WorldWideScience

Sample records for promoter regulatory roles

  1. France's Efforts to Promote NPP Exports and the Implications on the Role of Nuclear Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chae-Woon; Chang, Hyun-Sop; Choi, Young-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The global society facing sky-rocketing oil prices, global warming effects, and increased demand for electricity recognizes the comparative advantages of nuclear energy in terms of environmental impact and economic efficiency over the other energy sources of current use. Approximately 300 nuclear power plants (NPPs) expect to be constructed until 2030 worldwide. Accordingly, the global market size of nuclear power industry becomes scaled up to the extent of U$75 billion on the assumption that the construction of one reactor costs around U$2.5 billion. The nations in possession of advanced nuclear technology such as the U.S., France, Japan, etc not only recognized an abounding profitability in nuclear industry and anticipated nuclear renaissance but also prepared long before whatever necessary to expand their nuclear programs beyond their domestic boundaries. Amongst those nations, it seems to be France that has unfolded a remarkable array of government-led activities to export Evolutionary Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) under the cooperation of President, relevant government administration, utilities even a regulatory body. The omni-directional activities of France and its implications are presented in this paper

  2. Regulatory Promotion of Emergent CCS Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Lincoln; Uchitel, Kirsten; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing inevitability of climate change and the attendant need for mitigation strategies, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has yet to gain much traction in the United States. Recent regulatory proposals by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), limited in scope to new-build power plants, represent the only significant policy initiative intended to mandate diffusion of CCS technology. Phase I of this Project assessed barriers to CCS deployment as prioritized by the CCS community. That research concluded that there were four primary barriers: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. Phase II of this Project, as presented in this Report, assesses potential regulatory models for CCS and examines where those models address the hurdles to diffusing CCS technology identified in Phase I. It concludes (1) that a CCS-specific but flexible standard, such as a technology performance standard or a very particular type of market-based regulation, likely will promote CCS diffusion, and (2) that these policies cannot work alone, but rather, should be combined with other measures, such as liability limits and a comprehensive CCS regulatory regime.

  3. A minimal murine Msx-1 gene promoter. Organization of its cis-regulatory motifs and their role in transcriptional activation in cells in culture and in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Shetty, S; Matsui, H; Raghow, R

    1997-09-05

    To dissect the cis-regulatory elements of the murine Msx-1 promoter, which lacks a conventional TATA element, a putative Msx-1 promoter DNA fragment (from -1282 to +106 base pairs (bp)) or its congeners containing site-specific alterations were fused to luciferase reporter and introduced into NIH3T3 and C2C12 cells, and the expression of luciferase was assessed in transient expression assays. The functional consequences of the sequential 5' deletions of the promotor revealed that multiple positive and negative regulatory elements participate in regulating transcription of the Msx-1 gene. Surprisingly, however, the optimal expression of Msx-1 promoter in either NIH3T3 or C2C12 cells required only 165 bp of the upstream sequence to warrant detailed examination of its structure. Therefore, the functional consequences of site-specific deletions and point mutations of the cis-acting elements of the minimal Msx-1 promoter were systematically examined. Concomitantly, potential transcriptional factor(s) interacting with the cis-acting elements of the minimal promoter were also studied by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. Combined analyses of the minimal promoter by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and super shift assays with specific antibodies revealed that 5'-flanking regions from -161 to -154 and from -26 to -13 of the Msx-1 promoter contains an authentic E box (proximal E box), capable of binding a protein immunologically related to the upstream stimulating factor 1 (USF-1) and a GC-rich sequence motif which can bind to Sp1 (proximal Sp1), respectively. Additionally, we observed that the promoter activation was seriously hampered if the proximal E box was removed or mutated, and the promoter activity was eliminated completely if the proximal Sp1 site was similarly altered. Absolute dependence of the Msx-1 minimal promoter on Sp1 could be demonstrated by transient expression assays in the Sp1-deficient

  4. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... as such in the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions, on RegInfo.gov , and on... engage in various forms of collaboration and communication with respect to regulations, in particular a...

  5. Role of regulatory body related to siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.

    1981-11-01

    The role of a regulatory body, the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada, in the siting process is discussed. A description of the Board's legal structure and safety criteria is followed by an example of the implementation of these criteria in relation to the siting of the Darlington nuclear power plant, with particular reference to external hazards such as tornadoes, earthquakes and explosions

  6. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti [KINS-KAIST Master Degree Program, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  7. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  8. The regulatory roles of B cell subsets in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhulang; Zou, Weilong; Xu, Yanan; Sun, Qiquan; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-01

    B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation. B cell subsets with immune modulation and factors mediating immunosuppressive functions of regulatory B (Breg) cells were analyzed. Therapies targeting B cells and the application of B cells for transplant tolerance induction were discussed. Expert commentary: Besides involving rejection, B cells could also play regulatory roles in transplantation. Breg cells and the related markers may be used to predict the immune tolerant state in transplant recipients. New therapeutic strategies targeting B cells should be explored to promote tolerance induction with less impact on the host's protective immunity in organ transplanted patients.

  9. Promoting and assessment of safety culture within regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, D.; Koley, J.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulators have an important role to play in assisting organizations under their jurisdiction to develop positive safety cultures. It is therefore essential for the regulator to have a robust safety culture as an inherent strategy and communication of this strategy to the organizations it supervises. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) emphasizes every utility to institute a good safety culture during various stages of a NPP. The regulatory requirement for establishing organisational safety culture within utility at different stages are delineated in the various AERB safety codes which are presented in the paper. Although the review and assessment of the safety culture is a part of AERB’s continual safety supervision through existing review mechanism, AERB do not use any specific indicators for safety culture assessment. However, establishing and nurturing a good safety culture within AERB helps in encouraging the utility to institute the same. At the induction level AERB provides training to its staffs for regulatory orientation which include a specific course on safety culture. Subsequently, the junior staffs are mentored by seniors while involving them in various regulatory processes and putting them as observers during regulatory decision making process. Further, AERB established a formal procedure for assessing and improving safety culture within its staff as a management system process. The paper describes as a case study the above safety culture assessment process established within AERB

  10. Andrographolide Ameliorate Rheumatoid Arthritis by Promoting the Development of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaimin Rifa’i

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is important material present in Andrographis paniculata. This material can promote T cell to develop into regulatory T cell, CD4+CD25+. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells, a component of the innate immune response, which play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, have become the focus of numerous studies over the last decade. These cells have the potential to be exploited to treat autoimmune disease. These cells inhibit the immune response in an Ag-nonspecific manner, interacting with other T cells. These T cell populations actively control the properties of other immune cells by suppressing their functional activity to prevent autoimmunity but also influence the immune response to allergens as well as against tumor cells and pathogens. In this experiment we showed that active compound from Andrographis paniculata namely andrographolide can induce active regulatory T cell that has an efficacy to cure rheumatoid arthritis mice model.

