prevented myeloma-induced osteolytic bone lesions without affecting tumor growth, survival, or homing to bone. Mechanistic studies showed that myeloma cell p38 activity inhibited osteoblastogenesis and bone formation and activated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in myeloma-bearing SCID mice. This study elucidates a novel molecular mechanism—sactivation of p38 signaling in myeloma cells—by which myeloma cells induce osteolytic bone lesions and indicates that targeting myeloma cell p38 may be a viable approach to treating or preventing myeloma bone disease. PMID:22425892

  18. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  19. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promoter -2518 polymorphism and susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promoter -2518 A/G polymorphism (rs1024611) is associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or multiple sclerosis (MS). A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis, RA, and MS. Fourteen studies from 13 articles, including six on vasculitis, five on RA, and three on MS, consisting of 3,038 patients and 3,545 controls were available for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and vasculitis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.990, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.749-1.309, p = 0.943). Stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the G allele of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis in Asians and Caucasians. Meta-analysis by vasculitis type revealed an association between the GG+GA genotype of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and Behçet's disease (BD; OR = 1.349, 95% CI = 1.013-1.796, p = 0.040). However, sensitivity analysis showed that the association was not statistically significant after removing a study that was conducted in China (OR = 1.030, 95% CI = 0.667-1.590, p = 0.895), which indicated that the association was not statistically robust. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and RA (OR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.890-1.093, p = 0.793) or MS (OR = 1.281, 95% CI = 0.802-2.046, p = 0.301). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, RA, or MS.

  1. Structural characterization of a novel full-length transcript promoter from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its transcriptional regulation by multiple stress responsive transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahamed; Shrestha, Ankita; Bhuyan, Kashyap; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a. The activity of full length transcript (Flt-) promoter from HRLV (- 677 to + 283) was investigated in both transient and transgenic assays where we identified H12 (- 427 to + 73) as the highest expressing fragment having ~ 2.5-fold stronger activity than the CaMV35S promoter. The H12 promoter was highly active and near-constitutive in the vegetative and reproductive parts of both Tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic plants. Interestingly, H12 contains a distinct cluster of cis-elements like dehydration-responsive element (DRE-core; GCCGAC), an ABA-responsive element (ABRE; ACGTGTC) and as-1 element (TGACG) which are known to be induced by cold, drought and pathogen/SA respectively. The specific binding of DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a to DRE, ABRE and as-1 elements respectively were confirmed by the gel-binding assays using H12 promoter-specific probes. Detailed mutational analysis of the H12 promoter suggested that the presence of DRE-core and as-1 element was indispensable for its activity which was further confirmed by the transactivation assays. Our studies imply that H12 could be a valuable genetic tool for regulated transgene expression under diverse environmental conditions.

  2. Emerging Importance of Helicases in Plant Stress Tolerance: Characterization of Oryza sativa Repair Helicase XPB2 Promoter and Its Functional Validation in Tobacco under Multiple Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, Shailendra; Srivastava, Vineet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. Helicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as prospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in nucleic acid metabolism including DNA repair. The repair helicase, XPB is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress conditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of Oryza sativa XPB2 (OsXPB2). The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of OsXPB2 promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. The present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration, or cold) and hormone (Auxin, ABA, or MeJA) induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA, or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present findings suggest that OsXPB2 promoter is a multi-stress inducible promoter and has potential applications in sustainable crop production under abiotic stresses by regulating desirable pattern of gene expression.

  3. Emerging importance of helicases in plant stress tolerance: characterization of Oryza sativa repair helicase XPB2 promoter and its functional validation in tobacco under multiple stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra eRaikwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. DNA hHelicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as potentialprospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in a variety of DNA nucleic acid metabolismc processes including DNA repair. The DNA repair helicase, OsXPB2 is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress The analysis of promoter sequence from plant genome is important in understanding the gene regulation. Hereconditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of rice Oryza sativa OsXPB2 (OsXPB2. gene is reported. The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of novel stress inducible promoter of rice OsXPB2 gene promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. Our resultsThe present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration or cold and hormone (Auxin, ABA or MeJA induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-transient assays using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present

  4. Regulation of the CD56 promoter and its association with proliferation, anti-apoptosis and clinical factors in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Tina; Knudsen, Lene M; Dahl, Inger Marie S

    2009-01-01

    the regulation of the CD56 promoter in relation to typical clinical factors. We used qPCR and FACS to measure the expression levels of CD56, and potential regulatory factors in patients with MM and related these with MM progression/prognosis. The transcription factors BTBD3, Pax5, RUNX1 and MMSET were positively...... associated with CD56 expression, as was CYCLIN D1, which is involved in disease progression, anti-apoptosis and proliferation. RUNX1 was negatively associated with the survival of stem-cell transplanted patients. Our findings propose four potential activators of the CD56 promoter and for CD56 to be involved...

  5. Self-healing method as strategy to promote health and rehabilitation of people with multiple sclerosis in the context of occupational therapy

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    Paula Pozzi Pimentel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is a neurological chronic disease with continuous and differentiated evolution, it demands body self-knowledge for better understanding of preserved capacities, gradual losses and repercussion in the performance of activities and social participation. Objective: To analyze the group experience of the application of physical techniques based on self-healing method for health promotion and rehabilitation of people with multiple sclerosis, developed by Occupational Therapy. Method: Documental qualitative research referring to written records and audio transcripts of group sessions. Data analysis used the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: Ten adults with multiple sclerosis, with varying ages and disease times, participated in the therapeutic group. Five participants reported representations and experiences due to the disease and the effect of learning the physical techniques of self-sealing. The benefits include a greater body awareness, decreased symptoms, improved functional capacity and recognition of the need of body practice routine. Conclusion: The therapeutic use of self-healing method demonstrated its applicability to promote the health benefits, rehabilitation, according to health policies. Due to limited literature on the benefits of using the self-healing method indicates the development of new studies.

  6. Transcript profiling of different types of multiple sclerosis lesions yields FGF1 as a promoter of remyelination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohan, Hema; Friese, Anita; Albrecht, Stefanie; Krumbholz, Markus; Elliott, Christina L; Arthur, Ariel; Menon, Ramesh; Farina, Cinthia; Junker, Andreas; Stadelmann, Christine; Barnett, Susan C; Huitinga, I.; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Lassmann, Hans; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Linington, Chris; Meinl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Chronic demyelination is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Only a minority of MS lesions remyelinates completely. Enhancing remyelination is, therefore, a major aim of future MS therapies. Here we took a novel approach to identify factors that may inhibit or support endogenous

  7. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

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    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  8. Interdisciplinary health promotion: a call for theory-based interventions drawing on the skills of multiple disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jonathon Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Promoting the health of populations demands the adoption of a perspective exploring the societal, political, community, family and individual determinants of health. I will argue that to develop interventions to modify health-related behaviours and health risks requires collaboration with a range of disciplines, in order to draw upon their theoretical, empirical and oftentimes political knowledge. To illustrate this thesis, I will draw upon research in three areas: improving oral health-related behaviours in individuals with periodontal disease and childhood caries; encouraging early recognition in head and neck cancer; and managing dental anxiety. Reviews of oral health education in the early 1990 s suggested that approaches based on education were largely ineffective in the absence of the provision of fluoride supplementation. More recently, high-quality research has identified simple, theory-based interventions that can improve adherence to specific oral hygiene-related behaviours. Similarly, a range of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for targeting caries-related behaviours in targeted groups. Dental anxiety remains a significant barrier to the uptake of dental services, and again, by working in multi-disciplinary teams, a proportionate and comprehensive range of interventions can be adopted to alleviate the burden of dental fear. Finally, head and neck cancer has potentially serious effects for sufferers, but often presents late for a variety of reasons. Through developing a theoretical model of help-seeking behaviour, psychologists have been able to identify targets for interventions and work together with the healthcare team to develop these. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The multiple faces of a sustainability strategy. Analysing Finland's programme to promote sustainable consumption and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.

    2012-07-01

    This study discusses broad national sustainability programmes as multi-faceted and controversial hybrids. It concentrates on one pioneering case, the Finnish Programme to Promote Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) that was published in 2005. It is claimed that much-used effectiveness-focused analytical approaches fail to address some of the key characteristics of the Programme. Empirical analysis combined with a theory review reveals at least four different perspectives from which the Finnish SCP Programme can be fruitfully grasped, viewed and acted upon: the Bullet, Process, Ritual and Depiction perspectives. Together, these make up a multi-perspective analytical approach that outlines the programme profile and facilitates comparison of the differences between the acts, expectations and perceptions of various actors. (1) The Bullet perspective follows the traditional effectiveness approach based on the assumption that broad sustainability programmes have outputs and outcomes that are described in the programme document. (2) According to the Process perspective, the programme process has some effects but their exact form and direction cannot be predetermined due to the institutionally ambiguous context. (3) The Ritual perspective emphasises the symbolic dimension of action, and that the innermost meaning of programme making may go beyond its manifested goals. (4) Last but not least, the Depiction perspective reflects how the programme document and process construct, renew and silence some meaning structures, in this case about SCP. Analysed from these four perspectives, respectively, it turns out that Finland's SCP Programme: (1) has quite scarce outputs compared to the grand challenges and visions presented, the key ones including the establishment of a material-efficiency centre, a research programme and an initiative to green public procurement; (2) has raised awareness of SCP among major actors in the field, which has had various unprompted

  10. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  11. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgMO237, interacts with multiple host defence-related proteins to manipulate plant basal immunity and promote parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansong; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Huang, Kun; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

    2018-02-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we report a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which is exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third-/fourth-stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 showed an increased susceptibility to M. graminicola. In contrast, rice plants expressing RNA interference vectors targeting MgMO237 showed an increased resistance to M. graminicola. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that MgMO237 interacted specifically with three rice endogenous proteins, i.e. 1,3-β-glucan synthase component (OsGSC), cysteine-rich repeat secretory protein 55 (OsCRRSP55) and pathogenesis-related BetvI family protein (OsBetvI), which are all related to host defences. Moreover, MgMO237 can suppress host defence responses, including the expression of host defence-related genes, cell wall callose deposition and the burst of reactive oxygen species. These results demonstrate that the effector MgMO237 probably promotes the parasitism of M. graminicola by interacting with multiple host defence-related proteins and suppressing plant basal immunity in the later parasitic stages of nematodes. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium, all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease; the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.

  13. Multiple 5' ends of human cytomegalovirus UL57 transcripts identify a complex, cycloheximide-resistant promoter region that activates oriLyt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Anita; Huang, Lili; Franchi, David; Anders, David G.

    2003-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL57 gene lies adjacent to HCMV oriLyt, from which it is separated by an organizationally conserved, mostly noncoding region that is thought to both regulate UL57 expression and activate oriLyt function. However, the UL57 promoter has not been studied. We determined the 5' ends of UL57 transcripts toward an understanding of the potential relationship between UL57 expression and oriLyt activation. The results presented here identified three distinct 5' ends spread over 800 bp, at nt 90302, 90530, and 91138; use of these sites exhibited differential sensitivity to phosphonoformic acid treatment. Interestingly, a 10-kb UL57 transcript accumulated in cycloheximide-treated infected cells, even though other early transcripts were not detectable. However, the 10-kb transcript did not accumulate in cells treated with the more stringent translation inhibitor anisomycin. Consistent with the notion that the identified 5' ends arise from distinct transcription start sites, the sequences upstream of sites I and II functioned as promoters responsive to HCMV infection in transient assays. However, the origin-proximal promoter region III required downstream sequences for transcriptional activity. Mutation of candidate core promoter elements suggested that promoter III is regulated by an initiator region (Inr) and a downstream promoter element. Finally, a 42-bp sequence containing the candidate Inr activated a minimal oriLyt core construct in transient replication assays. Thus, these studies showed that a large, complex promoter region with novel features controls UL57 expression, and identified a sequence that regulates both UL57 transcription and oriLyt activation

  14. Effects of gene orientation and use of multiple promoters on the expression of XYL1 and XYL2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Yun Bae; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Orientation of adjacent genes has been reported to affect their expression in eukaryotic systems, and metabolic engineering also often makes repeated use of a few promoters to obtain high expression. To improve transcriptional control in heterologous expression, we examined how these factors affect gene expression and enzymatic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We...

  15. Multiple cis-regulatory elements are involved in the complex regulation of the sieve element-specific MtSEO-F1 promoter from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsenez, M; Rüping, B; Behrens, S; Twyman, R M; Noll, G A; Prüfer, D

    2012-09-01

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family includes several members that are expressed specifically in immature sieve elements (SEs) in the developing phloem of dicotyledonous plants. To determine how this restricted expression profile is achieved, we analysed the SE-specific Medicago truncatula SEO-F1 promoter (PMtSEO-F1) by constructing deletion, substitution and hybrid constructs and testing them in transgenic tobacco plants using green fluorescent protein as a reporter. This revealed four promoter regions, each containing cis-regulatory elements that activate transcription in SEs. One of these segments also contained sufficient information to suppress PMtSEO-F1 transcription in the phloem companion cells (CCs). Subsequent in silico analysis revealed several candidate cis-regulatory elements that PMtSEO-F1 shares with other SEO promoters. These putative sieve element boxes (PSE boxes) are promising candidates for cis-regulatory elements controlling the SE-specific expression of PMtSEO-F1. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Epigenetic profiling of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes including BCL7a, PTPRG, and p73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Remco; Zoutman, Willem H; Dijkman, Remco; de Menezes, Renee X; Commandeur, Suzan; Mulder, Aat A; van der Velden, Pieter A; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Tim H; Tensen, Cornelis P

    2005-06-10

    To analyze the occurrence of promoter hypermethylation in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) on a genome-wide scale, focusing on epigenetic alterations with pathogenetic significance. DNA isolated from biopsy specimens of 28 patients with CTCL, including aggressive CTCL entities (transformed mycosis fungoides and CD30-negative large T-cell lymphoma) and an indolent entity (CD30-positive large T-cell lymphoma), were investigated. For genome-wide DNA methylation screening, differential methylation hybridization using CpG island microarrays was applied, which allows simultaneous detection of the methylation status of 8640 CpG islands. Bisulfite sequence analysis was applied for confirmation and detection of hypermethylation of eight selected tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methylation patterns of CTCLs emerging from differential methylation hybridization analysis included 35 CpG islands hypermethylated in at least four of the 28 studied CTCL samples when compared with benign T-cell samples. Hypermethylation of the putative tumor suppressor genes BCL7a (in 48% of CTCL samples), PTPRG (27%), and thrombospondin 4 (52%) was confirmed and demonstrated to be associated with transcriptional downregulation. BCL7a was hypermethylated at a higher frequency in aggressive (64%) than in indolent (14%) CTCL entities. In addition, the promoters of the selected tumor suppressor genes p73 (48%), p16 (33%), CHFR (19%), p15 (10%), and TMS1 (10%) were hypermethylated in CTCL. Malignant T cells of patients with CTCL display widespread promoter hypermethylation associated with inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis signaling pathways. In view of this, CTCL may be amenable to treatment with demethylating agents.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strukov, E.L.; Dryguina, L.B.; Nikiforova, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  18. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  19. Bacillus species (BT42) isolated from Coffea arabica L. rhizosphere antagonizes Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum and also exhibits multiple plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejela, Tekalign; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakor, Parth

    2016-11-18

    Colletotrichum and Fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting Coffea arabica L., resulting in major yield loss. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth. A total of 42 Bacillus species were isolated, one of the isolates named BT42 showed maximum radial mycelial growth inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (78%) and Fusarium oxysporum (86%). BT42 increased germination of Coffee arabica L. seeds by 38.89%, decreased disease incidence due to infection of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to 2.77% and due to infection of Fusarium oxysporum to 0 (p Fusarium oxysporum. The mechanism of action of inhibition of the pathogenic fungi found to be synergistic effects of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, and siderophores. The major inhibitory secondary metabolite identified as harmine (β-carboline alkaloids).

