Chang S Han
Full Text Available Violent coercive mating initiation is typical for animals with sexual conflict over mating. In these species, the coevolutionary arms-race between female defenses against coercive mating and male counter-adaptations for increased mating success leads to coevolutionary chases of male and female traits that influence the mating. It has been controversial whether one of the sexes can evolve traits that allow them to "win" this arms race. Here, we use morphological analysis (traditional and scanning electron micrographs, laboratory experiments and comparative methods to show how females of a species characterized by typical coercive mating initiation appear to "win" a particular stage of the sexual conflict by evolving morphology to hide their genitalia from direct, forceful access by males. In an apparent response to the female morphological adaptation, males of this species added to their typically violent coercive mounting of the female new post-mounting, pre-copulatory courtship signals produced by tapping the water's surface with the mid-legs. These courtship signals are intimate in the sense that they are aimed at the female, on whom the male is already mounted. Females respond to the signals by exposing their hidden genitalia for copulatory intromission. Our results indicate that the apparent victory of coevolutionary arms race by one sex in terms of morphology may trigger evolution of a behavioral phenotype in the opposite sex.
Inoue, Madoka; Chapman, Rose; Wynaden, Dianne
This paper reports a study of male nurses' experiences of providing intimate care for women clients. The number of men entering the nursing profession has increased worldwide. As a consequence of the move to a more gender-balanced profession, debate has ensued over how intimate care should be performed when this requires male nurses to be physically close to women clients. As there was little previous work on this topic, we wished to provide nurses, clients and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of male nurses' experiences of working with women clients and within a healthcare system where they often feel excluded. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with male nurses working in various clinical settings in Western Australia. Latent content analysis was used to analyse the interviews, which were carried out between June and July 2004. Three themes were identified: the definition of intimate care, the emotional experience associated with providing intimate care and strategies used to assist in the delivery of intimate care for women clients. Providing intimate care for women clients was a challenging experience for male nurses. Participants described how it required them to invade these clients' personal space. Consequently, they often experienced various negative feelings and used several strategies to assist them during care delivery. Nurse educators should assist male nurses to be better prepared to interact with women clients in various settings. Furthermore, workplace environments need to provide additional support and guidance for male nurses to enable them to develop effective coping strategies to manage challenging situations.
Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias
The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.
Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage—s...
Fan, V C; Choy, H T; Kwok, G Yj; Lam, H G; Lim, Q Y; Man, Y Y; Tang, C K; Wong, C C; Yu, Y F; Leung, G Kk
Many studies of patients' perception of a medical chaperone have focused on female patients; that of male patients are less well studied. Moreover, previous studies were largely based on patient populations in English-speaking countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the perception and attitude of male and female Chinese patients to the presence of a chaperone during an intimate physical examination. A cross-sectional guided questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 150 patients at a public teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Over 90% of the participants considered the presence of a chaperone appropriate during intimate physical examination, and 84% felt that doctors, irrespective of gender, should always request the presence of a chaperone. The most commonly cited reasons included the availability of an objective account should any legal issue arise, protection against sexual harassment, and to provide psychological support. This contrasted with the experience of those who had previously undergone an intimate physical examination of whom only 72.6% of women and 35.7% of men had reportedly been chaperoned. Among female participants, 75.0% preferred to be chaperoned during an intimate physical examination by a male doctor, and 28.6% would still prefer to be chaperoned when being examined by a female doctor. Among male participants, over 50% indicated no specific preference but a substantial minority reported a preference for chaperoned examination (21.2% for male doctor and 25.8% for female doctor). Patients in Hong Kong have a high degree of acceptance and expectations about the role of a medical chaperone. Both female and male patients prefer such practice regardless of physician gender. Doctors are strongly encouraged to discuss the issue openly with their patients before they conduct any intimate physical examination.
Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A
Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.
Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.
Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385
van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M
Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Evalina van Wijk
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Eckhardt, Christopher I
Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, 2003; Eckhardt et al., 2004), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994; Archer, 2002). We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high-risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship
Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.
Bose, Sunita; Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J
Theories of the social consequences of imbalanced sex ratios posit that men will exercise extraordinarily strict control over women's behaviour when women's relationship options are plentiful and men's own options are limited. We use data from the third wave of the Indian National Family and Health Survey, conducted in 2005-06, to explore this issue, investigating the effect of the community sex ratio on women's experience of intimate partner violence in India. Multilevel logistic regression models show that a relative surplus of men in a community increases the likelihood of physical abuse by husbands even after adjusting for various other individual, household, and geographic characteristics. Further evidence of control over women when there is a sex ratio imbalance is provided by the increased odds of husbands distrusting wives with money when there is a male surplus in the local community.
Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.
Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, John M; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Amend, Robert W; Surprenant, Zita J
There is a need to provide practicing physicians with training on the recognition and management of intimate partner violence (IPV). Online continuing medical education (CME) could help meet this need, but there is little information on the costs and effectiveness of promoting online CME to physicians. This lack of information may discourage IPV training efforts and the use of online CME in general. We promoted an interactive, multimedia, online IPV CME program, which offered free CME credit, to 92,000 California physicians for 24 months. We collected data on user satisfaction, the costs of different promotional strategies, and self-reported user referral source. We evaluated California physician awareness of the promotion via telephone surveys. Over 2 years, the CME program was used by 1869 California physicians (2% of market), who rated the program's overall quality highly (4.52 on a 1-5 scale; 5 = excellent). The average promotional cost per physician user was $75. Direct mail was the most effective strategy, costing $143 each for 821 users. E-promotion via search engine advertising and e-mail solicitation had less reach, but was more cost efficient ($30-$80 per user). Strategies with no direct cost, such as notices in professional newsletters, accounted for 31% (578) of physician users. Phone surveys found that 24% of California physicians were aware of the online IPV CME program after 18 months of promotion. Promoting online CME, even well-received free CME, to busy community physicians requires resources, in this case at least $75 per physician reached. The effective use of promotional resources needs to be considered when developing social marketing strategies to improve community physician practices. Organizations with an interest in promoting online training might consider the use of e-promotion techniques along with conventional promotion strategies.
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W
The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan
Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…
Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo
Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.
Evalina van Wijk
Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Herrero, Juan; Torres, Andrea; Rodríguez, Francisco J
The revictimization of women during the life cycle has attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years. In this study, we examined the relationship between the experience of child abuse and the subsequent victimization by a male partner in adulthood. Specifically, we proposed that childhood abuse experiences negatively affect the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in adulthood. Thus, some female victims of child abuse are more likely to select potentially abusive intimate male partners. Data from 23,863 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union who were living with their partners at the time of the study were used. We investigated the association between child abuse, partner's adherence to traditional gender roles, and general violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) results indicated that child abuse is positively related to the partner's traditional gender role and general violence, which in turn predict IPV. Countries' level of human development was found to affect this process. We found support for the hypothesis that child abuse is related to IPV partially because it influences partner selection in adulthood. Thus, when they become adults, girls abused in childhood tend to select partners who are either traditional or generally violent. There is a persistent influence of social structural conditions (i.e., country's human development) throughout this process.
Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.
In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…
Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R
Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. We discuss these findings in relation to the idea of specific interventions and policy.
Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach
Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from
Barros, Claudia Renata Dos Santos; Schraiber, Lilia Blima
To analyze nonfatal violence suffered and committed by adult men and women, in an intimate relationship. The participants in the research were women aged between 15 and 49 years and men between 18 and 60 years, interviewed by face-to-face questionnaire application. The sample selection was of consecutive type, according to the order of arrival of the users. We conducted temporarily independent investigations and covered different health services to avoid couples and relationships in which the retaliation could be overvalued. To improve the comparison, we also examined reports of men and women from the same service, i.e., a service that was common to both investigations. We compared the situations suffered by women according to their reports and cross-linked the information to what men, according to their own reports, do against intimate partners or ex-partners. We also examined the cross-linked situation in reverse: the violence committed by women against their partners, according to their reports, in comparison with the violence suffered by men, also according to their reports, even if, in this case, the exam refers only to physical violence. The variables were described using mean, standard deviation, frequencies and proportions, and the hypothesis testing used was: Fisher's exact and Pearson's Chi-square tests, adopting a significance level of 5%. Victimization was greater among women, regardless of the type of violence, when perpetrated by intimate partner. The perception of violence was low in both genders; however, women reported more episodes of multiple recurrences of any violence and sexual abuse suffered than men acknowledged to have perpetrated. The study in its entirety shows significant gender differences, whether about the prevalence of violence, whether about the perception of these situations. Analisar as violências não fatais sofridas e praticadas por homens e mulheres adultos, em situação de parceria íntima. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram
Condoms are the only form of contraception that, when used correctly, can reduce the risk of pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted infections. This article outlines strategies for promoting correct male condom use. The availability, variety and history of condoms are explored. Possible reasons for people not wanting to use condoms are examined and advantages of condom use are provided. The author suggests ways in which healthcare workers can promote condom use and improve the experience and efficacy of this contraceptive device.
Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective
Mercilene T Machisa
Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and
Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol
The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun
In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.
A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.
Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita
Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J
The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Radcliffe, Polly; Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Ana; Lea, Susan; dos Santos Figueiredo, Wagner; Gilchrist, Gail
Abstract Introduction and Aims This paper describes how substance use features in the accounts of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in treatment in England and Brazil. The aim of the research was to better understand cross cultural constructions of IPV perpetration amongst men in treatment for substance use. Design and Methods Semi?structured interviews were conducted with 40 men in community substance use treatment in Sao Paolo, Brazil and London and the South East of England who ...
Cerulli, Catherine; Cerulli, Jennifer; Santos, Elizabeth J; Lu, Najii; He, Hua; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; White, Anne Marie; Tu, Xin
To explore whether the health status of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims warrants pharmacies to be portals for public health promotion. Specific objectives included (1) identifying prevalence of IPV including domestic violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in a community sample, (2) describing characteristics and correlates of DV/SA between participants who reported and did not report DV/SA, and (3) exploring whether DV/SA status is related to mental health medication use. Cross sectional. Upstate New York during 2006. English- and Spanish-speaking respondents younger than 65 years of age answering four questions to assess DV/SA. Secondary analysis of a countywide random telephone survey, the 2006 Monroe County Adult Health Survey, which collects prevalence data on health behaviors and health status indicators. To determine whether those reporting DV/SA are at increased odds for mental health medication use, controlling for other sociodemographic- and health-related variables. The survey response rate was 30.3%, with 1,881 respondents meeting inclusion criteria. Those reporting DV/SA were almost twice as likely to use mental health medications. However, when controlling for other variables, only poor mental and physical health were significant in increasing the odds of mental health medication use. The analyses reported here suggest that DV/SA victims in a community sample use mental health medications. When controlling for other variables, survey respondents reported worse physical and mental health. If pharmacies are suitable portals for DV/SA outreach, curricula would need to provide the knowledge and skills needed to take an active role in this public health promotion.
Crespo, María; Arinero, María
This study evaluates the long-term efficacy of a brief psychotherapeutic cognitive-behavioral program in group format for female victims of violence by their intimate partner. 53 battered women were randomized into one of two intervention programs: one including among others exposure technique (n = 28) and another one in which exposure procedures were substituted by communication skills training (n = 25). Additionally, both programs included: psycho-education, breath control, training to improve self-esteem, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, planning pleasant activities, and relapse prevention. The treatment was carried out in 8 weekly sessions. Measures of posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem and anger expression were analyzed at pre- and post-treatment, and at 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months follow-ups. Results show a pronounced decrease of posttraumatic, depressive and anxiety symptoms, which maintained in the different measure moments, with scarce difference between the two programs. The results and their clinical implications are discussed.
Mittal, María Luisa; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, María Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Yotebieng, Kelly; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Syvertsen, Jennifer L
Female sex work is often perceived as women being controlled by men. We used surveys and qualitative interviews with female sex workers and their intimate partners in two Northern Mexico cities to examine couples' own perceptions of their relationships and male partners' involvement in sex work. Among 214 couples, the median age was 34 and relationship duration was approximately 3 years. Only 10 women in the survey reported having a pimp, and the majority reported sole control over sex work decisions. Qualitative analyses revealed that while most men avoided direct involvement in sex work, they offered advice that was largely driven by concern for their partner's well-being. Our discussion of these results considers the broader socio-political context surrounding these relationships and how changing gender roles, economic insecurity and stigma shape couples' everyday social interactions. Assumptions that all sex workers' relationships are coercive and commercial marginalises these couples while leaving their health concerns unaddressed.
Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul
I examine how design can reflect on and critically discuss political and cultural issues of intimate technologies, such as gender and identity, embodied experiences, privacy, intimate data and sharing. In presenting my PhD project's background, research objectives, hypothesis and methodological...
Stover, Carla Smith
Millions of children witness intimate partner violence (IPV) in their homes each year, and large percentages of those children are infants and toddlers. Children often continue to live with or have frequent visits with their fathers following IPV. Social services agencies rarely provide services to target the father-child relationship beyond…
Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.
Greater sensitivity to information needs for men, the training of male medical staff in child spacing and orienting them to the concept could to such staff acting as counsellors for fellow men beside their other responsibilities. There is great scope in the country for involving men in child spacing and the number of agencies ...
engagement of the male gender in health and development is critical for social ... involvement in the care and support for people affected by HIV and AIDS. ... their roles; and encouraged men to see PMTCT as an intervention that 'real men' ...
Abstract This article situates breastfeeding politics in the context of intimate citizenship, where women's capability to care in a range of social spaces is at stake. Drawing on the work of Lefebvre and Fenster, the article considers the extent to which recent breastfeeding promotion work by the Health Promotion Agency in Northern Ireland has sought to reconceive of social spaces in ways that have the potential to improve intimate citizenship for breastfeeding women. L.Smyth@qu...
Noguera, José C.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits. These results suggest that early-life dietary conditions can induce multiple and long-lasting effects on male and female reproductive traits. Moreover, the results seem to reflect a previously unreported case of adaptive plasticity in mate choice in response to a nutritionally mediated reduction in sexual attractiveness.
Wu, Dongping; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiyong; Yu, Guangmao; Jiang, Luping; Hong, Qingxiao; Duan, Shiwei
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene MutL homolog 1 ( MLH1 ) is critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter was identified as a prognostic marker for numerous types of cancer including glioblastoma, colorectal, ovarian and gastric cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether MLH1 promoter methylation was associated with survival in male patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues were collected from 87 male patients. MLH1 promoter methylation was assessed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction approach. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests were used to evaluate the association between MLH1 promoter methylation and overall survival (OS) in patients with ESCC. Cox regression analysis was used to obtain crude and multivariate hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The present study revealed that MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in 53/87 (60.9%) of male patients with ESCC. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with poorer prognosis in patients with ESCC (P=0.048). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was an independent predictor of poor OS in male patients with ESCC (HR=1.716; 95% CI=1.008-2.921). Therefore, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation may be a predictor of prognosis in male patients with ESCC.
Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M
Nuanced, multifaceted, and content valid diagnostic criteria for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been created and can be used reliably in the field even by those with little-to-no clinical training/background. The use of such criteria such as these would likely lead to more reliable decision making in the field and more consistency across studies. Further, interrater agreement was higher than that usually reported for individual mental disorders. This paper will provide an overview of (a) IPV's scope and impact; (b) the reliable and valid diagnostic criteria that have been used and the adaptation of these criteria inserted in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and another adaptation proposed for the forthcoming International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD); (c) suggestions for screening of IPV in primary care settings; (d) interventions for IPV; and (e) suggested steps toward globally accepted programs. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Noguera, José C; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of m...
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J
Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of
Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Dion Stout, Madeleine; McKenzie, Holly; Price, Roberta; Bungay, Victoria; Smye, Victoria; Inyallie, Jane; Day, Linda; Khan, Koushambhi; Heino, Angela; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn
Indigenous women are subjected to high rates of multiple forms of violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV), in the context of ongoing colonization and neo-colonization. Health promotion interventions for women who experience violence have not been tailored specifically for Indigenous women. Reclaiming Our Spirits (ROS) is a health promotion intervention designed for Indigenous women living in an urban context in Canada. In this paper, we describe the development of the intervention, results of a pilot study, and the revised subsequent intervention. Building on a theory-based health promotion intervention (iHEAL) showing promising results in feasibility studies, ROS was developed using a series of related approaches including (a) guidance from Indigenous women with research expertise specific to IPV and Indigenous women's experiences; (b) articulation of an Indigenous lens, including using Cree (one of the largest Indigenous language groups in North America) concepts to identify key aspects; and (c) interviews with Elders (n = 10) living in the study setting. Offered over 6-8 months, ROS consists of a Circle, led by an Indigenous Elder, and 1:1 visits with a Registered Nurse, focused on six areas for health promotion derived from previous research. Pilot testing with Indigenous women (n = 21) produced signs of improvement in most measures of health from pre- to post-intervention. Women found the pilot intervention acceptable and helpful but also offered valuable suggestions for improvement. A revised intervention, with greater structure within the Circle and nurses with stronger knowledge of Indigenous women's experience and community health, is currently undergoing testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Costa, D; Hatzidimitriadou, E; Ioannidi-Kapolou, E; Lindert, J; Soares, J J F; Sundin, Ö; Toth, O; Barros, H
This work explores the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and intimate partner violence (IPV) considering the perspectives of men and women as victims, perpetrators and as both (bidirectional). Cross-sectional international multicentre study. A sample of 3496 men and women, (aged 18-64 years), randomly selected from the general population of residents from six European cities was assessed: Athens; Budapest; London; Östersund; Porto; and Stuttgart. Their education (primary, secondary and university), occupation (upper white collar, lower white collar and blue collar) and unemployment duration (never, ≤12 months and >12 months) were considered as SEP indicators and physical IPV was measured with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Past year physical IPV was declared by 17.7% of women (3.5% victims, 4.2% perpetrators and 10.0% bidirectional) and 19.8% of men (4.1% victims, 3.8% perpetrators and 11.9% bidirectional). Low educational level (primary vs university) was associated with female victimisation (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 3.2; 1.3-8.0) and with female bidirectional IPV (4.1, 2.4-7.1). Blue collar occupation (vs upper white) was associated with female victimisation (2.1, 1.1-4.0), female perpetration (3.0, 1.3-6.8) and female bidirectional IPV (4.0, 2.3-7.0). Unemployment duration was associated with male perpetration (>12 months of unemployment vs never unemployed: 3.8; 1.7-8.7) and with bidirectional IPV in both sex (women: 1.8, 1.2-2.7; men: 1.7, 1.0-2.8). In these European centres, physical IPV was associated with a disadvantaged SEP. A consistent socio-economic gradient was observed in female bidirectional involvement, but victims or perpetrators-only presented gender specificities according to levels of education, occupation differentiation and unemployment duration potentially useful for designing interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, Nadine; Jensen, Tina Gudrun
The Danish family unification policies are based on an underlying moral agenda rooted in the idea of emotional, intimate, love-based marriages as the basis of the modern nation state. This paper questions the efficacy of this moral agenda by examining the unintended consequences and false...... dichotomies that emerge with the implementation of the legislation, particularly focusing on kin relations and individual autonomy. Empirically, the article compares how the legislation affects both the intended targets (intra-ethnic marriages among Danes of immigrant descent) and the unintended targets...
Salari, Nasibeh; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Abazari, Faroukh
Background Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods of human life. Many healthy or risky behaviors may be formed during this period and continue to the end of life. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the health promotion behaviors of male and female students in high schools. Methods In this descriptive-comparative study, 609 high school students were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected using demographic and health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLPII) questionnaires. Results The mean of health promotion behaviors was moderate in female (2.43 ± 0.46) and male (2.61 ± 0.45) students. The highest and lowest means in the male students were respectively the dimensions of spiritual growth and health responsibility. Also, the highest and lowest means in the female students were dimensions of interpersonal relationships as well as physical activity and exercise. The status of male health promotion behaviors was significantly more favorable than that of the female (p = 0.001, t = -4.71). The male students had a better situation than female in terms of all the six dimensions of HPLPII, so there was a significant difference between them in the four dimensions of spiritual growth, stress management, physical activity and health responsibility. There was also a significant relationship between the history of physical and mental illness in the past year and the students' health promotion behaviors (p importance of promoting self-care and educational interventions in the aspects such as physical activity and health responsibility of young people in order to improve the health of the community.
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J
Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP
An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both
Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J
How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106
Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficulties inherent in providing mental health treatment for men who commit acts of violence against their intimate partners. The effectiveness of available treatment programs for men who batter, both in the international literature and in Spain, is analyzed. In all studies the dropout rates in the treatment of men involved in intimate partner violence are very high. Different studies have pointed to multiple psychological and social causes to explain the poor adherence to treatment in men who batter. The main predictors of poor adherence to therapy are described. Therefore, motivational enhancement strategies are being developed to strengthen subjects' commitment to change by helping them to identify their goals for recovery and to determine ways to reach these goals. Finally, some suggestions are discussed about how to successfully deal with these issues. It is necessary to implement strategies to improve motivation for treatment. Implications of this study for clinical practice, policy decisions, and future research in this field are commented upon.
Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L
Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P fertility of their pooled semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Lin, Alison J; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I
This article examines adolescent intimacy through a developmental lens. As they age, adolescents develop the relational skills necessary to gain independence from their parents and form intimate relationships with friends and romantic partners. This article details how adolescents' intimate relationships expand from parental connections to encompass friendships, dating, and sexual activity during progressing stages of development. Finally, clinical implications for adolescent health care practitioners for promoting intimacy and healthy relationships are suggested.
Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh
-sectional study was performed on 200 Iranian male seafarers in 2015. A self-administered socio-demographic and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) questionnaire was completed. One-way analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences among the various departments. The t......-test was utilised to compare the HPLP-II scores according to the demographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between demographic variables and the overall HPLP-II score, in addition to the six health-promoting lifestyle subscale scores. RESULTS: The mean age...... (19.95 ± 4.23). The lowest score for nutrition was found among the seafarers working in the engine department (engine: 20.41 ± 4.50, deck: 23.52 ± 4.97, and galley: 24.83 ± 4.64) (p Working in the engine department was found to have a significant negative effect on the nutrition score (B = -3...
Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna
Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.
Full Text Available The variation of G>T in the MUC5B promoter (rs35705950 has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP in Caucasians, but no information is available regarding this variant in the Chinese population. We recruited 405 patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD, including 165 IPF patients and 2043 healthy controls, for genotyping the MUC5B gene in the Chinese population. One hundred three patients with pneumonia and 360 patients with autoimmune diseases (ADs were recruited as disease controls. Our results indicated that the prevalence of the minor allele (T of the polymorphism rs35705950 in healthy Chinese subjects was approximately 0.66%, which was lower than that described in the Caucasian population. The frequencies of the T allele were 3.33% and 2.22% in IPF and ILD patients, respectively, and these values were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P = 0.001, OR = 4.332 for IPF, and P = 0.002, OR = 2.855 for ILD. A stratified analysis showed that this variant in MUC5B associated with the risk for ILD mainly in older male Chinese subjects. No difference was observed between patients with pneumonia, AD patients, and healthy controls.
Wee, S L; Abdul Munir, M Z; Hee, A K W
The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest. The positive response of B. umbrosa males to methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent phytochemical lure, which attracts mainly males of many Bactrocera species, was shown to increase with increasing age. As early as 7 days after emergence (DAE), ca. 22% of males had responded to ME and over 50% by 10 DAE, despite no occurrence of matings (i.e. the males were still sexually immature). Male attraction to ME peaked from 10 to 27 DAE, which corresponded with the flies' attainment of sexual maturity. In wind-tunnel assays during the dusk courtship period, ME-fed males exhibited earlier calling activity and attracted a significantly higher percentage of virgin females compared with ME-deprived males. ME-fed males enjoyed a higher mating success than ME-deprived males at 1-day post ME feeding in semi-field assays. ME consumption also promotes aggregation behaviour in B. umbrosa males, as demonstrated in wind-tunnel and semi-field assays. We suggest that ME plays a prominent role in promoting sexual communication and enhancing mating performance of the Artocarpus fruit fly, a finding that is congruent with previous reports on the consequences of ME acquisition by other economically important Bactrocera species.
LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene
Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243
Sillito, Carrie LeFevre
Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard
Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.
Salinas, Cristobal, Jr.; Hidrowoh, Jacob R.