  11. Regulatory focus and the family-work interface : the role of regulatory fit between cohabiting partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Tetrick, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of regulatory focus in goal pursuit and regulatory fit between marital partners on family conditions and the family–work interface. We hypothesized that when both partners are high on promotion focus (fit) they experience higher developmental

  12. The Role of Advisory Committees on Regulatory functions: Argentine Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, A. M.; Arias, C.; Kunst, J. J.; Perez, R. M.; Rudelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) has appointed a consultants body that advises its Board of Directors on aspects related to authorization's granting to individuals for the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in medicine, research and industry. Such committee, whose existence goes back to the year 1958, is integrated by prominent professionals knowledgeable about ionizing radiation and radioisotopes applications in the medical, biomedical and industrial fields, representing important professional associations or institutions related to the practices in question. Originally, the committee was conceived as a consultation body to fulfil two important functions: To produce, in a regular way, authorized opinions at experts level to settle down questions relative to the regulation of practices, new at that time in the country, and To submit to a peer review applications for individual authorization for different uses of ionizing radiation previously it's granting by the Regulatory Authority. In this paper the role of the advisory council is analyzed from a historical perspective trying to emphasize an outstanding aspect not sufficiently analyzed linked to the capability that advisory bodies, with representative users' presence, can reach in the interpretation of regulatory standards based on a performance philosophy. Such approach outlines the permanent dilemma about the performance level of the licensee that should satisfy the Regulatory Authority. Once the broad objectives of radiation protection has been defined professional criteria is required for applying them to different practices. Balance between flexibility and avoidance of excessive uncertainty is desirable. In the authors' opinion the inclusion, inside the regulator's structure of consultants bodies giving direct participation to qualified stakeholders, far from harming the necessary independence that should characterize the regulator, on the contrary, allows to have an excellent social

  13. Role of cooperation activities for capacity building of Romanian Regulatory Authority (CNCAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.; Ciurea-Ercau, C.

    2010-01-01

    With a slow but active nuclear development program of sector since 1980, Romanian regulatory authority had to permanently adapt to the changes in national and international environment in order ensure continuously increase of capacity building and effectiveness, commensurate with the growing nuclear sector. Limited human resources available at the national level put the Romanian Regulatory Authority in the position of building the Technical Support Organization as part of its on organization. International cooperation played an important role in capacity building of Romanian regulatory body and providing necessary assistance in performing regulatory activities or support in development of regulatory framework. Fellowships and technical visits, workshops and training courses provided through IAEA TC at national or regional level, technical assistance provided by European Commission (EC) through PHARE Projects, all provided valuable contribution in assuring training of regulatory staff and development of proper regulatory framework in Romania. Therefore, Romanian Regulatory Authority is putting a strong accent on strengthening and promoting international cooperation through IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme, Molls between regulatory bodies, as one of the key elements in supporting capacity building of regulatory authorities in countries having small or embarking on nuclear power program. Building networks between training centers and research facilities and establishments of regional training centers represent one of the future viable options in preserving knowledge in nuclear field. (author)

  14. The Signalling Role of Promotion in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Kazuaki

    2011-01-01

    Under asymmetric information conditions regarding worker productivity between current and prospective employers, a worker's promotion signals his/her productivity. In this Paper, we tested the signalling role of promotion, using Japanese micro-level data. We found that among lower-level positions, promotion seems to signal a worker's ability, and both the business cycle and foreign-capital ratio of his/her company significantly strengthen this effects. These results suggest that external labo...

  15. The Role of Regulatory and Customary Institutions to Access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... The findings of the study show a somewhat 'pessimistic' picture to shed light on the hitherto neglected role of informal institutions to support the ... Key words: Rural youth, Access to land, Customary/regulatory institutions,

  16. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  17. Characterization of a putative cis-regulatory element that controls transcriptional activity of the pig uroplakin II gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Mi-Ryung; Park, Jong-Yi; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Oh, Jae-Wook; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sequences of -604 to -84 bp of the pUPII promoter contained the region of a putative negative cis-regulatory element. → The core promoter was located in the 5F-1. → Transcription factor HNF4 can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. → These features of the pUPII promoter are fundamental to development of a target-specific vector. -- Abstract: Uroplakin II (UPII) is a one of the integral membrane proteins synthesized as a major differentiation product of mammalian urothelium. UPII gene expression is bladder specific and differentiation dependent, but little is known about its transcription response elements and molecular mechanism. To identify the cis-regulatory elements in the pig UPII (pUPII) gene promoter region, we constructed pUPII 5' upstream region deletion mutants and demonstrated that each of the deletion mutants participates in controlling the expression of the pUPII gene in human bladder carcinoma RT4 cells. We also identified a new core promoter region and putative negative cis-regulatory element within a minimal promoter region. In addition, we showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) can directly bind in the pUPII core promoter (5F-1) region, which plays a critical role in controlling promoter activity. Transient cotransfection experiments showed that HNF4 positively regulates pUPII gene promoter activity. Thus, the binding element and its binding protein, HNF4 transcription factor, may be involved in the mechanism that specifically regulates pUPII gene transcription.

  18. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... beneficial job creation, economic growth, and competitiveness, working closely with public and private sector... regulatory differences, and unnecessary red tape while respecting each other's right to protect public health... jurisdictions that may be impeding deeper regulatory compatibility in the sector--for example, differences with...

  19. Competitive mindsets, creativity, and the role of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Heidemeier, Heike

    2013-01-01

    We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a

  20. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Regulatory Role of Circular RNAs and Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Gabriele; Zhang, Longbin; Follesa, Paolo; Sun, Tao

    2017-09-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs that are characterized by the presence of covalently linked ends and have been found in all life kingdoms. Exciting studies in regulatory roles of circRNAs are emerging. Here, we summarize classification, characteristics, biogenesis, and regulatory functions of circRNAs. CircRNAs are found to be preferentially expressed along neural genes and in neural tissues. We thus highlight the association of circRNA dysregulation with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Investigation of regulatory role of circRNAs will shed novel light in gene expression mechanisms during development and under disease conditions and may identify circRNAs as new biomarkers for aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Minocycline promotes the generation of dendritic cells with regulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Narae; Park, Chan-Su; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lee, Jae-Hee; Park, Young-Jun; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2016-08-16

    Minocycline, which has long been used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, also exhibits non-antibiotic properties such as inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis. In this study, we show that minocycline significantly enhances the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells when used together with GM-CSF and IL-4. DCs generated from BM cells in the presence of minocycline (Mino-DCs) demonstrate the characteristics of regulatory DCs. Compared with control DCs, Mino-DCs are resistant to subsequent maturation stimuli, impaired in MHC class II-restricted exogenous Ag presentation, and show decreased cytokine secretion. Mino-DCs also show decreased ability to prime allogeneic-specific T cells, while increasing the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, pretreatment with MOG35-55 peptide-pulsed Mino-DCs ameliorates clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalitis induced by MOG peptide injection. Our study identifies minocycline as a new pharmacological agent that could be potentially used to increase the production of regulatory DCs for cell therapy to treat autoimmune disorders, allergy, and transplant rejection.

  3. legal and regulatory framework for promoting appropriate music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    the roles of law in regulating the contemporary music industry in Nigeria to ensure ..... of certain types of music guarantees their financial returns while other kinds of music .... The Act also enjoins a police officer or an officer of the Board who is ... Censorship Board & 3 Ors – FHC, Kano; Chibuzor Obiajunwa v Chief Sunny.

  4. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  5. The role of learning environment on high school chemistry students' motivation and self-regulatory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings

  6. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Daniel; Schindler, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M) that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS). In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs), and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  7. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meier

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS. In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs, and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  8. 77 FR 29001 - Medicare and Medicaid Program; Regulatory Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal..., Transparency, and Burden Reduction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final... on providers of care. CMS has also identified non-regulatory changes to increase transparency and to...