  20. Multiple regulatory mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor expression in malignant cells with a short poly(dA) sequence in the HGF gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Takeda, Masayuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression is a poor prognostic factor in various types of cancer. Expression levels of HGF have been reported to be regulated by shorter poly(dA) sequences in the promoter region. In the present study, the poly(dA) mononucleotide tract in various types of human cancer cell lines was examined and compared with the HGF expression levels in those cells. Short deoxyadenosine repeat sequences were detected in five of the 55 cell lines used in the present study. The H69, IM95, CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells exhibited a truncated poly(dA) sequence in which the number of poly(dA) repeats was reduced by ≥5 bp. Two of the cell lines exhibited high HGF expression, determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells with shorter poly(dA) sequences exhibited low HGF expression. The cause of the suppression of HGF expression in the CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells was clarified by two approaches, suppression by methylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HGF gene. Exposure to 5-Aza-dC, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1, induced an increased expression of HGF in the CCK-81 cells, but not in the other cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72525097 in intron 1 was detected in the Sui73 and H28 cells. Taken together, it was found that the defect of poly(dA) in the HGF promoter was present in various types of cancer, including lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreas and mesothelioma. The present study proposes the negative regulation mechanisms by methylation and SNP in intron 1 of HGF for HGF expression in cancer cells with short poly(dA).

  1. When it comes to lifestyle recommendations, more is sometimes less: a meta-analysis of theoretical assumptions underlying the effectiveness of interventions promoting multiple behavior domain change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Senay, Ibrahim; Durantini, Marta; Sánchez, Flor; Hennessy, Michael; Spring, Bonnie; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-03-01

    A meta-analysis of 150 research reports summarizing the results of multiple behavior domain interventions examined theoretical predictions about the effects of the included number of recommendations on behavioral and clinical change in the domains of smoking, diet, and physical activity. The meta-analysis yielded 3 main conclusions. First, there is a curvilinear relation between the number of behavioral recommendations and improvements in behavioral and clinical measures, with a moderate number of recommendations producing the highest level of change. A moderate number of recommendations is likely to be associated with stronger effects because the intervention ensures the necessary level of motivation to implement the recommended changes, thereby increasing compliance with the goals set by the intervention, without making the intervention excessively demanding. Second, this curve was more pronounced when samples were likely to have low motivation to change, such as when interventions were delivered to nonpatient (vs. patient) populations, were implemented in nonclinic (vs. clinic) settings, used lay community (vs. expert) facilitators, and involved group (vs. individual) delivery formats. Finally, change in behavioral outcomes mediated the effects of number of recommended behaviors on clinical change. These findings provide important insights that can help guide the design of effective multiple behavior domain interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. When It Comes to Lifestyle Recommendations, More is Sometimes Less: A Meta-Analysis of Theoretical Assumptions Underlying the Effectiveness of Interventions Promoting Multiple Behavior Domain Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Senay, Ibrahim; Durantini, Marta; Sánchez, Flor; Hennessy, Michael; Spring, Bonnie; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 150 research reports summarizing the results of multiple behavior domain interventions examined theoretical predictions about the effects of the included number of recommendations on behavioral and clinical change in the domains of smoking, diet, and physical activity. The meta-analysis yielded three main conclusions. First, there is a curvilinear relation between the number of behavioral recommendations and improvements in behavioral and clinical measures, with a moderate number of recommendations producing the highest level of change. A moderate number of recommendations is likely to be associated with stronger effects because the intervention ensures the necessary level of motivation to implement the recommended changes, thereby increasing compliance with the goals set by the intervention, without making the intervention excessively demanding. Second, this curve was more pronounced when samples were likely to have low motivation to change, such as when interventions were delivered to non-patient (vs. patient) populations, were implemented in non-clinic (vs. clinic) settings, used lay community (vs. expert) facilitators, and involved group (vs. individual) delivery formats. Finally, change in behavioral outcomes mediated the effects of number of recommended behaviors on clinical change. These findings provide important insights that can help guide the design of effective multiple behavior domain interventions. PMID:25528345

  3. EBI2 Is Highly Expressed in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and Promotes Early CNS Migration of Encephalitogenic CD4 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wanke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrival of encephalitogenic T cells at inflammatory foci represents a critical step in development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. EBI2 and its ligand, 7α,25-OHC, direct immune cell localization in secondary lymphoid organs. CH25H and CYP7B1 hydroxylate cholesterol to 7α,25-OHC. During EAE, we found increased expression of CH25H by microglia and CYP7B1 by CNS-infiltrating immune cells elevating the ligand concentration in the CNS. Two critical pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-23 (IL-23 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, maintained expression of EBI2 in differentiating Th17 cells. In line with this, EBI2 enhanced early migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS in a transfer EAE model. Nonetheless, EBI2 was dispensable in active EAE. Human Th17 cells do also express EBI2, and EBI2 expressing cells are abundant within multiple sclerosis (MS white matter lesions. These findings implicate EBI2 as a mediator of CNS autoimmunity and describe mechanistically its contribution to the migration of autoreactive T cells into inflamed organs.

  4. Rab11-family of interacting protein 2 associates with chlamydial inclusions through its Rab-binding domain and promotes bacterial multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Natalia; Capmany, Anahí; Damiani, María Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, survives within host cells in a special compartment named 'inclusion' and takes advantage of host vesicular transport pathways for its growth and replication. Rab GTPases are key regulatory proteins of intracellular trafficking. Several Rabs, among them Rab11 and Rab14, are implicated in chlamydial development. FIP2, a member of the Rab11-Family of Interacting Proteins, presents at the C-terminus a Rab-binding domain that interacts with both Rab11 and Rab14. In this study, we determined and characterized the recruitment of endogenous and GFP-tagged FIP2 to the chlamydial inclusions. The recruitment of FIP2 is specific since other members of the Rab11-Family of Interacting Proteins do not associate with the chlamydial inclusions. The Rab-binding domain of FIP2 is essential for its association. Our results indicate that FIP2 binds to Rab11 at the chlamydial inclusion membrane through its Rab-binding domain. The presence of FIP2 at the chlamydial inclusion favours the recruitment of Rab14. Furthermore, our results show that FIP2 promotes inclusion development and bacterial replication. In agreement, the silencing of FIP2 decreases the bacterial progeny. C. trachomatis likely recruits FIP2 to hijack host intracellular trafficking to redirect vesicles full of nutrients towards the inclusion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Let's Talk about Children Evaluation (LTCE) study in northern Finland: a multiple group ecological study of children's health promotion activities with a municipal and time-trend design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Veikko; Jokinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Pohjola, Anneli

    2017-07-13

    Making change towards child and family-based and coordinated services is critical to improve quality, outcomes and value. The Let's Talk about Children (LTC) approach, which consists of brief psychoeducational discussions with parents of kindergarten-aged and school-aged children, has been launched as a municipality-specific programme in the Council of Oulu Region. The aim of this paper is to present a protocol of an ecological study evaluating the group-specific effects of an intervention about LTC activities in a geographically defined population. The programme is designed to promote children's socioemotional well-being. A quasi-experimental ecological study protocol is implemented to evaluate whether systematic LTC practices improve children's well-being. A multi-informant setting covers 30 municipalities in northern Finland and involves all the municipal teachers, social and healthcare workers. In each municipality, a Local Management Team is responsible for implementing the LTC programme and collecting the annual data of LTC discussions and network meetings. The outcome data are retrieved from child welfare statistics and hospital registers. The population data, child welfare statistics and referrals to hospitals was retrieved at baseline (2014), and will be retrieved annually. Furthermore, the annual data of LTC discussions and network meetings will be collected of the years 2015-2018. The study design has been approved by the management of the Oulu University Hospital in accordance with the guidelines given by The Regional Ethics Committee of the Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District in Oulu, Finland. All data are treated and implemented according to national data security laws. Study findings will be disseminated to provincial and municipal partners, collaborative community groups and the research and development community. The Let's Talk about Children Evaluation study databases will guide future regional development action and policies. © Article

  6. Investigating 6th graders' use of a tablet-based app supporting synchronous use of multiple tools designed to promote collaborative knowledge building in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Carrie-Anne

    At this pivotal moment in time, when the proliferation of mobile technologies in our daily lives is influencing the relatively fast integration of these technologies into classrooms, there is little known about the process of student learning, and the role of collaboration, with app-based learning environments on mobile devices. To address this gap, this dissertation, comprised of three manuscripts, investigated three pairs of sixth grade students' synchronous collaborative use of a tablet-based science app called WeInvestigate . The first paper illustrated the methodological decisions necessary to conduct the study of student synchronous and face-to-face collaboration and knowledge building within the complex WeInvestigate and classroom learning environments. The second paper provided the theory of collaboration that guided the design of supports in WeInvestigate, and described its subsequent development. The third paper detailed the interactions between pairs of students as they engaged collaboratively in model construction and explanation tasks using WeInvestigate, hypothesizing connections between these interactions and the designed supports for collaboration. Together, these manuscripts provide encouraging evidence regarding the potential of teaching and learning with WeInvestigate. Findings demonstrated that the students in this study learned science through WeInvestigate , and were supported by the app - particularly the collabrification - to engage in collaborative modeling of phenomena. The findings also highlight the potential of the multiple methods used in this study to understand students' face-to-face and technology-based interactions within the "messy" context of an app-based learning environment and a traditional K-12 classroom. However, as the third manuscript most clearly illustrates, there are still a number of modifications to be made to the WeInvestigate technology before it can be optimally used in classrooms to support students' collaborative

  7. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mulissa

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... with altitude range from 1,526 (Alamata) to 2,840 masl (Sheno) in. October, 2009 ... distilled water and allowed to germinate on water agar (1%) surface for three days at ... treatment on day 0, 4, 8, and 12 for pH change and soluble P analysis. ...... basis of sensitivity to boiling in water as measured by PCR.

  8. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  9. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  11. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  12. Health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M

    1989-01-01

    This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  14. Promoting industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1986-04-01

    When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)

  15. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  17. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  18. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  19. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using p...

  20. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)...

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL1B gene influence outcome in multiple myeloma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy independently of relapse treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias W.; Abildgaard, Niels

    2011-01-01

    the impact on outcome of HDT, INF-α maintenance treatment, and treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib at relapse, in relation to the major identified functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL1B. The wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriage of the IL1B promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T...... carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T (HR, 1.6 (1.1–2.4)). Furthermore, among INF-α treated patients, gene–gene interaction studies on IL1B C-3737T and NFКB1-94ins/del ATTG revealed a fourfold increase in TTF for homozygous carriers of wild-type alleles at both loci as compared to variant allele...... carriers at both loci. No relation to genotype and outcome was found for relapse patients treated with thalidomide or bortezomib. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of myeloma patients carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriers of the promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T, −1464G...

  2. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  4. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  9. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  10. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  12. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  13. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide reduces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced injury and promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration and neurogenesis in a murine model of progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Zheng, Shikan; Zhang, Hao

    2018-02-07

    It is known that oxidative stress produced by proinflammatory myeloid cells plays an important role in demyelination and neuronal injury in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidative enzyme released from myeloid cells during inflammation. It has been shown that MPO-dependent oxidative stress plays important roles in inducing tissue injury in many inflammatory diseases. In this report, we treated NOD experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, a murine model of progressive MS, with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel specific MPO inhibitor. Our data showed that KYC treatment not only attenuated MPO-mediated oxidative stress but also reduced demyelination and axonal injury in NOD EAE mice. More importantly, we found that KYC treatment increased oligodendrocyte regeneration and neurogenesis in NOD EAE mice. Taken together, our data suggests that targeting MPO should be a good therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative injury and preserving neuronal function in progressive MS patients.

  14. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  15. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. What Is a Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael R.; Veum, Jonathan R.

    1999-01-01

    For a sample of young workers, "promotion" involved no change in position or duties; promotion was more likely for males than females and Whites than Blacks or Hispanics. Company training and prior promotions were important predictors. Promotion did not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction. (SK)

  17. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... regarding a health promotion programme for families with ... to contribute to high rates of not going to school (ibid. ... sector in order, amongst other objectives, to prevent health ... exercise and mental health promotion must be incorporated ..... (2009:141) identified ignorance and misconception about the.

  18. The Arts to Encourage Multiple Perspectives and Promote Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi-Vittorio, Limor; Vernola, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the arts and aesthetic education in a graduate literacy course for in-service and pre-service teachers followed by a description of how one graduate student implemented her learned theory in the high school classroom in which she taught. The core theory of the paper follows the assumption that aesthetic education…

  19. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...

  20. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  1. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  2. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    -promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...

  3. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  4. Radiation promotive concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de

  5. Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cuevas-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed on its origin: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments’ main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells. The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  6. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  7. Enhancer-promoter interference and its prevention in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptional enhancer elements have been shown to override the specificity of nearby promoters in a position- and orientation-independent manner. This is problematic when multiple enhancers/promoters co-exist within a single transgenic construct as it has the potential to cause the mis-expressio...

  8. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  9. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  10. Health promotion in context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...

  11. Promotion primer. Foerderfibel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This revised edition of the promotion primer is to serve as a topical orientation aid for industrial firms, unions, boards and other bodies interested where the actions of governmental R and D and innovation policy are compiled and clearly arranged. It is important for the success of governmental aids that the institutions concerned are informed about all possibilities of the promotion, financing and advisory programme. Beyond the presentation of the research promotion sectors, the fiscal measures and the contractual as well as the joint research this revised edition focussess on the fields of consultative services for innovation and information. For many firms the access to qualified information and guidance is of particular importance. That is why this brochure points out the ways towards governmental research promotion. The BMFT has provided a remarkable contribution to research promotion by establishing information and consultative services for trade and industry.

  12. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...