Latino males across the country enroll in community colleges with the purpose of obtaining an educational degree, which could lead to accomplishing professional and personal aspirations. Even if Latino male students enroll in post-secondary education, they continue to be disenfranchised, vanished, and often rejected through the higher education…
Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany
The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…
Safi, Kamran; Kerth, Gerald
The evolution of sociality is a central theme in evolutionary biology. The vast majority of bats are social, which has been explained in terms of the benefits of communal breeding. However, the causes for segregated male groups remain unknown. In a comparative study, we tested whether diet and morphological adaptations to specific foraging styles, two factors known to influence the occurrence of information transfer, can predict male sociality. Our results suggest that the species most likely to benefit from information transfer--namely, those preying on ephemeral insects and with morphological adaptations to feeding in open habitat--are more likely to form male groups. Our findings also indicate that solitary life was the ancestral state of males and sociality evolved in several lineages. Beyond their significance for explaining the existence of male groups in bats, our findings highlight the importance of information transfer in the evolution of animal sociality.
Mullins, Iris L; O'Day, Trish; Kan, Tsz Yin
The aims of the study were to validate the English and Spanish Versions of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) with Hispanic male truck drivers and to determine if there were any differences in drivers' responses based on driving responsibility. The methods included a descriptive correlation design, the HPLP II (English and Spanish versions), and a demographic questionnaire. Fifty-two Hispanic drivers participated in the study. There were no significant differences in long haul and short haul drivers' responses to the HPLP II. Cronbach's alpha for the Spanish version was .97 and the subscales alphas ranged from .74 to .94. The English version alpha was .92 and the subscales ranged from .68 to .84. Findings suggest the subscales of Health Responsibility, Physical Activities, Nutrition, and Spirituality Growth on the HPLP II Spanish and English versions may not adequately assess health-promoting behaviors and cultural influences for the Hispanic male population in the southwestern border region.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also
Simeunović-Patić Biljana J.
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of homicidal violence between heterosexual intimates is analyzed, and the need for its treatment as a specific criminological issue denoted, having in mind many of its distinctive etiological and victimological dimensions. The presented findings of an empirical research on intimate homicides committed in Belgrade from 1985 to 1993 allowed for a testing of some hypotheses related to the factors of homicidal criminalization and victimization within the context of the intimate heterosexual relationships. The evidence on history and dynamics of deeply disturbed intimate relations, as well as some typical characteristics of male intimate partners in violent heterosexual relationships, are particularly considered. On the bases of research findings, it seems possible that the plausible preventive strategies can be developed.
Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia
The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.
Standeven, A M; Wolf, D C; Goldsworthy, T L
In previous studies, unleaded gasoline (UG) vapor was found to be a liver tumor promoter and hepatocarcinogen in female mice, but UG was not a hepatocarcinogen in male mice. However, UG vapor had similar transient mitogenic effects in nonlesioned liver of both male and female mice under the conditions of the cancer bioassay. We used an initiation-promotion protocol to determine whether UG vapor acts as a liver tumor promoter in male mice and to examine proliferative effects that may be critical to tumor development. Twelve-day-old male B6C3F1 mice were injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN; 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle. Starting at 5-7 weeks of age, mice were exposed by inhalation 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 16 weeks to 0 or 2046 ppm of PS-6 blend UG. UG treatment caused a significant 2.3-fold increase in the number of macroscopic hepatic masses in DEN-initiated mice, whereas no macroscopic masses were observed in non-initiated mice. Altered hepatic foci (AHF), which were predominantly basophilic in phenotype, were found almost exclusively in DEN-initiated mice. UG treatment significantly increased both the mean volume (threefold) and the volume fraction (twofold) of the AHF without increasing the number of AHF per unit area. UG also induced hepatic pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) activity, a marker of CYP2B, by more than 12-fold over control with or without DEN cotreatment. To study hepatocyte proliferative effects of UG, we treated mice with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) via osmotic pump for 3 days before necropsy and measured hepatocyte BrdU labeling index (LI) in AHF and nonlesioned liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:7588481
Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.
It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as
Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Yasuna; Honma, Taro; Kijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Ikuo
The maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation influences the risk of obesity in offspring, but the details of this phenomenon are unclear. In particular, there is little information on the influence on the offspring of the maternal nutritional status during lactation only. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of high dietary fat intake in dams during lactation on the risk of obesity in offspring, using C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a control diet (CD) during pregnancy. After birth, dams were fed a CD or a high-fat diet (HD) during lactation (3 wk). Fat and energy were significantly increased in milk from dams fed a HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at 3 wk old and fed a CD for 4 wk, which resulted in no significant difference in their physique. Four weeks after weaning, the offspring (7 wk old) were fed a CD or HD for 4 wk to induce obesity. High dietary fat intake in dams and offspring promoted lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy in male offspring. The underlying mechanism may involve an increase in expression of Lpl and a decrease in expression of Hsl in white adipose tissue of offspring. In conclusion, our results show that high dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the beliefs of medical university students regarding male circumcision (MC, as well as attitudes and the predictors of its promotion in the case of adults at risk of HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2013–2016 at the Medical University in Szczecin, Poland, among final year Polish/foreign students from Northern Europe, using a standardized questionnaire. Results: There were 539 participants, median age 25 years, 40.8% males, and 66.8% were Polish nationals. The MC rate was 16.7%. Regarding HIV/AIDS knowledge, 66.6% of the students scored more than 75%; and, 34.2% knew that MC reduces the risk of HIV infection. One in eleven respondents (9.1% believed that circumcised men felt more intense sexual pleasure. More than half of the respondents (54.8% declared that they would recommend MC to adult patients at risk for HIV. The belief that circumcised men felt more intense sexual pleasure, and knowledge on MC regarding HIV risk reduction was associated with greater odds of recommending adult MC (OR = 3.35 and OR = 2.13, respectively. Conclusions: Poor knowledge of its benefits and a low willingness to promote the procedure—strongly dependent on personal beliefs—suggest that medical students may need additional training to help them to discuss MC more openly with adult men at risk for HIV infection. Knowledge may be an effective tool when making decisions regarding MC promotion.
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.
van der Meer, G T; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M
The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with intimate bodypiercings.
Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...
Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D
Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.
Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M
Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.
Zhao, Liang; Arsenault, Michel; Ng, Ee Ting; Longmuss, Enya; Chau, Tevin Chui-Ying; Hartwig, Sunny; Koopman, Peter
The group C SOX transcription factors SOX4, -11 and -12 play important and mutually overlapping roles in development of a number of organs. Here, we examined the role of SoxC genes during gonadal development in mice. All three genes were expressed in developing gonads of both sexes, predominantly in somatic cells, with Sox4 being most strongly expressed. Sox4 deficiency resulted in elongation of both ovaries and testes, and an increased number of testis cords. While female germ cells entered meiosis normally, male germ cells showed reduced levels of differentiation markers Nanos2 and Dnmt3l and increased levels of pluripotency genes Cripto and Nanog, suggesting that SOX4 may normally act to restrict the pluripotency period of male germ cells and ensure their proper differentiation. Finally, our data reveal that SOX4 (and, to a lesser extent, SOX11 and -12) repressed transcription of the sex-determining gene Sox9 via an upstream testis-specific enhancer core (TESCO) element in fetal gonads, raising the possibility that SOXC proteins may function as transcriptional repressors in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liao, Ding-Lieh; Hong, Chen-Jee; Shih, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Shih-Jen
The neurotransmitter, serotonin, has been implicated in aggressive behavior. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which reuptakes serotonin into the nerve terminal, plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function. Previous western reports have demonstrated that the low-activity short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with aggressive behavior and associated personality traits. In the present study, we investigated this 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism in a group of Chinese males who had been convicted for extremely violent crime (n = 135) and a normal control group (n = 111). The proportion of S-allele carriers was significantly higher in the criminal group than in the controls (p = 0.006). A significant association was not demonstrated for the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse or alcohol abuse in the criminal group. Our findings demonstrate that carriage of the low-activity S allele is associated with extremely violent criminal behavior in Chinese males, and suggests that the 5-HTT may be implicated in the mechanisms underlying violent behaviors.
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Sun, Quancai; Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Yoon, Kyoon Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide, has been reported to promote adipogenesis and cause insulin resistance in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance using male C57BL/6J mice. Imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) was mixed in a low-fat (4% w/w) or high-fat (20% w/w) diet and given to mice ad libitum for 12 weeks. Imidacloprid significantly promoted high fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. In addition, imidacloprid treatment with the high fat diet resulted in impaired glucose metabolism. Consistently, there were significant effects of imidacloprid on genes regulating lipid and glucose metabolisms, including the AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) pathway in white adipose tissue and liver. These results suggest that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice.
Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom
To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.
Regnier, Shane M; Kirkley, Andrew G; Ye, Honggang; El-Hashani, Essam; Zhang, Xiaojie; Neel, Brian A; Kamau, Wakanene; Thomas, Celeste C; Williams, Ayanna K; Hayes, Emily T; Massad, Nicole L; Johnson, Daniel N; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Chunling; Sargis, Robert M
Environmental endocrine disruptors are implicated as putative contributors to the burgeoning metabolic disease epidemic. Tolylfluanid (TF) is a commonly detected fungicide in Europe, and previous in vitro and ex vivo work has identified it as a potent endocrine disruptor with the capacity to promote adipocyte differentiation and induce adipocytic insulin resistance, effects likely resulting from activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling. The present study extends these findings to an in vivo mouse model of dietary TF exposure. After 12 weeks of consumption of a normal chow diet supplemented with 100 parts per million TF, mice exhibited increased body weight gain and an increase in total fat mass, with a specific augmentation in visceral adipose depots. This increased adipose accumulation is proposed to occur through a reduction in lipolytic and fatty acid oxidation gene expression. Dietary TF exposure induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic inflexibility, while also disrupting diurnal rhythms of energy expenditure and food consumption. Adipose tissue endocrine function was also impaired with a reduction in serum adiponectin levels. Moreover, adipocytes from TF-exposed mice exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity, an effect likely mediated through a specific down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression, mirroring effects of ex vivo TF exposure. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed an increase in adipose glucocorticoid receptor signaling with TF treatment. Taken together, these findings identify TF as a novel in vivo endocrine disruptor and obesogen in mice, with dietary exposure leading to alterations in energy homeostasis that recapitulate many features of the metabolic syndrome.
E A Ashamu
Full Text Available Aims: This study investigates the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum (EES, vitamin C (VC, and EES + VC in promoting fertility and finding a possible link between their profertility effects and their antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats [Body weight (BW 186.56 ± 0.465 g] were randomly analyzed into four groups of ten rats each: Control, EES G (EES only, VC G (vitamin C only, and EES + VC G (EES in conjunction with vitamin C. Control was given 5 ml/kg BW/day of normal saline orally; EES G was administered 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES; VC G was administered 15 mg/kg BW/ day of VC; while EES + VC G was administered both 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES and 15 mg/kg BW/day of VC. All treatments were for 10 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent-sample T test was used to analyze the obtained results. Results: The results obtained showed that EES, VC, and more importantly EES + VC are capable of significantly increasing BW gain, seminal parameters, testosterone level, and body antioxidant activities. Conclusions: These findings lead to the conclusion that EES + VC as well as ESS and VC promote fertility due to both their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects.
Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia
Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse
van der Meer, G. T.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.
The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with
The WHO has declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem with intimate partner violence one of the most common forms of violence against women (2002). Health care providers are frequently among the first to see victims of intimate partner violence and must strive to provide appropriate and effective care to abused women. Violence by intimate partners can be prevented. Occupational health nurses have a unique opportunity to intervene with abused women. Routine screening for intimate partner violence increases the likelihood of violence identification, leading to early intervention that may prevent trauma and injury. Occupational health nurses can foster a caring and confidential workplace where abused women feel safe to disclose the violence in their lives and trust that the nurse will provide treatment. A safe and healthy workplace, where abused women feel comfortable disclosing intimate partner violence and seeking treatment may also protect coworkers from the stress and violence that may potentially affect them. Occupational health nurses need to add screening for and treatment of intimate partner violence to their current health promotion and prevention activities to benefit all employees.
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
Conclusion: Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.
Dryfoos, Joy G.
This document focuses entirely on pregnancy prevention and young males. It begins with a brief review of current literature on male involvement from which many of the findings and program ideas reported in the document were compiled. A short essay on the self-reported life experiences of adolescent males is followed with statistical data on the…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.
Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi
The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.
Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.
Cerman, Guray; Kaya, Bulent
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis investigates the effect of marital and family status on the performance and job productivity of male U.S. Marine Corps officers. The analysis includes evaluation of fitness reports, retention, and promotion to O-4 and O-5 ranks as performance measures. The primary goal is to examine the existence of any marriage premium on officers' performance and productivity and to investigate potential causal hypotheses. The personnel ...
Leone, Janel M.
This study examined risk of suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women (N = 369) in three types of male intimate relationships--intimate terrorism (IT) (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control), situational couple violence (SCV; i.e., episodic physical violence that is not part of a general pattern…
... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.
Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner
Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii
[b]Introduction. [/b]A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The extended version of the IPAQ, supplemented with 3 original questions by the authors, was applied to a 2,125-strong student group from 12 majors of the University of Luck, Ukraine. [b]Results. [/b]Students from Ukraine portrayed a positive picture of physical activity with significantly higher values in male students of both total activity and its fields, i.e. sports activity and work (studying). The male students performed better in their fitness (condition) self-assessment and the amount of time spent sitting, whereas the female students had better BMI results. Both genders differed considerably in their choice of sport-recreational activities. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.
The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…
Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite; Mittelmark, Maurice B
International donors support the partnership between the Government of Botswana and two international organisations: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership to implement Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision with the target of circumcising 80 % of HIV negative men in 5 years. Botswana Government had started integration of the program into its health system when international partners brought in the Models for Optimizing Volume and Efficiency to strengthen delivery of the service and push the target. The objective of this paper is to use a systems model to establish how the functioning of the partnership on Safe Male Circumcision in Botswana contributed to the outcome. Data were collected using observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Thirty participants representing all three partners were observed in a 3-day meeting; followed by three rounds of in-depth interviews with five selected leading officers over 2 years and three focus group discussions. Financial resources, "ownership" and the target influence the success or failure of partnerships. A combination of inputs by partners brought progress towards achieving set program goals. Although there were tensions between partners, they were working together in strategising to address some challenges of the partnership and implementation. Pressure to meet the expectations of the international donors caused tension and challenges between the in-country partners to the extent of Development Partners retreating and not pursuing the mission further. Target achievement, the link between financial contribution and ownership expectations caused antagonistic outcome. The paper contributes enlightenment that the functioning of the visible in-country partnership is significantly influenced by the less visible global context such as the target setters and donors.
Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Malecha, A
Intimate partner violence not only affects adults but also the children living within that "war zone." The present study expands our understanding about how children are affected when they observe violence in their own homes, as reported by their mothers. This descriptive study was conducted to describe mothers' perspectives of the impact of the violence on their children. A consecutive sample of 72 mothers attempting to file assault charges were interviewed in a private room by a registered nurse and were asked to describe the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence on their child's behavior. Each response was written verbatim by the interviewer. A majority (72%) of the mothers reported negative behaviors in their children that they believed were as a result of witnessing their mother's violent experiences. The most common negative traits were distress-indicating behaviors such as sleep disturbances, clinging, and fretful behaviors followed by problems with the abuser, problems in school, and problems with mother. Because intimate partner violence affects children, health care providers should become familiar with behaviors indicative of this problem. To promote the well being and development of children, recommendations for assessment and intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence are discussed.
Kululanga, Lucy I; Sundby, Johanne; Malata, Address; Chirwa, Ellen
Understanding the strategies that health care providers employ in order to invite men to participate in maternal health care is very vital especially in today's dynamic cultural environment. Effective utilization of such strategies is dependent on uncovering the salient issues that facilitate male participation in maternal health care. This paper examines and describes the strategies that were used by different health care facilities to invite husbands to participate in maternal health care in rural and urban settings of southern Malawi. The data was collected through in-depth interviews from sixteen of the twenty health care providers from five different health facilities in rural and urban settings of Malawi. The health facilities comprised two health centres, one district hospital, one mission hospital, one private hospital and one central hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data from health care providers with the aim of understanding strategies they used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. Four main strategies were used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. The strategies were; health care provider initiative, partner notification, couple initiative and community mobilization. The health care provider initiative and partner notification were at health facility level, while the couple initiative was at family level and community mobilization was at village (community) level. The community mobilization had three sub-themes namely; male peer initiative, use of incentives and community sensitization. The sustainability of each strategy to significantly influence behaviour change for male participation in maternal health care is discussed. Strategies to invite men to participate in maternal health care were at health facility, family and community levels. The couple strategy was most appropriate but was mostly used by educated and city residents. The male peer strategy was effective and sustainable at
Józef Bergier; Barbara Bergier; Anatolii Tsos
Introduction A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. Objective The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. Material...
Strukov, E.L.; Dryguina, L.B.; Nikiforova, I.D.
The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E
Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson
Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the
Victoria L Herrera
Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na
Kululanga Lucy I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the strategies that health care providers employ in order to invite men to participate in maternal health care is very vital especially in today's dynamic cultural environment. Effective utilization of such strategies is dependent on uncovering the salient issues that facilitate male participation in maternal health care. This paper examines and describes the strategies that were used by different health care facilities to invite husbands to participate in maternal health care in rural and urban settings of southern Malawi. Methods The data was collected through in-depth interviews from sixteen of the twenty health care providers from five different health facilities in rural and urban settings of Malawi. The health facilities comprised two health centres, one district hospital, one mission hospital, one private hospital and one central hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data from health care providers with the aim of understanding strategies they used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. Results Four main strategies were used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. The strategies were; health care provider initiative, partner notification, couple initiative and community mobilization. The health care provider initiative and partner notification were at health facility level, while the couple initiative was at family level and community mobilization was at village (community level. The community mobilization had three sub-themes namely; male peer initiative, use of incentives and community sensitization. The sustainability of each strategy to significantly influence behaviour change for male participation in maternal health care is discussed. Conclusion Strategies to invite men to participate in maternal health care were at health facility, family and community levels. The couple strategy was most appropriate but was mostly used by educated and city
Kodama, Akio; Komori, Kimihiro; Hattori, Keisuke; Yamanouchi, Dai; Kajikuri, Junko; Itoh, Takeo
The selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist sarpogrelate has been clinically used for treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. However, it remains unknown whether administration of sarpogrelate inhibits intimal hyperplasia seen in autologous vein grafts. Therefore, we sought to clarify this question using an experimental rabbit vein graft model. Male rabbits were divided into two groups: a control group and a sarpogrelate-treated group. The jugular vein was interposed in the carotid artery in reversed fashion for 4 weeks and intimal hyperplasia of the grafted vein was measured (n = 8, in each group). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was tested by precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha), 5 muM) (n = 5, in each). endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and superoxide production of these veins were also assessed. The suppression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate-treated group than in the control group. ACh induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the sarpogrelate-treated group (but not in the control group). In endothelium-intact strips from the sarpogrelate-treated group, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitroarginine enhanced the PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction and blocked the ACh-induced relaxation. Immunoreactive eNOS protein expression was similar between the two groups but superoxide production (estimated from ethidium fluorescence) in endothelial cells was significantly smaller in the sarpogrelate-treated group. The present results indicate that in vivo blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in rabbit vein graft. It is suggested that an increased function of endothelium-derived NO through a reduction in endothelial superoxide production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this. These novel findings support the clinical usefulness of sarpogrelate for preventing intimal hyperplasia in vein graft after bypass
Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa
In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women
CAROLYNE D.S. SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT, Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT, and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation. After birth, only male offspring (F1 were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.
Støckel, Jan Toftegaard
of sexual abuse prevalence in a national sample of athletes from recreational, regional competitive level, national and international elite level. Results from the total sample (N=1660) revealed that 5% (N=83) of athletes reported being manipulated or coerced into sexual contact at some time in their lives......, and in five cases the offender was reported to be a coach. Significant gender differences were found as 6.3% of female athletes reported lifetime sexual abuse as opposed to 3% among male athletes. Almost one in three athletes reported to have experienced an intimate relationship with a coach...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...
Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L
To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Carrillo, Héctor; Hoffman, Amanda
This article examines the logics of self-identification among men who have same-sex desires and behaviours and consider themselves to be straight. We draw from interviews conducted in the USA with 100 straight-identified men who have same-sex desires and 40 partners of such men. Our data allow us to reject two misconceptions. One is the idea that these men are actually gay or bisexual but refuse to accept those identities. We argue instead that these men see themselves as straight and therefore it is important to understand what specifically they mean by that. The second misconception links straight-identified men who have same-sex desires and behaviours to the racialised discourse of the so-called down low (or 'DL') in the USA. While the DL typically is depicted as involving African American and Latino men, most of our participants are White. Moving beyond these misconceptions, we propose that health educators must acknowledge flexibilities in the definition of heterosexuality and use an expanded definition as a starting point to envision, together with these men, how to more effectively engage them in HIV prevention and health promotion.
Full Text Available Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1. RNA sequencing shows that rare GSCs, identified as CDH1+ after trypsin digestion, are epithelial-like cells. CDH1+ GSCs exhibit enhanced reprogramming and become more prevalent during the course of reprogramming. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the spontaneous emergence of pluripotent cells from GSC cultures; namely, rare GSCs upregulate CDH1 and initiate MET, processes normally kept in check by ZEB1 and TGF-β signaling, thereby ensuring germ cells are protected from aberrant acquisition of pluripotency.
Falleiros-Júnior, Luiz R; Perez, Ana P S; Taboga, Sebastião R; Dos Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L
The aim of this study was to analyse morphologically the ventral prostate of adult Mongolian gerbils exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE) during the first week of postnatal development. Lactating females received daily, by gavage, doses of 10 μg/kg of EE diluted in 100 μl of mineral oil from the 1st to 10th postnatal day of the pups (EE group). In the control group (C), the lactating females received only the vehicle. Upon completing 120 days of age, the male offspring were euthanized and the prostates collected for analyses. We employed morphological, stereological-morphometrical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. The results showed that the postnatal exposure to EE doubled the prostatic complex weight, increasing the epithelial and stromal compartments, in addition to the secretory activity of the ventral lobe of the prostate. All glands exposed to EE showed strong stromal remodelling, and some foci of epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltrate in both luminal and epithelial or stromal compartments. Cells positive for anti-AR and anti-PCNA reactions increased into the epithelial and stromal tissues. ERα-positive cells, which are normally found in the stromal compartment of intact prostates, were frequently observed in the prostatic epithelium of treated animals. This study demonstrated that the exposure to EE during postnatal development causes histophysiological alterations in this gland, predisposing to the development of prostatic lesions during life. These results are important for public health, considering that women worldwide have commonly used EE. Moreover, the bioaccumulation of this chemical has increased in different ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men's lifestyles are generally less healthy than women's. This study identifies associations between health-related behaviour in different groups of men working in a Higher Education (HE institution. In addition, men were asked whether they regarded their health-related behaviours as a concern. This article highlights smoking, consumption of alcohol and physical activity as most common men's health-related lifestyle behaviours. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among all male staff employed by a Higher Education institute in Scotland using a postal self-completed questionnaire. A total of 1,335 questionnaires were distributed and 501 were returned completed (38% return rate. The data were analysed using SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Results Less than 10% currently smoked and almost 44% of these smokers were light smokers. Marital status, job title, consumption of alcohol and physical activity level were the major factors associated with smoking behaviour. Men in manual jobs were far more likely to smoke. Nearly all (90% consumed alcohol, and almost 37% had more than recommended eight units of alcohol per day at least once a week and 16% had more than 21 units weekly. Younger men reported higher amount of units of alcohol on their heaviest day and per week. Approximately 80% were physically active, but less than 40% met the current Government guidelines for moderate physical activity. Most men wanted to increase their activity level. Conclusion There are areas of health-related behaviour, which should be addressed in populations of this kind. Needs assessment could indicate which public health interventions would be most appropriately aimed at this target group. However, the low response rate calls for some caution in interpreting our findings.
Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M
In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work.