  9. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  10. Trichostatin A Promotes the Generation and Suppressive Functions of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Doñas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells are a specific subset of lymphocytes that suppress immune responses and play a crucial role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. They can be generated in the thymus as well as in the periphery through differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells. The forkhead box P3 transcription factor (Foxp3 is a crucial molecule regulating the generation and function of Tregs. Here we show that the foxp3 gene promoter becomes hyperacetylated in in vitro differentiated Tregs compared to naïve CD4+ T cells. We also show that the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA stimulated the in vitro differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Tregs and that this induction was accompanied by a global increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, we also demonstrated that Tregs generated in the presence of TSA have phenotypical and functional differences from the Tregs generated in the absence of TSA. Thus, TSA-generated Tregs showed increased suppressive activities, which could potentially be explained by a mechanism involving the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73. Our data show that TSA could potentially be used to enhance the differentiation and suppressive function of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells.

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its role in environmental standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The NRC and its predecessors in the Atomic Energy Commission represent considerable experience in environmental standards setting. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the 1970 Supreme Court decision on Federal pre-emption of radiation standards, the Calvert Cliffs decision of 1971, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and the Appendix I ''as low as reasonably achievable'' decision of 1975, to name a few of our landmarks, are representative of the scars and the achievements of being in a role of national leadership in radiation protection. The NRC, through a variety of legislative authorities, administrative regulations, regulatory guides, and national consensus standards regulates the commercial applications of nuclear energy. The purposes of regulation are the protection of the environment, public health and safety, and national security. To understand NRC's responsibilities relative to those of other Federal and state agencies concerned with environmental protection, we will briefly review the legislative authorities which underlie our regulatory program. Then we will examine the intent or the spirit of that program as embodied in our system of regulations, guides, and standards. Finally we will speak to what's happening today and what we see in the future for environmental standards

  12. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to cer...

  13. Institutions, regulatory role and economic growth of national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vedriš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present time, characterized by the rapid disturbances in all time more connected global economy, territorially as well as structurally, the role of the state’s influence and responsibility with the adequate institutional addresses and procedures, defined in larger context, becomes the essential point not only of the further growth but also of the existing relations viability. It is simply because the encirclement does not function on the principle of status quo situation any more. Therefore, the role and significance of institutions, adequate regulatory role of these addresses, in the context of demand of permanent and stable economic growth, are of particular interest in the creation of this model. This analysis gains in importance studying the realized accelerated economic growth of states from some parts of the world, notably in the period after WW II. This question turned out to be exceptionally essential during the analysis of national strategies of accelerated economic growth (catch up strategy. On the other side of analysis are the transition period and the processes realized on the territory of the East and Central European states up to 1990 that were under the strong influence of the USSR. The attempts and mistakes in the quest for adequate balance of the market role were initially indoctrinated and led by the predominant conviction that the principles of Washington consensus will lead up to accelerated and efficient change of the entire structure of national economies and new frames for future behaviour. The problems that appeared very soon led to the establishment of significantly more balanced first the understanding and then to establishing significantly, more appropriate concept of balance and complementarity of market development with the permanently present role and responsibility of the state in this process and on this road.

  14. Hope and self-regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  15. Hope and self regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.; Astregaard, S.; Dwight, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  16. Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    cis-Acting regulatory elements are important molecular switches involved in the transcriptional regulation of a dynamic network of gene activities controlling various biological processes, including abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and developmental processes. In particular, understanding regulatory gene networks in stress response cascades depends on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. The ever-improving accuracy of transcriptome expression profiling has led to the identification of various combinations of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes involved in stress and hormone responses. Here we discuss major cis-acting elements, such as the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and the dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat (DRE/CRT), that are a vital part of ABA-dependent and ABA-independent gene expression in osmotic and cold stress responses.

  17. The role of effective communications in Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsil, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Communications are essential to the licensing and general regulatory program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper attempts to identify and address certain aspects of, and approaches to, maintaining effective and efficient communications. It considers, from the perspective of the high-level radioactive waste repository program, both internal communication within the DOE itself and external communication with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and interested parties. Many of the points presented are based on lessons learned from electric utility experience with nuclear plants

  18. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  19. [Regulatory role of NKT cells in the prevention of type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Liana; Simoni, Yannick; Pingris, Karine; Beaudoin, Lucie; Lehuen, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of pancreatic β cells by the immune system. NKT cells are innate-like T cells that can exert potent immuno-regulatory functions. The regulatory role of NKT cells was initially proposed after the observed decreased frequency of this subset in mouse models of type 1 diabetes, as well as in patients developing various autoimmune pathologies. Increasing NKT cell frequency and function prevent the development of type 1 diabetes in mouse models. Several mechanisms including IL-4 and IL-10 production by NKT cells and the accumulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells are critical for the dampening of pathogenic anti-islet T cell responses by NKT cells. Importantly, these cells can at the same time prevent diabetes and promote efficient immune responses against infectious agents. These results strengthen the potential role of NKT cells as a key target for the development of therapeutic strategies against type 1 diabetes. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. Promoting success or preventing failure: cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope; Marshall, Tara C; Sadler, Pamela

    2005-03-01

    In two studies, cross-cultural differences in reactions to positive and negative role models were examined. The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures, who have a stronger promotion focus, would be most motivated by positive role models, who highlight a strategy of pursuing success. In Study 1, the authors examined participants' reported preferences for positive and negative role models. Asian Canadian participants reported finding negative models more motivating than did European Canadians; self-construals and regulatory focus mediated cultural differences in reactions to role models. In Study 2, the authors examined the impact of role models on the academic motivation of Asian Canadian and European Canadian participants. Asian Canadians were motivated only by a negative model, and European Canadians were motivated only by a positive model.

  1. The Tumorigenic Roles of the Cellular REDOX Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Anaís Castaldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, survival, and proliferation. To date, a substantial amount of data has demonstrated that cancer cells typically undergo increasing oxidative stress as the tumor develops, upregulating these important antioxidant systems in order to survive, proliferate, and metastasize under these extreme oxidative stress conditions. Since a large number of chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic rely on the induction of ROS overload or change of ROS quality to kill the tumor, the cancer cell REDOX adaptation represents a significant obstacle to conventional chemotherapy. In this review we will first examine the different factors that contribute to the enhanced oxidative stress generally observed within the tumor microenvironment. We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that have been shown to be positively associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. Finally we will make an analysis of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ROS. The current knowledge of cancer cell REDOX adaptation raises the issue of developing novel and more effective therapies for these tumors that are usually resistant to conventional ROS inducing chemotherapy.

  2. The pharmacist's role in promoting preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Raney, Erin C; Moos, Merry-K

    2014-01-01

    To review the pharmacist's role in preconception health. PubMed search using the terms preconception, immunizations, epilepsy, diabetes, depression, tobacco, asthma, hypertension, anticoagulation, pharmacist, pregnancy, and current national guidelines. Preconception health has become recognized as an important public health focus to improve pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacists have a unique role as accessible health care providers to optimize preconception health by screening women for tobacco use, appropriate immunizations, and current medication use. Counseling patients on preconception risk factors and adequate folic acid supplementation as well as providing recommendations for safe and effective management of chronic conditions are also critical and within the scope of practice for pharmacists. Pharmacists play an important role in medication screening, chronic disease state management, and preconception planning to aid women in preparing for healthy pregnancies.

  3. The role of formative feedback in promoting higher order thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of formative feedback in promoting higher order thinking skills in ... activities, task characteristics, validating students' thinking, and providing feedback. ... Keywords: classroom environment, formative assessment, formative feedback, ...