  13. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  14. Food Blogger Instagram: Promotion Through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fariz Syahbani

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Do promotions through food blogger account is the way that is currently being sought after by the culinary business operators to introduce their restaurant. Bloggers have a significant impact of people searching for information through social sites before making a purchase. In other words, the food blogger become a benchmark for people in considering whether or not a restaurant worth visiting. This research aims to determine of promotion through food blogger on social media instagram towards purchase intention of college student in Bandung. This research is a quantitative research. The method used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique used is a non-probability sample of the type of incidental sampling. The data collection was distributed with questionnaires to 400 respondents who are collage students in Bandung was using instagram and recognizing the phenomenon of food bloggers as media promotion. Data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. The research results, food blogger promotion through social media on instagram be in good category. Purchase intention of college student at Bandung in good categories. Promotion through food blogger on social media instagram partial effect consisting of context, communication, collaboration and connection to the buying interest of collage students in Bandung and simultaneously influence the buying interest of collage students in Bandung. From this study, it appears that through the instagram as an effective media campaign can provide an explanation and the message delivered effectively and efficiently for displaying a variety of contexts with good multimedia features. Keyword : Promotion, Social Media Marketing, Food Blogger, Purchase Intention

  15. The importance of context in the evolution of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The world has changed dramatically since the Ottawa Charter was developed in 1986. Contemporary health promotion responses continue to evolve and become more sophisticated in response to the multiple challenges created by an ever-changing world. This commentary discusses some of the challenges facing health promotion professionals today and some of the responses that are being developed to address them. The importance of contextual considerations for both the worker and the work of health promotion are emphasised. The author then suggests ways that organisations and individuals can meet modern-day health promotion challenges through specific courses of action.

  16. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  17. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  18. Promoting Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Winker, MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME. The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  19. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  1. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  2. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  3. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  10. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  12. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area Donate Donate ... of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

  15. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  16. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  17. Promoters of Escherichia coli versus promoter islands: function and structure comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V Panyukov

    Full Text Available Expression of bacterial genes takes place under the control of RNA polymerase with exchangeable σ-subunits and multiple transcription factors. A typical promoter region contains one or several overlapping promoters. In the latter case promoters have the same or different σ-specificity and are often subjected to different regulatory stimuli. Genes, transcribed from multiple promoters, have on average higher expression levels. However, recently in the genome of Escherichia coli we found 78 regions with an extremely large number of potential transcription start points (promoter islands, PIs. It was shown that all PIs interact with RNA polymerase in vivo and are able to form transcriptionally competent open complexes both in vitro and in vivo but their transcriptional activity measured by oligonucleotide microarrays was very low, if any. Here we confirmed transcriptional defectiveness of PIs by analyzing the 5'-end specific RNA-seq data, but showed their ability to produce short oligos (9-14 bases. This combination of functional properties indicated a deliberate suppression of transcriptional activity within PIs. According to our data this suppression may be due to a specific conformation of the DNA double helix, which provides an ideal platform for interaction with both RNA polymerase and the histone-like nucleoid protein H-NS. The genomic DNA of E.coli contains therefore several dozen sites optimized by evolution for staying in a heterochromatin-like state. Since almost all promoter islands are associated with horizontally acquired genes, we offer them as specific components of bacterial evolution involved in acquisition of foreign genetic material by turning off the expression of toxic or useless aliens or by providing optimal promoter for beneficial genes. The putative molecular mechanism underlying the appearance of promoter islands within recipient genomes is discussed.

  18. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  19. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...... is associated with CpG islands, broad and multimodal promoter structures, and imprinting. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a new level of biologic complexity within promoters--fine-scale regulation of transcription starting events at the base pair level. These events are likely to be related to epigenetic...

  20. Multiple and single snapshot compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, Peter; Xenaki, Angeliki; Mecklenbrauker, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    and multiple snapshots. CS does not require inversion of the data covariance matrix and thus works well even for a single snapshot where it gives higher resolution than conventional beamforming. For multiple snapshots, CS outperforms conventional high-resolution methods even with coherent arrivals and at low......-lagged superposition of source amplitudes at all hypothetical DOAs. Regularizing with an ‘1-norm constraint renders the problem solvable with convex optimization, and promoting sparsity gives highresolution DOA maps. Here the sparse source distribution is derived using maximum a posteriori estimates for both single...

  1. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  2. ROMANIAN TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mircea NEDELEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is unlike any other because, instead of a product, you are selling a place and all the things it has to offer. You are competing with the entire world every time you promote tourism in a given destination, and this high level of competition demands a creative and unique approach. To be successful, your marketing should constantly put forth the best possible image of your destination, while creating interest on a broad scale in as many ways as possible. Romania has to conceive an efficient promotional mix in order to attract more tourists.

  3. Accurate scaling on multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The commonly used formula of KNO scaling P n =Ψ(n/ ) for descrete distributions (multiplicity distributions) is shown to contradict mathematically the condition ΣP n =1. The effect is essential even at ISR energies. A consistent generalization of the concept of similarity for multiplicity distributions is obtained. The multiplicity distributions of negative particles in PP and also e + e - inelastic interactions are similar over the whole studied energy range. Collider data are discussed. 14 refs.; 8 figs

  4. National promotional campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekevski Siniša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking an attention to promotion as operational variable in marketing effort, author focused on so called ways of creating national images. As a case of very interesting activity paper discuss an experience of regional chamber of Croatia with activities in upgrading international recognition of national products as well as country as destination in such context.

  5. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  6. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  7. Health and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of our social and political effort, including a portion of the research in this university, is directed towards the promotion of one goal: health. But what is health? Or rather, how should we define health so that it is an identifiable goalpost for our social policies and technological

  8. Promoting tourism destination image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources

  9. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  10. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  11. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Danielle E; Honce, Justin M; Miravalle, Augusto A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high-throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in preclinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  12. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Harlow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  13. Physical Activity Promotion, Beliefs, and Barriers Among Australasian Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike

    2017-03-01

    To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses.
. Cross-sectional survey.
. Australia and New Zealand.
. 119 registered oncology nurses.
. Self-reported online survey completed once per participant.
. Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses.
. Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience.
. Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients.
. Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.

  14. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  15. Targeting Epigenetics to Prevent Obesity Promoted Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathan A; Scacheri, Peter C

    2018-03-01

    Epigenetic changes in DNA and associated chromatin proteins are increasingly being considered as important mediators of the linkage between obesity and cancer. Although multiple agents, targeted at epigenetic changes, are being tested for therapy of established cancers, this issue of Cancer Prevention Research carries two articles demonstrating that the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET-762 can attenuate adipose tissue-promoted cancers. Although I-BET-762 significantly delayed, rather than completely prevented, the onset of adiposity-promoted transformation and malignancy, these experiments provide important proof of principle for the strategies of targeting epigenetic changes to disrupt the obesity-cancer linkage. Because bromodomain proteins represent only one of multiple epigenetic mediators, it is probable that targeting other epigenetic processes, alone or in combination, may serve to even more effectively disrupt the obesity promotion of cancer. Given the magnitude of the current obesity pandemic and its impact on cancer, preventive measures to disrupt this linkage are critically important. Cancer Prev Res; 11(3); 125-8. ©2018 AACR See related article by Chakraborty et al., p. 129 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  17. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  18. Multiplicity in difference geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.

  19. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  20. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  1. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  2. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  3. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  4. Examples of sales promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, L.

    The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.

  5. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  6. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  7. Governmentality in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    Objectives: Issues of governance in health promotion during the last 3-4 decades has increasingly been seen as characterized by health interventions and campaigns aimed at influencing the citizens to exhibit a certain desired behavior, that is an orientation towards generating self...... is not sufficient to ensure healthy behaviour. Such measures are used in the public as well as the private sector. In this paper we will give a number of examples of this development and a preliminary analysis of the social framework for its emergence. Methods: The paper will present a theoretical discussion...... was conducted as a case oriented search in relevant media and available documents illustrating the tendency towards using coercive measures to promote healthy behaviour. This was followed up through semi-structured interviews with actors from public authorities, organizations and companies with experience...

  8. : Healthy lifestyles’ promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...

  9. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  10. Safe Dynamic Multiple Inheritance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Multiple inheritance and similar mechanisms are usually only supported at compile time in statically typed languages. Nevertheless, dynamic multiple inheritance would be very useful in the development of complex systems, because it allows the creation of many related classes without an explosion...... in the size and level of redundancy in the source code. In fact, dynamic multiple inheritance is already available. The language gbeta is statically typed and has supported run-time combination of classes and methods since 1997, by means of the combination operator '&'. However, with certain combinations...

  11. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  12. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  13. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion

  15. The study on Egr-1 promoter which is radioactive promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunzhi; Guo Yang; Lv Zhonghong

    2006-01-01

    Radiogenetic therapy is a heated reaseach on oncotherapy. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) gene promoter is a probably means in radiogenetic therapy. The article review studying on Egr-1 gene promoter and constructing regulating gene expressing system by radiation-inducible Egr-1 gene promoter. (authors)

  16. Multiple sclerosis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume proceedings contains four contributions which are in INIS scope, dealing with MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and assessment of disease activity. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling

  18. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  19. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  20. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  1. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies...... promising. This drug has been shown to improve walking ability in some patients with multiple sclerosis, associated with a reduction of patients' self-reported ambulatory disability. Rehabilitation strategies involving these different approaches, or combinations of them, may be of great use in improving...

  2. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  4. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  5. The Promoted Sibling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen

    to understand challenges to leaders in postmodern organisations. Theories about leadership has until now been occupied with the vertical relations in the organisations. To lead a team of creative people the leader has to pay attention both to the relations between leader and followers and to the relations...... to the psychodynamic understanding of families, groups and organisations. With a point of departure in a study of self-governing groups in a factory the paper introduces the concept: ‘the promoted sibling’ which provide quite some understanding of the middle managers challenges in his or her role and the challenges...

  6. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  7. Health by Design: Interweaving Health Promotion into Environments and Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Ortuño, Jaquelin; Salvo, Deborah; Varela Arévalo, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The important influence of the environmental context on health and health behavior—which includes place, settings, and the multiple environments within place and settings—has directed health promotion planners from a focus solely on changing individuals, toward a focus on harnessing and changing context for individual and community health promotion. Health promotion planning frameworks such as Intervention Mapping provide helpful guidance in addressing various facets of the environmental context in health intervention design, including the environmental factors that influence a given health condition or behavior, environmental agents that can influence a population’s health, and environmental change methods. In further exploring how to harness the environmental context for health promotion, we examine in this paper the concept of interweaving of health promotion into context, defined as weaving or blending together health promotion strategies, practices, programs, and policies to fit within, complement, and build from existing settings and environments. Health promotion interweaving stems from current perspectives in health intervention planning, improvement science and complex systems thinking by guiding practitioners from a conceptualization of context as a backdrop to intervention, to one that recognizes context as integral to the intervention design and to the potential to directly influence health outcomes. In exploring the general approach of health promotion interweaving, we examine selected theoretical and practice-based interweaving concepts in relation to four key environments (the policy environment, the information environment, the social/cultural/organizational environment, and the physical environment), followed by evidence-based and practice-based examples of health promotion interweaving from the literature. Interweaving of health promotion into context is a common practice for health planners in designing health promotion interventions, yet

  8. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  9. [Promoting Research Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2018-01-01

     Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provides funds strategically to universities, research institutions, etc. By promoting medical R&D, AMED aims to achieve the world's highest level of medical care/services to contribute to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. To achieve this mission, it is imperative that R&D funded by AMED is widely understood and supported. Maintaining and improving research integrity is a prerequisite to this end. AMED is taking various measures to ensure fair and appropriate R&D. It is asking researchers to participate in its responsible conduct in research (RCR) education program and to comply with its rules for managing conflicts of interest (COI). In addition, AMED also conducts a grant program to create and distribute a variety of educational materials on RCR and other matters. Further, AMED is establishing a platform that allows researchers to exchange information about research integrity, and it is undertaking additional measures, such as holding meetings and international symposia on research integrity.

  10. The promotion of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamut, Marian Kazimierz

    2002-01-01

    The human mind is capable of creating an internal world--the psychic sphere--including the phenomena characteristic of human nature, such as selfconsciousness, conscious experiences, conceptual thinking, symbolic language, dreams, art, creation of culture, sense of values, interest in the distant past and care about the distant future. According to the exceptionally concordant opinions of the sages and scholars of the East and the West it is just within this internal world that human happiness dwells. Happiness is a state of the spirit which consists in: internal peace, satisfaction with one's life, the joy of life, benevolence and cordiality towards oneself and towards others; sensitivity to the beauty of nature, culture and art; harmonious co-existence with the surroundings. The achievement and experiencing of the states of thus understood happiness depend mainly on ourselves and, similarly to the project of health promotion, require knowledge, willingness and possibilities. Happiness Promotion denotes the commendation and popularizing of a certain definite way of thinking and acting--showing the road which leads to the frequent experiencing of happy moments.

  11. Exploring Learning Outcomes of School-based Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Monica Susanne; Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings from a multiple case study of a European health promotion project - ‘Shape Up – a school-community approach to influencing determinants of a healthy and balanced growing up’. The project sought to develop children’s capacity to critically explore and act to improve...

  12. Multiple primary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  13. Germline TERT promoter mutations are rare in familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harland, Mark; Petljak, Mia; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Germline CDKN2A mutations occur in 40 % of 3-or-more case melanoma families while mutations of CDK4, BAP1, and genes involved in telomere function (ACD, TERF2IP, POT1), have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. Mutation of the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (c.-57...... T>G variant) has been reported in one family. We tested for the TERT promoter variant in 675 multicase families wild-type for the known high penetrance familial melanoma genes, 1863 UK population-based melanoma cases and 529 controls. Germline lymphocyte telomere length was estimated in carriers....... The c.-57 T>G TERT promoter variant was identified in one 7-case family with multiple primaries and early age of onset (earliest, 15 years) but not among population cases or controls. One family member had multiple primary melanomas, basal cell carcinomas and a bladder tumour. The blood leukocyte...

  14. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2015-01-01

    /value – The original contribution is in demonstrating how plural futures and the singular future co-exist in practice. Thus, an eclipse of the future by futures can only ever be partial. For “futures” to be conceptually potent, “the future” must be at least provisionally believable and occasionally useful. Otherwise......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self......). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design...

  15. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D{sub q}{sup h}(z,Q{sup 2}) describe final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an iso-scalar target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs in particular in the strange quark sector. The newest results from COMPASS on pion and kaon multiplicities will be presented.

  16. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  17. Anger Promotes Economic Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.