Caliendo, Carol; Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E
The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study exploring factors associated with female and male intimate body piercing, with particular emphasis on health issues. Nipple and genital piercings (intimate piercings) have become common types of body art. Scant medical and nursing literature is available, leading to little understanding of these body modifications by health care providers. A convenience sample of intimately pierced individuals (63 women and 83 men) from 29 states in the United States of America was surveyed via an author-developed questionnaire. Questions focused on demographic characteristics, decision factors and health problems related to intimate piercings. Self-reported characteristics were compared between female and male participants, and participants were compared demographically to United States general population. Participants reported wearing nipple piercings (43%), genital piercings (25%) and both types (32%). Respondents were significantly younger, less ethnically diverse, better educated, less likely to be married, more often homosexual or bisexual and they initiated sexual activity at a younger age than the US population. Deliberate, individual decisions for procurement of the intimate piercings were made. Average purchase consideration was at age 25 (nipple) and 27 (genital); average age to obtain the piercing was 27 (nipple) and 28 (genital) years. Purposes for obtaining the piercings included uniqueness, self-expression and sexual expression. Most participants still liked their piercing (73-90%). Health concerns related to intimate piercings were described by both those with nipple piercings (66%) and with genital piercings (52%) and included site sensitivity, skin irritation, infection and change in urinary flow (male genital). Few STDs (3%) were reported and no HIV or hepatitis. Usually non-medical advice was sought for problems -- often from the body piercer. Understanding client rationale is not a necessary
Full Text Available Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Forty-five healthy male participants were randomly assigned one of four intervention diets: eucaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-EM, hypocaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-ER, eucaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-EM or hypocaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-ER. The macronutrient ratio of the high protein diet and high carbohydrate diets was 40:30:30% and 10:60:30% (PRO:CHO:FAT respectively. Energy intake for the hypocaloric diets were calculated to match resting metabolic rate. Participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions each separated by 7 days. On each visit body composition, resting metabolic rate and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis was collected. Prior to visit 1 and 2 habitual diet was consumed which was used as a control, between visit 2 and 3 the intervention diet was consumed continuously for 7-days. No group × time effect was observed, however in the PRO-ER group a significant increase in AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression was observed post diet intervention groups (p < 0.05. No change was observed in any of the transcriptional markers in the other 3 groups. Despite ∼30% reduction in calorie intake no difference in lean mass (LM loss was observed between the PRO-ER and CHO-EM groups. The results from this study suggest that a 7-day a high protein low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet increased AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC-1 α mRNA expression at rest, and also suggest that increased dietary protein may attenuate LM mass
Crombie, Nerissa; Hooker, Leesa; Reisenhofer, Sonia
This scoping review aims to identify the scope of current literature considering nurse/midwife educational practices in the areas of intimate partner violence to inform future nursing/midwifery educational policy and practice. Intimate partner violence is a global issue affecting a significant portion of the community. Healthcare professionals including nurses/midwives in hospital- and community-based environments are likely to encounter affected women and need educational strategies that support best practice and promote positive outcomes for abused women and their families. Scoping review of relevant literature from January 2000 to July 2015. Search of databases: CINHAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROQUEST Central and COCHRANE Library. Reference lists from included articles were searched for relevant literature as were several grey literature sources. This review demonstrates low levels of undergraduate or postregistration intimate partner violence education for nursing/midwifery staff and students. Existing intimate partner violence education strategies are varied in implementation, method and content. Outcomes of these educational programmes are not always rigorously evaluated for staff or client-based outcomes. Further research is needed to evaluate existing intimate partner violence education programmes for nurses/midwives and identify the most effective strategies to promote improved clinical practice and outcomes for abused women and their families. Intimate partner violence has a significant social and public health impact. The World Health Organization has identified the need to ensure that healthcare professionals are adequately trained to meet the needs of abused women. Intimate partner violence education programmes, commencing at undergraduate studies for nurses/midwives, need to be implemented with rigorously evaluated programmes to ensure they meet identified objectives, promote best practice and improve care for abused women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leung, T W; Leung, W C; Ng, E H Y; Ho, P C
To evaluate the impact of intimate partner violence on the quality of life in Obstetric/Gynecological (OBGYN) patients. A total of 1614 OBGYN patients were classified into four groups (Group 1: requesting termination of pregnancy, n=300; Group 2: infertility patients, n=500; Group 3: other general gynecological patients, n=300; Group 4: obstetric patients, n=514) were successfully interviewed in the absence of their male partners, using a structured questionnaire modified from the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire. Those who reported ever having been abused, together with an equal number of non-abused women as controls, were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Measure - Abbreviated version (Hong Kong) Questionnaire. The overall lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence was 7.2%, with the lifetime prevalence being 12.7%, 1.8%, 4.7%, and 10.9% respectively in Groups 1-4. The mean quality of life domain scores among the abused victims were significantly lower in the physical health domain, social relationship domain, environment domain and psychological health domain. The baseline quality of life of the victims of intimate partner violence is significantly impaired compared with the non-abused controls.
Cercek, Miha; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Li, Hongyan; Chyu, K.-Y.; Peter, Ashok; Shah, Prediman K.; Dimayuga, Paul C.
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor α expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling
Anderson, Jocelyn C; Glass, Nancy E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
Maintaining safety is of utmost importance during research involving participants who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Limited guidance on safety protocols to protect participants is available, particularly information related to technology-based approaches to informed consent, data collection, and contacting participants during the course of a study. The purpose of the article is to provide details on the safety protocol developed and utilized with women receiving care at an urban HIV clinic and who were taking part in an observational study of IPV, mental health symptoms, and substance abuse and their relationship to HIV treatment adherence. The protocol presents the technological strategies to promote safety and allow autonomy in participant decision-making throughout the research process, including Voice over Internet Protocol telephone numbers, and tablet-based eligibility screening and data collection. Protocols for management of participants at risk for suicide and/or intimate partner homicide that included automated high-risk messaging to participants and research staff and facilitated disclosure of risk to clinical staff based on participant preferences are discussed. Use of technology and partnership with clinic staff helped to provide an environment where research regarding IPV could be conducted without undue burden or risk to participants. Utilizing tablet-based survey administration provided multiple practical and safety benefits for participants. Most women who screened into high-risk categories for suicide or intimate partner homicide did not choose to have their results shared with their healthcare providers, indicating the importance of allowing participants control over information sharing whenever possible.
Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka
Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.
Upshur Ross EG
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 500 Ontario members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants were asked about their use of chaperones when performing a variety of intimate examinations, namely female pelvic, breast, and rectal exams and male genital and rectal exams. Results 276 of 500 were returned (56%, of which 257 were useable. Chaperones were more commonly used with female patients than with males (t = 9.09 [df = 249], p Conclusion Clinical practice concerning the use of chaperones during intimate exams continues to be discordant with the recommendations of medical associations and medico-legal societies. Chaperones are used by only a minority of Ontario family physicians. Chaperone use is higher for examinations of female patients than of male patients and is highest for female pelvic exams. The availability of a nurse in the clinic to act as a chaperone is associated with more frequent use of chaperones.
Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.
In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,
Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina
The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…
Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia
Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.
Turinawe, Emmanueil Benon; Rwemisisi, Jude T; Musinguzi, Laban K; de Groot, Marije; Muhangi, Denis; de Vries, Daniel H; Mafigiri, David K; Katamba, Achilles; Parker, Nadine; Pool, Robert
Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, male involvement in reproductive health issues has been advocated as a means to improve maternal and child health outcomes, but to date, health providers have failed to achieve successful male involvement in pregnancy care especially in rural and remote areas where majority of the underserved populations live. In an effort to enhance community participation in maternity care, TBAs were trained and equipped to ensure better care and quick referral. In 1997, after the advent of the World Health Organization's Safe Motherhood initiative, the enthusiasm turned away from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, in many developing countries, and especially in rural areas, TBAs continue to play a significant role. This study explored the interaction between men and TBAs in shaping maternal healthcare in a rural Ugandan context. This study employed ethnographic methods including participant observation, which took place in the process of everyday life activities of the respondents within the community; 12 focus group discussions, and 12 in-depth interviews with community members and key informants. Participants in this study were purposively selected to include TBAs, men, opinion leaders like village chairmen, and other key informants who had knowledge about the configuration of maternity services in the community. Data analysis was done inductively through an iterative process in which transcribed data was read to identify themes and codes were assigned to those themes. Contrary to the thinking that TBA services are utilized by women only, we found that men actively seek the services of TBAs and utilize them for their wives' healthcare within the community. TBAs in turn sensitize men using both cultural and biomedical health knowledge, and become allies with women in influencing men to provide resources needed for maternity care. In this study area, men trust and have confidence in TBAs; closer
Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Di; Tian, Hui; Zuo, Fang; Lam, Tai Hing
There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture out-patient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Physicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within 1 month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counsellor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise and diet advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline, and a telephone counsellor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (approximately 1 minute each) at 1 week and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview. By intention-to-treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3 versus 6.9%, OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0
Li, Changgui; Chu, Nan; Wang, Binbin; Wang, Jing; Luan, Jian; Han, Lin; Meng, Dongmei; Wang, Yunlong; Suo, Peisu; Cheng, Longfei; Ma, Xu; Miao, Zhimin; Liu, Shiguo
Glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) is a high-capacity/low-affinity urate transporter. To date, several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and follow-up studies have identified genetic variants of SLC2A9 associated with urate concentrations and susceptibility to gout. We therefore investigated associations between gout and polymorphisms and haplotypes in the presumptive promoter region of GLUT9 in Chinese males. The approximately 2000 bp presumptive promoter region upstream of the start site of exon 1 of GLUT9 was sequenced and subjected to genetic analysis. A genotype-phenotype correlation was performed and polymorphisms-induced changes in transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Of 21 SNPs identified in GLUT9, five had not been previously reported. Two of the SNPs (rs13124007 and rs6850166) were associated with susceptibility to gout (p = 0.009 and p = 0.042, respectively). The C allele of rs13124007 appeared to be the risk allele for predisposition to gout (p = 0.006, OR 1.709 [95% CI 1.162-2.514]). For rs6850166, an increased risk of gout was associated with the A allele (p = 0.029, OR 1.645 [95% CI 1.050-2.577]). After Bonferroni correction, there was statistically difference in rs13124007 allele frequencies between gout cases and controls (P = 0.042). Haplotype analyses showed that haplotype GG was a protective haplotype (p = 0.0053) and haplotype CA was associated with increased risk of gout (p = 0.0326). Genotype-phenotype analysis among gout patients revealed an association of rs13124007 with serum triglycerides levels (P = 0.001). The C to G substitution in polymorphism rs13124007 resulted in a loss of a binding site for transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1). Polymorphisms rs13124007 and rs6850166 are associated with susceptibility to gout in Chinese males.
Hertzog, Jodie; Williams, Renee
Introducing students to sensitive social issues like intimate violence in lower level courses can spark their sociological imaginations motivating them to do further research in order to gain reflective knowledge about such topics. In order to promote two course objectives: (1) recognizing and applying sociological concepts and theories, and (2)…
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Abstract. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its ... in Chile 31% of women and 21 % of men reported ... Protective factors may include lack of ... developed in English, then translated and back-.
intimate partner violence, depression, and suicidal behavior among women attending ... sample of women attending antenatal care or general outpatient hospital services in. Thailand. .... participant was referred to the nurse counsellor from.
Tsoh, Janice Y; Burke, Nancy J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Anthony; Chan, Joanne L; Sun, Angela; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T
Smoking prevalence is high among limited English-proficient Chinese and Vietnamese American men, who are frequently unmotivated to quit and who underutilize smoking cessation resources. This study applied lay health worker outreach to leverage peer and family networks to promote smoking cessation among these men. We integrated qualitative formative research findings and Social Network Theory to develop a social-network family-focused intervention. In a pilot single-group trial, 15 lay health workers recruited 96 dyads (N = 192, 75% Vietnamese) of Chinese or Vietnamese male daily smokers and their family members and delivered the intervention consisting of two small group education sessions and two individual telephone calls over 2 months. At baseline, 42% of smokers were at precontemplation. At 3 months following the initiation of the intervention, 7-day and 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates as reported by smokers and independently corroborated by family members were 30% and 24%, respectively. Utilization of smoking cessation resources (medication, quitline, physician's advice) increased from 2% to 60% (P Vietnamese smokers appears to be acceptable, feasible, and potentially efficacious. Findings warrant evaluation of long-term efficacy of the intervention in a larger scale randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert
Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India.
Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja
Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.
Horne, Rebecca M; Johnson, Matthew D
Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes. An ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed relationship efficacy was a stronger predictor of self-disclosure compared to traditional gender role attitudes, which were not associated with self-disclosure. The findings suggest attitudes with an interpersonal motivational system may be especially important for setting the intimacy process into motion within an intimate union.
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T
Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Olander Rasmussen, Sune; Svensson, Anders
The North Atlantic INTIMATE (INtegration of Ice-core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group has previously recommended an Event Stratigraphy approach for the synchronisation of records of the Last Termination using the Greenland ice core records as the regional stratotypes. A key element of these protocols has been the formal definition of numbered Greenland Stadials (GS) and Greenland Interstadials (GI) within the past glacial period as the Greenland expressions of the characteristic Dansgaard-Oeschger events that represent cold and warm phases of the North Atlantic region, respectively. Using a recent synchronization of the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 ice cores that allows the parallel analysis of all three records on a common time scale, we here present an extension of the GS/GI stratigraphic template to the entire glacial period. In addition to the well-known sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events that were first defined and numbered in the ice core records more than two decades ago, a number of short-lived climatic oscillations have been identified in the three synchronized records. Some of these events have been observed in other studies, but we here propose a consistent scheme for discriminating and naming all the significant climatic events of the last glacial period that are represented in the Greenland ice cores. In addition to presenting the updated event stratigraphy, we make a series of recommendations on how to refer to these periods in a way that promotes unambiguous comparison and correlation between different proxy records, providing a more secure basis for investigating the dynamics and fundamental causes of these climatic perturbations. The work presented is a part of a newly published paper in an INTIMATE special issue of Quaternary Science Reviews: Rasmussen et al., 'A stratigraphic framework for abrupt climatic changes during the Last Glacial period based on three synchronized Greenland ice-core records: refining and extending the INTIMATE event
Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig
In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.
Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael
Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.
Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch
Even though Denmark in many respects shows some of the most gender equality rates in the world, the rates of physical and/or sexual violence against women in Denmark are among the highest in Europe. In this article we seek to describe state responses to these figures. We do so by investigating...... the symbolic representations of sexual violence in intimate relationships, framing contemporary political/societal developments of the Danish field of welfare work addressing violence in intimate relationships as well as the dominating knowledge production substantiating these. Theoretically, Slavoj Zizek...... and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...
Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal
Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.
Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.
Naclerio, Fernando; Seijo-Bujia, Marco; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Earnest, Conrad P
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast). Post intervention changes were examined as percent change and 95% CIs. Beef (2.0%, CI, 0.2-2.38%) and Whey (1.4%, CI, 0.2-2.6%) but not Carbohydrate (0.0%, CI, -1.2-1.2%) increased fat-free mass. All groups increased vastus medialis thickness: Beef (11.1%, CI, 6.3-15.9%), Whey (12.1%, CI, 4.0, -20.2%), Carbohydrate (6.3%, CI, 1.9-10.6%). Beef (11.2%, CI, 5.9-16.5%) and Carbohydrate (4.5%, CI, 1.6-7.4%), but not Whey (1.1%, CI, -1.7-4.0%), increased biceps brachialis thickness, while only Beef increased arm (4.8%, CI, 2.3-7.3%) and thigh (11.2%, 95%CI 0.4-5.9%) circumferences. Although the three groups significantly improved 1RM Squat (Beef 21.6%, CI 5.5-37.7%; Whey 14.6%, CI, 5.9-23.3%; Carbohydrate 19.6%, CI, 2.2-37.1%), for the 1RM bench press the improvements were significant for Beef (15.8% CI 7.0-24.7%) and Whey (5.8%, CI, 1.7-9.8%) but not for carbohydrate (11.4%, CI, -0.9-23.6%). Protein-carbohydrate supplementation supports fat-free mass accretion and lower body hypertrophy. Hydrolyzed beef promotes upper body hypertrophy along with similar performance outcomes as observed when supplementing with whey isolate or maltodextrin.
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...
Turinawe, E.B.; Rwemisisi, J.T.; Musinguzi, L.K.; de Groot, M.; Muhangi, D.; de Vries, D.H.; Mafigiri, D.K.; Katamba, A.; Parker, N.; Pool, R.
Background Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, male involvement in reproductive health issues has been advocated as a means to improve maternal and child health outcomes, but to date, health providers have failed to achieve successful male involvement in pregnancy
Khanna, Paritosh C.; Bulas, Dorothy I.; Rothenbach, Patricia; Guzzetta, Philip C.
We present a case of lap-belt motor vehicle injury in a 7-year-old male who was admitted with abdominal ecchymoses and pain with associated aortic intimal flap, bowel injury, hemoperitoneum, and retroperitoneal hematoma at initial imaging with CT. Most of these findings were confirmed at subsequent laparotomy, and the patient underwent operative repair of bowel injuries. His aortic intimal flap was followed with US and color Doppler imaging during which time he was treated conservatively until there was sonographic evidence of intimal healing. This patient illustrates a multimodality approach to imaging and conservative management. (orig.)
Rob C M de Jong
Full Text Available Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia.PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery. PCAF deficiency downregulate CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs, leukocytes and macrophages. PCAF KO mice showed a 71.8% reduction of vSMC-rich intimal hyperplasia, a 73.4% reduction of intima/media ratio and a 63.7% reduction of luminal stenosis after femoral artery cuff placement compared to wild type (WT mice. The association of PCAF and vascular inflammation was further investigated using the potent natural PCAF inhibitor garcinol. Garcinol treatment reduced CCL2 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs and leukocytes. To assess the effect of garcinol treatment on vascular inflammation we used hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3-Leiden mice. After cuff placement, garcinol treatment resulted in reduced arterial leukocyte and macrophage adherence and infiltration after three days compared to untreated animals.These results identify a vital role for the lysine acetyltransferase PCAF in the regulation of local inflammation after arterial injury and likely the subsequent vSMC proliferation, responsible for intimal hyperplasia.
Intimate partner violence is a social problem which continues to plague the nation. In the past, in many cultures, intimate partner violence was not viewed a serious problem. However, in recent years, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. This paper explains the concepts of intimate partner violence. It discusses ...
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
the reproductive, physical and mental well-being of women. In Ethiopia however, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women is ... socio-economic, relationship and behavioral factors increase women's risk of being victimized. Thus .... exchange are the main types of marriage.
Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.
Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…
Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) may experience num ... Women who refuse to have sex without a condom have an increased likelihood of becoming ... of these students study towards careers in which they will need to .... different types of abuse. ... insulting things or threatens them, is disagreeable, or may try to hurt.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) or domestic violence is a common and serious public health problem around the globe. Victims of IPV frequently present to health care practitioners including orthopaedic surgeons. Substantial research has been conducted on IPV over the past few decades, but very
Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.
Babcock, Julia C.; Graham, Katherine; Canady, Brittany; Ross, Jody M.
This study tests the immediate impact of two interventions for intimate partner violent (IPV) men in affecting behavioral and emotional change during arguments with their partners. Couples with an abusive male partner (N=100) discussed an area of conflict twice, interrupted by a brief intervention. Men were randomly assigned to receive (a) an editing-out-the-negative skills training, (b) an accepting influence skills training, or (c) a time-out. IPV men in both skills-training conditions show...
Gattegno, Mariana V.; Wilkins, Jasmine D.; Evans, Dabney P.
Background Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, becam...
Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.
We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...
Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela
Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.
Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528
D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C
Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria
Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to
Cross, Catharine P; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne
Men's greater use of direct aggression is not evident in studies of intimate partner aggression. In previous research, the effects of target sex and relationship intimacy have frequently been confounded. This study sought to examine these effects separately. One hundred and seventy-four participants (59 male and 115 female) read vignette scenarios in which they were provoked by a same-sex best friend, an opposite-sex best friend, and a partner. For each target, participants estimated their likely use of direct physical and verbal aggression as well as noninjurious forms of anger expression. Results showed that men lower their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and that this is an effect of the target's sex. In contrast, women raise their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and this is an effect of intimacy with the target. The use of noninjurious angry behavior did not vary between targets for either sex of the participant, which suggests that the effects of target are confined to behaviors which carry an intention to harm. Possible effects of social norms and oxytocin-mediated emotional disinhibition on intimate partner aggression are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Jia; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad; Hossen, Md Nazir; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Cao, Jun; Meyerrose, Gary E; Paone, Ralph; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Shu
Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing inflammatory responses. The presence of these cells is positively associated with lesion progression, severity and destabilization. Hence, they are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to noninvasively assess the distribution and accumulation of intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles. Soy phosphatidylcholine was used to synthesize liposome-like nanovesicles. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine was incorporated on their surface to target the CD36 receptor. All in vitro data demonstrate that these targeted nanovesicles had a high binding affinity for the oxLDL binding site of the CD36 receptor and participated in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of nanovesicles by macrophages. Intravenous administration into LDL receptor null mice of targeted compared to non-targeted nanovesicles resulted in higher uptake in aortic lesions. The nanovesicles co-localized with macrophages and their CD36 receptors in aortic lesions. This molecular target approach may facilitate the in vivo noninvasive imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in terms of intimal macrophage accumulation and distribution and disclose lesion features related to inflammation and possibly vulnerability thereby facilitate early lesion detection and targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in Tanzania was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in 2010 as part of the national HIV prevention strategy. A qualitative study was conducted prior to a cluster randomized trial which tested effective strategies to increase VMMC up take among men aged ≥20 years. During the formative qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with circumcised males (n = 14, uncircumcised males (n = 16, and participatory group discussions (n = 20 with men and women aged 20-49 years in Njombe and Tabora regions of Tanzania. Participants reported that mothers and female partners have an important influence on men's decisions to seek VMMC both directly by denying sex, and indirectly through discussion, advice and providing information on VMMC to uncircumcised partners and sons. Our findings suggest that in Tanzania and potentially other settings, an expanded role for women in VMMC communication strategies could increase adult male uptake of VMMC services.
Choi, Ye-Sook; Song, Rhayun; Ku, Bon Jeong
To determine the effects of a t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion program on metabolic syndrome markers, health behaviors, and quality of life in middle-aged male office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. A prospective randomized controlled study. Health center of a government office building in Korea. Forty-three male office workers with two or more metabolic syndrome markers. The office workers were randomly assigned either to an experimental group that received t'ai chi combined with health education twice weekly for 12 weeks, or to a control group that received health education only. Blood sampling for metabolic syndrome markers and structured questionnaires for health behaviors and quality of life. The experimental group showed significant reductions in systolic (t = -3.103, p = 0.003) and diastolic (t = -2.159, p = 0.037) blood pressures and the triglyceride level (t = -2.451, p = 0.019) compared with the control group. Those in the experimental group also performed health behaviors more frequently (t = 4.047, p effective adjunctive intervention in a worksite health promotion program for middle-aged office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion programs in individuals with confirmed metabolic syndrome.
Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N
The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.
Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be
Pergamit, Michael R.; Veum, Jonathan R.
For a sample of young workers, "promotion" involved no change in position or duties; promotion was more likely for males than females and Whites than Blacks or Hispanics. Company training and prior promotions were important predictors. Promotion did not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction. (SK)
Previous studies have shown that the AtAGIP promoter derived from the Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) second intron/enhancer specifies a carpel- and stamen-specific pattern of expression in its native host species but not in heterologous species, such as tobacco which restricts its application in the engin...
Although alcohol effects within the liver have been extensively studied, the complex mechanisms by which alcohol causes liver cancer are not well understood. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism promotes tumor growth by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. In this study, we develop...
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
workers earn more than single male co-workers is well established in labor economics literature. Studies indicate that a marriage earnings premium exists in...determination, which are valued in both the labor and marriage markets. The explanation of the marriage wage premium is an important subject in labor economics because...subject in labor economics . Of all the examined determinants, marital status has been found to be one of the most robust ones. Kol and Ryu (2002), in their
Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and
José M. Pozueco-Romero
Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.