  4. Regulatory focus at work : the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Demerouti, E.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e.

  5. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  6. Ethics Centers' Activities and Role in Promoting Ethics in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania

    2017-01-01

    In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…

  7. Benzimidazoles Promote Anti-TNF Mediated Induction of Regulatory Macrophages and Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy in a Murine Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenberg, Manon E.; Levin, Alon D.; Ceroni, Alessandro; Guo, Zhen; Koelink, Pim J.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Westera, Liset; Bloemendaal, Felicia M.; Brandse, Johannan F.; Simmons, Alison; D'Haens, Geert R.; Ebner, Daniel; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Regulatory macrophages play a critical role in tissue repair, and we have previously shown that anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] antibodies induce these macrophages in vitro and in vivo in IBD patients. The induction of regulatory macrophages can be potentiated using the

  8. Causality analysis detects the regulatory role of maternal effect genes in the early Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Ghodsi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developmental studies, inferring regulatory interactions of segmentation genetic network play a vital role in unveiling the mechanism of pattern formation. As such, there exists an opportune demand for theoretical developments and new mathematical models which can result in a more accurate illustration of this genetic network. Accordingly, this paper seeks to extract the meaningful regulatory role of the maternal effect genes using a variety of causality detection techniques and to explore whether these methods can suggest a new analytical view to the gene regulatory networks. We evaluate the use of three different powerful and widely-used models representing time and frequency domain Granger causality and convergent cross mapping technique with the results being thoroughly evaluated for statistical significance. Our findings show that the regulatory role of maternal effect genes is detectable in different time classes and thereby the method is applicable to infer the possible regulatory interactions present among the other genes of this network.

  9. The intrinsic roles of regulatory instruments in mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola O. Odeku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting and exploiting natural mineral resources for economic growth and development could be beneficial if done in sustainable ways and manners. However, if the operation is done in such a way that cause harm to the environment and people, this will amount to unsustainable mining activity and anti-sustainable development. Therefore, there is need to ensure that appropriate and adequate plans and programmes are put in place in order to mitigate, minimise and avoid negative environmental impacts. Against the backdrop of these concerns and the need to ensure that the environment is not degraded and destroyed, South Africa, as part of the countries that promotes sustainable prospecting and mining has put in place and currently implementing tools known as environmental management plan and programme to regulate and control all prospecting and mining activities. These tools contain a bundle of remedial actions in the forms of compensation, rehabilitation and restoration of any harm done to the environment during the course of mining activities. They also contain information on mitigation, ingredients for good practice approach on how to conduct sustainable prospecting and mining. This article looks at the intrinsic roles of these tools and accentuates the importance and operations of their use in the decision making processe

  10. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Bob [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  11. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Bob

    1989-01-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  12. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response...

  13. Interpersonal goal support in achieving ideals and oughts: The role of dispositional regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present work examines the role of each partner's regulatory focus in the phenomenon of interpersonal goal support in close relationships. We examined the impact of regulatory orientation for interpersonal support of both ideal and ought self goals. Consistent with expectations, two studies

  14. Adolescent threat-related interpretive bias and its modification: the moderating role of regulatory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Dual process models describe psychopathology as the consequence of an imbalance between a fast, impulsive system and a regulatory control system and have recently been applied to anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to specifically examine the role of a regulatory control system in

  15. Sales Growth of New Pharmaceuticals Across the Globe: The Role of Regulatory Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); A. Lemmens (Aurélie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrior marketing literature has overlooked the role of regulatory regimes in explaining international sales growth of new products. This paper addresses this gap in the context of new pharmaceuticals (15 new molecules in 34 countries) and sheds light on the effect regulatory regimes have

  16. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN RESTAURANT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.

  17. The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A Y; Aaker, J L; Gardner, W L

    2000-06-01

    Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between self-regulatory processes that focus on promotion and prevention strategies for goal pursuit. Five studies provide support for the hypothesis that these strategies differ for individuals with distinct self-construals. Specifically, individuals with a dominant independent self-construal were predicted to place more emphasis on promotion-focused information, and those with a dominant interdependent self-construal on prevention-focused information. Support for this hypothesis was obtained for participants who scored high versus low on the Self-Construal Scale, participants who were presented with an independent versus interdependent situation, and participants from a Western versus Eastern culture. The influence of interdependence on regulatory focus was observed in both importance ratings of information and affective responses consistent with promotion or prevention focus.

  18. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  19. Oncogenic MYC Activates a Feedforward Regulatory Loop Promoting Essential Amino Acid Metabolism and Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Jiang, Jue; Gao, Peng; Liu, Hudan; Qing, Guoliang

    2017-12-26

    Most tumor cells exhibit obligatory demands for essential amino acids (EAAs), but the regulatory mechanisms whereby tumor cells take up EAAs and EAAs promote malignant transformation remain to be determined. Here, we show that oncogenic MYC, solute carrier family (SLC) 7 member 5 (SLC7A5), and SLC43A1 constitute a feedforward activation loop to promote EAA transport and tumorigenesis. MYC selectively activates Slc7a5 and Slc43a1 transcription through direct binding to specific E box elements within both genes, enabling effective EAA import. Elevated EAAs, in turn, stimulate Myc mRNA translation, in part through attenuation of the GCN2-eIF2α-ATF4 amino acid stress response pathway, leading to MYC-dependent transcriptional amplification. SLC7A5/SLC43A1 depletion inhibits MYC expression, metabolic reprogramming, and tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings thus reveal a MYC-SLC7A5/SLC43A1 signaling circuit that underlies EAA metabolism, MYC deregulation, and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA-binding site of major regulatory protein alpha 4 specifically associated with promoter-regulatory domains of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristie, T M; Roizman, B

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 genes form at least five groups (alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, and gamma 2) whose expression is coordinately regulated and sequentially ordered in a cascade fashion. Previous studies have shown that functional alpha 4 gene product is essential for the transition from alpha to beta protein synthesis and have suggested that alpha 4 gene expression is autoregulatory. We have previously reported that labeled DNA fragments containing promoter-regulatory domains of thr...

  1. The role of the regulator in promoting and evaluating safety culture. Operating experience feedback programme approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture (S.C.) in Operating Organizations must be one of the main Nuclear Regulator goals to achieve. This can be possible only if each and every one of the regulatory activities inherently involves S.C. It can be seen throughout attitudes, values, uses and practices in both individuals and the whole regulatory organization. One among all the regulatory tools commonly used by regulators to promote and evaluate the commitment of the licensees with safety culture as a whole involves organizational factors and particular attention is directed to the operating organization. This entailed a wide range of activities, including all those related with management of safety performance. Operating Experience Feedback Programme as a tool to enhance safety operation is particularly useful for regulators in the evaluation of the role of S.C. in operating organization. Safety Culture is recognized as a subset of the wider Organizational Culture. Practices that improve organizational effectiveness can also contribute to enhance safety. An effective event investigation methodology is a specific practice, which contributes to a healthy Safety Culture. (author)

  2. Promoting Regulatory Reform: The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) for Nursing and Midwifery Year 4 Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Maureen A; Spangler, Sydney A; Tison, Laura I; Johnson, Carla M; Callahan, Tegan L; Iliffe, Jill; Hepburn, Kenneth W; Gross, Jessica M