  18. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  19. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  20. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  1. Multiplicities and parton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuteson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The production of strongly interacting particles from the annihilation of electrons and positrons at high energies is studied, with emphasis on the multiplicity, or number, of particles produced. A probabilistic branching model based on the leading log approximation in QCD is formulated to predict the evolution of particle number with the energy of collision. Direct integration of a master equation for the probabilities allows a comparison to the experimentally observed particle distribution. The production of strongly interacting particles from proton-antiproton collisions is also considered. A model for the production of particles from parton-parton collisions is presented and the growth in multiplicity with energy demonstrated

  2. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  3. High-multiplicity processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  4. How can a multilevel promotion of breastfeeding reduce the required budget for rotavirus vaccination in Indonesia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Suwantika, A.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection since it contains anti-rotavirus maternal antibodies and other nonspecific inhibitors. Multilevel promotion of breastfeeding is a complex intervention that modifies behavioral determinants through multiple levels of

  5. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  6. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Italiano) Japanese (日本語) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Agriculture MyPlate Icon - English HTML ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U.S. Department of Agriculture Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  7. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  8. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  9. Back Pain - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Back Pain - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 31 May 2018

  10. Anemia - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Anemia - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 30 April 2018

  11. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  12. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Alcohol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 April 2018

  13. Immunomodulation of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohnya, Tanyifor M; Figg, William D

    2004-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is a multi-process disease, and these different processes are responsible for the reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hence the relapse and refractory nature of multiple myeloma. Emphasis is now placed on the hypothesis that myeloma cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis and drug resistance are dependent on immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-6 and pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF. In addition to its anti-angiogenic effects, the immunomodulatory properties of thalidomide make it a possible therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma. This has lead to the clinical development of a number of immunomodulatory thalidomide analogues (IMiDs) which are more potent and have less side effects than the parent drug, thalidomide. In the August 15(th) issue of Journal of Clinical Oncology, Schey SA et al. suggested that an IMiD (CC-4047) maybe efficacious due to T-cell co-stimulation, and safe in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. This article demonstrates a supporting role for IMiDs as immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy.

  14. Seizures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Polman, Susan; De Keyser, Jacques

    Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the

  15. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  16. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  17. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  18. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  19. Multiple photon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.J.; Feldman, B.J.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of the interaction of intense near-resonant monochromatic radiation with an N-level anharmonic oscillator. In particular, the phenomenon of multiple photon resonance, the process by which an N-level system resonantly absorbs two or more photons simultaneously, is investigated. Starting from the Schroedinger equation, diagrammatic techniques are developed that allow the resonant process to be analyzed quantitatively, in analogy with well-known two-level coherent phenomena. In addition, multiple photon Stark shifts of the resonances, shifts absent in two-level theory, are obtained from the diagrams. Insights into the nature of multiple photon resonances are gained by comparing the quantum mechanical system with classical coupled pendulums whose equations of motion possess identical eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In certain limiting cases, including that of the resonantly excited N-level harmonic oscillator and that of the equally spaced N-level system with equal matrix elements, analytic results are derived. The influence of population relaxation and phase-disrupting collisions on the multiple photon process are also analyzed, the latter by extension of the diagrammatic technique to the density matrix equations of motion. 11 figures

  20. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  1. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...

  2. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles–mumps–rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...

  3. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  4. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  5. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  6. Asthma - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Asthma - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 2 May 2018

  7. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  8. Multiple Access Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2016, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in November 2016. The 10 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 12 submissions. They were organized in topical...

  9. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  10. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  11. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  12. The multiple Dirichlet product and the multiple Dirichlet series

    OpenAIRE

    Onozuka, Tomokazu

    2016-01-01

    First, we define the multiple Dirichlet product and study the properties of it. From those properties, we obtain a zero-free region of a multiple Dirichlet series and a multiple Dirichlet series expression of the reciprocal of a multiple Dirichlet series.

  13. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  14. What promotes longevity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Scientists try to answer on the need of a long life with a full physical capability Nonagenarians, centenarians and their closest family members are characterized by a survival benefit throughout life. Moreover, twin studies of longevity suggest that around 25% of the variation in lifespan in developed countries may be inherited. It is therefore worth to examine the role of inter-relationship between nature vs nurture in longevity increment. Material and methods Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, gene, behavior, environment. The available literature was subjectively selected. Then, the newest version of every paper was searched for. Results Restriction of calories as well as intake of desirable nutrients can promote adequate control of metabolic pathways and gene expression. APOE, DRD4, Paraoxonase 1, SIRT 3 and SIRT 5 genes can play an important role in longevity. Conclusions Genetic profile and environmental factors seems to both influence on the longevity. Relationships between genetic profile, behavior pattern, quality of life, years spent free from activity limitations and longevity should be examined, to be able to give a recipe on living a long and happy life.

  15. Case-Based Analogical Reasoning: A Pedagogical Tool for Promotion of Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Timothy E.; Bell, Alexandra; Kehrhahn, Marijke; Casa, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: One of the most common instructional methods utilized to promote learning transfer in health profession education is examination of a single patient case. However, in non-healthcare settings this practice has shown to be less effective in promoting learning than the examination of multiple cases with cueing. Objective(s): The primary…

  16. Developing a Competency-Based Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Van der Zanden, Gerard; Schipperen, Marielle; Contu, Paolo; Gallardo, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Garcia de Sola, Silvia; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Zaagsma, Miriam; Barry, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion was developed as part of the CompHP Project that aimed to develop competency-based standards and an accreditation system for health promotion practice, education, and training in Europe. Method: A phased, multiple-method approach was employed to facilitate consensus…

  17. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  18. Health promotion in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiv...

  19. Virtual Reality and Multiple Intelligences: Potentials for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Hilary

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the use of virtual reality in higher education looks at how this emerging computer-based technology can promote learning that engages all seven forms of intelligence proposed in H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Technical and conceptual issues in implementation of virtual reality in education are also examined.…

  20. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta). METHODS: The CCR5 Delta32 allele and a CCR5 promoter polymorphism associated with cell surface expression of CCR5 were...

  1. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  2. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  3. Promotion or marketing of the nursing profession by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, I; Biran, E; Telem, L; Steinovitz, N; Alboer, D; Ovadia, K L; Melnikov, S

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested all over the world in nurse recruitment and retention. Issues arising in this context are low job satisfaction, the poor public image of nursing and the reluctance of nurses to promote or market their profession. This study aimed to examine factors explaining the marketing of the nursing profession by nurses working at a general tertiary medical centre in Israel. One hundred sixty-nine registered nurses and midwives from five clinical care units completed a structured self-administered questionnaire, measuring (a) professional self-image, (b) job satisfaction, (c) nursing promotional and marketing activity questionnaire, and (d) demographic data. The mean scores for the promotion of nursing were low. Nurses working in an intensive cardiac care unit demonstrated higher levels of promotional behaviour than nurses from other nursing wards in our study. Nurse managers reported higher levels of nursing promotion activity compared with first-line staff nurses. There was a strong significant correlation between job satisfaction and marketing behaviour. Multiple regression analysis shows that 15% of the variance of promoting the nursing profession was explained by job satisfaction and job position. Nurses are not inclined to promote or market their profession to the public or to other professions. The policy on the marketing of nursing is inadequate. A three-level (individual, organizational and national) nursing marketing programme is proposed for implementation by nurse leadership and policy makers. Among proposed steps to improve marketing of the nursing profession are promotion of the image of nursing by the individual nurse in the course of her or his daily activities, formulation and implementation of policies and programmes to promote the image of nursing at the organizational level and drawing up of a long-term programme for promoting or marketing the professional status of nursing at the national level. © 2015

  4. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  5. Curability of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alexanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among 792 patients with multiple myeloma treated from 1987 to 2010 and assessed after 18 months, there were 167 patients with complete remission. For those 60 patients treated between 1987–1998 and with long followup, the latest relapse occurred after 11.8 years, so that 13 patients have remained in sustained complete remission for longer than 12 years (range 12–22 years. These results suggest that 3% of all patients treated during that period may be cured of multiple myeloma. In addition to immunofixation, more sensitive techniques for the detection of residual disease should be applied more consistently in patients with apparent complete remission in order to identify those with potential cure.

  6. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  7. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...... with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex, age......, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was highest for males...

  8. Multiple splenic abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity with poor prognosis. But owing to imaging technique, diagnosis and prognosis have improved nowadays. Most patients who are presented with splenic abscess are immunocompromised due to predisposing risk factors like diabetes mellitus, intravenous drug abuse, trauma, bacterial endocarditis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, chemotherapy, or steroids. Here, we are presenting a rarer case of multiple splenic abscesses with its complication in an immunocompetent healthy adult male without any risk factor.

  9. Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Sponsors in the Private Nonfarm Sector in the United States, 1978-79," Volume IV, Description and Analysis of Plans and Plan Sponsors, NTIS # PB81-180366...Labor finds to be collectively bargained plans, and those organized by rural electrical cooperatives and rural telephone cooperatives. Thus, except for...their existence and generally higher cost than uninsured plans no doubt contributed to the development of other types of multiple employer

  10. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  11. Multiple trichodiscomas: histogenetical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, L; Schöendorff, C; López, M J; Yus, E S

    1991-02-01

    A 23-year-old man with multiple trichodiscomas on his face is described. Four papules were histologically examinated, and all of them showed similar findings, a dermal fibrovascular proliferation with abundant ground substance between collagen bundles and an absence of elastic fibers. We found no evidence to establish a relationship between trichodiscomas and hair disk, and, in our opinion, these lesions should be included into the spectrum of hyperplasia of the adventicial dermis.

  12. Multiple lymphatic cervical cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.; Piotrowski, S.; Zalewska-Rzezniczak, I.

    1994-01-01

    Authors described a case of 60 year-old woman with multiple lateral neck cysts. 4 cysts were located in the supraclavicular region of lateral neck triangle. During histopathological studies of postoperative specimens a cystic hygroma diagnosis was established. The fact, that cystic lymphangioma occurred in an adult woman, was interesting. The authors stress the necessity of preoperative evaluation of tumor size in view of the possibility of its penetration into the thorax. The CT examination may be useful in these cases. (author)

  13. Midkine and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the d...

  14. Multiple carcinomas in the hemodialysis access induced ischemic hand of a renal transplant patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, F. van; Tits, H.W.H.J.; Lijnschoten, I. Van; Haas, B.D. De; Scheltinga, M.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Long term immunosuppression following organ transplantation promotes the onset of skin cancers. A renal transplant patient developed multiple hyperkeratotic nodi in the left hand and digital pain following prolonged immunosuppression. Several skin abnormalities were observed in an ischemic and

  15. Multiple myeloma: 45 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated 45 cases of multiple myelomas retrospectively confirmed in Severance Hospital from the period of 1983-1989. In order to assess the radiologic features of the multiple myeloma and to assist in possible early diagnosis and treatment. The result were as follows: 1. IgG(41%) was the most common immunoglobulin type secreted followed by light chain(36%). IgA(19%) and IgD(2%). Two percent of the patients had non-secretory type. 89% of patients were in their stage III of the disease. 2. Among the 45 patients, 96% had abnormal plain radiographic findings with average number of 4.5 lesions. Common sites were the spine, rib, skull, pelvis, and humerus in descending orders. The findings were localized or diffuse osteolytic bone destruction(85%). osteoporosis(49%), pathologic fracture and endosteal scalloping(55%). Osteoporosis was more prominent in stage III than stage II. 3. Both plain X-ray and radioisotope study was available for comparison in 28 patients. Concordance between the two studies were 44%, lesions detected only on plain X-ray film were 51%, and lesions detected only on the radioisotope were 5%. The plain radiography was able to detect only 54% of bone lesions confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. With the above results, accurate evaluation of bone lesions in multiple myeloma may be difficult with radiologic studies only. But familiarity with these radiologic findings of the this disease entity is necessary for early suspicion of the disease, thus for early diagnosis and treatment

  16. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik-Gidlewska, Anna M; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to present a strategy of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis on the basis of the latest developments in the field of physiotherapy. The publications on the problem discuss a wide range of methods of physiotherapy that can be used in order to reduce the degree of disability and alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease. The complexity of the disease, the difficulty in determining the appropriate treatment and a wide range of symptoms require a comprehensive approach to the patient, which would include both pharmacology and neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation, which includes psychotherapy and symptomatic therapy, is regarded nowadays as the best form of treatment for multiple sclerosis. An indepth diagnostic assessment of functional status and prognosis should be carried out before the start of the rehabilitation process. The prognosis should take into account the mental state, the neurological status and the awareness of the patient. The kinesiotherapy program in multiple sclerosis is based on a gradation of physiotherapy which assumes a gradual transition from basic movements to more complex ones till global functions are obtained. The most appropriate form of treatment is functional rehabilitation combined with physical procedures. Recent reports indicate the need for aerobic training to be included in the rehabilitation program. The introduction of physical activities, regardless of the severity of the disease, will reduce the negative effects of akinesia, and thus increase the functional capabilities of all body systems.

  18. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  19. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  20. Biofilms promote altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. These two problems combine with the fundamental microbiological question of whether it is always advantageous for a unicellular organism to grow as fast as possible. The common basis for these three themes is a trade-off between growth rate and growth yield, which in turn is based on irreversible thermodynamics. The trade-off creates an evolutionary alternative between two strategies: high growth yield at low growth rate versus high growth rate at low growth yield. High growth yield at low growth rate is a case of an altruistic strategy because it increases the fitness of the group by using resources economically at the cost of decreased fitness, or growth rate, of the individual. The group-beneficial behaviour is advantageous in the long term, whereas the high growth rate strategy is advantageous in the short term. Coexistence of species requires differences between their niches, and niche space is typically divided into four 'axes' (time, space, resources, predators). This neglects survival strategies based on cooperation, which extend the possibilities of coexistence, arguing for the inclusion of cooperation as the fifth 'axis'. Here, individual-based model simulations show that spatial structure, as in, for example, biofilms, is necessary for the origin and maintenance of this 'primitive' altruistic strategy and that the common belief that growth rate but not yield decides the outcome of competition is based on chemostat models and experiments. This evolutionary perspective on life in biofilms can explain long-known biofilm characteristics, such as the structural organization into microcolonies, the often-observed lack of mixing among microcolonies, and the shedding of single cells, as promoting the origin and maintenance of the altruistic strategy. Whereas biofilms enrich altruists, enrichment cultures, microbiology's paradigm

  1. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  2. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  3. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  4. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  5. Strategies to reduce hyperthermia in ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Cox, Mary Jude; Long, William B; Winters, Kathryne L; Becker, Daniel G

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 400,000 Americans have multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, multiple sclerosis affects 2.5 million individuals. Multiple sclerosis affects two to three times as many women as men. The adverse effects of hyperthermia in patients with multiple sclerosis have been known since 1890. While most patients with multiple sclerosis experience reversible worsening of their neurologic deficits, some patients experience irreversible neurologic deficits. In fact, heat-induced fatalities have been encountered in multiple sclerosis patients subjected to hyperthermia. Hyperthermia can be caused through sun exposure, exercise, and infection. During the last 50 years, numerous strategies have evolved to reduce hyperthermia in individuals with multiple sclerosis, such as photoprotective clothing, sunglasses, sunscreens, hydrotherapy, and prevention of urinary tract infections. Hydrotherapy has become an essential component of rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis patients in hospitals throughout the world. On the basis of this positive hospital experience, hydrotherapy has been expanded through the use of compact aquatic exercise pools at home along with personal cooling devices that promote local and systemic hypothermia in multiple sclerosis patients. The Multiple Sclerosis Association of America and NASA have played leadership roles in developing and recommending technology that will prevent hyperthermia in multiple sclerosis patients and should be consulted for new technological advances that will benefit the multiple sclerosis patient. In addition, products recommended for photoprotection by The Skin Cancer Foundation may also be helpful to the multiple sclerosis patient's defense against hyperthermia. Infections in the urinary tract, especially detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are initially managed conservatively with intermittent self-catheterization and pharmacologic therapy. In those cases, refractory to conservative therapy, transurethral external

  6. MCH promotes family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y

    1992-06-01

    Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been

  7. Genetic variation in the proximal promoter of ABC and SLC superfamilies: liver and kidney specific expression and promoter activity predict variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Hesselson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the cellular uptake and efflux of an array of small molecules including nutrients, environmental toxins, and many clinically used drugs. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the proximal promoter regions of transporter genes contribute to observed variation in drug response. A total of 579 polymorphisms were identified in the proximal promoters (-250 to +50 bp and flanking 5' sequence of 107 transporters in the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC superfamilies in 272 DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations. Many transporter promoters contained multiple common polymorphisms. Using a sliding window analysis, we observed that, on average, nucleotide diversity (pi was lowest at approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site, suggesting that this region may harbor important functional elements. The proximal promoters of transporters that were highly expressed in the liver had greater nucleotide diversity than those that were highly expressed in the kidney consistent with greater negative selective pressure on the promoters of kidney transporters. Twenty-one promoters were evaluated for activity using reporter assays. Greater nucleotide diversity was observed in promoters with strong activity compared to promoters with weak activity, suggesting that weak promoters are under more negative selective pressure than promoters with high activity. Collectively, these results suggest that the proximal promoter region of membrane transporters is rich in variation and that variants in these regions may play a role in interindividual variation in drug disposition and response.