Goicolea, Isabel; Marchal, Bruno; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; San Sebastián, Miguel
To analyse how team level conditions influenced health care professionals' responses to intimate partner violence. We used a multiple embedded case study. The cases were four primary health care teams located in a southern region of Spain; two of them considered "good" and two s "average". The two teams considered good had scored highest in practice issues for intimate partner violence, measured via a questionnaire (PREMIS - Physicians Readiness to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence Survey) applied to professionals working in the four primary health care teams. In each case quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a social network questionnaire, interviews and observations. The two "good" cases showed dynamics and structures that promoted team working and team learning on intimate partner violence, had committed social workers and an enabling environment for their work, and had put into practice explicit strategies to implement a women-centred approach. Better individual responses to intimate partner violence were implemented in the teams which: 1) had social workers who were knowledgeable and motivated to engage with others; 2) sustained a structure of regular meetings during which issues of violence were discussed; 3) encouraged a friendly team climate; and 4) implemented concrete actions towards women-centred care. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chisholm, Christian A; Bullock, Linda; Ferguson, James E Jef
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem in our society, affecting women disproportionately. Intimate partner violence takes many forms, including physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression. While the scope of intimate partner violence is not fully documented, nearly 40% of women in the United States are victims of sexual violence in their lifetimes and 20% are victims of physical intimate partner violence. Other forms of intimate partner violence are likely particularly underreported. Intimate partner violence has a substantial impact on a woman's physical and mental health. Physical disorders include the direct consequences of injuries sustained after physical violence, such as fractures, lacerations and head trauma, sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies as a consequence of sexual violence, and various pain disorders. Mental health impacts include an increased risk of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicide. These adverse health effects are amplified in pregnancy, with an increased risk of pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and small for gestational age. In many US localities, suicide and homicide are leading causes of pregnancy-associated mortality. We herein review the issues noted previously in greater depth and introduce the basic principles of intimate partner violence prevention. We separately address current recommendations for intimate partner violence screening and the evidence surrounding effectiveness of intimate partner violence interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
emotional and physical injury. Apologies ... guiding intimate partner relationship in some communities in different ... pregnancy reported complication of IPV include preterm labor, ..... personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, bipolar.
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344
Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela
According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.
Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.
McKinney, Christy M; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A; Okoro, Ngozi
Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples > or = 18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV.
Doyle, Kate; Levtov, Ruti G; Barker, Gary; Bastian, Gautam G; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Kazimbaya, Shamsi; Nzabonimpa, Anicet; Pulerwitz, Julie; Sayinzoga, Felix; Sharma, Vandana; Shattuck, Dominick
Rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of male engagement interventions, particularly on how these interventions impact relationship power dynamics and women's decision-making, remains limited. This study assessed the impact of the Bandebereho gender-transformative couples' intervention on impact on multiple behavioral and health-related outcomes influenced by gender norms and power relations. We conducted a multi-site randomised controlled trial in four Rwandan districts with expectant/current fathers and their partners, who were randomised to the intervention (n = 575 couples) or control group (n = 624 couples). Primary outcomes include women's experience of physical and sexual IPV, women's attendance and men's accompaniment at ANC, modern contraceptive use, and partner support during pregnancy. At 21-months post-baseline, 1123 men and 1162 partners were included in intention to treat analysis. Generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors were used to fit the models. The Bandebereho intervention led to substantial improvements in multiple reported outcomes. Compared to the control group, women in the intervention group reported: less past-year physical (OR 0.37, p<0.001) and sexual IPV (OR 0.34, p<0.001); and greater attendance (IRR 1.09, p<0.001) and male accompaniment at antenatal care (IRR 1.50, p<0.001); and women and men in the intervention group reported: less child physical punishment (women: OR 0.56, p = 0.001; men: OR 0.66, p = 0.005); greater modern contraceptive use (women: OR 1.53, p = 0.004; men: OR 1.65, p = 0.001); higher levels of men's participation in childcare and household tasks (women: beta 0.39, p<0.001; men: beta 0.33, p<0.001); and less dominance of men in decision-making. Our study strengthens the existing evidence on male engagement approaches; together with earlier studies our findings suggest that culturally adapted gender-transformative interventions with men and couples can be effective at changing deeply entrenched
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, but evidence suggests that these populations do not use National Health Service run stop smoking clinics as frequently as would be expected given their high prevalence of smoking. This study aims to tackle some of the main barriers to use of stop smoking services and adherence to treatment programmes by redesigning service delivery to be more acceptable to these adult male populations. The study compares the effectiveness of trained Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation workers operating in an outreach capacity ('clinic + outreach' with standard care ('clinic only' to improve access to and success of National Health Service smoking cessation services. Methods/design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial based in Birmingham, UK. Super output areas of Birmingham will be identified in which more than 10% of the population are of Pakistani and/or Bangladeshi origin. From these areas, 'natural geographical communities' will be identified. Sixteen aggregated agglomerations of super output areas will be identified, separating areas from each other using buffer regions in order to reduce potential contamination. These natural communities will be randomised to 'clinic + outreach' (intervention or 'clinic only' (control arms. The use of stop smoking services and the numbers of people quitting smoking (defined as prolonged self-reported abstinence at four weeks, three months and six months will be assessed in each area. In addition, we will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to smoking cessation treatments and patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 82127540.
To explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. Theoretically, this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis. Research design was an applied, descriptive and explanatory, multiple-method approach that combined qualitative semistructured interviews with service-users (n = 8) and emergency department practitioners (n = 9), and qualitative and quantitative document analysis of emergency department health records (n = 28). This study found that multiple classifications of intimate partner violence were mobilised during emergency department consultations and that these different versions of intimate partner violence held different diagnostic categories, processes and consequences. The construction of different versions of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations could explain variance in people's experiences and outcomes of consultations. The research found that the classificatory threshold for 'intimate partner violence' was too high. Strengthening systems of diagnosis (identification and intervention) so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence' would reduce the incidence of missed cases and afford earlier specialist intervention to reduce violence and limit its harms. This research found that identification of and response to intimate partner violence, even in contexts of severe physical violence, was contingent. By lowering the classificatory threshold so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence', practitioners could make a significant contribution to reducing missed intimate partner violence during consultations and improving health outcomes for this population. This
Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu
Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814
Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Laubscher, Ria; Hutchison, Cameron; Nkoko, Koena; Lurie, Mark; Kalichman, Seth C
We aimed to identify individual and sexual partnership characteristics associated with partner notification (PN) among people with STI. We hypothesised that PN would be less likely in more casual sexual partnerships and in partnerships with intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted an observational study among the first 330 patients with STI enrolled in a trial of a behavioural intervention to reduce STI incidence, at a clinic in a poor, Cape Town community. We included 195 index patients (those reporting STI symptoms), and conducted longitudinal analyses using participant-completed questionnaires on the day of diagnosis and 2 weeks later. Using partnership data for five recent sexual partners, we assessed factors associated with reported PN with logistic regressions, adjusting for repeated measurements on the same participant for each partner. The sample included 99 males with 303 partners and 96 females with 158 partners. Males reported perpetrating IPV in 46.2% of partnerships. Females reported being IPV victims in 53.2% of partnerships. Males notified 58.1%, females 75.4% of partners during the 2 weeks following diagnosis. Type of partner was an independent correlate of PN for males and females, with the odds of PN lower in more casual partnerships. For males, reporting physical IPV perpetration in the partnership was an independent correlate of PN. For females, there was no association between IPV victimisation in a partnership and PN. Efforts to decrease the pool of infectious partners need to have a strong focus on the promotion of PN in casual relationships and one-night stands. IPV was not identified as a barrier to PN. In future, we need to investigate the association between IPV with an objective measure of PN success such as partner testing or treatment, or index patient reinfection. PACTR201606001682364; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No
Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración
Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lynn E. McCutcheon
Full Text Available Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three subscales from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS. We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially on its two problematic subscales. In three multiple regressions, specific measures of behavior during conflict with a romantic partner and certain love styles significantly predicted scores on all three of the CAS subscales. We discuss the implications of being a celebrity worshiper on one’s relationship with an intimate partner.
People who kill others rarely kill themselves afterwards. When they do, they are more likely to have killed someone with whom they were intimate. Two broad types of suicidal killers have been identified in research that presumes varying degrees of premeditation. Using data on over 700 intimate femicides, the role of premeditation in cases of…
Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or stalking abuse by an intimate partner. Despite the high prevalence of IPV in South Africa (SA), there is a paucity of data on university students training in fields where they are likely to have to manage the ...
The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, ...
Gregory L. Stuart
Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.
(AOR = 2.1[95%C.I:1.0, 4.5]. Conclusions Intimate partner physical violence was found to be high and a serious problem among women in Shimelba refugee camp. Multifaceted interventions such as male counseling, increasing awareness on the consequences of intimate partner violence and the effect of substance use like alcohol will help to reduce intimate partner violence.
Huang, Rong-Rong; Hu, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu-Chan; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Wei-Zu
Chronic stress has been implicated in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CRS (over a period of 8 weeks) on learning and memory impairment and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice. The Morris water maze was used to investigate the effects of CRS on learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were also used to determine the expression levels of protein kinase C α (PKCα), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The results revealed that CRS significantly accelerated learning and memory impairment, and induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 region. Moreover, CRS significantly increased the expression of PKCα, CHOP and MANF, and decreased that of GRP78 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that exposure to CRS (for 8 weeks) significantly accelerates learning and memory impairment, and the mechanisms involved may be related to ER stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.
Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.
Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.
A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.
Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D
Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem in Japan. The purpose of this study was to describe IPV as perceived by Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage and lived with their spouses at the time of IPV. Using a cross-sectional retroactive qualitative description research design with individual face-to-face in-depth interviews, a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females from three urban areas in Japan was interviewed. All women reported that they and their husbands were born in Japan. At the time of the interview, the women had a mean age of 38 years whereas at the time of the IPV, their mean age was 28 years. Data was analyzed using the directed qualitative content analysis method. The results revealed that IPV occurred at the women’s homes primarily at night. All the women reported that they experienced physical and emotional abuse and 82% reported experiencing sexual abuse. Additionally, 64% reported that their parents-in-law emotionally abused them. Communication between these women and their husbands were characterized as unilateral with the husbands initiating and dominating the conversations with orders, lectures, and reprimands. The women identified that the cultural influences of the Japanese patriarchal system that reinforces male superiority and dominance and women inferiority were directly related to IPV. The implication is that health professionals need to actively advocate for effective legislation and policies to address IPV in Japan. PMID:19465572
Su, Jing; Wu, Wei; Huang, Shan; Xue, Ruidan; Wang, Yi; Wan, Yun; Zhang, Lv; Qin, Lang; Zhang, Qiongyue; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Wu, Xiaohui; Li, Yiming
Obesity has become the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue formation, and therefore, a functional increase in energy expenditure, may counteract obesity. Mice lacking type IIβ regulatory subunit of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-RIIB) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and in the brain. In this study, we show that mice lacking PKA-RIIB have increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism. PKA-RIIB deficiency induces brownlike adipocyte in inguinal WAT (iWAT). PKA-RIIB deficiency also increases the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other thermogenic genes in iWAT and primary preadipocytes from iWAT through a mechanism involving increased PKA activity, which is represented by increased phosphorylation of PKA substrate, cAMP response element binding protein, and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our study provides evidence for the role of PKA-RIIB deficiency in regulating thermogenesis in WAT, which may potentially have therapeutic implications for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.
Campbell, J C; Baty, M L; Ghandour, R M; Stockman, J K; Francisco, L; Wagman, J
The objective of this study was to review original research on the intersection of violence against women by intimate partners and risk for HIV infection and highlight opportunities for new research and programme development. Seventy-one articles presenting original, peer-reviewed research conducted with females aged 12 years and older in heterosexual relationships during the past decade (1998-2007) were reviewed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and HIV/AIDS as mutual risk factors. The prevalence of IPV and HIV infection among women varies globally, but females remain at elevated risk for both IPV and sexually transmitted/HIV infection, independently and concurrently. Comparisons between sero-negative and -positive women varied by geographic region; African HIV-positive women reported higher rates of victimisation while findings were inconsistent for HIV-positive women in the USA. Studies among various populations support the existence of a temporally and biologically complex relationship between HIV risk, lifetime exposure to violence and substance use, which are further complicated by gender and sexual decision-making norms. A possible link between violence-related post traumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression on immunity to HIV acquisition and HIV disease progression warrants further investigation. Sexual risk related to IPV works through both male and female behaviour, physiological consequences of violence and affects women across the lifespan. Further physiological and qualitative research is needed on the mechanisms of enhanced transmission; prospective studies are critical to address issues of causality and temporality. Prevention efforts should focus on the reduction of male-perpetrated IPV and male HIV risk behaviours in intimate partnerships.
Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J
Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.
We are living in the midst of an unprecedented transformation of erotic and intimate life. Although this has been the subject of much controversy, most people have taken for granted the results of the changes, with little awareness of how things have changed, and how significant the changes have been. The article explores three traps that commentators fall into. The first is a mindless progressivism that assumes that all is for the best in all possible worlds. The second is a declinist approa...
The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) opposes laws and other policies that require nurses to report the results of screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement or other regulatory agencies without the consent of the woman who experiences the IPV. Nurses and other health care professionals, however, should become familiar with laws on mandatory reporting in their states and comply as applicable. Women should be universally screened for IPV in private, safe settings where health care is provided. Nurses are ideally positioned to screen for IPV for the purpose of initiating a referral for services and support when applicable. To protect the woman's safety, AWHONN supports policies that require a woman's consent before reporting occurs.
Fabiano Seixas Fernandes
Full Text Available This article analyses three works by Mexican painter Frida Kahlo: Las dos Fridas (The Two Fridas, Autorretrato en la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos (Self-Portrait on the Borderline between Mexico and the United States, and Lo que el agua me dio (What the Water Gave Me. Each work is first analyzed separately and then connected with the others. The analysis of the first two is guided by the national/foreign dichotomy present in Kahlo; the analysis of the third shows the overcoming of the dichotomy through the concept of intimate map – in which a feeble and ever-changing territorialization of memory via plastic expression comes to show.
Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).
Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Jack, Susan M; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Davidov, Danielle; MacMillan, Harriet L
To develop strategies for the identification and assessment of intimate partner violence in a nurse home visitation programme. Nurse home visitation programmes have been identified as an intervention for preventing child abuse and neglect. Recently, there is an increased focus on the role these programmes have in addressing intimate partner violence. Given the unique context of the home environment, strategies for assessments are required that maintain the therapeutic alliance and minimise client attrition. A qualitative case study. A total of four Nurse-Family Partnership agencies were engaged in this study. Purposeful samples of nurses (n = 32), pregnant or parenting mothers who had self-disclosed experiences of abuse (n = 26) and supervisors (n = 5) participated in this study. A total of 10 focus groups were completed with nurses: 42 interviews with clients and 10 interviews with supervisors. The principles of conventional content analysis guided data analysis. Data were categorised using the practice-problem-needs analysis model for integrating qualitative findings in the development of nursing interventions. Multiple opportunities to ask about intimate partner violence are valued. The use of structured screening tools at enrolment does not promote disclosure or in-depth exploration of women's experiences of abuse. Women are more likely to discuss experiences of violence when nurses initiate nonstructured discussions focused on parenting, safety or healthy relationships. Nurses require knowledge and skills to initiate indicator-based assessments when exposure to abuse is suspected as well as strategies for responding to client-initiated disclosures. A tailored approach to intimate partner violence assessment in home visiting is required. Multiple opportunities for exploring women's experiences of violence are required. A clinical pathway outlining a three-pronged approach to identification and assessment was developed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Prevalência da violência praticada por parceiro masculino entre mulheres usuárias da rede primária de saúde do Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of violence by intimate male partner among women in primary health units in São Paulo State
Ana Karina Rios de Araujo Mathias
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à violência praticada por parceiro íntimo (VPI, entre mulheres usuárias das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, a partir da análise secundária de dados de entrevista a mulheres usuárias de 75 UBS de 15 Departamentos Regionais do Estado de São Paulo, no período de Agosto/2008 a Maio/2009. Foi utilizado questionário baseado no Abuse Assessment Screen e o Conflict Tactics Scales modificado pelo Violence Against Women Study (VAW, estruturado e pré-testado. As variáveis estudadas foram os tipos de VPI (psicológica, física e sexual e variáveis sociodemográficas (idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, trabalho remunerado, religião, estado marital e classe econômica. Foram entrevistadas 2.379 mulheres de 18 a 60 anos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de VPI durante a vida foi de 55,7%, sendo a psicológica, física e sexual de 53,8, 32,2 e 12,4%, respectivamente. As mulheres sem companheiro, mas com casamento anterior, com escolaridade PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV among women users of Basic Health Units (BHU in the State of São Paulo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of women users' interviews at 75 BHU in the State of São Paulo, from August/2008 to May/2009. We used a questionnaire based on the Abuse Assessment Screen and the Conflict Tactics Scales modified by the Violence Against Women Study (VAW, structured and pre-tested. The variables studied were the types of IPV (psychological, physical and sexual and sociodemographic variables (age, education, race, paid work, religion, marital status and economic class. We interviewed 2,379 women aged 18 to 60 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime IPV was 55.7%, and the prevalences of psychological, physical and sexual IPV were 53.8, 32
... a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating and regular physical activity, to help promote better mental health. Many effective treatments are available for depression. So don't try to tough out male ...
Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora
To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.
... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...
Women?s and men?s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women?s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific
Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Tabassam Naved, Ruchira; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Haard?rfer, Regine; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia
Background Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women?s and men?s reports across 4 countries in Asia and t...
Zakrison, Tanya L; Rattan, Rishi; Milian Valdés, Davel; Ruiz, Xiomara; Gelbard, Rondi; Cline, John; Turay, David; Luo-Owen, Xian; Namias, Nicholas; George, Jessica; Yeh, Dante; Pust, Daniel; Williams, Brian H
A recent EAST-supported, multicenter trial demonstrated a similar rate of intimate partner and sexual violence (IPSV) between male and female trauma patients, regardless of mechanism. Our objective was to perform a subgroup analysis of our affected male cohort as this remains an understudied group in the trauma literature. We conducted a recent EAST-supported, cross-sectional, multicenter trial over one year (03/15-04/16) involving four Level I trauma centers throughout the United States. We performed universal screening of adult trauma patients using the validated HITS (Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream) and SAVE (sexual violence) screening surveys. Risk factors for male patients were identified. Chi-squared test compared categorical variables with significance at p<0.05. Parametric data is presented as mean +/-standard deviation. A total of 2,034 trauma patients were screened, of which 1,281 (63%) were men. Of this cohort, 119 men (9.3%) screened positive for intimate partner violence, 14.1% for IPSV and 6.5% for sexual violence. On categorical analysis of the HITS screen, the proportion of men that were physically hurt was 4.8% compared to 4.3% for women (p = 0.896). A total of 4.8% of men screened positive for both intimate partner and sexual violence. The total proportion of men who presented with any history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both (IPSV) was 15.8%. More men affected by penetrating trauma screened positive for IPSV (p < 0.00001). IPSV positivity in men was associated with mental illness, substance abuse, and trauma recidivism. One out of every twenty men that present to trauma centers is a survivor of both intimate partner and sexual violence, with one out of every six men experiencing some form of violence. Men are at similar risk for physical abuse as women when this intimate partner violence occurs. IPSV is associated with penetrating trauma in men. Support programs for this population may potentially impact associated mental
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. Despite being a ... Unfortunately, IPV is perceived as a cultural norm or penal code ..... during pregnancy in a Turkish communuty, Southeast Asian. J Trop.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue in both developed and .... characteristics and its relationship to physical, sexual and psychological IPV. ..... De Bruyn M. Violence related to pregnancy and abortion: A violation of ...
The impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) is considerable. Yet, provincial ... the victim's sense of self-worth. ... practicalities of obtaining protection orders and accessing shelter services. .... for grants and legal documents such as birth.
Sep 3, 2017 ... Department of Nursing, Hossana College of Health Sciences, Hossana, Ethiopia. 2. Department of ... countries relative to the European and Asian countries ... of this research was to determine association between intimate ...
AJRH Managing Editor
among Married Women in an Urban Community in Lagos State,. Nigeria. 1 ... Keywords: Intimate partner violence, women, prevalence, risk factors. Résumé ...... Patriarchy and Gender Inequality in. Nigeria: ... based study of women in India.
Physical domestic violence against married women by their intimate partners in Nnewi South ... supported by religious and cultural considerations and often justified ... There is need to reach out to men while women should be empowered to
Keywords: physical violence, psychological abuse, stalking, intimate partner, problem ... of violence in their current or most recent partnership (Gupta et al., 2008). .... of Violence Against Women Scale (SAVAWS), several studies have found ...
Freeland, Ryan; Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob
The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex male relationships has been reported to be at least as prevalent as is observed in female-male relationships. Though research has focused on understanding the prevalence and antecedents of IPV in male-male relationships, there is a paucity of data describing perceptions of coping strategies adopted by gay and bisexual men who may experience IPV. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, Georgia, between September 2013 and November 2013. Focus groups examined perceptions of how gay and bisexual men would respond to IPV and the IPV-coping services they would utilize. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes that describe how gay and bisexual men perceive existing IPV services and how they would use these services, if gay and bisexual men were to experience IPV. The results indicate that men experiencing IPV in male-male relationships do not have adequate access to IPV services that are tailored to their unique needs. As a result, there is a strong reliance on informal sources of support. Services are urgently needed to meet the unique needs of men experiencing IPV in same-sex relationships.
Samuel, Laura J.; Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy
Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers’ perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Methods: Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed usi...
Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas
Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...
Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.
Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
Evidence has linked economic hardship with increased intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among males. However, less is known about how economic debt or gender norms related to men's roles in relationships or the household, which often underlie IPV perpetration, intersect in or may explain these associations. We assessed the intersection of economic debt, attitudes toward gender norms, and IPV perpetration among married men in India. Data were from the evaluation of a family planning intervention among young married couples (n=1,081) in rural Maharashtra, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models for dichotomous outcome variables and linear regression models for continuous outcomes were used to examine debt in relation to husbands' attitudes toward gender-based norms (i.e., beliefs supporting IPV and beliefs regarding male dominance in relationships and the household), as well as sexual and physical IPV perpetration. Twenty percent of husbands reported debt. In adjusted linear regression models, debt was associated with husbands' attitudes supportive of IPV (b=0.015, p=0.004) and norms supporting male dominance in relationships and the household (b=0.006, p=0.003). In logistic regression models adjusted for relevant demographics, debt was associated with perpetration of physical IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.9) and sexual IPV (AOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) from husbands. These findings related to debt and relation to IPV were slightly attenuated when further adjusted for men's attitudes toward gender norms. Findings suggest the need for combined gender equity and economic promotion interventions to address high levels of debt and related IPV reported among married couples in rural India.
Duncan, Mitch; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Caperchione, Cristina M; George, Emma S; Ding, Hang; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Maeder, Anthony J; Noakes, Manny; Tague, Rhys; Taylor, Pennie; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry
The high number of adult males engaging in low levels of physical activity and poor dietary practices, and the health risks posed by these behaviors, necessitate broad-reaching intervention strategies. Information technology (IT)-based (Web and mobile phone) interventions can be accessed by large numbers of people, yet there are few reported IT-based interventions targeting males' physical activity and dietary practices. This study examines the effectiveness of a 9-month IT-based intervention (ManUp) to improve the physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy in middle-aged males compared to a print-based intervention. Participants, recruited offline (eg, newspaper ads), were randomized into either an IT-based or print-based intervention arm on a 2:1 basis in favor of the fully automated IT-based arm. Participants were adult males aged 35-54 years living in 2 regional cities in Queensland, Australia, who could access the Internet, owned a mobile phone, and were able to increase their activity level. The intervention, ManUp, was based on social cognitive and self-regulation theories and specifically designed to target males. Educational materials were provided and self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviors was promoted. Intervention content was the same in both intervention arms; only the delivery mode differed. Content could be accessed throughout the 9-month study period. Participants' physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy were measured using online surveys at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. A total of 301 participants completed baseline assessments, 205 in the IT-based arm and 96 in the print-based arm. A total of 124 participants completed all 3 assessments. There were no significant between-group differences in physical activity and dietary behaviors (P≥.05). Participants reported an increased number of minutes and sessions of physical activity at 3 months (exp(β)=1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.95; exp(β)=1.61, 95
... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...
... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...
Amory, John K
Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...
Kevin M. Swartout
Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.
Guidi, Elisa; Meringolo, Patrizia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been a well-studied problem in the past psychological literature, especially through its classical methodology such as qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. This article introduces two basic stochastic models as an alternative approach to simulate the short and long-term dynamics of a couple at risk of IPV. In both models, the members of the couple may assume a finite number of states, updating them in a probabilistic way at discrete time steps. After defining the transition probabilities, we first analyze the evolution of the couple in isolation and then we consider the case in which the individuals modify their behavior depending on the perceived violence from other couples in their environment or based on the perceived informal social support. While high perceived violence in other couples may converge toward the own presence of IPV by means a gender-specific transmission, the gender differences fade-out in the case of received informal social support. Despite the simplicity of the two stochastic models, they generate results which compare well with past experimental studies about IPV and they give important practical implications for prevention intervention in this field. Copyright: © 2016 by Fabrizio Serra editore, Pisa · Roma.
Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi
Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.
Ginsberg, Terrie B
It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Btoush, Rula; Alonso, Alvaro; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M
Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 4156 households were randomly selected with a multistage random cluster design, from which 3815 ever-married women aged 15-64 years were identified. We restricted our analysis to presently married women (n=3510, 92% participation rate), who completed a short version of the revised conflict tactics scales and exposure to political violence inventory. Exposure to political violence was characterised as the husband's direct exposure, his indirect exposure via his family's experiences, and economic effects of exposure on the household. We used adjusted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for association between political violence and intimate-partner violence. Political violence was significantly related to higher odds of intimate-partner violence. ORs were 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) for physical and 2.23 (1.49-3.35) for sexual intimate-partner violence in respondents whose husbands were directly exposed to political violence compared with those whose husbands were not directly exposed. For women whose husbands were indirectly exposed, ORs were 1.61 (1.25-2.07) for physical and 1.97 (1.49-2-60) for sexual violence, compared with those whose husbands were not indirectly exposed. Economic effects of exposure were associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence in the Gaza Strip only. Because exposure to political violence is associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence, and exposure to many traumas is associated with poor health, a range of violent exposures should be assessed when establishing the need for psychosocial interventions in
Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H; Logan, Diane E; Leeson, Carissa J; Balsam, Kimberly F; Kaysen, Debra L
Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors.
Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.
Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995
Vernet, Nadège; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Mitchell, Michael J; Ward, Monika A; Burgoyne, Paul S
Mouse Zfy1 and Zfy2 encode zinc finger transcription factors that map to the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). They have previously been shown to promote meiotic quality control during pachytene (Zfy1 and Zfy2) and at the first meiotic metaphase (Zfy2). However, from these previous studies additional roles for genes encoded on Yp during meiotic progression were inferred. In order to identify these genes and investigate their function in later stages of meiosis, we created three models with diminishing Yp and Zfy gene complements (but lacking the Y-long-arm). Since the Y-long-arm mediates pairing and exchange with the X via their pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) we added a minute PAR-bearing X chromosome derivative to enable formation of a sex bivalent, thus avoiding Zfy2-mediated meiotic metaphase I (MI) checkpoint responses to the unpaired (univalent) X chromosome. Using these models we obtained definitive evidence that genetic information on Yp promotes meiosis II, and by transgene addition identified Zfy1 and Zfy2 as the genes responsible. Zfy2 was substantially more effective and proved to have a much more potent transactivation domain than Zfy1. We previously established that only Zfy2 is required for the robust apoptotic elimination of MI spermatocytes in response to a univalent X; the finding that both genes potentiate meiosis II led us to ask whether there was de novo Zfy1 and Zfy2 transcription in the interphase between meiosis I and meiosis II, and this proved to be the case. X-encoded Zfx was also expressed at this stage and Zfx over-expression also potentiated meiosis II. An interphase between the meiotic divisions is male-specific and we previously hypothesised that this allows meiosis II critical X and Y gene reactivation following sex chromosome silencing in meiotic prophase. The interphase transcription and meiosis II function of Zfx, Zfy1 and Zfy2 validate this hypothesis.
Gregory, Elaine K; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Kibbe, Melina R
Although the aortic interposition bypass model has been widely used to evaluate biomaterials for bypass grafting, there is no comprehensive description of the procedure or of the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that results. The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize approaches of aortic interposition grafting in animal models, (2) determine the pertinent anatomy for this procedure, (3) validate this model in the rat and guinea pig, and (4) compare the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that develops in each species. A literature search was performed in PubMed from 1980 to the present to analyze the use of anesthesia, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, graft material, suture, and anastomotic techniques. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and Hartley guinea pigs, we established pertinent aortic anatomy, developed comparable models, and assessed complications for each model. At 30 days, the graft and associated aorta were explanted, intimal formation was assessed morphometrically, and cellularity was assessed via nuclear counting. We reviewed 30 articles and summarized the pertinent procedural findings. Upon establishing both animal models, key anatomic differences between the species that affect this model were noted. Guinea pigs have a much larger cecum, increased retroperitoneal fat, and lack the iliolumbar vessels compared with the rat. Surgical outcomes for the rat model included a 53% technical success rate and a 32% technical error rate. Surgical outcomes for the guinea pig model included a 69% technical success rate and a 31% technical error rate. These two species demonstrated unique distribution of intimal hyperplasia at 30 days. Intimal hyperplasia in the rat model was greatest at two areas, the proximal graft (5400 μm 2 ; P guinea pig model developed similar intimal hyperplasia throughout the graft (4500-5100 μm 2 ; P guinea pig, and describe a unique distribution of intimal formation that results in both species
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk determinants of intimate hygiene (IH for young women (15–22 years regarding the protection and promotion of their sexual health. Design: The study was designed as a descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was used – Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.747. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of female students (n = 360 aged 15–22 years. The response rate was 76% (n = 275. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and the Chi-square (χ2 test (p < 0.05. Results: We identified the determinants of IH in terms of risky behavior, namely: complete hair removal in the intimate area (favored by 94.75%, non-performance of hygiene before and after sexual intercourse (SI (not performed prior to SI by 38.58%, and after SI by 34.36%, not changing a wet swimming costume for dry (not performed by 58.06%, and the wearing of unsuitable undergarments. We identified a statistically significant influence of education and age on certain determinants of IH: the use of special preparations to wash intimate areas while bathing, the wearing of thongs, the changing of wet swimsuits for dry, the frequency of changing tampons during menstruation, and the performance of IH before and after SI (p < 0.05. Younger respondents (15–18 years, and those with lower education demonstrated worse IH habits with respect to the study determinants, which may be associated with lower awareness. Conclusion: We identified possible risk determinants of IH that are associated with sexual health. Our study points toward the need to improve knowledge and habits regarding appropriate and safe IH, with special focus on the risk of vulvovaginal infections. Keywords: young women (15–22 years, Intimate hygiene, Intimate hygiene determinants, Risky behavior, prevention of vulvovaginal infections.
Arias, Ileana; Corso, Phaedra
Differences in prevalence, injury, and utilization of services between female and male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been noted. However, there are no studies indicating approximate costs of men's IPV victimization. This study explored gender differences in service utilization for physical IPV injuries and average cost per person victimized by an intimate partner of the opposite gender. Significantly more women than men reported physical IPV victimization and related injuries. A greater proportion of women than men reported seeking mental health services and reported more visits on average in response to physical IPV victimization. Women were more likely than men to report using emergency department, inpatient hospital, and physician services, and were more likely than men to take time off from work and from childcare or household duties because of their injuries. The total average per person cost for women experiencing at least one physical IPV victimization was more than twice the average per person cost for men.
Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel
The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: We sought to investigate the one-year point prevalence for male intimate partner violence (IPV in men presenting to a university emergency department, to identify types of violence, to examine differences in male IPV rates based on patient demographics, and to identify any differences in prevalence based on types of partnership. Methods: This survey study was conducted from September 2001 until January 2002 at a tertiary, academic, Level I Trauma Center with an emergency department (ED that has 40,000 visits per year. The anonymous written survey consisted of 16 questions previously validated in the Colorado Partner Violence Study, Index of Spouse Abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale. This survey was administered to all consenting adult men who presented to the ED. Odds ratios (OR with 95% CI were calculated when appropriate and a p-value of 0.05 was set for significance. Results: The oneyear point prevalence rate of male IPV was 24% in our study population (82/346. Among the men who experienced some form of abuse specified as either physical, emotional, or sexual, the prevalence was calculated to be 15.6% (54/346, 13.6% (47/346, and 2.6% (9/346, respectively. Education, income, age, and race did not demonstrate an association for any one variable to be associated with intimate partner abuse (p>0.05 with the exception of increased risk of IPV among unemployed men in the relationship (p<0.04, OR 0.592. IPV towards men was found to affect both heterosexual as well as homosexual relationships. Overall, 2% (8/346 of the men surveyed had received medical treatment as a result of IPV by their intimate partner within the past year. Three percent (11/344 of those men reporting abuse were abusers themselves. Conclusion: The point prevalence of IPV among our study population was 24%. In our study of 346 men, male IPV crossed all socioeconomic boundaries, racial differences, and educational levels regardless of the sex of the partner.
Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.
The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de
Hajian, Sepideh; Vakilian, Katayon; Mirzaii Najm-abadi, Khadijeh; Hajian, Parastoo; Jalalian, Mehrdad
Violence against women is one of the worst consequences of cultural, political, and socio-economic inequalities between men and women. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has been identified as an important cause of morbidity from multiple mental, physical, sexual, and reproductive health outcomes. Nonetheless, the prevalence and related factors of this international problem have not been investigated extensively in some parts of the world. The aims of this research were to determine the prevalence of physical and mental violence perpetrated by men against their intimate partners and to assess the associated factors of partner violence among women in Shahroud in northeastern region of Iran in 2010. This Cross-Sectional study was conducted in Shahroud, in northeast of Iran in 2010. Cluster sampling was done from primary health service institutions, universities, public schools and governmental organizations throughout the city and six hundred married women completed the study. A structured questionnaire with 34 items was designed in three parts to assess the physically (10 items) and mentally (15 items) violent acts by a current intimate male partner and identify collative behaviors (9 items) of victims. The Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the net effect of background variables on the IPV occurrence within the past year. About 20% of the participants experienced at least one type of physical violence. Increased risk of physical violence was positively associated with the younger age of the couple (OR=3.08, Pharassment within the past twelve months. Logistic Regression Analysis found that lower education (OR=3.06, Punreported, healthcare providers should be aware of the risk factors associated with domestic violence to be able to design preventive measures against its negative health outcomes in women.
McDonald, Penelope W; Dickerson, Suzanne
The purpose of this study was to determine the common meanings a history of violence has for women out of abusive and violent relationships with an intimate male partner for 5 or more years. To describe the common meanings and shared practices of women who left violent and abusive heterosexual intimate relationships 5 or more years ago, the challenges they face in their current lives, and the resources they use to meet those challenges. An additional aim is to elucidate practical advice they have for others who want to be supportive of the efforts of women recovering from intimate partner violence. An interpretive phenomenological approach using Heideggerian hermeneutics was utilized. Approval of the University Social Sciences Institutional Review Board was obtained. Participants were recruited by means of fliers distributed through a domestic violence listserv and through postings in health clinics in western New York. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A hermeneutic team approach was used for analysis and interpretation of texts. Twenty-one women of various ages, ethnicities, and backgrounds, who self-identified as being out of abusive relationships for 5 or more years, were interviewed. Six themes were identified: developing and maintaining self reliance; negotiating relationships; creating a safe and supportive environment; challenging societal roles and expectations; nurturing the self; and protecting the children. Engendering independence while living with purpose was the constitutive pattern that unified the themes. Women can successfully establish productive, meaningful lives after violence and will fiercely protect and maintain their independence as they negotiate relationships and developmental challenges throughout their lives. A need for control of their lives and difficulty trusting others remain a lasting legacy of living with a history of violence. This is the first study that examines women's lives 5 or more years after leaving violent and
Malone, Jowanna; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Johnson, Blake E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Bazzi, Angela R
Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 male couples (n = 40 men) in which at least one partner was either using or in the process of initiating PrEP. Congruent with a theoretical focus on social theories of relationships and negotiated risk, couples were interviewed about relationship dynamics, trust, communication and sexual health practices, including their perception and use of PrEP. Overall, we found that couples showed heightened trust and communication when establishing open, sexual agreements and demonstrated high awareness of sexual risks and health practices in the context of PrEP use. This study demonstrates how understanding relationship dynamics can better inform HIV prevention and sexual health promotion efforts for male couples at risk of HIV.
In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.
Rani Agias Fitri
Full Text Available Personality aspect is an aspect that cannot be discharged in an individual. It is as same as communication aspect, which is important in a relationship, including in marriage relationship. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a correlation between Extrovert and Introvert personality type with intimate communication phases in early adulthood. This study belongs to the type of correlation research. In this study, the result showed that there was a positive relationship between extrovert personality type with two phases of intimate communication, namely sharing the self and becoming one. Meanwhile, there was a negative relationship between Introvert personality typet with two phases of intimate communication, namely sharing the self and becoming one.
Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.
Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny
This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.
Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Meehan, Jeffrey C; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Keen, Stefanie M
The present investigation employed meta-analytic procedures to quantitatively evaluate the empirical evidence on the relationship between drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners. Data from 96 studies yielding 547 effect sizes indicated that increases in drug use and drug-related problems were significantly associated with increases in aggression between intimate partners (d= .27). Cocaine emerged as the illicit substance with the strongest relationship to psychological, physical, and sexual aggression (ds= .39 to .62). Marijuana was also identified as having a significant association with partner aggression. Results showed comparable effect sizes for men and women, regardless of the sex of the drug user and/or perpetrator of partner aggression, with female reports of aggression having yielded larger effect sizes than male reports. Moderator analyses revealed that relative to other groups, married or cohabiting couples and Black participants evidenced significantly stronger effect sizes. The findings are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms linking drugs to partner aggression, and implications for future research are discussed in terms of focusing on conducting studies that assess the interaction of context and temporal sequencing of drugs and partner aggression.
Smucker, Sierra; Kerber, Rose E; Cook, Philip J
Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a critical public health and safety issue in the USA. In this study, we determine the prevalence and correlates of perpetrator suicide and additional homicides following intimate partner homicide (IPH) in a large, diverse state with high quality data. We extract IPHs from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System for 2004-2013 and identify suicides and other homicides that were part of the same incidents. We analyze the likelihood (in odds ration form) of perpetrator suicide and additional homicides using logistic regression analysis. Almost all IPH-suicide cases were by men with guns (86.6%). Almost one-half of IPHs committed by men with guns ended with suicide. Male-perpetrated IPH incidents averaged 1.58 deaths if a gun was used, and 1.14 deaths otherwise. It is well-known that gun access increases the chance that a violent domestic relationship will end in death. The current findings demonstrate that gun IPH is often coupled with additional killings. As suicidal batterers will not be deterred from IPH by threat of punishment, the results underline the importance of preemption by limiting batterers' access to guns.
Wittenberg, Eve; Lichter, Erika L; Ganz, Michael L; McCloskey, Laura A
One in 4 women is affected by intimate partner violence in her lifetime. This article reports on a cross-sectional survey to estimate community preferences for health states resulting from intimate partner violence. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a convenience sample of 93 abused and 138 nonabused women (231 total) recruited for in-person interviews from hospital outpatient department waiting rooms in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. SF-12 data were converted to utilities to describe community-perspective preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between violence and utility while controlling for other health and demographic factors. Median utility for intimate partner violence was between 0.58 and 0.63 on a scale of 0 (equivalent to death) to 1.0 (equivalent to optimal health), with a range from 0.64 to 0.66 for less severe violence to 0.53 to 0.62 for more severe violence. The data do not reveal whether violence itself is responsible for lower utility or whether a constellation of factors contributes to disutility experienced by women victims of abuse. The utility of health states experienced by women exposed to intimate partner violence is substantially diminished compared with optimal health and even other health conditions. These values quantify the substantial negative health impact of the experience of intimate partner violence in terms that allow comparison across diseases. They can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses to identify the benefits and potential returns from resources allocated to violence prevention and intervention efforts.
Cheng, Diana; Horon, Isabelle L
To identify pregnancy-associated homicide cases and to estimate the proportion that were perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. This was an analysis of pregnancy-associated homicides occurring from 1993 to 2008 among Maryland residents using linked birth and death certificates, medical examiner charts, police records, and news publications. Homicides (n=110) were the leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Women who were African American, younger than 25 years, and unmarried were at the highest risk for homicide. Firearms were the most common (61.8%) method of death. A current or former intimate partner was the perpetrator in 54.5% (n=60) of homicide deaths and a nonpartner in 31.8% (n=35). If the cases (n=15) in which the victim-offender relationship could not be identified are excluded, 63.2% of homicides were committed by an intimate partner. Compared with homicides in which the perpetrator was not an intimate partner, a significantly higher percentage (Phomicides occurred at home (66.7% compared with 28.6%), among women who had completed more than 12 years of education (23.3% compared with 5.7%), and who were married (28.3% compared with 8.6%). Intimate-partner homicides were most prevalent (25.0%) during the first 3 months of pregnancy and least prevalent during the first 3 months postpartum (5.0%). The majority of pregnancy-associated homicides were committed by current or former intimate partners, most commonly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Efforts to protect women from partners optimally should begin before conception or very early in pregnancy. III.
Full Text Available This article considers the ‘co-affective’ power of the new media artwork Intimate Transactions. This co-affective power operates at the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience. In order to explore this level of experience the article draws on the work of Brian Massumi, Bracha Ettinger and Felix Guattari amongst others. For these thinkers the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience, precisely because it is ‘co-affective’, holds ethical potential. The article argues for the importance of tending to ‘co-affective’ level of experience – both in designing “interactive” art, such as Intimate Transactions, and in life more generally.
Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "health behavior work" to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S
Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of
Reichenheim Michael Eduardo
Full Text Available This paper concerns the prevalence of intimate partner violence in 15 State capital cities and the Federal District of Brazil. A population-based multi-stage survey in 2002/2003 involved 6,760 15-69-year-old women (respondents. Using the Conflict Tactics Scales - Form R, the overall prevalence of psychological aggression and "minor" and severe physical abuse within couples was 78.3%, 21.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. Prevalence rates varied distinctively between cities. For instance, total physical abuse ranged from 13.2% to 34.8%. On the whole, prevalence was higher in the North and Northeast cities than in the Southeast, South, and Central West. Also, all types of intimate partner violence were more frequent in couples including women who were younger (< 25 years and had less schooling (< 8 years. After stratifying by gender, although women tended to perpetrate at least one act of physical abuse more often, scores were consistently higher among male partners who were perpetrators. The results are compared to international findings. Regional, demographic, and gender differentials are discussed in light of the growing role of the Brazilian health sector in relation to intimate partner violence.
Tânia Aldrighi Flake
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of violence in intimate relationships, suffered or perpetrated, was estimated among undergraduate students, be it physical, psychological and sexual, describing the overlap between them. This is an original study and there is scarce literature on this matter in Brazil. Men and women were investigated and some issues on gender violence were discussed. METHODS: The study is part of the multicenter survey "International Study of Violence in Dating - IDVS" conducted in 2002 - 2003, using its standardized instrument. A total of 362 students, from two universities in the state of São Paulo, one public and one private, answered the self-reported questionnaire, being 37% male and 63% female, mean age of 20 years old. Suffered and perpetrated intimate partner violence during life was examined. RESULTS: Among all interviewees, 75.9% suffered and 76.4% perpetrated some kind of violence throughout life. Psychological violence was the most prevalent type, followed by sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated. The great superposition between suffered and perpetrated violence (83.9% reflects the reciprocity of aggression, with no observed difference between men and women. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature on dating violence, which shows high prevalence of suffered and perpetrated violence, besides reciprocity for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention actions at this stage of intimate relationships may potentially impact on subsequent marital partnership situations.
Rasmussen, Sune O.
The North Atlantic INTIMATE (INtegration of Ice-core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group has previously recommended an Event Stratigraphy approach for the synchronisation of records of the Last Termination using the Greenland ice core records as the regional stratotypes. A key element of these protocols has been the formal definition of numbered Greenland Stadials (GS) and Greenland Interstadials (GI) within the past glacial period as the Greenland expressions of the characteristic Dansgaard-Oeschger events that represent cold and warm phases of the North Atlantic region, respectively. Using a recent synchronization of the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 ice cores that allows the parallel analysis of all three records on a common time scale, we here present an extension of the GS/GI stratigraphic template to the entire glacial period. In addition to the well-known sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events that were first defined and numbered in the ice core records more than two decades ago, a number of short-lived climatic oscillations have been identified in the three synchronized records. Some of these events have been observed in other studies, but we here propose a consistent scheme for discriminating and naming all the significant climatic events of the last glacial period that are represented in the Greenland ice cores. In addition to presenting the updated event stratigraphy, we make a series of recommendations on how to refer to these periods in a way that promotes unambiguous comparison and correlation between different proxy records, providing a more secure basis for investigating the dynamics and fundamental causes of these climatic perturbations. The work presented is a part of a manuscript under review for publication in Quaternary Science Reviews. Author team: S.O. Rasmussen, M. Bigler, S.P.E. Blockley, T. Blunier, S.L. Buchardt, H.B. Clausen, I. Cvijanovic, D. Dahl-Jensen, S.J. Johnsen, H. Fischer, V. Gkinis, M. Guillevic, W.Z. Hoek, J.J. Lowe, J. Pedro, T
Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh
Sexuality is an integral part of a woman's life. A variety of factors can affect a woman's sexuality, among them physical disorders, social-religious beliefs, age, psychological factors, depression, mental tension, disbelief, an unfulfilling relationship with one's spouse and emotional and physical violence. The present study aimed to explore the rate of domestic violence against women and its impact on women's sexuality. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 813 women referring to the gynaecology clinics of Jahrom, Iran, from April to October 2015. Data were collected using a demographics questionnaire, a violence questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The collected data were analysed using Student's t-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of violence was found to be 43.2%. Also, there was a significant relationship between violence and age (OR=1.33 95% CI=2.22-7.95, pviolence was found to increase by 3.1 times with an increase in the length of marriage (OR=3.1595% CI=1.42-4.12, pviolence significantly correlated with women's education level (OR=11.75 95% CI=2.15-64.12, p=0.002) and their husband's education level (OR=0.194, 95%CI=0.329-0.919, p=0.02). The results showed that the sexual function mean score of non-abused women and abused women were 17.74±8.82 and 14.59±10.63, respectively. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the domains of sexual function (pviolence is rather high and that can increase the risk of sexual dysfunction. Thus, routine screening for violence and sexual dysfunction is recommended for early detection of violence and sexual dysfunction.
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.
Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…
Piquero, Alex R; Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P
This article investigates the overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the factors associated with these behaviors. Knowledge on these questions is relevant to theory and policy. For the former, this article considers the extent to which specific theories are needed for understanding crime, criminal violence, and/or IPV, whereas for the latter, it may suggest specific offense- and offender-based policies. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development that traces the offending, criminal violence, and IPV of males to age 50. Findings show that there is significant overlap between criminal violence and IPV, high-rate offending trajectories have increased odds of criminal violence and IPV, and early childhood risk factors have no additional effect on criminal violence and IPV in adulthood over and above the offending trajectories.
Jiao, Yanpeng; Sun, Ivan Y; Farmer, Ashley K; Lin, Kai
Although a large number of studies have been conducted worldwide to examine various aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV), comparative study of people's views on such violence in Chinese societies has been scarce. Using survey data collected from more than 850 college students in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, this study specifically assessed the impact of attitudes toward gender role and violence, personal and vicarious experience, demographic characteristics, and locality on students' definitions of IPV. The Taiwanese students were most likely to define a broader range of abusive behavior as IPV, followed by Hong Kong and Beijing students. Gender role and violence attitudes appeared to be most important predictors of IPV definitions. College students who supported the notion of male dominance were more likely to have a narrower definition of IPV, whereas those who viewed domestic violence as crime were more inclined to have a broader definition of IPV. Implications for future research and policy were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wu, Yuning; Button, Deeanna M; Smolter, Nicole; Poteyeva, Margarita
Based on data collected from college students in Beijing and Hong Kong (China) and in Newark and Detroit (United States), this study assesses and explains citizen preferences of 2 major formalized responses to intimate partner violence (IPV)--law enforcement and social services intervention--in a cross-cultural context. Results show that Chinese respondents have lower support for law enforcement responses. Regional variation is only observed within China with students from Hong Kong supporting both law enforcement and social services responses more than their Beijing counterparts. Results also show that social attitudinal variables--including male dominance ideology, perceptions of IPV causation, support for the criminalization of IPV, and tolerance of IPV--influence public preferences of responses to IPV more than do demographic and experiential variables.
Full Text Available In this article we pay attention to the vio- lence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Rothman, Emily F; Corso, Phaedra S
It has been demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is costly to employers, but little is known about the economic consequences associated with employing perpetrators. This study investigated propensity for partner abuse as a predictor of missed work time and on-the-job decreases in productivity among a small sample of male employees at a state agency (N=61). Results suggest that greater propensity for abusiveness is positively associated with missing work and experiencing worse productivity on the job, controlling for level of education, income, marital status, age, and part-time versus full-time employment status. Additional research could clarify whether IPV perpetration is a predictor of decreased productivity among larger samples and a wider variety of workplace settings. Employers and IPV advocates should consider responding to potential IPV perpetrators through the workplace in addition to developing victim-oriented policies and prevention initiatives.