    2017-10-01

    As countries across sub-Saharan Africa work towards universal health coverage and HIV epidemic control, investments seek to bolster the quality and relevance of the health workforce. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) partnered with 17 countries across East, Central, and Southern Africa to ensure nurses and midwives were authorized and equipped to provide essential HIV services to pregnant women and children with HIV. Through ARC, nursing leadership teams representing each country identify a priority regulatory function and develop a proposal to strengthen that regulation over a 1-year period. Each year culminates with a summative congress meeting, involving all ARC countries, where teams present their projects and share lessons learned with their colleagues. During a recent ARC Summative Congress, a group survey was administered to 11 country teams that received ARC Year 4 grants to measure advancements in regulatory function using the five-stage Regulatory Function Framework, and a group questionnaire was administered to 16 country teams to measure improvements in national nursing capacity (February 2011-2016). In ARC Year 4, eight countries implemented continuing professional development projects, Botswana revised their scope of practice, Mozambique piloted a licensing examination to assess HIV-related competencies, and South Africa developed accreditation standards for HIV/tuberculosis specialty nurses. Countries reported improvements in national nursing leaders' teamwork, collaborations with national organizations, regional networking with nursing leaders, and the ability to garner additional resources. ARC provides an effective, collaborative model to rapidly strengthen national regulatory frameworks, which other health professional cadres or regions may consider using to ensure a relevant health workforce, authorized and equipped to meet the emerging demand for health services.

  3. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Promoting Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper unveils the unique role played by ODL in promoting professional training and development in Tanzania. ODL is significantly increasing in its importance in most societies if not all; this is justified by the increasing in enrolment in ODL institutions. In order to cope with the demanding world, individuals need to ...

  4. Role of educational media in promoting Information Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This expository paper examines the role of educational media in promoting. Information Communication Technology in Nigerian Universities. It takes a critical look at some empirical studies on students' academic performance after utilizing educational media. The paper also discusses trends in educational media and ...

  5. Reflections on the role of the pharmacy regulatory authority in enhancing quality related event reporting in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality-related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice. This study was aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies, and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (Deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven Deputy registrars/Practice managers, and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may help to mitigate this conflict

  6. REFLECTIONS ON THE ROLE OF THE PHARMACY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN ENHANCING QUALITY RELATED EVENT REPORTING IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIESi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea C.; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice Objective This study aims to better understand the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. Methods A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven deputy registrars/practice managers and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Conclusions Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may

  7. The role of T regulatory cells in kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) belong to the CD4+ cell group. They are an essential part of the immunity system. Treg cells prevent from excessive activation of effector T cells and they keep the tolerance to the tissues of the body. They have high expression of CD25 and the transcription factor Foxp3. We distinguish two basic populations of Treg cells: natural Treg cells (nTreg) created in the thym and representing 5-10 % of all CD4+ cells, and induced Treg cells (iTreg), created from naive...

  8. Malaysian aviation technologist promotion to managerial role: an empirical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, C. L.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Jacobs, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    The Malaysian aviation industry has continued to march forward. With a turnover of RM23.7 billion in 2013, it is expected to grow higher especially after the Malaysian national aerospace blueprint was launched in 2015. The aviation related organizations currently have a workforce of approximately 13500. These organizations need to be managed by competent managers who have a strong background of technologist. Aviation technologist is one of the key components in the aviation maintenance industry as they are the future managers charged with the responsibility to ensure continuation of the organization's objectives and culture. The technologist role and manager's role are somehow different. The promotion of technologist to managerial roles is quite common but whether the technologist is able to take up managerial role effectively is yet to be fully understood. It is quite common that there was insufficient training for the technologist before being promoted to take up management roles. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of technologists and managers in professional services industries such as MRO and to understand that there is a need within the industry to re-look into the perspective of a proper training to prepare them to take up management roles effectively.

  9. Threat ≠ prevention, challenge ≠ promotion: the impact of threat, challenge and regulatory focus on attention to negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenberg, Kai; Sassenrath, Claudia; Fetterman, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to distinguish between the impact of strategic and affective forms of gain- and loss-related motivational states on the attention to negative stimuli. On the basis of the counter-regulation principle and regulatory focus theory, we predicted that individuals would attend more to negative than to neutral stimuli in a prevention focus and when experiencing challenge, but not in a promotion focus and under threat. In one experiment (N = 88) promotion, prevention, threat, or challenge states were activated through a memory task, and a subsequent dot probe task was administered. As predicted, those in the prevention focus and challenge conditions had an attentional bias towards negative words, but those in promotion and threat conditions did not. These findings provide support for the idea that strategic mindsets (e.g., regulatory focus) and hot emotional states (e.g., threat vs. challenge) differently affect the processing of affective stimuli.

  10. Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Chen, Yung-Yi; Muthana, Munitta; Welford, Abigail F; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Murdoch, Craig; De Palma, Michele; Lewis, Claire E

    2011-04-01

    Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments the expression of various proangiogenic genes, the potent immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and a chemokine for regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCL17 by TEMs in vitro. We now show that TEMs also express higher levels of IL-10 than TIE2(-) macrophages in tumors and that ANGPT2-stimulated release of IL-10 by TEMs suppresses T cell proliferation, increases the ratio of CD4(+) T cells to CD8(+) T cells, and promotes the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, syngeneic murine tumors expressing high levels of ANGPT2 contained not only high numbers of TEMs but also increased numbers of Tregs, whereas genetic depletion of tumor TEMs resulted in a marked reduction in the frequency of Tregs in tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that ANGPT2-stimulated TEMs represent a novel, potent immunosuppressive force in tumors.

  11. Role of the Regulatory Body in Implementing Defence in Depth in Nuclear Installations - Regulatory Oversight in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, B. M., E-mail: badawymel@yahoo.com [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are operated at all times in an acceptably safe manner including the safe conduct of decommissioning activities. Defence in depth is recognized as one of the fundamental safety principles that underlie the safety of nuclear power plants. Defence in depth is implemented to provide a graded protection against a wide variety of transients, incidents and accidents, including equipment failures and human errors within nuclear power plants and events initiated outside plants. The Regulator Body plays an important role in implementing defence in depth in nuclear installations in the context of a clear allocation of responsibilities with an operating organization. This role starting with setting safety objectives and by its own independent review and technical assessment of the safety justifications provided by the operating organization in addition to safety culture investigating within relevant organizations. This paper briefly reviews this role in normal operation and post accidents, and its effects on overall nuclear safety in nuclear installations with reference to Egyptian regulatory oversight. (author)

  12. The role of women in nuclear - attracting public participation in regulatory decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Jais, Azlina; Hassan, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Public participation is vital in demonstrating transparency and enhancing effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory process. As such, it is necessary for nuclear practitioners to involve the public in key nuclear delivery milestones. This paper specifically discusses challenges faced in attracting public participation throughout the nuclear regulatory decision-making process, and highlights the roles of women in nuclear (WiN) in initiating the said public discourse.

  13. The role of risk assessment in the nuclear regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study in the USA, the basic tasks of which are summarised, the use of quantitative risk-assessment techniques for the safety of nuclear power plants has increased considerably. Some of the viewpoints expressed on the use of these techniques are examined, and their limitations are discussed. Areas where risk-assessment techniques are applied by the NRC are listed and some recent examples are discussed. Risk assessment has also been used as a criteria for deciding the topics for the NRC's recommendations for research programs. It is concluded that the major contribution of risk assessment techniques should be in the form of background analyses that will aid decision making and could also significantly affect the scope and content of regulatory reviews. (UK)

  14. Role of human neurobehavioural tests in regulatory activity on chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R.; Barker, P.