  8. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  9. Multiple Entity Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Samoila, Lavinia Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Living in the age of "Big Data" is both a blessing and a curse. On he one hand, the raw data can be analysed and then used for weather redictions, user recommendations, targeted advertising and more. On he other hand, when data is aggregated from multiple sources, there is no guarantee that each source has stored the data in a standardized or even compatible format to what is required by the application. So there is a need to parse the available data and convert it to the desired form. Here i...

  10. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  11. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism......, followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  12. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge......, significantly reduced levels of IL-13 in the MCS group and no group differences in the allergen specific IgE measures. The differences were independent of factors such as sex, age, Body Mass Index, asthma, smoking, depression, anxiety and allergen-specific IgE. In conclusion, the study identified a distinct...

  13. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  14. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  15. Networks amid multiple logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Bjerregaard, Toke

    The present study investigates how a high-tech-small-firm (HTSF) can carry out an inter-organizational search of actors located at universities. Responding to calls to study how firms navigate multiple institutional norms, this research examines the different strategies used by a HTSF to balance...... adopted academic norm-sets, commercial imperatives and formal regulations to support formation of networks and collaborations with universities. The findings show how the significance of weak and strong ties for the formation of collaborations and networks with universities is relative...

  16. Writing on Multiple Journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Sarah; Pullen, Ann Ellis

    2012-01-01

    In their beautifully researched study and critical edition, Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America (Parlor Press), authors Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen examine in fine detail the historical record of the transnational network of literary work produced by Arnott. Tracing her legacy in the study’s third chapter, “Writing on Multiple Journeys,” the authors argue on behalf of Arnott’s capacity to create authority and celebrity as well...

  17. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  18. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  19. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  20. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  1. Health promotion in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.

  2. Information technology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  3. Promoting mental health as an essential aspect of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Shona

    2006-12-01

    This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.

  4. Sublethal irradiation promotes invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigerer, Lothar; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hecht, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite multiple clinical efforts, clinical outcome has remained poor. Neuroblastoma is considered to be radiosensitive, but some clinical studies including the German trial NB90 failed to show a clinical benefit of radiation therapy. The mechanisms underlying this apparent discrepancy are still unclear. We have therefore investigated the effects of radiation on neuroblastoma cell behaviour in vitro. We show that sublethal doses of irradiation up-regulated the expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met in some neuroblastoma cell lines. The increase in HGF/c-Met expression was correlated with enhanced invasiveness and activation of proteases degrading the extracellular matrix. Thus, irradiation at sublethal doses may promote the metastatic dissemination of neuroblastoma cells through activating the HGF/c-Met pathway and triggering matrix degradation

  5. Health promotion: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.

  6. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  7. Stress Managment and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.

  8. Getting Australia more active: challenges and opportunities for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.

  9. NADPH promotes the rapid growth of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is the main source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS plays an important role in a variety of tumor types. The ROS mediated by NADPH oxidase increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α through multiple signaling pathways in tumor, and HIF-α could be regulated and controlled by downstream multiple targeted genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter to promote tumor angiogenesis, cell energy metabolism reprogram and tumor metastasis. Meanwhile, HIF-α can also regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase by ROS, thus further promoting development of tumor. In this review, we summarized the functions of NADPH in tumorigenesis and discussed their potential implications in cancer therapy.

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  11. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  12. Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Piercing and Tattoos URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  13. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  14. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  15. Development of the promoting teacher attribution model for promoting science teachers' moral and ethical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprathak, Anusorn; Worakham, Paisan; Suikraduang, Arun

    2018-01-01

    The promotion science teacher attribution model to develop the moral and ethical characteristics was to analyze, synthesis, and develop the guidelines of the scoping study into concepts, theories and research related about the moral and ethics of characteristically teachers from the resources, including research papers, research articles related research, and interviews with luminaries of 9 members. Using interviews and document analysis, data analysis, content analysis, and present an essay was built. The promoting attributes a teacher, moral principles, concepts and theories involved and guidance of a qualified were developed. The Multiple-Attribute Consensus Reaching (MACR) from 12 educational experts were checked the suitability and feasibility of the model, the possibility of the manual with the research instruments consisted of the promotion model attributes the moral and ethics teacher's characteristics were evaluated, to guide the promotion attributes' model forms were assessed, the first edition of the manual data analysis, information obtained from the evaluation of the suitability and feasibility analysis model and guide for the average were administered. The results have found that; the promoting moral teacher attribute data to their moral and ethical characteristics was divided into two groups, priests and scholars. In both groups, the promotion attributes, focusing on teacher's groups is moral in nature to modify the idea to a change of attitude within the organism. Students got down to real experience; an analysis and synthesis face learning environments that cause cognitive skills to act as a self-realization possibly. The promotion model, moral principles, including the importance of the activities, objectives and evaluation methods were attributed. These core concepts learning theory and social cognitive theory, and integrated learning experience were comprised in five stages and four processes, namely; the intended, memory storage process, the

  16. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  17. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  18. Multiple passage cells theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the main concepts envolved in non astigmatic multiple passes cells is presented. It is shown that these concepts can be extended to ring cavities in which the analysis of the ray propagation (in the paraxial approaching) in two separated plans is accomplished. The concepts developed are applyed to a simple ring cavity (one curve mirror and two plane ones) showing that the acquired pattern of the rays on the mirrors is the one of a Lissajours figure which allows a better use of the mirror's area and consequently a larger number of passes. The cavity has applications in optical delay lines, measurements of mirrors reflectivities and possibly in passive optical gyroscopes. (Author) [pt

  19. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  20. Strategizing in multiple ways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    Strategy processes are kinds of wayfaring where different actors interpret a formally defined strat-egy differently. In the everyday practice of organizations strategizing takes place in multiple ways through narratives and sensible actions. This forms a meshwork of polyphonic ways to enact one...... and the same strategy. The paper focusses on such processes as they develop in a Danish service company. It is done on the basis of an empirical and longitudinal study of a strategy process in the Service Company where the strategic purpose was to implement value-based management. The theme to be developed...... based on this development paper is whether one can understand these diver-gent strategic wayfaring processes as constructive for organizations....

  1. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Automated multiple failure FMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.J.; Taylor, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is typically performed by a team of engineers working together. In general, they will only consider single point failures in a system. Consideration of all possible combinations of failures is impractical for all but the simplest example systems. Even if the task of producing the FMEA report for the full multiple failure scenario were automated, it would still be impractical for the engineers to read, understand and act on all of the results. This paper shows how approximate failure rates for components can be used to select the most likely combinations of failures for automated investigation using simulation. The important information can be automatically identified from the resulting report, making it practical for engineers to study and act on the results. The strategy described in the paper has been applied to a range of electrical subsystems, and the results have confirmed that the strategy described here works well for realistically complex systems

  3. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  4. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  5. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  7. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  8. Media and Multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years continental Europe has experienced a resurgence of right-wing party politics, nationalism and xenophobia. In this nationalist revival the media and advanced communications technologies have played a significant role, as evidenced by the debates following cases...... such as the Danish cartoon controversy, and Dutch politician Geert Wilders’s film, Fitna. Simultaneously, however, the media is more diverse and rhizomatic than ever and offers potential for cosmopolitanism, transnational ethical relations as well as radical anti-racist and anti-fascist interventions. This article...... explores the tensions within the relation between journalistic practice and the construction of the idea of the nation and the multiplicity of media and cultures which inhabit the spheres of journalism and nation....

  9. Multiple-port valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable with one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitting into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits

  10. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  11. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  12. Local wisdom and health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2011-01-01

    The respectful, appropriate use of local wisdom (LW) in health promotion increases penetration and longevity of positive behavior change. Collaborations based on mutual respect, flexibility and trust between health program organizers, traditional and local practitioners, and the communities being...... served are the goal for public health physicians in our modern, globalized world. This meta-analysis reviewed literature from the past 18 years drawn from a wide range of sources. This investigations proposes a grassroots, material shift toward regarding health promotion interventions as partnerships...... when planning, executing, and evaluating health promotion projects. This holistic approach would be based on the premise that LW is equal to expert opinion. This article endorses the integration of LW at every stage of the health promotion process concluding that it is through empowerment...

  13. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  14. Social Promotion: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.; Owens, Ray C.

    1976-01-01

    Social promotion is accomplishing what it was intended to do; it is relieving the various grades of over-age, floundering students. If we are to help these potential failures, we must devise new educational systems. (Editor)

  15. School health education and promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...

  16. PARTICULARITIES OF MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market positions – both of producers of pharmaceutical goods and their suppliers, distributors, big whole-sale companies. Among main tools of promotion are: advertising, public relations, stimulation of sales on the market of medicines, personal sales, computer technologies. The article describes different technologies of promotion of medicines: indoor-advertising, hot lines, pharmaceutical exhibitions, packing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-1

  17. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  18. Is tumor necrosis factor - 376a promoter polymorphism associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis? ¿El polimorfismo-376A del promotor del gen del factor de necrosis tumoral se asocia con una mayor susceptibilidad a padecer esclerosis múltiple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Kauffman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position -376 of the tumor necrosis factor á gene (TNFA has been associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in Spain. However, no association was found in populations from the USA and The Netherlands. Here we investigate the association between the TNFA - 376A SNP and MS susceptibility in Argentinean patients with MS. The A/G genotype was found in 4.4% of patients (n=90 and in 4.8% of healthy individuals (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; confidence interval: 0.23- 3.84. Thus, no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies were found between healthy individuals and patients with MS in Argentina.Un polimorfismo de nucleótido único (SNP, por sus iniciales en inglés en la posición -376 del gen codificante del factor de necrosis tumoral á (TNFA ha sido asociado en España con un mayor riesgo a padecer esclerosis múltiple (EM. Sin embargo, esta asociación no fue encontrada en estudios hechos en poblaciones provenientes de los EE.UU. y Holanda. Aquí investigamos la asociación entre el SNP TNFA -376A y el desarrollo de EM en una población de pacientes argentinos con EM. El genotipo A/G fue encontrado en 4.4% de los pacientes (n=90 y en 4.8% de los controles sanos (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; intervalo de confianza: 0.23-3.84. En consecuencia, no encontramos diferencias en las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas entre los sujetos enfermos y los controles sanos en Argentina.

  19. Natural selection of mitochondria during somatic lifetime promotes healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene J; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal...... stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each...

  20. Promotional Chat on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Mayzlin

    2006-01-01

    Chat rooms, recommendation sites, and customer review sections allow consumers to overcome geographic boundaries and to communicate based on mutual interests. However, marketers also have incentives to supply promotional chat or reviews in order to influence the consumers' evaluation of their products. Moreover, firms can disguise their promotion as consumer recommendations due to the anonymity afforded by online communities. We explore this new setting where advertising and word of mouth bec...

  1. Promotion of development and introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In order to promote effectively and smoothly development and introduction of oil substituting energies, comprehensive investigations for improving the energy demand and supply structures and investigations on development infrastructures will be conducted. Investigations will also be given on promoting improvements in overseas coal import base infrastructures, and demand/supply improvement, development and utilization of overseas energies. Investigations and guidance will be given on forming visions to improve demand/supply structures and to introduce and promote technologies thereof. In order to deepen further the understanding and recognition by the nation on oil substituting energies, such publicity activities will be carried out as provision of information, and promotion on popularization and education of energy demand/supply improving systems. For the purpose of promoting international exchanges, information exchange will be promoted on improving the energy demand/supply structures, so is on international information exchange. International cooperative operations on coal utilization, international cooperation on alcohol utilization technologies, and assistance to holding the world energy conferences will be carried out, and an Asia-Pacific Coal Demand and Supply Seminar will be held. In addition, training operations for coal engineers will be performed.

  2. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug promotion practices: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Nilan T

    2018-01-18

    Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from preclinical studies to multicentric clinical trials and postmarketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved, which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximize the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area that the practice of drug promotion plays its role. The World Health Organization defines drug promotion as "all informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors, the effect of which is to influence the prescription, supply, purchase or use of medicinal drugs". With its humble intent of creating awareness among healthcare professionals and updating their knowledge on recent advances in treatment options, drug promotion has been an important tool, but gradually it has evolved to embrace aggressive marketing strategies and sometimes unethical business and scientific practices where the need for profit-making eclipses commitment to patient care and scientific exploration. In this review, we discuss the evolution of drug promotion practices, the various types, its merits and demerits, the influence of drug promotion on physician prescribing behaviour, the role of regulatory bodies, unethical promotional practices and finally summarize with future directions. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion...

  7. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM... Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 709.3 to add a new temporary promotion during November... Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and November 21, 2012 (``promotion...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  9. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  10. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often.... Promotion activities directed toward consummation of the employee's own sales are exempt. Promotional...

  11. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration.

  12. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  13. THE MULTIPLE CHOICE PROBLEM WITH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flavio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An important problem in Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis arises when one must select at least two alternatives at the same time. This can be denoted as a multiple choice problem. In other words, instead of evaluating each of the alternatives separately, they must be combined into groups of n alternatives, where n = 2. When the multiple choice problem must be solved under multiple criteria, the result is a multi-criteria, multiple choice problem. In this paper, it is shown through examples how this problemcan be tackled on a bipolar scale. The Choquet integral is used in this paper to take care of interactions between criteria. A numerical application example is conducted using data from SEBRAE-RJ, a non-profit private organization that has the mission of promoting competitiveness, sustainable developmentand entrepreneurship in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The paper closes with suggestions for future research.