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
Deepak, Anne C.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia
In this article, the authors introduce a new conceptual tool, intimate technology, to mobilize social work students' commitment to anti-racism. Intimate technology is marked by its emotional intensity and accessibility, and its effect of de-centering knowledge and authority. This teaching strategy integrates the modality of intimate technology via…
Purdie, Michele Parkhill; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.
This study examined correlates of making an intimate partner engage in unprotected sex among perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the Confluence Model, we hypothesized that power and impersonal sex motives would be higher among perpetrators who made a dating partner have unprotected sex. Among a subsample of 78 male college students, significant differences were found for acceptance of verbal pressure, positive attitudes about casual sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, and physical injuries to dating partners. These findings highlight the importance of integrating theories and interventions directed at sexual assault and sexual risk reduction. PMID:20980229
Full Text Available This study used mixed methodology research; chose 53 male and 47 female respondents through purposive sampling, selected intervention research: design and development methodological framework to develop guidelines, used a Canadian Risk Assessment Tool to “assess risk”/“predict dangerousness”. The findings highlighted the need for “risk factor assessment”, showing specific risk factors predicted violence, with sexual violence playing a role. Perpetrators disregard their partners as victims when sexual violence was employed. Qualitative data from female respondents showed that perpetrators use physical assault and sexual violence in their attacks, and their behaviours were fuelled by attitudes that supported/condoned intimate partner violence (IPV.
Objective: To examine hippocampal volume and white matter tracts in women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Nineteen women with IPV exposure in the last year, and 21 women without IPV exposure in the last year underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion tensor ...
Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve
The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…
Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to “'ending AIDS” by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents is common worldwide, but our understanding of perpetration, gender differences and the role of social-ecological factors remains limited. Objectives. To explore the prevalence of physical and sexual IPV perpetration and victimisation by gender, and ...
Lang Xiaoou; Ji Shenquan; Zeng Ke; Li Jun; Liu Bingbing; Ma Wenfeng; Zhang Qiang
Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of beta irradiation on intimal proliferation response in vein grafts. Methods: An autogenous vein graft model was established in 40 rats by transplanting internal branch of jugular vein to carotid artery by end-to-end anastomosis. The vein was irradiated by 32 P before anastomosis. Four dose schedules were studied: (1) control graft (nonirradiated); (2) irradiated with 8 Gy; (3) 18 Gy; and (4) 36 Gy. The grafted veins were harvested at 2 weeks after the operation. IH (intimal hyperplasia) and SMC (smooth muscle cell) proliferation were histologically and immuno-histochemically observed and analyzed by a computer digitalising system. Results: In 18 Gy and 36 Gy-irradiated grafts compared with the control, there was a significant decrease in the average intimal thickness (P 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA indicated decrease of positive cells in both 18 Gy and 36 Gy groups compared with 8 Gy and the control group (P 0.05) groups, and there was also no significant difference between 8 Gy and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that proper dose of beta irradiation in vein graft inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation and neo-intimal hyperplasia in rat
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski
This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...
Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.
This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix
Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which
Little, Linda F.
This paper notes recent evidence suggesting that couples characterized by violent interactions respond best to therapy when seen first in individual therapy sessions. Clinicians are then presented with a Gestalt therapy approach to intervening in cases of intimate violence that goes beyond crisis intervention. The focus is on the female's roles in…
During the invasion and occupation of 1914-1918, German soldiers had sexual relations with local women in Belgium and France. There were many cases of rape during the invasion, but the occupation itself was more characterized by a rise in prostitution. Other forms of intimate relations also emerged, but they generally did not outlast the war itself.
Examined kinds of power strategies used by masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated people in their intimate relationships. Androgynous people reported using primarily bilateral strategies, such as persuasion. Undifferentiated people reported using primarily unilateral strategies, such as doing what they wanted, regardless of their…
KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent
Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations. PMID:28360734
This article argues that the scale and success of the PostSecret project evidences the continuing influence of confession in contemporary autobiography. It analyzes the importance of materiality as a signifier of authenticity in a participatory media project that functions as an intimate public by
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...
The World Health Organization's (WHO) clinical and policy guidelines for responding to intimate partner violence (IPV) against women focus on improving health service delivery of women-centred care. This publication is a watershed. It sounds a call to innovate and implement creative new directions for effective health ...
Complaints of sexual impropriety against health care practitioners are escalating. Professionalism in the practitioner-patient relationship and the role-based trust in health care do not allow crossing of sexual boundaries. Communication with patients is key to prevent erroneous allegations of sexual misconduct. The intimate ...
South Africa has a number of locally evaluated interventions that have been designed to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence before it occurs. This article describes such programmes that have been evaluated and found to be promising or effective. Seven locally evaluated primary prevention interventions are ...
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence against women. It is a major public health problem and violates the fundamental human rights of women. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and ...
This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...
Wilkins, Amy C.
In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…
Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
Method: This paper utilized the framework of relevant case series and a focused review of the relevant literature to describe and annotate the psychiatric problems of the victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in southeast Nigeria. Results: The major barriers to detection of the psychiatric disorders occurring in ...
McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…
Adhia, Avanti; Gordon, Allegra R; Roberts, Andrea L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Hemenway, David; Austin, S Bryn
Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with numerous adverse experiences, including peer bullying and homophobic violence. However, little is known about gender nonconformity in the context of intimate relationships, independent of sexual orientation. This study aimed to examine associations between childhood gender nonconformity and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and early adulthood. Using data from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Growing Up Today Study ( N = 7,641, mean age = 22.8 years), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity up to age 11 years and lifetime IPV victimization and perpetration. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sexual orientation identity. We assessed effect modification by gender and examined whether childhood abuse mediated the association between nonconformity and IPV. Males in the top decile of nonconformity were at elevated risk of IPV victimization (RR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.15, 1.71]) and IPV perpetration (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.56) compared with those below median nonconformity, adjusting for sexual orientation and demographic characteristics. There was no evidence of a similar association for females in the top decile of gender nonconformity. Childhood abuse did not mediate IPV disparities by gender nonconformity. We identify gender nonconformity as an important risk indicator for IPV victimization and perpetration among young adult males, independent of sexual orientation. Findings highlight the vulnerability of boys and men who do not conform to societal gender norms and the importance of studying gender expression as a determinant of violence. IPV prevention efforts may be improved with more explicit focus on socially constructed gender norms and support for diverse gender expressions. Further research into the pathways between nonconformity and IPV and in more diverse populations is needed to build a more comprehensive
Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.
Adams, Adrienne E; Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Tolman, Richard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent growth curve modeling to examine the relationships between adolescent IPV, educational attainment, and women's earnings. We found that women who had been victimized by a partner during adolescence obtained less education compared with nonvictimized women, with victimization indirectly influencing women's earnings via educational attainment. The findings support the need for intervention strategies aimed at preventing IPV and promoting women's educational and career development over the life course.
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Nazneen, Sohela; Bates, Lisa M
The Bangladesh government, nongovernmental organizations, donors, and advocacy groups have attempted various interventions to promote gender equality and reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, but rigorous evaluations of these interventions are rare and few published studies have yet to show that any of them has had a substantial impact. This study presents qualitative evidence from four villages in central and northern Bangladesh drawn from 11 group discussions (6 with men, 5 with women), 16 open-ended interviews with men, and 62 women's life history narratives. The findings strongly suggest that IPV is declining in these villages as women's economic roles expand and they gain a stronger sense of their rights. Periodic surveys are recommended to measure trends in the incidence of IPV in settings where transitions in gender systems are under way. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.
Jamila K. Stockman
Full Text Available Background: Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective: In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI. We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV influences abuse. Design: Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions: Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to
Keltner, D; Young, R C; Heerey, E A; Oemig, C; Monarch, N D
Following E. Goffman's (1967) face threat analysis of social interaction, it was hypothesized that the aggressive, playful content of teasing would vary according to social status and relational satisfaction, personality, role as teaser or target, and gender. These 4 hypotheses were tested in analyses of the teasing among fraternity members (Study 1) and romantic couples (Study 2). Consistent with a face threat analysis of teasing, low-status fraternity members and satisfied romantic partners teased in more prosocial ways, defined by reduced face threat and increased redressive action. Some findings indicate that disagreeable individuals teased in less prosocial ways, consistent with studies of bullying. Targets reported more negative emotion than teasers. Although female and male romantic partners teased each other in similar ways, women found being the target of teasing more aversive, consistent with previous speculation.
Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive
Conroy, Amy A
Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection
Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.
Schmidt, Megan R.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Tharp, Andra T.
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men’s perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:25389191
Subbotin Vladimir M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal
Male violence against women is at shocking levels in South Africa. According to Faul, 'A woman is killed by an intimate partner every eight hours, a probable underestimate because no perpetrator is identified in 20 percent of killings', whilst 'More than 30 percent of girls have been raped by the time they are 18'. Reeva ...
The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…
Henning, Kris; Connor-Smith, Jennifer
In contrast to the extensive literature on women's decisions to leave violent relationships, there is little research examining relationship continuity from the offending male's perspective. Similarly, research exploring relationship satisfaction in men arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) is lacking, despite the fact that dissatisfaction…
Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Seloilwe, Esther Salang
A Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to investigate the lived experience of women in Botswana who had experienced emotional abuse in intimate relationships. Hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the human experience as it is lived. Ten educated Botswana women who had formal employment and have been in intimate relationships for longer than ten years, narrated their life experiences with abusive men. Extensive interviews took place over a six month period. Sociocultural practices in Botswana emerged as salient factors that contribute to emotional abuse and predispose women to mental illness. Entwined in these cultural practices are issues of age, ethnicity, payment of lobola (bride price), financial standing, change of name, and relocation to the man's residence. Education and employment seem to worsen the abuse. Depression and anxiety are common results of abuse. Understanding how the sociocultural factors perpetuate abuse can assist nurses in the way they provide health care services to women.
Maria Beatriz Vizcarra Larrañaga
Full Text Available The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having experienced some psychological abuse, 26% reported physical violence at least once in their lifetime. Associated factors to receive physical violence were: sex, suffering psychological violence, favourable attitudes towards violence, and low religious participation. Associated factor to receive psychological violence was: sex, physical violence received, favourable attitudes towards the violence, and the length of the relationship. Discussion: Typical features of intimate partner violence in college life settings seem to favor its invisibility, thus turning it into a difficult phenomenon to approach and to prevent.
A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L
Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.
Maulion , Helen
Fieldwork facilitates contact with inhabitants, terrain and the self; these contacts are woven to shape an intimate and emotional geography. My research focuses on what I term the sensitive geographies of the coast, especially on the narratives of coastal landscape. This paper explores to understand the role of experiences, emotions and memories in the formation of coastal landscapes. To grasp the sensitive geography requires developing a method where the words of the inhabitants and tourists...
Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera
The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...
This paper examines the historical origins of violence against women, in contrast to earlier literature, which focused only on short-term determinants. It analyses the relationship between traditional family patterns (stem versus nuclear) and intimate-partner violence (IPV). Stem families are those in which one child stays in the parental household with spouse and children, so that at least two generations live together. I model the behavior of a traditional peasant family and show how coresi...
Yi Yang, M.D., Ph.D.; Erin Holmes, Pharm.D., Ph.D.;; Donna West-Strum, Ph.D.; Marie Barnard, Ph.D.; Kristen Alley Swain, Ph.D.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem, impacting more than 12 million people in the United States each year. The only know effective health care intervention is routine screening for IPV exposure; however, this intervention has been poorly adopted. Expansion of screening efforts to the community pharmacy setting provides an opportunity to have a substantial impact on the health and well-being of pharmacy patients. However, little is known about pharmac...
Leah Okenwa-Emegwa; Stephen Lawoko; Bjarne Jansson
Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian...
Nu Tang; Lisamarie Bensman; Elaine Hatfield
Sexual self-disclosure is one of the most intimate forms of self-disclosure. Yet, there is surprisingly little research on this topic compared to the voluminous research that exists on self-disclosure (in general). This is particularly surprising since sexual self-disclosure has been found to be correlated with sexual and marital satisfaction (Byers & Demmons, 2010). Conversations about sex have also been found to be critical in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, expres...
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders
Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).
Ana Carolina da C. Azevêdo
Full Text Available This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636 women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11, even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.
Toan Thanh Nguyen
Full Text Available An investigation of cross-cultural differences between the United States, Japan, and China in perceptions of male to female intimate partner violence, and in the extent to which gender and traditional attitudes toward women related to these perceptions. College students (n = 943 read two fictitious scenarios describing marital and dating violence. MANOVA results showed gender differences in the perceptions of violence between the three countries. Male participants had more traditional attitudes toward women and placed more blame on female victims. The magnitude of the difference between women’s and men’s scores was much smaller for Japanese students than for American and Chinese students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the effects of respondent gender were reduced when traditional attitudes toward women were taken into account. Differences in beliefs about appropriate gender roles still exist among college students in these countries and may be related to socially tolerant attitudes toward violence against women.
Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly
Objectives To examine the role of alcohol at the time of aggressive incidents between intimate partners in the general population by gender, by estimating (1) prevalence and severity of aggression, and drinking at the time, (2) associations of drinking at the time of the aggression with reported severity, anger and fear, and (3) association of usual drinking patterns with partner aggression. Design A national survey of 18–70-year-olds using an electoral roll sample obtained self-reported alcohol consumption, partner's alcohol consumption and details of the most severe partner aggression by the respondent and towards the respondent in the past 2 years. The mean scores for associated severity, anger and fear were analysed by gender and alcohol involvement. Multinomial models estimated associations of drinking patterns with aggression to and from the respondent. Results The response rate was 49% (n=1925). Men and women reported similar prevalence of victimisation and perpetration of aggression (11–15%). Alcohol was involved in more than 25% of incidents, and reported more by women than by men, particularly male-only drinking when the respondent was the victim. Women reported greater severity, anger and fear with victimisation than men, and drinking was associated with greater reported severity. Heavy episodic drinking by respondents was associated with a threefold increase in victimisation and doubling of perpetration of aggression involving alcohol. Heavy episodic drinking by either partner was also associated with drinking being involved in reported aggression. Conclusions The experience of intimate-partner aggression in a cross-section of households differs by gender and the involvement of alcohol, and ‘counts’ of aggressive acts in a population-based survey do not reflect the reality of gender differences. Heavy episodic drinking patterns are associated with more aggression involving alcohol within relationships, and alcohol involvement is associated
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M
This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles
Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S
The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Sorenson, Susan B; Spear, Devan
Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013. Over 80% of the IPV incidents involved individuals in non-marital relationships. Incidents involving current boyfriends or girlfriends had the highest percentage of violent behaviors (e.g., punch, strangle). They also were more likely than current spouses to use bodily weapons (hands, fists, or feet) or non-gun weapons (knives, bats, etc.) (AOR = 1.19 and 1.43, respectively), to injure their victims (AOR = 1.37), and to be arrested (AOR = 1.46). Former unmarried partners had the highest odds of stalking their intimate (AOR = 3.37) and violating a restraining order (AOR = 2.61). Gun use was similar across relationship type. A growing portion of the population is not protected by federal policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. Current boyfriends and girlfriends are a risk to their intimates. Federal data collection practices and firearm policies merit updating to more fully take into account dating, same-sex marriage, and other partnerships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Merrick, Melissa T; Basile, Kathleen C; Zhang, Xinjian; Smith, Sharon G; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo
Youth sexual violence victimization is an urgent public health concern that can lead to a variety of health problems and increased risk for victimization during adulthood. Examining the characteristics of early victimization and their association with subsequent victimization during adulthood may help strengthen primary prevention efforts. Data are from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Prevalence estimates were computed in 2017 for rape and made to sexually penetrate, their subtypes, as well as proportions among victims by type of perpetrator. Chi-square tests of association were conducted between youth sexual violence victimization and the same experiences in adulthood. Approximately 10 million U.S. females (8.4%) experienced completed or attempted rape and 1.9 million U.S. males (1.6%) were made to penetrate someone during youth. Most victims knew their perpetrators. Being raped or made to penetrate during youth was associated with increased likelihood of such victimization in adulthood. Females and males experience youth sexual violence victimization at alarming rates. Primary prevention efforts with youth are critical to prevent early victimization, subsequent victimization in adulthood, and the mental and physical health consequences associated with sexual violence victimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lewis, Jessica B; Sullivan, Tami P; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M; Kershaw, Trace S
We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P Couple-level interventions focused on relational issues might protect young families from developing IPV behaviors. Aggr. Behav. 43:26-36, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.
We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P profile (all P profile by sex interaction (all P families from developing IPV behaviors. PMID:27135634
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane
Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.
Kane, Fallon A; Bornstein, Robert F
Interpersonal dependency in male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) is an understudied phenomenon but one that has noteworthy clinical implications. The present investigation used meta-analytic techniques to quantify the dependency-IPV link in all extant studies examining this relationship (n of studies = 17). Studies were gathered via an extensive literature search using relevant dependency/IPV search terms in the PsychInfo, Medline and Google Scholar databases. Results revealed a small but statistically significant relationship between dependency and perpetration of IPV in men (r = 0.150, Combined Z = 4.25, p dependency-IPV link becoming stronger (r = 0.365, Combined Z = 6.00, p dependent personality disorder symptoms were omitted. Other moderators of the dependency-IPV effect size included IPV measure, type of sample and perpetrator age. These findings illuminate the underlying dynamics and interpersonal processes involved in some instances of IPV and may aid in understanding how to identify and treat male perpetrators of domestic violence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available We are living in the midst of an unprecedented transformation of erotic and intimate life. Although this has been the subject of much controversy, most people have taken for granted the results of the changes, with little awareness of how things have changed, and how significant the changes have been. The article explores three traps that commentators fall into. The first is a mindless progressivism that assumes that all is for the best in all possible worlds. The second is a declinist approach, which assumes that all change is for the worst and that the quality of our morality – for which we can read sexual behaviour and values – is in hopeless decline. The third approach assumes continuity: yes, superficial things have changed, but in essence power structures have remained resilient. Subforms of the continuist approach are described, derived from feminist, queer, and anti neo-liberal critiques. Against these broad analytical approaches, the article affirms the importance of a historical approach. This would recognise that change has been uneven, but transforming nevertheless, and for the better. What makes them so significant is that they have largely been grass roots led: a true remaking of everyday life under the pressure of globalisation, detraditionalisation and heightened individualisation. In drawing up a balance sheet of the great transition we must conclude that a new world is emerging, a world we have won.Vivimos en medio de una transformación sin precedentes de la vida erótica e intima. A pesar de que este asunto ha sido objeto de una amplia controversia, han sido muchos los que han dado por supuestos los resultados de los cambios, con escaso conocimiento de cómo han cambiado las cosas y hasta qué punto los cambios han sido significativos. Este artículo examina tres trampas en las que caen quienes se han ocupado de este fenómeno. La primera es un progresismo estúpido que asume que todo cuanto ocurre contribuye a la
Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim A; Secco, Loretta
In order to offer optimal supports and services for mothers affected by intimate partner violence (IPV), an understanding of these mothers' perceptions of support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for support intervention is warranted. Moreover, the growing recognition of the effects of IPV on maternal-infant relationships and of the importance of these early relationships to long-term child health outcomes suggests interventions are needed to support optimal maternal-infant relationships in these families. Thus, 64 mothers exposed to IPV when their infants were below 12 months of age participated in a retrospective qualitative study to identify mothers' support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for specific support interventions to promote optimal mother-infant relationships. Participants identified both personal needs (including needs for leaving or staying with the violent partner), along with intertwined needs to care for, and help, their infants cope with the experience of violence. Mothers reported that integrated services that include information and practical support from professionals with emotional and affirmation support from peers would promote positive, nurturing mother-infant relationships and healthy child development.
Johnson, Michael P; Leone, Janel M; Xu, Yili
In this article, we argue that past efforts to distinguish among types of intimate partner violence in general survey data have committed a critical error--using data on current spouses to develop operationalizations of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence. We use ex-spouse data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) to develop new operationalizations. We then demonstrate that NVAWS current spouse data contain little intimate terrorism; we argue that this is likely to be the case for all general surveys. In addition, the ex-spouse data confirm past findings regarding a variety of differences between intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, including those predicted by feminist theories.
Ashley L. Comiford
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. METHODS: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues of intimate partner problem-related suicides. RESULTS: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems.
Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly
Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.
Coston, Bethany M
While just over one in three heterosexual women will experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in her lifetime, 61% of bisexual women and 78% of non-monosexual women will. Combining previous research and theories on power, social resources, binegativity, and gender-based violence, this article analyzes the role of power and inequality in non-monosexual women's IPV victimization. Using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, this article first examines rates of IPV victimization for statistically significant differences between monosexual (e.g., only have dating, romantic, and sexual partners of one sex/gender) and non-monosexual (e.g., have dating, romantic, and sexual partners of multiple sexes/genders) women in the United States and, second, introduces theoretically important variables to logistic regression analyses to determine the correlates of IPV victimization among non-monosexual women (age, race ethnicity, income, education, immigration status, and indigeneity; partner gender; sexual identity). Findings indicate that non-monosexual women are more likely to experience sexual, emotional, and psychological/control violence, and intimate stalking, but have an equivalent risk of experiencing physical violence. Moreover, having an abusive partner who is a man, having a lot of relative social power, and self-identifying as "bisexual" are all significant factors in violence victimization. Importantly, this is the first study using nationally representative data that confirms non-monosexual women are particularly at risk for sexual identity-based violence at the hands of their male/man partners, suggesting binegativity and biphobia may indeed be linked to hegemonic masculinity. Suggestions for moving research forward include improving data collection efforts such that we can disentangle gender from sex and individual aggregate power from relationship inequalities, as well as more adequately account for the timing of sexual identity
Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Segal, Andrea; Perlis, Michael L; Nowakowski, Sara; Tal, Joshua Z; Grandner, Michael A
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide health concern and an important risk factor for poor mental/physical health in both women and men. Little is known about whether IPV leads to sleep disturbance. However, sleep problems may be common in the context of IPV and may mediate relationships with mental/physical health. Data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used (N = 34,975). IPV was assessed in female and male participants for any history of being threatened by, physically hurt by, or forced to have sex with an intimate partner (THREAT, HURT, and SEX, respectively), and, further, as being forced to have sex with or physically injured by an intimate partner within the past year (SEXyr and HURTyr, respectively). These survey items were coded yes/no. Sleep disturbance was assessed as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much at least 6 of the last 14 days. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, race, income, education, and physical/mental health, assessed whether IPV predicted sleep disturbance. Sobel-Goodman tests assessed whether relationships between IPV and physical/mental health were partially mediated by sleep disturbance. All IPV variables were associated with sleep disturbance, even after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, employment, marital status, physical health and mental health. THREAT was associated with sleep disturbance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.798, p mental health (p physical health (p mental health) to 41% (HURT and physical health). IPV was strongly associated with current sleep disturbance above the effect of demographics and overall mental/physical health, even if the IPV happened in the past. Furthermore, sleep disturbance partially mediates the relationship between IPV and mental/physical health. Sleep interventions may potentially mitigate negative effects of IPV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Heru, Alison M.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Recupero, Patricia Ryan
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly bidirectional with both partners perpetrating and being victims of aggressive behaviors. In these couples, family dysfunction is reported across a broad range of family functions: communication, intimacy, problem solving, expression or control of anger, and designation of relationship roles. This study reports on the perceived family functioning of suicidal inpatients. Method: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study of adult suicidal inpatients, participants completed assessments of recent IPV and family functioning. Recruited patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and English fluent, had suicidal ideation, and were living with an intimate partner for at least the past 6 months. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, and family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. The study was conducted from August 2004 through February 2005. Results: In 110 inpatients with suicidal ideation and IPV, family functioning was perceived as poor across many domains, although patients did report family strengths. Gender differences were not found in the overall prevalence of IPV, but when the sample was divided into good and poor family functioning, women with poorer family functioning reported more psychological abuse by a partner. For both genders, physical and psychological victimization was associated with poorer family functioning. Conclusion: Among psychiatric inpatients with suicidal ideation, IPV occurred in relationships characterized by general dysfunction. Poorer general family functioning was associated with the perception of victimization for both genders. The high prevalence of bidirectional IPV highlights the need for the development of couples treatment for this population of suicidal psychiatric inpatients. PMID:18185819
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...