    1998-01-01

    Psychological performance tests have been used since the mid-1960s in occupational and environmental health toxicology. The interpretation of significantly different test scores in neurobehavioural studies is not straightforward in the regulation of chemicals. This paper sets out some issues which emerged from discussions at an international workshop, organised by the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE), to discuss differences in interpretation of human neurobehavioural test data in regulatory risk assessments. The difficulties encountered by regulators confronted with neurobehavioural studies seem to be twofold; some studies lack scientific rigor; other studies, although scientifically sound, are problematic because it is not clear what interpretation to place on the results. Issues relating to each of these points are discussed. Next, scenarios within which to consider the outcomes of neurobehavioural studies are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further work are put forward.   PMID:9624273

  15. The role of the ward manager in promoting patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, David

    In this article the role of the ward manager in promoting patient safety is explored. The background to the development of the patient safety agenda is briefly discussed and the relationship between quality and safety is illustrated. The pivotal importance of the role of the ward manager in delivering services to patients is underlined and literature on patient safety is examined to identify what a ward manager can do to make care safer. Possible actions of the ward manager to improve safety discussed in the literature are structured around the Leadership Framework. This framework identifies seven domains for the leadership of service delivery. Ward managers use their personal qualities, and network and work within teams, while managing performance and facilitating innovation, change and measurement for improvement. The challenge of promoting patient safety for ward managers is briefly explored and recommendations for further research are made.

  16. Targeted resequencing of regulatory regions at schizophrenia risk loci: Role of rare functional variants at chromatin repressive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peñas, Javier; Amigo, Jorge; Santomé, Luis; Sobrino, Beatriz; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Páramo, Mario; Carracedo, Ángel; Arrojo, Manuel; Costas, Javier

    2016-07-01

    There is mounting evidence that regulatory variation plays an important role in genetic risk for schizophrenia. Here, we specifically search for regulatory variants at risk by sequencing promoter regions of twenty-three genes implied in schizophrenia by copy number variant or genome-wide association studies. After strict quality control, a total of 55,206bp per sample were analyzed in 526 schizophrenia cases and 516 controls from Galicia, NW Spain, using the Applied Biosystems SOLiD System. Variants were filtered based on frequency from public databases, chromatin states from the RoadMap Epigenomics Consortium at tissues relevant for schizophrenia, such as fetal brain, mid-frontal lobe, and angular gyrus, and prediction of functionality from RegulomeDB. The proportion of rare variants at polycomb repressive chromatin state at relevant tissues was higher in cases than in controls. The proportion of rare variants with predicted regulatory role was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P=0.0028, OR=1.93, 95% C.I.=1.23-3.04). Combination of information from both sources led to the identification of an excess of carriers of rare variants with predicted regulatory role located at polycomb repressive chromatin state at relevant tissues in cases versus controls (P=0.0016, OR=19.34, 95% C.I.=2.45-2495.26). The variants are located at two genes affected by the 17q12 copy number variant, LHX1 and HNF1B. These data strongly suggest that a specific epigenetic mechanism, chromatin remodeling by histone modification during early development, may be impaired in a subset of schizophrenia patients, in agreement with previous data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the regulatory role of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant protein on glioma stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-C; Ma, J; Zhuang, Z; Qiu, F; Cheng, H-L; Shi, J-X

    2016-08-01

    Glioma is the most lethal form of cancer that originates mostly from the brain and less frequently from the spine. Glioma is characterized by abnormal regulation of glial cell differentiation. The severity of the glioma was found to be relaxed in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant. The present study focused on histological discrimination and regulation of cancer stem cell between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. Histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques are used to analyze the glioma nature and variation in glioma stem cells that differ between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. The aggressive form of non-IDH1 mutant glioma shows abnormal cellular histological variation with prominent larger nucleus along with abnormal clustering of cells. The longer survival form of IDH1 mutant glioma has a control over glioma stem cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry with stem cell markers, CD133 and EGFRvIII are used to demonstrate that the IDH1 mutant glioma shows limited dependence on cancer stem cells and it shows marked apoptotic signals in TUNEL assay to regulate abnormal cells. The non-IDH1 mutant glioma failed to regulate misbehaving cells and it promotes cancer stem cell proliferation. Our finding supports that the IDH1 mutant glioma has a regulatory role in glioma stem cells and their survival.

  18. The teacher's role in promoting collaborative dialogue in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M

    2009-03-01

    Research on student-led small-group learning in schools going back nearly four decades has documented many types of student participation that promote learning. Less is known about how the teacher can foster effective groupwork behaviours. This paper reviews research that explores the role of the teacher in promoting learning in small groups. The focus is on how students can learn from their peers during small-group work, how teachers can prepare students for collaborative group work, and the role of teacher discourse and classroom norms in small-group dialogue. Studies selected for review focused on student-led small-group contexts for learning in which students were expected to collaborate, reported data from systematic observations of group work, and linked observational data to teacher practices and student learning outcomes. This review uncovered multiple dimensions of the teacher's role in fostering beneficial group dialogue, including preparing students for collaborative work, forming groups, structuring the group-work task, and influencing student interaction through teachers' discourse with small groups and with the class. Common threads through the research are the importance of students explaining their thinking, and teacher strategies and practices that may promote student elaboration of ideas.

  19. Inferring the role of transcription factors in regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Borgne Michel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profiles obtained from multiple perturbation experiments are increasingly used to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks, from well studied, simple organisms up to higher eukaryotes. Admittedly, a key ingredient in developing a reconstruction method is its ability to integrate heterogeneous sources of information, as well as to comply with practical observability issues: measurements can be scarce or noisy. In this work, we show how to combine a network of genetic regulations with a set of expression profiles, in order to infer the functional effect of the regulations, as inducer or repressor. Our approach is based on a consistency rule between a network and the signs of variation given by expression arrays. Results We evaluate our approach in several settings of increasing complexity. First, we generate artificial expression data on a transcriptional network of E. coli extracted from the literature (1529 nodes and 3802 edges, and we estimate that 30% of the regulations can be annotated with about 30 profiles. We additionally prove that at most 40.8% of the network can be inferred using our approach. Second, we use this network in order to validate the predictions obtained with a compendium of real expression profiles. We describe a filtering algorithm that generates particularly reliable predictions. Finally, we apply our inference approach to S. cerevisiae transcriptional network (2419 nodes and 4344 interactions, by combining ChIP-chip data and 15 expression profiles. We are able to detect and isolate inconsistencies between the expression profiles and a significant portion of the model (15% of all the interactions. In addition, we report predictions for 14.5% of all interactions. Conclusion Our approach does not require accurate expression levels nor times series. Nevertheless, we show on both data, real and artificial, that a relatively small number of perturbation experiments are enough to determine

  20. Role of in-house safety analysis and research activities in regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Santosh K.; Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of an acceptable level of nuclear safety is an essential requirement for the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. The success of Global Nuclear Safety Regime is built upon a foundation of research. Such research has been sponsored by Governments and industry and has led to improved designs, safer and more reliable plant operation, and improvements in operating plant efficiency. A key element of this research has been the nuclear safety research performed or sponsored by regulatory organizations. In part, it has been the safety research performed or sponsored by regulatory organizations that has contributed to improved safety and has laid the foundation for activities such as risk-informed regulation, plant life extension, improved plant performance (e.g. power uprates) and new plant designs. The regulatory research program is meant to improve the regulatory authority’s knowledge where uncertainty exists, where safety margins are not well-characterized, and where regulatory decisions need to be confirmed in existing or new designs and technologies. The regulatory body get research initiated either in-house or by the licensee or through technical support organizations (TSOs). Research and analysis carried out within the regulatory body is of immense value in this context. This could be in the form of analysis of safety significant events, analysis of severe accidents, review of operating experience, independent checks of critical designs and even review of operator responses under different situations towards arriving at modifications to training programmes and licensing procedures for operating personnel. A latent benefit of regulatory research carried out by the regulators themselves is that it improves their technical competence considerably which in turn leads to high quality safety reviews and improved regulation in general. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of role of regulatory research and the in-house regulatory safety