  14. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  15. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  16. Sport promotion in USA and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenov Gajina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.

  17. Multiple Levels of Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Kasey B.; Haywood, Carlton; Bediako, Shawn M.; Lanzkron, Sophie; Carroll, C. Patrick; Buenaver, Luis F.; Pejsa, Megan; Edwards, Robert R.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Campbell, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: People living with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience severe episodic and chronic pain and frequently report poor interpersonal treatment within health-care settings. In this particularly relevant context, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and both clinical and laboratory pain. Methods: Seventy-one individuals with SCD provided self-reports of experiences with discrimination in health-care settings and clinical pain severity, and completed a psychophysical pain testing battery in the laboratory. Results: Discrimination in health-care settings was correlated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced sensitivity to multiple laboratory-induced pain measures, as well as stress, depression, and sleep. After controlling for relevant covariates, discrimination remained a significant predictor of mechanical temporal summation (a marker of central pain facilitation), but not clinical pain severity or suprathreshold heat pain response. Furthermore, a significant interaction between experience with discrimination and clinical pain severity was associated with mechanical temporal summation; increased experience with discrimination was associated with an increased correlation between clinical pain severity and temporal summation of pain. Discussion: Perceived discrimination within health-care settings was associated with pain facilitation. These findings suggest that discrimination may be related to increased central sensitization among SCD patients, and more broadly that health-care social environments may interact with pain pathophysiology. PMID:26889615

  18. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  19. The relationship between attitudes toward aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Aslan, Gülbahar; Kartal, Asiye; Özen Çınar, İlgün; Koştu, Nazan

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the factors that are associated with health-promoting behaviours in older adults is necessary to increase their willingness and motivation to participate in health-promotion activities. Understanding context-specific attitudes in relation to their influence on health-promoting behaviours is crucial in designing efficient interventions that foster health-promoting behaviours among older adults. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults in Turkey. The study used a descriptive-correlational design. A convenience sample of 448 community-dwelling older adults who were 65 years and older and cognitively intact were selected from 6 family health centres in the city of Denizli in Turkey. The data were collected between March and June of 2014 using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging, the psychosocial loss subscale, and education were statistically significant predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging were the strongest predictor of health-promoting behaviours in older adults. Attitude towards aging is a factor that affects health-promoting behaviours, and it should be considered during interventions for improving health promoting behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Multiple Intelligences within the Cross-Curricular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Vaiou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was realized in a Greek 6th grade State Primary School class and was based on Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, which was first introduced in 1983. More particularly, it was explored to what extent the young learners possess multiple intelligences through the use of a specially-designed questionnaire and a series of interviews. The findings of the above have served as a tool to the construction of a project work based on students’ learning preferences within a cross-curricular framework, easily applicable to the Greek State School curriculum. All learners were activated to participate within a school environment that traditionally promotes linguistic and mathematical skills matching dominant multiple intelligences or a combination of some of them to thematic units already taught by Greek teachers. The suggested project was assessed through observation and student portfolio, showing that the young learners’ multiple intelligences were exploited to a great extent, promoting the learning process satisfactorily. The results of this study can provide a contribution to the literature of multiple intelligences in the Greek reality and suggest a need for further consideration and exploration in the field. Finally, the researcher of this study hopes the present work could function as a springboard for more elaborated studies in the future.

  1. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-07-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed.

  3. Introduction: multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common type of primary bone tumor, affecting approximately 50,000 patients in the United States. Although it is currently not curable, recent advancements in treatment are bringing myeloma closer to becoming a chronic disease instead of a terminal illness. To better understand the prevalence of MM as well as provide an overview of the costs associated with treatment. The goals of treatment in MM include eradicating all evidence of disease, controlling disease to prevent damage to target organs, preserving normal function and quality of life, relieving pain, and managing myeloma that is in remission. To achieve these goals, treatment must be individually tailored for each patient based on the patient's age, overall health status, symptoms, and laboratory test results. Advancements in the understanding of the pathogenesis of myeloma and the role of genetic mutations are leading to a new standard of treatment. Advancements in diagnostic technology, such as cytogenetic testing, are also being used to tailor treatment for each individual to work toward achieving better response rates, longer periods of remission, and improved quality of life. Increased costs associated with the improved therapies being used to treat MM, and the comorbid conditions associated with the disease, present a challenge to managed care. Health plans and formulary decision makers need to better understand the complexity of therapy to best use resources. The economic burden to the patient must also be considered when developing treatment strategies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of MM, including the role of cytogenetics, is leading to the development and use of novel agents and treatment options. Head-to-head studies comparing treatments must be performed to best balance the costs associated with treatment and the benefits of improved survival rates and maintaining quality of life.

  4. Multiple intelligences in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During many years has prevailed the idea of intelligence as a single problem solving ability (factor g considered the best predictor of student’s academic achievement. Recently, researches have begun to take an alternative view of the problem, understanding it is a multidimensional construct. Multiple intelligences (MI theory proposed by Gardner (1983 takes into account seven talents or skills individuals appear to have in certain amount. These latent bio-psychological potentials are stable and they are mantained through life. Theory of MI proposes that every person learns in relation to them. MI theory has many educational applications, however, very few efforts have been made to verify such statements. The main goal of this study is to analyze the IM differential individual profile of high school and university students studying the relation between IM, academic achievement and self efficacy competence on course performance. Two studies were carried out , the first was done with high school students (N=500 and the second with military students (N=362. Based on Armstrong’s proposals to assess IM, an inventory was designed. Main results point out that there is a correspondence between academic attainment, self interest and self perception of competence in different courses students take. MI are good predictors of academic achievement considering specific areas but they don’t provide a better estimation compared to traditional assessment instruments. Students who have failed in school were those with more spatial and corporal abilities, usually relegated by traditional instruction. High achievers were those with more logical and intrapersonal skills. Different relations were found for military students. For these latter students IM theory was not a valuable predictor of successful academic attainment. 

  5. Midkine and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the development of Treg and DCreg leads to the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the factors that regulate Treg and DCreg are largely unknown. We recently showed that removal of midkine (MK) suppressed EAE due to an expansion of the Treg cell population as well as a decrease in the numbers of autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells. MK decreased the Treg cell population by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT5, which is essential for the expression of Foxp3, the master transcriptional factor of Treg cell differentiation. Furthermore, MK reduces the DCreg cell population by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, which is critical for DCreg development. Blockade of MK signalling by a specific RNA aptamer significantly elevated the population of DCreg and Treg cells and ameliorated EAE without detectable adverse effects. Therefore, the inhibition of MK may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against autoimmune diseases including MS. This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Software Authority Transition through Multiple Distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusunk Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the use of smartphones and tablets has changed the software distribution ecosystem. The trend today is to purchase software through application stores rather than from traditional offline markets. Smartphone and tablet users can install applications easily by purchasing from the online store deployed in their device. Several systems, such as Android or PC-based OS units, allow users to install software from multiple sources. Such openness, however, can promote serious threats, including malware and illegal usage. In order to prevent such threats, several stores use online authentication techniques. These methods can, however, also present a problem whereby even licensed users cannot use their purchased application. In this paper, we discuss these issues and provide an authentication method that will make purchased applications available to the registered user at all times.

  7. Software authority transition through multiple distributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyusunk; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of smartphones and tablets has changed the software distribution ecosystem. The trend today is to purchase software through application stores rather than from traditional offline markets. Smartphone and tablet users can install applications easily by purchasing from the online store deployed in their device. Several systems, such as Android or PC-based OS units, allow users to install software from multiple sources. Such openness, however, can promote serious threats, including malware and illegal usage. In order to prevent such threats, several stores use online authentication techniques. These methods can, however, also present a problem whereby even licensed users cannot use their purchased application. In this paper, we discuss these issues and provide an authentication method that will make purchased applications available to the registered user at all times.

  8. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  9. EXPERIENCES WITH IDEA PROMOTING INITIATIVES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv

    2011-01-01

    In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect...... understandings of idea work are inscribed in the idea promoting initiatives as they to some degree have to fit with the understandings embedded in practice in order to work....

  10. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  11. HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOR AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Senjam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India faces multiple threats of diseases. The increasing trend of lifestyle related health problems is becoming a serious issue in India. The best strategy to tackle this changing health concern is adoption of healthy lifestyle and health promotion activities. Objectives: To determine the level of involvement in health promoting behaviors of college students in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: This college based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during September 2007 to June 2008. Results: Two hundred students (F=100, M=100 were studied by using self administered health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP questionnaires. Mean HPLP score was 138.69 (M=137.98, F=139.39. Female students were more likely to have better health promoting practices than their counterpart male students, but difference was not significant. Female students showed more sense of health responsibility than male students (p=0.00, whereas male students were significantly more involved in physical activities than female students (p=0.02. Overall, only few students (18.5% searched health related article from the internet; 26% went for normal health check up in the last year; 13.5% students practiced yoga regularly; 24.5% of them tried to choose diet with low fat content; 30% of them skipped meals regularly, and 25.5% of them ate processed food regularly. Conclusion: The study results showed that college students in Chandigarh had reasonably good orientation towards health promoting practices.

  12. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  13. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities......, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved...

  14. Combining multiple influence strategies to increase consumer compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, M.C.; Duplinsky, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects and implications of utilising multiple social influence strategies simultaneously to endorse a single product or call to action. In three, studies we show that combinations of social influence strategies do not increase compliance - this is contrary to commonly held beliefs and practice. Studies 1 and 2 show that combining implementations of both the consensus and authority strategies to promote a single behaviour does not lead to an increase in the e...

  15. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-12-22

    A resonant multiple is defined as a multiple reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypaths. We show that resonant first-order multiples can be migrated with either Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration methods to give images with approximately twice the spatial resolution compared to post-stack primary-reflection images. A moveout-correction stacking method is proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the resonant multiples before superresolution migration. The effectiveness of this procedure is validated by synthetic and field data tests.

  16. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  17. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    A resonant multiple is defined as a multiple reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypaths. We show that resonant first-order multiples can be migrated with either Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration methods to give images with approximately twice the spatial resolution compared to post-stack primary-reflection images. A moveout-correction stacking method is proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the resonant multiples before superresolution migration. The effectiveness of this procedure is validated by synthetic and field data tests.

  18. Targeting the Pim kinases in multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, N A

    2015-07-17

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that remains incurable. Novel treatment strategies to improve survival are urgently required. The Pims are a small family of serine\\/threonine kinases with increased expression across the hematological malignancies. Pim-2 shows highest expression in MM and constitutes a promising therapeutic target. It is upregulated by the bone marrow microenvironment to mediate proliferation and promote MM survival. Pim-2 also has a key role in the bone destruction typically seen in MM. Additional putative roles of the Pim kinases in MM include trafficking of malignant cells, promoting oncogenic signaling in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment and mediating resistance to therapy. A number of Pim inhibitors are now under development with lead compounds entering the clinic. The ATP-competitive Pim inhibitor LGH447 has recently been reported to have single agent activity in MM. It is anticipated that Pim inhibition will be of clinical benefit in combination with standard treatments and\\/or with novel drugs targeting other survival pathways in MM.

  19. Multiple purpose electrical profit; Emprendimiento electrico de prestacion multiple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assennato, H. [Electrica de Azul Ltda., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows the multiple purpose aspects of electrification projects in rural and isolated areas. The multiple aspects involved in the electrification process may include, over electric power supply: improvement of life quality, irrigation and rural mechanization. 4 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs.

  20. Tunable promoters in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    The construction of synthetic promoter libraries has represented a major breakthrough in systems biology, enabling the subtle tuning of enzyme activities. A number of tools are now available that allow the modulation of gene expression and the detection of changes in expression patterns. But, how...

  1. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  2. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  3. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  4. Promoting PV in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2010-07-01

    The Euro Solar Programme is financed by the European Commission's Office of Cooperation and its main goal is to promote renewable energy in eight Latin American countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. (orig.)

  5. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...

  6. Health Promotion at the Ballpark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bonni C

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.

  7. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal

  8. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  9. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  10. Update on rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzé, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    Given that mobility impairment is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis, people with this disease are likely to benefit from rehabilitation therapy throughout the course of their illness. The review provides an update on rehabilitation focused on balance and walking impairment. Classical rehabilitation focusing on muscle rehabilitation, neurotherapeutic facilitation is effective and recommended. Other techniques did not prove their superiority: transcutaneal neurostimulation, repetitive magnetic stimulation, electromagnetic therapy, whole body vibration and robot-assisted gait rehabilitation and need more studies to conclude. Cooling therapy, hydrotherapy, orthoses and textured insoles could represent a complementary service to other techniques in specific conditions. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation program provides positive effects and high satisfaction for patients with multiple sclerosis but needs more evaluation. New technologies using serious game and telerehabilitation seem to be an interesting technique to promote physical activity, self-management and quality of life. Rehabilitation like other therapy needs regular clinical evaluation to adapt the program and propose appropriate techniques. Moreover, the objective of rehabilitation needs to be decided with the patient with realistic expectation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D and remyelination in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guíu, J; Oreja-Guevara, C; Matias-Guiu, J A; Gomez-Pinedo, U

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have found an association between multiple sclerosis and vitamin D (VD) deficiency, which suggests that VD may play a role in the immune response. However, few studies have addressed its role in remyelination. The VD receptor and the enzymes transforming VD into metabolites which activate the VD receptor are expressed in central nervous system (CNS) cells, which suggests a potential effect of VD on the CNS. Both in vitro and animal model studies have shown that VD may play a role in myelination by acting on factors that influence the microenvironment which promotes both proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and oligodendrocytes. It remains unknown whether the mechanisms of internalisation of VD in the CNS are synergistic with or antagonistic to the mechanisms that facilitate the entry of VD metabolites into immune cells. VD seems to play a role in the CNS and our hypothesis is that VD is involved in remyelination. Understanding the basic mechanisms of VD in myelination is necessary to manage multiple sclerosis patients with VD deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid advertising, to enhance the image or desirability of... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion program... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the United States, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including but not limited to paid advertising and retail or food... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  16. Evaluation of synthetic promoters in Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramuna, Anantha; Bae, Hansol; Rasmussen, Erling Koch

    2018-01-01

    Securing a molecular toolbox including diverse promoters is essential for genome engineering. However, native promoters have limitations such as the available number or the length of the promoter. In this work, three short synthetic promoters were characterized by using the yellow fluorescent...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion...

  18. 5 CFR 532.407 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine the...

  19. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-6; Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion... offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin on...

  20. Measuring the Cost of Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of retail promotions and the magnitude of dollars spent on them call economists to examine the role of promotional costs in shaping the coordination of pricing and promotion decisions. In this study, I estimate the marginal cost of price promotion in the retail industry. The es...