In this article, I examine how gender-based violence has been framed in Spanish legal, social and cultural discourses since the fall of the dictatorship. Prior to 1997, far less attention was paid to intimate partner abuse than in most other democratic states. In the last ten years, this situation has been reversed. There has been heavy media coverage, and new legislation that adopts an holistic approach to the problem. I will attempt to place these changes in context and to provide extensive bibliographical information for those readers seeking information in more specialised fields.
De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B
When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative.
Conroy, Amy A.
Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men’s experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people’s risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent’s experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24227592
Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy
This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband’s alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g. not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple’s mediation, responsible partner and
Petersson, Joakim; Strand, Susanne; Selenius, Heidi
Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on their generality of violence could facilitate the difficult task of matching perpetrator subtype with efficient risk management strategies. As such, the aim of the present study was to compare antisocial and family-only male perpetrators of interpersonal violence in terms of (a) demographic and legal characteristics, (b) risk factors for violence, and (c) assessed risk and the importance of specific risk factors for violence. A quantitative design was used in this retrospective register study on data obtained from the Swedish police. Risk assessments performed with the Swedish version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and police registers were used. A sample of 657 male alleged IPV perpetrators were classified asantisocial(n= 341) orfamily-only(n= 316) based on their generality of violence. The results showed that the antisocial perpetrators were significantly younger, as well as more psychologically abusive. Antisocial perpetrators also had significantly more present risk factors for IPV, and were assessed with a significantly higher risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV, compared with the family-only perpetrators. The subtypes also evidenced unique risk factors with a significant impact on elevated risk for acute and severe or deadly such violence. Key findings in the present study concerned the subtypes evidencing unique risk factors increasing the risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV. Major implications of this study include the findings of such unique "red flag" risk factors for each subtype. To prevent future IPV, it is vital for the risk assessor to be aware of these red flags when making decisions about risk, as well as risk management strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.
Reuter, Tyson R; Newcomb, Michael E; Whitton, Sarah W; Mustanski, Brian
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e.g. race, gender identity, and sexual orientation). An ethnically diverse sample of 172 LGBT young adults completed self-report measures of IPV, sexual behavior, mental health, and substance abuse at two time points (4- and 5-year follow-up) of an ongoing longitudinal study of LGBT youth. IPV was experienced non-uniformly across demographic groups. Specifically, female, male-to-female transgender, and Black/African-American young adults were at higher risk compared to those who identified as male, female-to-male transgender, and other races. Being a victim of IPV was associated with concurrent sexual risk taking and prospective mental health outcomes but was not associated with substance abuse. Demographic differences in IPV found in heterosexuals were replicated in this LGBT sample, though additional research is needed to clarify why traditional risk factors found in heterosexual young people may not translate to LGBT individuals. Studies examining the impact of IPV on negative outcomes and revictimization over time may guide our understanding of the immediate and delayed consequences of IPV for LGBT young people.
Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy
This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband's alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g., not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple's mediation, responsible partner and
Vogler, Carolyn; Brockmann, Michaela; Wiggins, Richard D
Drawing on British data from two annual sweeps of the ISSP eight years apart in 1994 and 2002, for modules focusing on 'Family and Changing Gender Roles', this paper examines the extent to which changes in women's labour market participation, changing ideologies/discourses of gender and changing forms of intimate relationships are affecting the ways in which couples organize household money, and the implications of such changes for recent theories of intimate relationships. The analysis indicates that by 2002, the type of relationship respondents had established, together with their social class position, were both independently related to the ways in which they managed money, after controlling for socio-economic and cultural or discursive factors. Our findings also provide a degree of support for the thesis of a partial decline in the male breadwinner model of gender, as indicated by small declines in the use of the relatively inegalitarian female whole wage and housekeeping allowance systems which were most likely to be used by married couples and cohabiting fathers, expressing relatively traditional ideologies/discourses of breadwinning - and a slight increase in the use of the partial pool, which was most likely to be used by childless cohabiting couples in which male partners expressed less traditional ideologies of breadwinning and women were in middle-class jobs with incomes high enough to facilitate partially separate finances. We also suggest, however, that in so far as cohabiting couples earning different amounts define equality as contributing equally to household expenditure, it is possible that rather than being associated with shifts to greater equality in access to money for personal spending and saving, the partial pool may be associated with marked inequalities, because it may enable gender inequalities generated in the labour market to be more directly transposed into inequalities within households, despite the decline of traditional discourses of
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV has been increasingly recognized as a public health problem associated with serious medical, family, and societal effects. Violence against women is a major public health problem and violations of women's human rights, with substantial repercussions for women’s physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. This necessitates information on quantum and pattern of IPV, for effective interventions. Methods: This cross-sectional, randomized hospital based survey of married women aged 15–49 years took place in a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Uttarakhand from November 2012 to March 2013, using the methodology of WHO Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Data analysis has been done using SPSS version 15.0 and Microsoft office excel 2007. To test significance, chi square test have been used as applicable. Results: Prevalence of current IPV was 31.83% in the present study. IPV was found significantly associated with socio-economic status of the family, education of the female, drinking behavior of the husband and economic dependence of female on husband. Religion, age of the female and duration of marriage were non-significant predictors for intimate partner violence in the present study. Conclusions: The study documented prevalence, patterns and determinants of intimate partner violence. Efforts, targeting the most vulnerable, and measures like IPV awareness, Female education, vocational training program for females, legal literacy should be promoted. These measures can prove valuable for effective control of IPV and related mortality/morbidity/other significant repercussions on female well-being.
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV has been increasingly recognized as a public health problem associated with serious medical, family, and societal effects. Violence against women is a major public health problem and violations of women's human rights, with substantial repercussions for women’s physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. This necessitates information on quantum and pattern of IPV, for effective interventions. Methods: This cross-sectional, randomized hospital based survey of married women aged 15–49 years took place in a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Uttarakhand from November 2012 to March 2013, using the methodology of WHO Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Data analysis has been done using SPSS version 15.0 and Microsoft office excel 2007. To test significance, chi square test have been used as applicable. Results: Prevalence of current IPV was 31.83% in the present study. IPV was found significantly associated with socio-economic status of the family, education of the female, drinking behavior of the husband and economic dependence of female on husband. Religion, age of the female and duration of marriage were non-significant predictors for intimate partner violence in the present study. Conclusions: The study documented prevalence, patterns and determinants of intimate partner violence. Efforts, targeting the most vulnerable, and measures like IPV awareness, Female education, vocational training program for females, legal literacy should be promoted. These measures can prove valuable for effective control of IPV and related mortality/morbidity/other significant repercussions on female well-being.
Full Text Available The study intends to examine three major plays of Sam Shepard –True West, Fool for Love, and A Lie of the Mind– to explore the underlying reasons for the characters’ social transgression in the light of Julia Kristeva’s theory of intimate revolt. Notwithstanding that all the characters feel alienated from reality and other members of society, there is a marked divergence between male and female characters in the approach they adopt to revolt against the societal norms so as to transform their lives. The findings suggest that while men seem less likely to revolt against the rules of patriarchy, it is predominantly women who embark on revolting against the psyche-numbing society to bring jouissance to their once-predetermined meaningless lives. The study comes to the conclusion that by reconnecting with their personal desire and preserving their individuality in a society that hegemonizes its subjects’ identities, women engage in what Kristeva calls ‘intimate revolt’ and become the forces of power and change in the modern world.
Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.
More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300
Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...
Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...
Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R
New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dardis, Christina M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Iverson, Katherine M
National estimates suggest intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are equal or higher among lesbian, bisexual, or questioning (LBQ)-identified women than heterosexual-identified women. Women veterans are a population at high risk for IPV, yet the occurrence of lifetime and past-year IPV experiences by sexual orientation have not been examined in this population. Lifetime and past-year IPV experiences and current IPV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed with validated screening measures as part of a 2014 web-based national survey of women veterans. Among 403 respondents, 9.7% (n = 39) identified as LBQ, and 90.3% (n = 364) identified as heterosexual. When controlling for age, LBQ-identified women veterans were significantly more likely to report lifetime sexual and physical IPV and lifetime intimate partner stalking. In the past year, LBQ-identified veterans were twice as likely to endorse emotional mistreatment and physical IPV, and three times more likely to endorse sexual IPV, than were heterosexual-identified women veterans. However, sexual orientation was unrelated to IPV-related PTSD symptoms, when controlling for age, race, and number IPV forms experienced. IPV is prevalent among LBQ-identified women veterans, suggesting the need to understand the potentially unique contextual factors and health-care needs of this group.
Chiesa, Antonia E; Kallechey, Leigh; Harlaar, Nicole; Rashaan Ford, C; Garrido, Edward F; Betts, William R; Maguire, Sabine
Early studies examining parenting in the setting of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on abuse by the IPV perpetrator or effects of long term exposure. This review addresses how intimate partner violence impacts victim parenting. Seven databases were searched for the time period 1970-2015. Included were comparative studies involving children 11 years or younger. Quality ranking was based on: confirmation of victim status, consideration of co-perpetration, heterogeneity of the population, and standardization of measurements. Of 13,038 studies reviewed, 33 included studies showed that victimization is associated with negative parenting practices. Based on data presented within individual studies, 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis which demonstrated modest effect sizes with high levels of heterogeneity. There was a negative correlation between IPV and positive parenting (r = -0.08; 95% CI: -.12, - .04); positive correlation between IPV and physical aggression (r = .17; 95% CI: .11, .23) and neglect (r = .12; 95% CI: .01, .23); and a trend toward positive correlation between IPV and psychological aggression (r = .23; 95% CI: -.94, .47). A synthesis of studies unsuitable for meta-analysis reinforced these findings. The review demonstrated ongoing methodological issues with extant literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos
Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.
Reidy, Dennis E.; Berke, Danielle S.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos
Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress, a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men’s historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men. PMID:29593368
Crombe, Amandine [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Lintingre, Pierre-Francois; Dallaudiere, Benjamin [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux-Merignac, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Merignac (France); Le Loarer, Francois [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Lachatre, Denis [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Limoges (France)
We report the case of a 59-year-old female with progressive bilateral painful swelling of the thighs. MRI revealed multiple intramuscular necrotic masses with similar morphologic patterns. Whole-body CT and 18-FDG PET-CT scans demonstrated additional hypermetabolic muscular masses and a lobulated lesion within the left atrial cavity. As biopsy of a muscular mass was compatible with a poorly differentiated sarcoma with MDM2 oncogene amplification, two diagnoses were discussed: a dedifferentiated liposarcoma with muscle and heart metastases or a primary cardiac sarcoma, mainly a cardiac intimal sarcoma, with muscular metastases, which was finally confirmed by array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a sarcoma reference center. This case emphasizes the potential for intimal sarcoma to disseminate in skeletal muscle prior to any other organ and the need for a genomic approach in addition to classical radiopathologic analyses to distinguish primary from secondary locations facing simultaneous tumors of the heart and skeletal muscles with MDM2 amplification. (orig.)
Samuel, Laura J; Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. THE FOLLOWING THEMES WERE FOUND AND ARE DETAILED: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations.
Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Oshnouei, Sima; Haghighi, Negar
In spite of enough prevalence data on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy from many countries, there are still some regions such as the Middle East with relatively limited data. The purpose of research was to investigate the magnitude of IPV during pregnancy in an Iranian community. Thirty hundred fifty women during their postpartum period were invited to participate in a cross-sectional population-based study, but 10.6% of them refused participation. The data was compiled using the Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Of the 313 women, 55.9% reported violence during pregnancy. All types of violence were detected in victims during pregnancy, including psychological violence (43.5%), physical violence (10.2%), and sexual violence (17.2%). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy was significantly associated with lower education of the husbands (PR 1.64; 95% CI 1.15-2.36), un-employment of the husbands (PR 1.36; 95% CI 1.12-1.64), marriage duration of 5-9 years (PR 0.95; 95% CI 0.74-1.20) and gravidity of two (PR 0.80; 95% CI 0.59-1.08). The reported prevalence of IPV before and during pregnancy in this sample is substantially higher than estimates of exposure to violence in other parts of the globe, even the East Mediterranean region which has the highest prevalence estimation in the globe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Parents are increasingly sharing information about infants online in various forms and capacities. To more meaningfully understand the way parents decide what to share about young people and the way those decisions are being shaped, this article focuses on two overlapping areas: parental monitoring of babies and infants through the example of wearable technologies and parental mediation through the example of the public sharing practices of celebrity and influencer parents. The article begins by contextualizing these parental practices within the literature on surveillance, with particular attention to online surveillance and the increasing importance of affect. It then gives a brief overview of work on pregnancy mediation, monitoring on social media, and via pregnancy apps, which is the obvious precursor to examining parental sharing and monitoring practices regarding babies and infants. The examples of parental monitoring and parental mediation will then build on the idea of “intimate surveillance” which entails close and seemingly invasive monitoring by parents. Parental monitoring and mediation contribute to the normalization of intimate surveillance to the extent that surveillance is (resituated as a necessary culture of care. The choice to not survey infants is thus positioned, worryingly, as a failure of parenting.
Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G
Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rempel, Ebony; Donelle, Lorie; Hall, Jodi; Rodger, Susan
Violence against women (VAW) is a global social issue affecting health, social, and legal systems. VAW contributes to the inequities with respect to the social determinants of health that many women face today. The onus on self-care in the face of violence remains almost singularly with the victims. Access to information and services in support of women's health and safety is fundamental. However, research gaps exist regarding how women access health information across all stages of an abusive intimate relationship. Given the ubiquity of online access to information, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide an overview of online interventions available to women within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Research literature published between 2000 and 2016, inclusive, was reviewed: 11 interventions were identified. Findings suggest that online interventions focused on the act of leaving with less emphasis on the experiences that occur after a woman has left the relationship. In addition, the online interventions concentrated on the individual capacity of the survivor to leave an abusive relationship and demonstrated limited understanding of IPV in relation to the broader social-contextual factors. Findings from this research highlight information gaps for women who require significant support after leaving an abusive relationship.
Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Ruby Tsz-Fung; Chan, Pik-Ying; Wong, John Kit-Shing; Lau, Chu-Leung; Kam, Chak-Wah
Healthcare services constitute the first formal support that many intimate partner violence (IPV) victims receive and a link to formal welfare and psychological support. The help-seeking behavior for psychosocial support, e.g., Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) onsite counseling, is key to developing effective support for IPV victims. This study aimed to strengthen the health-welfare support link to aid IPV prevention in AEDs by investigating the acceptance and refusal of on-site counseling by IPV victims. A retrospective cohort study retrieved and reviewed all records of IPV victims presenting at the AEDs of two Hong Kong hospitals between 2010 and 2014. A total of 157 male and 823 female IPV victims were identified, 295 of whom refused on-site counseling. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between help-seeking and demographic and violent injury-related factors. The odds of help-seeking via on-site counseling were significantly lower for victims with mental illness (aOR=0.49; 95% CI=0.27, 0.88). After controlling for all demographic characteristics, mental illness, and drug abuse information, sex remained an independent predictor of help-seeking (aOR=2.62; 95% CI=1.45, 4.74); victims who had experienced >2 abuse incidents were more likely to seek help than those who had experienced ≤2 abuse incidents (aOR=1.90; 95% CI=1.11, 3.26). The factors associated with help-seeking from on-site services by IPV victims reflect the need for multidisciplinary collaborative work aimed at IPV prevention. Healthcare professionals require training on how to promote help-seeking behavior targeted specifically for male and female IPV victims according to their needs and preferences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A
Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.
Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey
The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…
This study tests two competing hypotheses regarding the social structural dynamics of intimate homicide: backlash versus collective efficacy. This study also examines the role of race in how social factors specified in each hypothesis affect intimate homicide. Data are from the California Vital Statistics and Homicide Data, 1990-1999. Results from…
Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi
This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…
Nabors, Erin L.
College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…
Rice, Penny J.
College students have been socialized within a patriarchal, male dominated system and have accumulated many life experiences prior to arriving on campus. These experiences could present challenges in communication, may limit the students' ability to develop intimate and meaningful relationships with others, and create struggles during and after…
Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.
Sommer, Johannah; Iyican, Susan; Babcock, Julia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a persistent problem in our society, and there is strong evidence for the existence of bidirectional violence in heterosexual romantic relationships. Couples' research has long focused on conflict and distressed communication patterns as a source of relationship distress and eventual dissolution. In addition to relationship dissatisfaction, dysfunctional communication also appears to be associated with elevated risk of IPV. In fact, one study found that communication difficulties were one of the most frequently self-reported motivations for committing partner violence in a sample of both males and females arrested for IPV. The current study sought to explore the association between the expression of distressed communication (contempt and anger) during a laboratory conflict discussion and reports of IPV perpetration using a dyadic data analysis method, the Actor Partner Interdependence Model, in a large ethnically diverse sample of heterosexual couples. We found that negative communication in the form of contempt was not only associated with one's own physical assault perpetration, but it was also associated with physical assault perpetration of the other partner. In contrast, anger was only associated with one's own physical assault perpetration. Therefore, our results highlight the potential efficacy of treatments for IPV that target negative communication patterns and affect.
Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.
Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul
Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Golding, Jonathan M; Renzetti, Claire M
The present study examined legal perceptions of lesbian intimate partner violence (IPV) in an experimental context. Undergraduate women and men from the Southeastern United States (N = 217) read a trial summary in which the defendant was charged with physically assaulting her same-sex partner. The trial varied as to whether the victim and defendant were depicted via images as either feminine or masculine. Participants rendered verdicts and made judgments about the victim and defendant (e.g., credibility). Results indicated that the victim's and defendant's masculine or feminine appearance affected these judgments. Female participants viewed a masculine victim as more credible than a feminine victim when the defendant was masculine. When the victim was masculine, they viewed a masculine defendant as more responsible for the victim's injuries than a feminine defendant. Male participants had higher sympathy for a masculine versus feminine victim overall, but had more anger toward a masculine defendant versus a feminine defendant accused of assaulting a feminine victim. Finally, fewer participants mentioned the defendant's history of violence as a reason for a guilty of felony verdict for a feminine victim with a feminine defendant versus all other combinations of victim and defendant masculine/feminine appearance. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes influencing legal decision-making in IPV cases among lesbian couples. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mulawa, Marta I; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne
Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Tanzania is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, although research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Grounded in social learning theory, social influence theory, and the theory of gender and power, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and how peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 40) with a sub-sample of 20 men enrolled in the control condition of an ongoing cluster-randomised controlled trial. We purposively sampled participants who previously reported perpetrating physical IPV. To analyse the data, we generated narrative summaries and conducted thematic and interpretative coding. We saw no evidence that men self-selected into peer networks with certain values or behaviours. Rather, men described several mechanisms through which their peers influenced the perpetration of IPV, including: (1) the internalisation of peer network norms, (2) pressure to conform to peer network norms and (3) the direct involvement of peers in shaping couple power dynamics. Our findings suggest that peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV and should be targeted in future programmes and interventions.
LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Eckhardt, Christopher I
This study examined social skills deficits as a mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and use of intimate partner aggression (IPA) among returning veterans. Prior research with veterans has focused on PTSD-related deficits at the decoding stage of McFall's (1982) social information processing model, and the current study adds to this literature by examining social skills deficits at the decision stage. Participants were 92 male veterans recruited from the greater Boston area. PTSD symptoms were assessed through clinician interview, IPA use was assessed through self- and partner report, and social skills deficits were assessed in a laboratory task in which veterans listened to a series of problematic marital situations and responded with what they would say or do in the situation. Responses were coded for social competency. Bivariate correlations revealed several significant associations among PTSD symptoms, social skills deficits, and use of IPA. When all PTSD symptom clusters were entered into a regression predicting social skills deficits, only emotional numbing emerged as a unique predictor. Finally, social skills deficits significantly mediated the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of psychological (but not physical) IPA. Findings extend prior research on McFall's (1982) social information processing model as it relates to veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of IPA. More research is needed to understand the associations between PTSD symptoms and deficits at each individual step of this model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article focuses on the project of sustaining cultural diversity within global cities’ intimate spaces. Specifically, it sketches the culinary histories of an Anglo-Australian woman (who, in 1968, settled permanently in Mexico and her male partner (who grew up in Mexico; his mother Mexican, his father Cantonese. Drawing on the tools of ‘borderwork’ (Hodge and O’Carroll, the argument positions culturally diverse landscapes of ‘Sydney’, ‘China’ and ‘Mexico City’ as distinct yet overlapping geographies. Meanwhile, analysis of curious moments in the couple’s intersecting histories contributes much fluidity to this cartography. In the process, a company of hungry ghosts appears at the dinner table – ghosts of diversity, diaspora and cosmopolitanism; nostalgia and memory; gender and ethnicity; home and belonging. The article concludes that even when borderwork is conducted amiably behind closed doors, it relies on contradictions for cultural sustenance. At the same time, its tensions resonate with possibilities for creative practice.
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Badal, Shamsul Huda; Nazneen, Sohela
Intimate partner violence (IPV) may increase as women in patriarchal societies become empowered, implicitly or explicitly challenging prevailing gender norms. Prior evidence suggests an inverse U-shaped relationship between women's empowerment and IPV, in which violence against women first increases and then decreases as more egalitarian gender norms gradually gain acceptance. By means of focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with men in 10 Bangladeshi villages, this study explored men's evolving views of women, gender norms and the legitimacy of men's perpetration of IPV in the context of a gender transition. It examines men's often-contradictory narratives about women's empowerment and concomitant changes in norms of masculinity, and identifies aspects of women's empowerment that are most likely to provoke a male backlash. Findings suggest that men's growing acceptance of egalitarian gender norms and their self-reported decreased engagement in IPV are driven largely by pragmatic self-interest: their desire to improve their economic status and fear of negative consequences of IPV.
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Badal, Shamsul Huda; Nazneen, Sohela
Intimate partner violence (IPV) may increase as women in patriarchal societies become empowered, implicitly or explicitly challenging prevailing gender norms. Prior evidence suggests an inverse U-shaped relationship between women’s empowerment and IPV, in which violence against women first increases and then decreases as more egalitarian gender norms gradually gain acceptance. By means of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with men in 10 Bangladeshi villages, this study explores men’s evolving views of women, gender norms and the legitimacy of men’s perpetration of IPV in the context of a gender transition. It examines men’s often-contradictory narratives about women’s empowerment and concomitant changes in norms of masculinity, and identifies aspects of women’s empowerment that are most likely to provoke a male backlash. The findings suggest that men’s growing acceptance of egalitarian gender norms and their self-reported decreased engagement in IPV are driven largely by pragmatic self-interest: their desire to improve their economic status and fear of negative consequences of IPV. PMID:28594292
Katz, Jennifer; Joiner, Thomas E
We contend that close relationships provide adults with optimal opportunities for personal growth when relationship partners provide accurate, honest feedback. Accordingly, it was predicted that young adults would experience the relationship quality with relationship partners who evaluated them in a manner consistent their own self-evaluations. Three empirical tests of this self-verification hypothesis as applied to close dyads were conducted. In Study 1, young adults in dating relationships were most intimate with and somewhat more committed to partners when they perceived that partners evaluated them as they evaluated themselves. Self-verification effects were pronounced for those involved in more serious dating relationships. In Study 2, men reported the greatest esteem for same-sex roommates who evaluated them in a self-verifying manner. Results from Study 2 were replicated and extended to both male and female roommate dyads in Study 3. Further, self-verification effects were most pronounced for young adults with high emotional empathy. Results suggest that self-verification theory is useful for understanding dyadic adjustment across a variety of relational contexts in young adulthood. Implications of self-verification processes for adult personal development are outlined within an identity negotiation framework.
Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Hemenway, David; Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.
Objectives. We examined associations between premigration political violence exposure and past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant men attending community health centers in Boston. Methods. A convenience sample of immigrant men (N = 379; aged 18–35 years), largely from the Caribbean and Cape Verde, who attend community health centers, completed an anonymous, cross-sectional survey on risk and protective factors for male-perpetrated IPV and respondents’ exposure to political violence. Results. One in 5 (20.1%) immigrant men reported that they were exposed to political violence before arrival in the United States. Men reporting political violence exposure were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration than were men not reporting such exposure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 5.74). Significant associations with political violence exposure were observed for both physical (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.54) and sexual (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.04, 5.44) IPV perpetration. Conclusions. To our knowledge, our findings document for the first time the significant association between premigration political violence exposure and recent IPV perpetration among immigrant men. Additional work is needed to examine underlying mechanisms to inform culturally appropriate programs. PMID:18703450
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Sparrow, Katherine; Kwan, Jamie; Howard, Louise; Fear, Nicola; MacManus, Deirdre
There is growing awareness of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) among military populations. IPV victimisation has been shown to be associated with mental disorder. A better understanding of the link between IPV and mental disorder is needed to inform service development to meet the needs of military families. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between IPV victimisation and mental health disorders among military personnel. Searches of four electronic databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were supplemented by reference list screening. Heterogeneity among studies precluded a meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were included. There was stronger evidence for an association between IPV and depression/alcohol problems than between IPV and PTSD. An association between IPV and mental health problems was more frequently found among veterans compared to active duty personnel. However, the link between IPV and alcohol misuse was more consistently found among active duty samples. Finally, among active duty personnel psychological IPV was more consistently associated with depression/alcohol problems than physical/sexual IPV. The review highlighted the lack of research on male IPV victimisation in the military. There is evidence that the burden of mental health need may be significant among military personnel who are victims of IPV. The influence of attitudes towards gender in the military on research in this area is discussed. Further research is needed to inform development of services and policy to reduce IPV victimisation and the mental health consequences among military personnel.