  1. Regulatory Role of Small Nucleolar RNAs in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory A. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs are appreciable players in gene expression regulation in human cells. The canonical function of box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs is posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, namely, 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively. A series of independent studies demonstrated that snoRNAs, as well as other noncoding RNAs, serve as the source of various short regulatory RNAs. Some snoRNAs and their fragments can also participate in the regulation of alternative splicing and posttranscriptional modification of mRNA. Alterations in snoRNA expression in human cells can affect numerous vital cellular processes. SnoRNA level in human cells, blood serum, and plasma presents a promising target for diagnostics and treatment of human pathologies. Here we discuss the relation between snoRNAs and oncological, neurodegenerative, and viral diseases and also describe changes in snoRNA level in response to artificial stress and some drugs.

  2. Leptin: regulatory role in bone metabolism and in flogosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Ferraccioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a peptidic molecule synthesized almost exclusively by adipocytes, that regulates appetite and energy expenditure at the hypothalamic level. In the last few years, further actions have been attributed to this molecule, as modulating the immune response and affecting the bone metabolism. We have reviewed if leptin contributes to the metabolic changes leading to cachexia and to the regulation of flogosis, paying attention to the pathogenetic mechanisms of cronic arthritis. Besides, considering the relationship between body mass index (BMI e bone mineral density (BMD and the protective role of the obesity towards osteoporosis, we have analysed the role of leptin on the bone metabolism

  3. Mapping of cis-regulatory sites in the promoter of testis-specific stellate genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenkina, O M; Egorova, K S; Aravin, A A; Naumova, N M; Gvozdev, V A; Olenina, L V

    2012-11-01

    Tandem Stellate genes organized into two clusters in heterochromatin and euchromatin of the X-chromosome are part of the Ste-Su(Ste) genetic system required for maintenance of male fertility and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster. Stellate genes encode a regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2 and are the main targets of germline-specific piRNA-silencing; their derepression leads to appearance of protein crystals in spermatocytes, meiotic disturbances, and male sterility. A short promoter region of 134 bp appears to be sufficient for testis-specific transcription of Stellate, and it contains three closely located cis-regulatory elements called E-boxes. By using reporter analysis, we confirmed a strong functionality of the E-boxes in the Stellate promoter for in vivo transcription. Using selective mutagenesis, we have shown that the presence of the central E-box 2 is preferable to maintain a high-level testis-specific transcription of the reporter gene under the Stellate promoter. The Stellate promoter provides transcription even in heterochromatin, and corresponding mRNAs are translated with the generation of full-size protein products in case of disturbances in the piRNA-silencing process. We have also shown for the first time that the activity of the Stellate promoter is determined by chromatin context of the X-chromosome in male germinal cells, and it increases at about twofold when relocating in autosomes.

  4. Microfilament regulatory protein MENA increases activity of RhoA and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yan-Li; Qin, Wenxin; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-09-10

    Mammalian enabled (MENA), usually known as a direct regulator of microfilament polymerization and bundling, promotes metastasis in various cancers. Here we focus on the role of MENA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the relevant mechanism from the view of RhoA activity regulation. By HCC tissue microarray analysis, we found that MENA expression was positively associated with satellite lesions (PMENA staining in HCC tissues had significantly higher rates of early recurrence in the intermediate MENA expression group. Knockdown of MENA significantly suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as their intrahepatic and distant metastasis in vivo. Knockdown of MENA also decreased filopodia and stress fibers in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, a decrease of RhoA activity was detected by a pull-down assay in SMMC-7721-shMENA cells. The ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, suppressed migration of both MENA knockdown SMMC-7721 cells and control cells, but diminished their difference. Thus, our findings suggest that MENA promotes HCC cell motility by activating RhoA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constitutive GITR Activation Reduces Atherosclerosis by Promoting Regulatory CD4+ T-Cell Responses-Brief Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiler, Svenja; Smeets, Esther; Winkels, Holger; Shami, Annelie; Pascutti, Maria Fernanda; Nolte, Martijn A.; Beckers, Linda; Weber, Christian; Gerdes, Norbert; Lutgens, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is expressed on CD4(+) effector memory T cells and regulatory T cells; however, its role on these functionally opposing cell types in atherosclerosis is not fully understood. Low-density lipoprotein

  6. NASDA'S activities and roles in promoting satellite utilization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Tsutomu; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2004-02-01

    While NASDA has been engaged in the development of new satellite missions and the bus technologies, NASDA explores new and attractive applications by promoting the utilization of satellite missions and strengthening the relationships with external parties. Offering opportunities to external parties for conducting application experiments will bring great chances for them in challenging and experimenting new space-based applications. Consequently, it is expected that the outcomes of the space development are returned to general public, research institutes, industries, and that ideas or requirements for new satellite mission could emerge and be materialized. With these objectives in mind, NASDA is presently planning a new space project that is named "i-Space". The i-Space project aims to contribute to the progressing "IT Revolution" by providing new space communication capabilities and to develop practical applications by collaborating with external parties. This paper introduces the activities and roles of NASDA in promoting satellite utilization experiments, particularly focusing on the i-Space project.

  7. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent “monopoly” must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC’s position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the “scope of the patent.” Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the “rule of reason” used in other antitrust contexts. PMID:25775920

  8. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-03-16

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Cholesterol: a novel regulatory role in myelin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2011-02-01

    Myelin consists of tightly compacted membranes that form an insulating sheath around axons. The function of myelin for rapid saltatory nerve conduction is dependent on its unique composition, highly enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate limiting for the development of CNS and PNS myelin. Experiments with conditional mouse mutants that lack cholesterol biosynthesis in oligodendrocytes revealed that only minimal changes of the CNS myelin lipid composition are tolerated. In Schwann cells of the PNS, protein trafficking and myelin compaction depend on cholesterol. In this review, the authors summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and myelin disease.

  10. The public role in promoting child health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Patrick H; White, P Jonathan; Clancy, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The public sector plays an important role in promoting child health information technology. Public sector support is essential in 5 main aspects of child health information technology, namely, data standards, pediatric functions in health information systems, privacy policies, research and implementation funding, and incentives for technology adoption. Some innovations in health information technology for adult populations can be transferred to or adapted for children, but there also are unique needs in the pediatric population. Development of health information technology that addresses children's needs and effective adoption of that technology are critical for US children to receive care of the highest possible quality in the future.