  1. Mental health-promoting dialogues from the perspective of community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundberg, Åke; Ebbeskog, Britt; Gustafsson, Sanna Aila; Religa, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Mental health promotion needs to be studied more deeply within the context of primary care, because persons with multiple chronic conditions are at risk of developing poor mental health. In order to make progress in the understanding of mental health promotion, the aim of this study was to describe the experiences of health-promoting dialogues from the perspective of community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity – what these seniors believe is important for achieving a dialogue that may promote their mental health. Seven interviews with six women and one man, aged 83–96 years, were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results were summarized into nine subcategories and three categories. The underlying meaning of the text was formulated into an overarching theme that embraced every category, “perceived and well-managed as a unique individual”. These seniors with multimorbidity missed someone to talk to about their mental health, and needed partners that were accessible for health dialogues that could promote mental health. The participants missed friends and relatives to talk to and they (crucially) lacked health care or social service providers for health-promoting dialogues that may promote mental health. An optimal level of care can be achieved through involvement, continuity, and by providing a health-promoting dialogue based on seniors’ needs and wishes, with the remembrance that general health promotion also may promote mental health. Implications for clinical practice and further research are discussed. PMID:24812516

  2. Universal features of multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-01-01

    Universal features of multiplicity distributions are studied and combinants, certain linear combinations of ratios of probabilities, are introduced. It is argued that they can be a useful tool in analyzing multiplicity distributions of hadrons emitted in high energy collisions and large scale structure of galaxy distributions

  3. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  4. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  5. More Popsicle-Stick Multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkels, Andrejs

    1982-01-01

    A way to use tongue depressors in a model of multiplication is presented. The original intent was to use the sticks to teach about fractions, but "mistakes" in student responses led to new ideas. It is felt that teachers should use the model in teaching multiplication. (MP)

  6. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. → GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. → GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. → A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. → We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  7. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  8. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  9. The Effect of Advertisement and Promotion on Brand Switching Behavior of Mobile Phone Providers in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Runturambi, Fallonia

    2014-01-01

    Companies should pay attention to advertisement and promotion of its brand in order to attract consumers, so, it will influence the brand switching behavior of consumers in choosing mobile phone provider. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of advertisement and promotion on brand switching behavior. To achieve the objectives, the research method used is associative with multiple regression analysis. The population observed is people who are users of mobile phone providers in Man...

  10. Multiple meanings of "gift" and its value for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rhonda M; Webb, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The "gift of life" metaphor is used to promote organ donation where commercialization is prohibited. In this article, we explore how multiple parties involved in organ transfer procedures think of gift terminology by drawing on interview data with transplantation specialists, organ transplant recipients, living directed donors and living nondirected donors. The interviews took place across New Zealand between October 2008 and May 2012, in participants' homes and hospital workplaces. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded manually, and thematically analyzed. Although gift language is often viewed as clear-cut, the gift trope has multiple meanings for different constituent and cultural groups, ranging from positive descriptors to obscuring and romanticizing the complexities of transplantation processes. To account for these multiple perspectives, we suggest new ethical models to capture the nuanced phenomenon of organ transfer in ways that recognize the full range of donation and reception experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, S

    1999-01-01

    The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).

  12. Oral health promotion at worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1989-01-01

    Many workplace-based health promotion programmes have been reported but only a few include or focus specifically on oral health. Although certain obstacles to oral health promotion in the workplace exist from the management side, from the dental profession and from the employees, these seem...... to be of a scale that can easily be overcome: moreover, numerous potential benefits exist. From the employer's point of view, the main arguments in favour are reduced health care costs, increased productivity and reduced absenteeism. The benefits to the dental profession are possible increases in utilization...... of services and less restraint from fee payment structures and physical environments. The immediate benefit to the employees is easy access to dental services. In addition, work-related dental hazards can be compensated for or prevented and screening activities can be more easily organized. The literature...

  13. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  14. Multiple Improvements of Multiple Imputation Likelihood Ratio Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kin Wai; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation (MI) inference handles missing data by first properly imputing the missing values $m$ times, and then combining the $m$ analysis results from applying a complete-data procedure to each of the completed datasets. However, the existing method for combining likelihood ratio tests has multiple defects: (i) the combined test statistic can be negative in practice when the reference null distribution is a standard $F$ distribution; (ii) it is not invariant to re-parametrization; ...

  15. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  16. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  17. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-01-01

    Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...

  18. A novel BDNF gene promoter directs expression to skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-specific expression of the gene that encodes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is required for the normal development of peripheral sensory neurons and efficient synaptic transmission in the mature central and peripheral nervous system. The control of BDNF gene expression involves multiple tissue and cell-specific promoters that are differentially regulated. The molecular mechanisms that are responsible for tissue and cell-specific expression of these promoters are still incompletely understood. Results The cloning and analysis of three additional zebrafish (Danio rerio BDNF gene exons and two associated promoters, is reported. Among them are two exons that generate a novel tripartite mature transcript. The exons were located on the transcription unit, whose overall organization was determined by cloning, Southern blot hybridization and sequence analysis, and compared with the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and mammalian BDNF loci, revealing a conserved but more compact organization. Structural and functional analysis of the exons, their adjacent promoters and 5' flanks, showed that they are expressed cell-specifically. The promoter associated with the 5' exon of the tripartite transcript is GC-rich, TATA-less and the 5' flank adjacent to it contains multiple Sp1, Mef2, and AP1 elements. A fusion gene containing the promoter and 1.5 KB of 5' flank is directed exclusively to skeletal muscle of transiently transfected embryos. The second promoter, whose associated 5' exon contains a 25-nucleotide segment of identity with a mammalian BDNF gene exon, was transiently expressed in yolk of the early embryo. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from whole juvenile fish and adult female skeletal muscle revealed tissue-specific expression of the 5' exons but the novel exon could not be detected even after two rounds of nested PCR. Conclusion The zebrafish BDNF gene is as complex as the mammalian gene yet much more compact. Its exons are

  19. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: current perspectives on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikes EM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Morghen Sikes,1 Robert W Motl,1 Jayne M Ness2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS accounts for ~5% of all multiple sclerosis cases, and has a prevalence of ~10,000 children in the USA. POMS is associated with a higher relapse rate, and results in irreversible disability on average 10 years earlier than adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Other manifestations of POMS include mental and physical fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depression. We believe that the health behaviors of physical activity, diet, and sleep may have potential benefits in POMS, and present a scoping review of the existing literature. Methods: We identified papers by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CINAHL. Search terms included: pediatric multiple sclerosis OR pediatric onset multiple sclerosis OR POMS AND health behavior OR physical activity OR sleep OR diet OR nutrition OR obesity. Papers were included in this review if they were published in English, referenced nutrition, diet, obesity, sleep, exercise, or physical activity, and included pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis as a primary population. Results: Twenty papers were identified via the literature search that addressed health-promoting behaviors in POMS, and 11, 8, and 3 papers focused on diet, activity, and sleep, respectively. Health-promoting behaviors were associated with markers of disease burden in POMS. Physical activity participation was associated with reduced relapse rate, disease burden, and sleep/rest fatigue symptoms. Nutritional factors, particularly vitamin D intake, may be associated with relapse rate. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of developing POMS. POMS is associated with better sleep hygiene, and this may benefit fatigue and quality of life

  20. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Sport promotion and sales management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminiroshan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.

  2. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for Promoting Autonomous Reading Motivation: A Multiple Case Study Research in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    It is important to reveal strategies which foster students' reading motivation in order to break through the declining trend in reading motivation throughout children's educational careers. Consequently, the present study advances an underexposed field in reading motivation research by studying and identifying the strategies of teachers excellent…

  4. Agmatine promotes the migration of murine brain endothelial cells via multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Yong-Heui; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong-Eun

    2013-01-17

    The combination of adhesion and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) is an integral process for evolution, organization, repair and vessel formation in living organisms. Agmatine, a polycationic amine existing in brain, has been investigated to exert neuroprotective effects. Up to date, there are no studies reporting that agmatine modulates murine brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells migration. In the present study, we intend to investigate the role of agmatine in bEnd.3 cells migration and the molecular mechanism mediating this action. The effect of agmatine on the bEnd.3 cells migration was examined by migration assay, and the mechanism involved for this effect was investigated by western blot analysis and NO contents measurements. Agmatine treatment (50, 100 and 200 μM) significantly accelerated bEnd.3 cells migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blotting revealed that agmatine treatment significantly induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2 (Flk-1/KDR or VEGFR2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt/protein kinase B (also known as PKB, PI3K downstream effector protein), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) nitric oxide (NO; product by eNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressions during bEnd.3 cells migration. The expression of ICAM-1 and migration of bEnd.3 cells, induced by agmatine, were significantly attenuated by treatment of wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that activation of VEGF/VEGFR2 and the consequential PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO/ICAM-1 signaling pathways are serial events, through which the treatment of agmatine could lead to bEnd.3 cells migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A newborn with multiple fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorova, E.; Kratky, L.; Nevsimal, I.; Marik, K.; Kozlowski, K.

    2008-01-01

    Sometimes newborns with multiple fractures are diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta in spite of absence of radiographic findings supporting this diagnosis. A newborn with multiple fractures was diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta. Analysis of the structure of the long bones, pattern of fractures and poorly developed muscles suggested the diagnosis of fetal akinesia deformation syndrome. This was confirmed by pregnancy history and clinical findings. Multiple fractures in a newborn may present with diagnostic radiographic features as in osteogenesis imperfecta, or as in lethal gracile bone dysplasias or achondrogenesis type IA. If those features are absent, other diseases should be considered. Radiographs should be compared with pregnancy history and clinical findings in the newborn. (authors)

  7. Promoting Pre-college Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. L.

    1999-11-01

    The Fusion Education Program, with support from DOE, continues to promote pre-college science education for students and teachers using multiple approaches. An important part of our program is direct scientist-student interaction. Our ``Scientist in a Classroom'' program allows students to interact with scientists and engage in plasma science activities in the students' classroom. More than 1000 students from 11 schools have participated in this exciting program. Also, this year more than 800 students and teachers have visited the DIII--D facility and interacted with scientists to cover a broad range of technical and educational issues. Teacher-scientist interaction is imperative in professional development and each year more than 100 teachers attend workshops produced by the fusion education team. We also participate in unique learning opportunities. Members of the team, in collaboration with the San Diego County Office of Education, held a pioneering Internet-based Physics Olympiad for American and Siberian students. Our teamwork with educators helps shape material that is grade appropriate, relevant, and stimulates thinking in educators and students.

  8. Fisetin: A Dietary Antioxidant for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441

  9. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineered Promoters for Potent Transient Overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Y Even

    Full Text Available The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3, which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods.

  11. Promoter DNA hypermethylation and gene repression in undifferentiated Arabidopsis cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berdasco

    Full Text Available Maintaining and acquiring the pluripotent cell state in plants is critical to tissue regeneration and vegetative multiplication. Histone-based epigenetic mechanisms are important for regulating this undifferentiated state. Here we report the use of genetic and pharmacological experimental approaches to show that Arabidopsis cell suspensions and calluses specifically repress some genes as a result of promoter DNA hypermethylation. We found that promoters of the MAPK12, GSTU10 and BXL1 genes become hypermethylated in callus cells and that hypermethylation also affects the TTG1, GSTF5, SUVH8, fimbrin and CCD7 genes in cell suspensions. Promoter hypermethylation in undifferentiated cells was associated with histone hypoacetylation and primarily occurred at CpG sites. Accordingly, we found that the process specifically depends on MET1 and DRM2 methyltransferases, as demonstrated with DNA methyltransferase mutants. Our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation may be another important epigenetic mechanism for the establishment and/or maintenance of the undifferentiated state in plant cells.

  12. Workplace Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers’ and employees’ perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. PMID:26977705

  13. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiebenthal-Millow, Kirsten; Greenough, Thomas C.; Bretttler, Doreen B.; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Sullivan, John L.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2003-01-01

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  14. [The impact of breastfeeding promotion in women with formal employment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Aline Alves; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on programs to promote breastfeeding in order to prevent early weaning of working mothers' infant children. A non-randomized intervention study was conducted using a survey of mothers who had returned to work after childbirth, including both participants and non-participants in a program to promote breastfeeding. The sample consisted of 200 mothers of infants ranging from 6 to 10 months of age. Factors associated with early weaning were analyzed with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05). The results showed statistical differences between the groups in relation to exclusive breastfeeding (p work. There was no difference between the end of maternity leave and weaning time. Mothers that were unable to nurse their infants during the work shift showed 4.98 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.27-19.61) of weaning them before the fourth month of age.

  15. Intrinsically bent DNA in replication origins and gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, F; Takeda, K I; Fiorini, A; Gouveia, F S; Fernandez, M A

    2008-06-24

    Intrinsically bent DNA is an alternative conformation of the DNA molecule caused by the presence of dA/dT tracts, 2 to 6 bp long, in a helical turn phase DNA or with multiple intervals of 10 to 11 bp. Other than flexibility, intrinsic bending sites induce DNA curvature in particular chromosome regions such as replication origins and promoters. Intrinsically bent DNA sites are important in initiating DNA replication, and are sometimes found near to regions associated with the nuclear matrix. Many methods have been developed to localize bent sites, for example, circular permutation, computational analysis, and atomic force microscopy. This review discusses intrinsically bent DNA sites associated with replication origins and gene promoter regions in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. We also describe methods for identifying bent DNA sites for circular permutation and computational analysis.

  16. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  17. Cerebral metastases from multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, J.; Wist, E.; Dahl, I.M.; University Hospital, Tromsoe

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a patient with multiple intracerebral lesions from myeloma. The case also demonstrates that myeloma is a radiosensitive tumour and that radiotherapy is important to keep in mind when intracranial lesions are revealed. (orig.)

  18. Current concepts in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiethoelter, Horst; Dichgans, Johannes

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains 9 articles dealing with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and positron emitted tomography in the diagnosis and staging of multiple sclerosis. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  20. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  1. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  2. Geometrical model of multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given

  3. Determination of multiple scattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of Sigmund and Winterbon numerical values is extended to the reduced thickness tau=2000. The diagram obtained allows a simple determination of the multiple scattering effect for different targets and projectiles [fr

  4. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  5. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  6. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  7. Multiple Thymoma with Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The actual incidence of multiple thymoma is unknown and rarely reported because it remains controversial whether the cases represent a disease of multicentric origin or a disease resulting from intrathymic metastasis. In this case, a patient underwent total thymectomy for multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis via bilateral video-assisted thoracic surgery. A well-encapsulated multinodular cystic mass, measuring 57 mm×50 mm×22 mm in the right lobe of the thymus, and a well-encapsulated mass, measuring 32 mm×15 mm×14 mm in the left lobe, were found. Both tumors were type B2 thymoma. Few cases of multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis have ever been reported in the literature. We report a case of synchronous multiple thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis.

  8. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  9. TSSPlant: a new tool for prediction of plant Pol II promoters

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham A.