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Alpha-linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil does not promote tumor development in tongue and gastrointestinal tract tissues in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay using male F344 rat.
Honda, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Doi, Yuko; Matsumura, Shoji; Ito, Yuichi; Imai, Norio; Ikeda, Naohiro; Mera, Yukinori; Morita, Osamu
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80%) and ALA (>50%). The present study investigated whether ALA-DAG oil promotes tumorigenesis in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract, using a rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay model. Rats were treated with five genotoxic carcinogens to induce multi-organ tumorigenesis until week 4, and from 1 week after withdrawal, fed a semi-synthetic diet (AIN-93G) containing ALA-DAG oil at concentrations of 0, 13,750, 27,500, and 55,000 ppm. Rats fed AIN-93G containing 55,000 ppm ALA-triacylglycerol or a standard basal diet served as reference and negative control groups, respectively. Animals were euthanized at week 30. ALA-DAG oil was shown to have no effects on survival, general condition, body weight, food consumption, or organ weight. More discolored spots were observed in the stomachs of the 13,750- and 55,000-ppm ALA-DAG groups than in those of the control groups; however, there were no differences in the frequency of histopathological findings across groups. There were no meaningful increases in the incidence of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract among the groups. We therefore conclude that ALA-DAG oil does not promote tumor development in the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D
Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.
Vecina, María L; Chacón, F; Pérez-Viejo, J M
The objective of this study is to show compatible data with the idea that men who commit intimate partner violence are uninhibited about the moral consequences of their behaviors, probably because they feel certainty about the rightness of their moral values and they strongly deceive themselves to maintain a good moral self-concept, and thus a good level of well-being. To do that, we compare their scores with those obtained by an opposite sample regarding the use of violence, made up of professional male psychologists who work in the social field trying to teach others alternative strategies to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.
Brykczynski, Karen A; Crane, Patricia; Medina, Cindy K; Pedraza, Dora
This qualitative study presents knowledge from clinical experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) working with women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten APNs to discover their ways of being with, supporting, and helping women who have experienced IPV. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Analysis proceeded from whole to parts and back to whole with ongoing attention to maintaining the situational context to guide interpretation of meanings. APNs experience both challenges and successes in caring for women who live with IPV. Findings consist of interpretations of clinical stories to uncover knowledge embedded in practice. Healing practices and ways of being survival facilitators for women and children are identified and described. APNs are in a unique position to help families who live with abuse, but may lack resources and knowledge about the most effective interventions. They may become cynical and frustrated with feelings of futility when faced with the repeating patterns associated with the cycle of violence. The goals of this study are to promote more comprehensive understanding of IPV and stimulate changes in education, practice, research, and health policy. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen
There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women's empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding the survey and were selected for the domestic violence (DV) module. Frequency distributions were used to describe the background characteristics of the women and their partners. Pearson's chi-squared (χ (2)) tests were used to investigate the associations between SBA and women's empowerment; and partners' and women's socio-demographic factors including sexual violence. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between SBA and explanatory variables. More than half (55 %) of the women delivered under the supervision of skilled birth attendant. Women's empowerment with respect to participation in household decision-making, property (land and house) (co)ownership, IPV, and sexual empowerment did not positively predict SBA among rural women in Uganda. Key predictors of SBA were household wealth status, partners' education, ANC attendance and parity. For enhancement of SBA in rural areas, there is a need to encourage a more comprehensive ANC attendance irrespective of number of children a woman has; and design interventions to enhance household wealth and promote men's education.
Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N
Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Li, Ying; Marshall, Caitlin M; Rees, Hilary C; Nunez, Annabelle; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Ehiri, John E
Introduction To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection among women. Methods Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ≥15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies) involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies), South Africa (four studies), East Africa (10 studies), India (three studies), Brazil (one study) and multiple low-income countries (two studies)] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.01, 1.46)] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.00, 1.64)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.44 (1.10, 1.87)]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 2.00 (1.24, 3.22) and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.41 (1.16, 1.73)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among
Karen M Devries
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I² = 50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I² = 0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV
Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.
Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I 2 = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I 2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV
Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim
Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions.
Rafael, Ricardo de Mattos Russo; Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Tavares, Jeane Marques Cunha; Ferreira, Renata Evelin Moreno; Camilo, Glauce Gomes da Silva; Neto, Mercedes
To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.
Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro. Method: A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. Results: The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. Conclusion: The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.
Full Text Available Sexual self-disclosure is one of the most intimate forms of self-disclosure. Yet, there is surprisingly little research on this topic compared to the voluminous research that exists on self-disclosure (in general. This is particularly surprising since sexual self-disclosure has been found to be correlated with sexual and marital satisfaction (Byers & Demmons, 2010. Conversations about sex have also been found to be critical in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, expressing sexual consent, and sexual desires and satisfaction (Faulkner & Lannutti, 2010. Nor have scholars investigated the impact of culture on people’s willingness to engage in sexual self-disclosure. In this paper, we will review current theorizing as to the extent to which culture and gender might be expected to influence young people’s willingness to sexually self-disclose, and suggest possible directions that future research might take.
Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare
Depression Scale (EPDS) and self-reported IPV experiences were assessed using structured questions adopted from the WHO's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence; 3) Assessment for postpartum depression using EPDS was repeated at 40 days post-partum. Data were analyzed using bivariate......BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during.......10; 95% CI: 2.04-4.40) as compared to those women who were not exposed to IPV during their pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that this risk of PPD was highest among younger women (aged 18-24 years) who were exposed to physical violence (AOR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.21-11.67). Among women exposed to emotional...
Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan
Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms
Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.
Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B
This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.
Van der Heijden, Ingrid; Harries, Jane; Abrahams, Naeemah
Notions of womanhood inculcate naturalised ideologies of femininity, sexuality, motherhood and caregiving. The paper asks how disability stigma intersects with womanhood to characterise intimate partnerships in South Africa. In-depth interviews with 30 women with a range of disabilities were conducted in informal settlements in Cape Town. Findings suggest that disability stigma may hamper attainment of normative womanhood and sexual relationships for women with disabilities in South Africa. Limited opportunities to meet potential partners, hegemonic gender expectations and restricted sexual and physical contact shape their intimate partnerships. However, women with disabilities also challenge ableist constructs of normalcy and discredit negative images of disabled womanhood. Because of this, theoretical models of intimate partner violence should consider the influence of disability on constructions of sexuality and norms in intimate partnerships. Building on women with disabilities' stigma-avoidance strategies will help facilitate better relationship outcomes. Social norms interventions with broader society, communities, women with disabilities and their partners, family and carers can help destabilise assumptions that women with disabilities are unable to have long-lasting and fulfilling sexual and intimate partnerships. Moreover, accessible and relevant sexuality education and information on relationships, intimate partner violence, maternal and sexual and reproductive health care can ensure healthy and safe intimate partnerships for women with disabilities.
Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B
Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo. First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides). Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort. First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s), medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82) between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable. The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological) studies on iICA calcification.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial
Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.
and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...
Armour, Trygve; Armour, Sarah; Reddy, Pingle; Brinster, Derek
The presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of a case of type A circumferential dissection involving repeated retrograde intussusception of the intimal flap through the aortic valve is described in this case report. Fewer than 20 intimo-intimal intussusception cases have been described since the first report was published by Hufnagel in 1962, and outcomes have typically been poor because of delays in diagnosis. This case shows the potential for a positive outcome when the diagnosis of intimo-intimal intussusception is entertained and confirmed early in the course of treatment. Preoperative computed tomography and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography were essential in diagnosis and operative planning.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.
The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655
Young, Valerie J; Curran, Melissa A
Guided by interdependence theory, the authors examined how relationship satisfaction is explained by intimate behavior sacrifices in a sample of cohabitors (N = 200). Specifically, it was predicted that characteristics of intimate behavior sacrifices, such as ease and partner appreciation should alter the association of sacrifice frequency and relationship satisfaction. The pattern that emerged demonstrates lower satisfaction for cohabitors when they frequently made intimate sacrifices and their partners were less appreciative of the sacrifices. When making frequent, but less appreciated, intimacy sacrifices for their partner, cohabitors may struggle with intimacy behaviors that are partner oriented.
Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.
Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango
Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53
Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...
Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.
*Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment
... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...
Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok
The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.
The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....
Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D
The care of an adult son or daughter with psychosis is filled with overwhelming demands caused by the symptomatology and illness exacerbations. Parents display disenfranchised grief over multiple losses and report increased levels of emotional burden. Most studies use quantitative methods and rely on pre-existing theoretical frameworks to investigate, through psychometric measures, the effects of being a carer. Meaning attributions to the disorder, and changes in parent-child relations over time, are poorly understood. This hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminates the subjective experience of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis, as it is lived and described by parents of young adults with psychosis. Findings suggest that the parents' perceptions of their child changes over the course of the disorder, leading to a redefinition of the parent-child relationship, causing alternations in attachment. Findings illuminate the parents' profound guilt over having contributed or not prevented the disorder, over not being 'good' parents and feeling ambivalent towards an 'intimate stranger.' Guilt is compensated by absolute dedication to the son or daughter's care, at the expense of their own well-being. Interventions for parents must be available as soon as possible, both during hospitalization and after discharge. Professionals should provide a therapeutic space, where parents could express intimate thoughts and feelings, address guilt, fear and resentment issues, be assisted in their parenting role as well as in the reconstruction of a sense of self and self-esteem. Professionals are invited to facilitate illness acceptance, provide accurate information, assist parents to redefine their relationship to the child and facilitate the integration of the traumatic experience into their personal and family narrative. Professionals must develop in depth awareness of their biases and attitudes, have an ongoing training on how to respond to the parents' needs, facilitate
Muller, Martin N
Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita
Despite reductions in prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among the general population of India, women account for a rising percentage of all HIV cases with husbands' risk behavior described as the major source of women's infection. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been described as being associated with heterosexual transmission of HIV to women in India and elsewhere. To assess the relationship between experiencing IPV and the occurrence of HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of married Indian women tested for HIV. The Indian National Family Health Survey 3 was conducted across all Indian states in 2005 through 2006. The nationally representative sample included 124,385 married women; analyses conducted in 2007 and 2008 were limited to 28,139 married women who provided IPV data and HIV test results via systematic selection into respective subsamples. Prevalence estimates of lifetime IPV and HIV infection were calculated and demographic differences assessed. Intimate partner violence was conceptualized as physical violence with or without sexual violence and then was further categorized as physical violence only vs physical and sexual violence. Regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HIV infection among Indian women based on experiences of IPV after adjusting for demographics and women's HIV risk behaviors. One-third of married Indian women (35.49%) reported experiencing physical IPV with or without sexual violence from their husbands; 7.68% reported both physical and sexual IPV, and 27.80% reported experiencing physical IPV in the absence of sexual violence. Approximately 1 in 450 women (0.22%) tested positive for HIV. In adjusted models, married Indian women experiencing both physical and sexual violence from husbands demonstrated elevated HIV infection prevalence vs those not experiencing IPV (0.73% vs 0.19%; adjusted OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.41-10.94; P = .01
Shim, Woochan S; Nelson-Becker, Holly
While literature on elder abuse has expanded, elder abuse by intimate partners has been less investigated. Even less is known about intimate partner violence among older Koreans living in North America. This article identifies important cultural considerations for individuals helping the Korean older adult community, beginning with the definition of intimate partner violence in this community and barriers to leaving that include traditional views of the East Asian self. Current practice interventions are discussed and recommendations for future practice such as healing han, the accumulated suffering from years of abuse, are suggested. The ultimate goal of this paper is to expand awareness in order to develop the best culturally competent prevention and intervention practice for Korean older intimate partner violence survivors in North America.
van Zutphen, L; Maier, S; Siep, N; Jacob, G A; Tüscher, O; van Elst, L Tebartz; Zeeck, A; Arntz, A; O'Connor, M-F; Stamm, H; Hudek, M; Joos, Andreas
BACKGROUND: Intimacy is a key psychological problem in anorexia nervosa (AN). Empirical evidence, including neurobiological underpinnings, is however, scarce. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated various emotional stimuli including intimate stimuli experienced in patients with AN and non-patients,
Rotmans, Joris I.; Velema, Evelyn; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Blankensteijn, Jan D.; de kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Pasterkamp, Gerard
Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases
Rotmans, J.I.; Velema, E.; Verhagen, H.J.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Kleijn, D.P. de; Stroes, E.S.; Pasterkamp, G.
BACKGROUND: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases
Rotmans, JI; Velema, E; Verhagen, HJM; Blankensteijn, JD; de Kleijn, DPV; Stroes, ESG; Pasterkamp, G
Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Morgan, Douglas; Peña, Rodolfo; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Valladares, Eliette
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder, which serves as a model for abdominal pain syndromes. An association between intimate partner violence and IBS has been shown among Caucasian women in the industrialized world. To determine whether this relationship transcends cultural boundaries, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Nicaragua, using the innovative Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the León province. Women who had experienced physical intimate partner violence had significantly increased risk of IBS (OR 2.08, 95% CI, 1.35, 3.21), as did those who had experienced sexual intimate partner violence (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.45, 5.59). These findings argue for intimate partner violence screening among Latina women with IBS. PMID:20558772
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Morgan, Douglas; Peña, Rodolfo; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F; Valladares, Eliette
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder, which serves as a model for abdominal pain syndromes. An association between intimate partner violence and IBS has been shown among White women in the industrialized world. To determine whether this relationship transcends cultural boundaries, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Nicaragua using the innovative Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the León province. Women who had experienced physical intimate partner violence had significantly increased risk of IBS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35, 3.21), as did those who had experienced sexual intimate partner violence (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.45, 5.59). These findings argue for intimate partner violence screening among Latina women with IBS.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma is a rare disease with no characteristic symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early and is frequently misdiagnosed as a pulmonary embolism. Case presentation Here we report a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma in a 54-year-old woman presenting with complaints of shortness of breath on exertion. Echocardiography and a computed tomography scan showed that the right pulmonary artery trunk was blocked by a low-density mass. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma by pathology and a complete mass resection was performed. After experiencing 10 months of disease-free survival, she was re-admitted because of the recurrence and metastasis of the tumor. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed; however, only limited success was achieved. The patient died 15 months after the initial onset of symptoms. Conclusion Some patients with intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery can benefit from radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as surgery.
Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean
Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.
... primary prevention of IPV must begin at an early age. CDC’s approach to primary prevention of IPV is the promotion of healthy ... primary prevention of IPV must begin at an early age. CDC’s approach to primary prevention of IPV is the promotion of healthy ...
Kovacs, Roxanne J
This study uses multi-level regression analysis to determine the impact of macro-level drivers on intimate partner violence (IPV). It argues that we need to look beyond the usual, individual-level risk factors in order to understand why women experience abuse at the hands of their intimate partners. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 40 developing countries, this paper demonstrates that socio-economic development, beliefs and laws play an important role in explaining IPV.
Al-Atrushi, Hazha H; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S
Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-s...
Fonseca-Machado, Mariana de Oliveira; Alves, Lisiane Camargo; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Stefanello, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Haas, Vanderlei José; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia
To identify the association of antenatal depressive symptoms with intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy in Brazilian women. Intimate partner violence is an important risk factor for antenatal depression. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no study to date that assessed the association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and antenatal depressive symptoms among Brazilian women. Cross-sectional study. Three hundred and fifty-eight pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and an adapted version of the instrument used in the World Health Organization Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence were used to measure antenatal depressive symptoms and psychological, physical and sexual acts of intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy respectively. Multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. The prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, as determined by the cut-off score of 12 in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, was 28·2% (101). Of the participants, 63 (17·6%) reported some type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Among them, 60 (95·2%) reported suffering psychological violence, 23 (36·5%) physical violence and one (1·6%) sexual violence. Multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression indicated that antenatal depressive symptoms are extremely associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Among Brazilian women, exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy increases the chances of experiencing antenatal depressive symptoms. Clinical nurses and nurses midwifes should pay attention to the particularities of Brazilian women, especially with regard to the occurrence of intimate partner violence, whose impacts on the mental health of this population are extremely significant, both during the gestational period and postpartum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adoles...
Chai, Jeanne; Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C
To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children's growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09-1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90-0.98). Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women's children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence.
Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya
Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study sought to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, ...
Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death. Although women of all ages may experience IPV, it is most prevalent among women of reproductive age and contributes to gynecologic disorders, pregnancy complications, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstetrician–gynecologists are in a unique position to assess and provide support for women who experience IPV because of the nature of the patient–physician relationship and the many opportunities for intervention that occur during the course of pregnancy, family planning, annual examinations, and other women’s health visits. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recommended that IPV screening and counseling should be a core part of women’s preventive health visits. Physicians should screen all women for IPV at periodic intervals, including during obstetric care (at the first prenatal visit, at least once per trimester, and at the postpartum checkup), offer ongoing support, and review available prevention and referral options. Resources are available in many communities to assist women who experience IPV.
Chambliss, Linda R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common occurrence in pregnancy and results in an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Homicide may be the most common cause of maternal death. Women who are pregnant and the victims of IPV have high rates of stress, are more likely to smoke or use other drugs, deliver a preterm or low birth weight infant, have an increase in infectious complications, and are less likely to obtain prenatal care. The IPV continues in the postpartum period. Adolescents may be at even higher risk than their adult counterparts. Children raised in violent homes have both immediate and life long adverse health outcomes as a result of their exposure to IPV. IPV adds substantially to healthcare costs both for direct services to treat the injuries and higher utilization of a wide range of healthcare services. Healthcare providers, particularly those who care for pregnant women, are in a unique position to identify these women and direct them and their families to the help they need to end the violence in their lives.
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Riger, Stephanie; Ullman, Sarah E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects people connected to survivors as well as survivors themselves. Despite this, we do not have measures assessing IPV's impact on others. The Impact on Friends measure was developed to understand the impact of disclosure of sexual assault (SA) on friends of survivors. In the present study, the Impact on Friends measure was modified to apply to IPV and administered to two separate online samples. Exploratory factor analysis in one sample (U.S.-based participants) revealed a very similar factor structure to the original Impact on Friends measure, consisting of Emotional Distress, Validation, and Confusion. This factor solution was then applied to the next sample (mostly Indian participants), resulting in an adequate model fit. The Impact on Friends-IPV measure has adequate reliability. One of its factors, Emotional Distress, is related to increased depression and post-traumatic distress disorder symptoms of friends, but only in the U.S. These findings suggest that even though the same dimensions have been found in both a U.S. and an Indian sample, how disclosure of IPV on friends relates to psychological symptoms may differ. This study suggest that there is at least some overlap in the experiences of friends of IPV and SA survivors, but that certain dimensions of the measure may have different relationships to other phenomena in different cultures. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.
Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216
Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.
Snyder, Briana L
Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories. Women with DID used coping strategies that were consistent with their diagnoses, such as switching and dissociating. These coping mechanisms reflect past self-preservation strategies that were developed in association with severe childhood maltreatment. Women with DID who experienced IPV sought to mitigate and safeguard themselves from danger using strategies they developed as maltreated children. Nurses can use these findings to better recognize and understand the motivations and behaviors of women with DID who experience IPV. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(5), 26-32.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Aliya R. Webermann
Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.
Ross, Jody M; Drouin, Michelle; Coupe, Amanda
We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.
Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan
Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jouriles, Ernest N; Brown, Alan S; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David; Leahy, Matthew M; Silver, Cheryl
This research examines whether parents' intimate partner physical violence (IPV) relates to their preschoolers' explicit memory functioning, whether children's symptoms of hyperarousal mediate this relation, and whether mothers' positive parenting moderates this relation. Participants were 69 mothers and their 4- or 5-year-old child (34 girls). Mothers completed measures of IPV, children's hyperarousal symptoms, parent-child aggression, and positive parenting. Measures of explicit memory functioning were administered to preschoolers. As expected, IPV correlated negatively with preschoolers' performance on explicit memory tasks, even after controlling for parent-child aggression and demographic variables related to preschoolers' memory functioning. Preschoolers' hyperarousal symptoms did not mediate the relation between IPV and explicit memory functioning, but mothers' positive parenting moderated this relation. Specifically, the negative relation between IPV and preschoolers' performance on 2 of the 3 explicit memory tasks was weaker when mothers engaged in higher levels of positive parenting. These findings extend research on IPV and children's adjustment difficulties to explicit memory functioning in preschoolers and suggest that mothers can ameliorate the influence of IPV on preschoolers' memory functioning via their parenting. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Yi Yang, M.D., Ph.D.
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a serious public health problem, impacting more than 12 million people in the United States each year. The only know effective health care intervention is routine screening for IPV exposure; however, this intervention has been poorly adopted. Expansion of screening efforts to the community pharmacy setting provides an opportunity to have a substantial impact on the health and well-being of pharmacy patients. However, little is known about pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to IPV.Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of community pharmacists’ current level of knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and intentions related to IPV and to IPV screening.Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was conducted. Surveys were distributed via email. Descriptive analyses of survey responses were conducted.Results: A total of 144 community pharmacists completed the survey. Results indicated most (67.4% had no IPV education/training. Participants were significantly more willing to conduct screening with targeted patients compared to all patients. (X2=129.62; df=36; p<0.0001. There was strong agreement with interest in and willingness to participate in continuing education.Conclusions: Most respondents indicated relatively low levels of IPV knowledge and training and very little current IPV screening activity. Continuing education on IPV should be considered for pharmacists to increase knowledge and awareness of IPV.
Full Text Available Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women’s economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. RESULTS: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56% were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%.For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 & 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. CONCLUSIONS: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M
This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.
Finkel, Eli J; DeWall, C Nathan; Slotter, Erica B; Oaten, Megan; Foshee, Vangie A
Five studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory failure is an important predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Study 1 participants were far more likely to experience a violent impulse during conflictual interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-regulatory processes help individuals refrain from perpetrating IPV when they experience a violent impulse. Study 2 participants high in dispositional self-control were less likely to perpetrate IPV, in both cross-sectional and residualized-lagged analyses, than were participants low in dispositional self-control. Study 3 participants verbalized more IPV-related cognitions if they responded immediately to partner provocations than if they responded after a 10-s delay. Study 4 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally depleted were more violent in response to partner provocation (but not when unprovoked) than were nondepleted participants. Finally, Study 5 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally bolstered via a 2-week training regimen exhibited less violent inclinations than did participants whose self-regulatory resources had not been bolstered. These findings hint at the power of incorporating self-regulation dynamics into predictive models of IPV perpetration. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
van der Wath, Annatjie; van Wyk, Neltjie; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie
To report a study of emergency nurses' experiences of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses have the opportunity to intervene during the period following exposure to intimate partner violence when survivors are most receptive for interventions. The confrontation with the trauma of intimate partner violence can, however, affect emergency nurses' ability to engage empathetically with survivors, which is fundamental to all interventions. The research was guided by the philosophical foundations of phenomenology as founded by Husserl. A descriptive phenomenological inquiry grounded in Husserlian philosophy was used. The phenomenological reductions were applied throughout data collection and analysis. During 2010, concrete descriptions were obtained from interviewing 11 nurses working in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. To arrive at a description of the essence, the data were analysed by searching for the meaning given to the experience of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses in South Africa are often witnesses of the emotional and physical effects of intimate partner violence. Exposure to the vulnerability and suffering of survivors elicits sympathy and emotional distress. Emergency nurses are left with the emotional impact and disruptive and recurrent memories. Exploring the tacit internal experiences related to caring for survivors of intimate partner violence revealed emergency nurses' vulnerability to the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The findings generated an opportunity to develop guidelines through which to support and empower emergency nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.