    2017-01-13

    Our current knowledge of eukaryotic promoters indicates their complex architecture that is often composed of numerous functional motifs. Most of known promoters include multiple and in some cases mutually exclusive transcription start sites (TSSs). Moreover, TSS selection depends on cell/tissue, development stage and environmental conditions. Such complex promoter structures make their computational identification notoriously difficult. Here, we present TSSPlant, a novel tool that predicts both TATA and TATA-less promoters in sequences of a wide spectrum of plant genomes. The tool was developed by using large promoter collections from ppdb and PlantProm DB. It utilizes eighteen significant compositional and signal features of plant promoter sequences selected in this study, that feed the artificial neural network-based model trained by the backpropagation algorithm. TSSPlant achieves significantly higher accuracy compared to the next best promoter prediction program for both TATA promoters (MCC≃0.84 and F1-score≃0.91 versus MCC≃0.51 and F1-score≃0.71) and TATA-less promoters (MCC≃0.80, F1-score≃0.89 versus MCC≃0.29 and F1-score≃0.50). TSSPlant is available to download as a standalone program at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/download/.

  10. TSSPlant: a new tool for prediction of plant Pol II promoters

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham A.; Umarov, Ramzan; Solovyev, Victor V.

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge of eukaryotic promoters indicates their complex architecture that is often composed of numerous functional motifs. Most of known promoters include multiple and in some cases mutually exclusive transcription start sites (TSSs). Moreover, TSS selection depends on cell/tissue, development stage and environmental conditions. Such complex promoter structures make their computational identification notoriously difficult. Here, we present TSSPlant, a novel tool that predicts both TATA and TATA-less promoters in sequences of a wide spectrum of plant genomes. The tool was developed by using large promoter collections from ppdb and PlantProm DB. It utilizes eighteen significant compositional and signal features of plant promoter sequences selected in this study, that feed the artificial neural network-based model trained by the backpropagation algorithm. TSSPlant achieves significantly higher accuracy compared to the next best promoter prediction program for both TATA promoters (MCC≃0.84 and F1-score≃0.91 versus MCC≃0.51 and F1-score≃0.71) and TATA-less promoters (MCC≃0.80, F1-score≃0.89 versus MCC≃0.29 and F1-score≃0.50). TSSPlant is available to download as a standalone program at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/download/.

  11. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of 56 Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo 4 . The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a 56 Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO 4 solution, and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Case report 383: Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenberg, J.J.; Simons, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unique and obviously extremely rare example of multiple myeloma has been presented, affecting the peripheral appendicular skeleton and not the hematopoietic system of the axial skeleton, radiologically and probably pathologically. Only one other similar case has been described. The radiological features were confirmed by the pathological studies: a biopsy specimen obtained from a large osteolytic lesion in a patella showed the typical stigma of multiple myeloma; a biopsy from the iliac creast showed no abnormality. (orig./SHA)

  13. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects throu...

  15. Multiplicities and Correlations at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisyan, E.K.G.

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of un biased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1 are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (author)

  16. Multiplicities and correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of unbiased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose- Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1. are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (13 refs).

  17. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma

  18. Mechanisms of multiple production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to multiple production processes are discussed. A large number of models proceeds from the notion about common excited system produced by colliding hadrons. This class of models includes the hydrodynamical, statistical, thermodynamical and statistical bootstrap models. Sometimes the production process is due to excitation and decay of two colliding particles. The fragmentation bremsstrahlung and inelastic diffraction models belong to this group. The largest group of models describes the multiple production process as a result of formation of many excited centers. The typical example is the multiperipheral model. An interesting direction is given by the attempts to interrelate the mechanism of multiple production with internal structure of particles that is with their constituents (C-group)'-quarks, gluons, etc. Besides the models there are phenomenological (p group) attempts to connect different features of multiple production. Experimental data indicate the existence of leading and pionization particles thus giving an evidence for applications of different models. The data about increase of total and inclusive cross sections, the behaviour of the mean multiplicity and correlations at high energies provide a clue for further development of multiple production theory

  19. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  20. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  1. Rehabilitation interventions in multiple sclerosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Serafin; Khan, Fary; Kesselring, Jürg

    2012-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex, heterogeneous disease associated with long-term disability. Despite the availability of advanced disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies that may decrease activity and progression of disease and alleviate complaints to a certain extent, there is still a need for comprehensive rehabilitation interventions in order to reduce sequels and symptoms of the disease on personal activities and social participation to achieve the highest possible independence and the best quality of life. Timing and setting of rehabilitation interventions should be selected individually depending on disease phase, functional deficits, personal requirements, as well as specific goals. In addition, limitations and disease-specific characteristics that may influence rehabilitation outcome should be noted. Rehabilitation interventions should be considered early for maintaining functional capacity and reducing risk for losing important abilities or independence. Due to gradual failure of adaptive compensatory mechanisms along the course of disease, benefits of rehabilitation interventions are generally higher in earlier phases of MS. Inpatient and outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation has been shown to be beneficial in improving disability, participation and quality of life despite progression of the disease. Good evidence exists for different specific interventions improving physical and cognitive performance. Other important issues responsible for beneficial effects of comprehensive rehabilitation in MS include education, instruction, and information of patients and caregivers. Comprehensive assessment of health domains in MS patients using standardized framework and common language for describing the impact of disease at different levels, using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets may increase the knowledge of needs of these patients for more efficient and adapted rehabilitation interventions meeting these

  2. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...... and opportunities conducive to their inclusion. Guided by Ashcraft (2001) concept of organized dissonance, this paper explores how the combination of apparent incongruent elements of stability/flexibility and formality/informality might offer a passage for inclusive organizing....

  3. PROMOTION OF MONTENEGRO THROUGH SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervis Selhanovic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern social structures of Montenegro exist in a hypercomplex and very dynamic environment. The complexity and dynamism are, in part, a consequence of the general characteristics of the modern age, and in part, of the transition processes which have affected the Montenegrin society. The transition processes are taking place at all levels and subsystems of the community, and its sociological milieu is facing inevitability of adaptation and immersion in such processes and trends. There is no more positive promotion for a country than a sports promotion. There is no expert team, public relations agency or a lawyer than can win Montenegro a front page. We can talk about the importance of sports for the promotion of Montenegro from another point of view. If we compare the number of occurrences of names of the selected Montenegrin athletes with that of politicians, scientists or artists in different internet search engines, we will realize how great is the capacity of marketing potential that lies in Montenegrin sports and top athletes as representatives of the products and services with the label - Made in Montenegro. In addition to the success of the Montenegrin athletes globally, the promotion of Montenegro through sports is directly contributed by the major sporting events and contests, on account of which Montenegro presented itself not only as an excellent host and organizer, but also demonstrated the remarkable state and marketing capabilities and competencies. Reputation (image is not achieved overnight. Its semiological and symbolic charge includes all (visual, vocal, environmental, personal, active inputs, which need to be channelled and created. Indeed, continual work in creating and maintaining the image of Montenegro is a public relations function. With efficiently and professionally developed media and PR strategy, the modern state of Montenegro may expect to favourably position its image at the international scene, and to present its

  4. Trade promotion of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  5. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  6. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  7. Indian herb 'Sanjeevani' (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The aqueous extract of S. bryopteris possesses growth-promoting activity as ... promote growth and protect against heat shock and apoptotic activities of ..... Physical parameters .... tive stress and the use of anti-oxidants in diabetes: Linking.

  8. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2007-01-01

    ... of the DOD New Investigator award indicate that Shh signaling promotes tumor growth. This proposal addresses the hypothesis that Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes tumor growth by activating stromal cell gene expression...

  9. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  10. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  11. Sales promotion strategies in Procter&Gamble

    OpenAIRE

    Šebesta, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The thesis gives comprehensive overview on the topic of sales promotions. The special focus is devoted to activities of Procter & Gamble on the Czech market. With increasing importance of sales promotions on the Czech market, the thesis aims to introduce main academic findings concerning sales promotions and test them on brands of Procter & Gamble. The next goal is to find out whether sales promotion strategies of Procter & Gamble provide a competitive advantage for the company on the Czech m...

  12. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structu...

  13. Investigating Children’s Multiplicative Thinking: Implications for Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hurst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicative thinking is a 'big idea' of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This article reports on a recent study that utilised an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. Our research has so far revealed that many primary aged children have a procedural view of multiplicative thinking which we believe inhibits their progress. There are two aspects to this article. First, we present some aspects of the interview tool and written quiz, along with some of findings, and we consider the implications of those findings. Second, we present a key teaching idea and an associated task that has been developed from our research. The main purpose of the article is to promote the development of conceptual understanding of the multiplicative situation as opposed to the teaching of procedures. In doing so, we encourage the explicit teaching of the many connections within the multiplicative situation and between it and other 'big ideas' such as proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.

  14. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion means any action, including paid advertising, technical assistance, and trade servicing activities... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1220.121 Section 1220.121 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  15. Do Promotions Benefit Manufacturers, Retailers or Both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Shuba); K.H. Pauwels (Koen); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWhile there has been strong managerial and academic interest in price promotions, much of the focus has been on the impact of such promotions on category sales, brand sales and brand choice. In contrast, little is known about the long-run impact of price promotions on manufacturer and

  16. Employer's information and promotion-seeking activities

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.

  17. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized.

  18. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  19. The epidemiology of drug promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M

    1977-01-01

    A survey was conducted on the promotion of 28 prescription drugs in the form of 40 different products marketed in the United States and Latin America by 23 multinational pharmaceutical companies. Striking differences were found in the manner in which the identical drug, marketed by the identical company or its foreign affiliate, was described to physicians in the United States and to physicians in Latin America. In the United States, the listed indications were usually few in number, while the contraindications, warnings, and potential adverse reactions were given in extensive detail. In Latin America, the listed indications were far more numerous, while the hazards were usually minimized, glossed over, or totally ignored. The differences were not simply between the United States on the one hand and all the Latin American countries on the other. There were substantial differences within Latin America, with the same global company telling one story in Mexico, another in Central America, a third in Ecuador and Colombia, and yet another in Brazil. The companies have sought to defend these practices by contending that they are not breaking any Latin American laws. In some countries, however, such promotion is in clear violation of the law. The corporate ethics and social responsibilities concerned here call for examination and action.

  20. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  1. NPS and online WOM : investigating the relationship between customers' promoter scores and eWOM behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raassens, N.; Haans, H.

    2017-01-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld (2003), the single most reliable indicator of company growth and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate

  2. NPS and online WOM investigating the relationship between customers’ promoter scores and eWOM behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raassens, N.; Haans, Hans

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS

  3. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  4. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  5. Palliative radiotherapy for multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Toshimi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Uozumi, Hideaki; Takada, Chitose; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1995-01-01

    This study reviews the experience of palliative radiotherapy to patients with multiple myeloma to define the optimal dose for pain relief. The records of 31 patients (66 sites) with multiple myeloma irradiated for palliation at Kumamoto University hospital between 1985 and 1994 were reviewed. Total dose ranged from 8 to 50 Gy, with a mean of 32.2 Gy. Symptoms included pain (78.1%), neurological abnormalities (28.1%), and palpable masses (34.3%). Symptomatic remission was obtained in 45 of 46 evaluable sites (97.8%). Complete remission of symptoms were obtained in 28.3%, and partial remission in 69.6%. According to fraction size, there was no significant difference between 3-5 Gy and 1.8-2 Gy. The incidence of complete remission increased when a total dose of more than 20 Gy was given. When the quality of life is considered, hypofractionation was recommended for the palliative radiation therapy of multiple myeloma. (author)

  6. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  7. The problem of multiple carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, W.; Schmieder, A.

    1982-01-01

    This retrospective study reports on the occurrence of multiple carcinomas among the patients of our Department of Radiotherapy. Examination of 1290 patients during 1978 to 1980 showed in 76 cases (5.8%) simultaneously or successively secondary or tertiary tumours. These multiple tumours were most frequent in the mammary gland, in the female genital organs and in the respiratory system. Women had an incidence which was double of that displayed by men. Diagnosis and therapy of malignant tumours must always consider the possibility of multiplicity of carcinomas, either simultaneously or succesively, appearing spontaneously or as a result of iatrogenic influences. This applies in particular to the multicentric and bilateral occurrence of the early types of cancer of the female breast. (orig.) [de

  8. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  9. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  10. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  11. Multifractal fluctuations in joint angles during infant spontaneous kicking reveal multiplicativity-driven coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Young, Diana; Saltzman, Elliot L.; Holt, Kenneth G.; Newman, Dava J.; Weinberg, Marc; Wood, Robert J.; Nagpal, Radhika; Goldfield, Eugene C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has considered infant spontaneous kicking as a form of exploration. According to this view, spontaneous kicking provides information about motor degrees of freedom and may shape multijoint coordinations for more complex movement patterns such as gait. Recent work has demonstrated that multifractal, multiplicative fluctuations in exploratory movements index energy flows underlying perceptual-motor information. If infant spontaneous kicking is exploratory and occasions an upstream flow of information from the motor periphery, we expected not only that multiplicativity of fluctuations at the hip should promote multiplicativity of fluctuations at more distal joints (i.e., reflecting downstream effects of neural control) but also that multiplicativity at more distal joints should promote multiplicativity at the hip. Multifractal analysis demonstrated that infant spontaneous kicking in four typically developing infants for evidence of multiplicative fluctuations in multiple joint angles along the leg (i.e., hip, knee, and ankle) exhibited multiplicativity. Vector autoregressive modeling demonstrated that only one leg exhibited downstream effects but that both legs exhibited upstream effects. These results confirm the exploratory aspect of infant spontaneous kicking and suggest chaotic dynamics in motor coordination. They also resonate with existing models of chaos-controlled robotics and noise-based interventions for rehabilitating motor coordination in atypically developing patients.

  12. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Konrad C; Lewis, William D

    2008-10-01

    Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons. Typical symptoms are bone pain, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia. Incidental discovery on comprehensive laboratory panels is common. The disease is diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression. Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. Melphalan, prednisolone, dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, bortezomib, and thalidomide and its analogue lenalidomide have been used successfully. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications. Bone pain is treated with opiates, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty; nephrotoxic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. Hypercalcemia is treated with isotonic saline infusions, steroids, furosemide, or bisphosphonates. Because of susceptibility to infections

  13. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  14. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  15. Multiple Parton Interactions in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present in detail the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity dependence of per-trigger pair yields in azimuthal direction induced by low-energetic di-jets produced in proton-proton collisions. Using two-particle angular correlations with low transverse momentum thresholds, jet properties are measured on a statistical basis down to the lowest possible jet energies. The analysis can give information about the contribution from multiple parton interactions to particle production. Moreover, the results allow to optimize the parametrization of the jet fragmentation in phenomenological mode...

  16. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  17. Promoting Disengagement from Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ICCT’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications (CTSC Project’s Research Papers “Making CVE Work: A Focused Approach Based on Process Disruption” and “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out a multi-tiered framework for counter-terrorism strategic communications programmes and concrete evaluation of programme results. The Policy Brief proposes highly focused interventions which can be evaluated quantitatively and deployed across multiple platforms, using an evolving set of messaging themes that are informed by the results of evaluation and reiterated with adjustments to improve efficacy.

  18. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  20. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.