  11. BAFF promotes regulatory T-cell apoptosis and blocks cytokine production by activating B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Mintao [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Peng [Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Hong [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yongzhen [The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Zheng; Su, Tingting [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-05-10

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology. A number of questions regarding its etiology are unclear. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and, for unknown reasons, their relative number is reduced in PBC patients. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation and its concentration is increased in peripheral blood of PBC patients. It has been reported that activated B cells inhibit Treg cell proliferation and there are no BAFF receptors on Tregs. Therefore, we speculated that excessive BAFF may result in Treg reduction via B cells. To prove our hypothesis, we isolated Tregs and B cells from PBC and healthy donors. BAFF and IgM concentrations were then analyzed by ELISA and CD40, CD80, CD86, IL-10, and TGF-β expression in B cells and Tregs were measured by flow cytometry. BAFF up-regulated CD40, CD80, CD86, and IgM expression in B cells. However, BAFF had no direct effect on Treg cell apoptosis and cytokine secretion. Nonetheless, we observed that BAFF-activated B cells could induce Treg cell apoptosis and reduce IL-10 and TGF-β expression. We also showed that BAFF-activated CD4+ T cells had no effect on Treg apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, can inhibit BAFF-induced Treg cell apoptosis. In conclusion, BAFF promotes Treg cell apoptosis and inhibits cytokine production by activating B cells in PBC patients. The results of this study suggest that inhibition of BAFF activation is a strategy for PBC treatment.

  12. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling.

  13. THE ROLE OF SELF-REGULATORY AUDITING ASSOCIATIONS IN ARRANGEMENT OF AUDIT ACTIVITIES QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinaida P. Arharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of self-regulatory organizations in audit activities quality control is revealed in this article. Creation of a united audit association is the basis of certain regulating and auditing functions transfer from the government to the public sector.

  14. Safeguards decision making in the public and regulatory environment, and the potential role of quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the nature of the safeguards program's objectives and constraints, and the inherent limitations on comprehensive quantification. It discusses the nature of the public and regulatory processes employed in safeguards decision making, and examines their implications regarding the potential role of quantitative approaches to safeguards policy and operational decision making

  15. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's role in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.; Kalman, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) role in the management of radioactive waste. It provides an overview of the NRC's programs for the management of High-Level and Low-Level radioctive wastes and uranium mill tailings. (author) 7 refs

  16. 76 FR 65909 - Medicare and Medicaid Program; Regulatory Provisions To Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS...-regulatory changes to increase transparency and to become a better business partner. As explained in the plan...

  17. Indirect presentation in the thymus limits naive and regulatory T-cell differentiation by promoting deletion of self-reactive thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jin Yan; Wirasinha, Rushika C; Chan, Anna; Howard, Debbie R; Goodnow, Christopher C; Daley, Stephen R

    2018-02-07

    Acquisition of T-cell central tolerance involves distinct pathways of self-antigen presentation to thymocytes. One pathway termed indirect presentation requires a self-antigen transfer step from thymic epithelial cells (TECs) to bone marrow-derived cells before the self-antigen is presented to thymocytes. The role of indirect presentation in central tolerance is context-dependent, potentially due to variation in self-antigen expression, processing and presentation in the thymus. Here, we report experiments in mice in which TECs expressed a membrane-bound transgenic self-antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL), from either the insulin (insHEL) or thyroglobulin (thyroHEL) promoter. Intrathymic HEL expression was less abundant and more confined to the medulla in insHEL mice compared with thyroHEL mice. When indirect presentation was impaired by generating mice lacking MHC class II expression in bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, insHEL-mediated thymocyte deletion was abolished, whereas thyroHEL-mediated deletion occurred at a later stage of thymocyte development and Foxp3 + regulatory T-cell differentiation increased. Indirect presentation increased the strength of T-cell receptor signalling that both self-antigens induced in thymocytes, as assessed by Helios expression. Hence, indirect presentation limits the differentiation of naive and regulatory T cells by promoting deletion of self-reactive thymocytes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun

    2017-12-01

    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Ubiquitin-specific Protease-7 Inhibition Impairs Tip60-dependent Foxp3+ T-regulatory Cell Function and Promotes Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg cells are known to suppress protective host immune responses to a wide variety of solid tumors, but their therapeutic targeting is largely restricted to their transient depletion or “secondary” modulation, e.g. using anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody. Our ongoing studies of the post-translational modifications that regulate Foxp3 demonstrated that the histone/protein acetyltransferase, Tip60, plays a dominant role in promoting acetylation, dimerization and function in Treg cells. We now show that the ubiquitin-specific protease, Usp7, controls Treg function largely by stabilizing the expression and promoting the multimerization of Tip60 and Foxp3. Genetic or pharmacologic targeting of Usp7 impairs Foxp3+ Treg suppressive functions, while conventional T cell responses remain intact. As a result, pharmacologic inhibitors of Usp7 can limit tumor growth in immunocompetent mice, and promote the efficacy of antitumor vaccines and immune checkpoint therapy with anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody in murine models. Hence, pharmacologic therapy with Usp7 inhibitors may have an important role in future cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Negative regulatory role of PI3-kinase in TNF-induced tumor necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschurat, Susanne; Blum, Sabine; Mitnacht-Kraus, Rita; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Kanal, Levent; De Waal, Robert M W; Clauss, Matthias

    2003-10-20

    Tissue factor is the prime initiator of blood coagulation. Expression of tissue factor in tumor endothelial cells leads to thrombus formation, occlusion of vessels and development of hemorrhagic infarctions in the tumor tissue, often followed by regression of the tumor. Tumor cells produce endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which sensitizes endothelial cells for systemically administered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and synergistically enhances the TNF-induced expression of tissue factor. We have analyzed the pathways involved in the induction of tissue factor in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after combined stimulation with TNF and VEGF. By using specific low molecular weight inhibitors, we demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC), p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) are essentially involved in the induction of tissue factor. In contrast, the application of wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, led to strongly enhanced expression of tissue factor in TNF- and VEGF-treated cells, implicating a negative regulatory role for PI3-kinase. In vivo, the application of wortmannin promoted the formation of TNF-induced hemorrhages and intratumoral necroses in murine meth A tumors. The co-injection of wortmannin lowered the effective dose of applied TNF. Therefore, it is conceivable that the treatment of TNF-sensitive tumors with a combination of TNF and wortmannin will ensure the selective damage of the tumor endothelium and minimize the risk of systemic toxicity of TNF. TNF-treatment in combination with specific inhibition of PI3-kinase is a novel concept in anti-cancer therapy. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. DMPD: The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17702640 The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function...in dendritic celldevelopment and function. PubmedID 17702640 Title The role of th...e interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. Authors Gabriele L, O

  2. Pokemon/miR-137 auto-regulatory circuit promotes the progression of renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Li, Qi; Ye, Zhuo; Qiao, Baoping

    2018-04-19

    Renal carcinoma greatly threatens human health, but the involved molecular mechanisms are far from complete understanding. As a master oncogene driving the initiation of many other cancers, Pokemon has not been established to be associated with renal cancer. Our data revealed that Pokemon is highly expressed in renal carcinoma specimen and cell lines, compared with normal cells. The silencing of Pokemon suppressed the proliferation and invasion of renal cancer cells. Pokemon overexpression rendered normal cells with higher proliferation rates and invasiveness. Animal study further confirmed the role of Pokemon in the growth of renal carcinoma. Moreover, miR-137 was identified to negatively regulate the expression of Pokemon, and its abundance is inversely correlated with that of Pokemon in renal carcinoma specimen and cell lines. Pokemon overexpression may be induced by miR-137 downregulation. Interestingly, Pokemon can also suppress miR-137 expression by binding to its recognition site within miR-137 promoter region. Taken together, we identified an autoregulatory loop consisting of Pokemon and miR-137 in gastric cancers, and targeting this pathway may be an effective strategy for renal carcinoma cancer therapy.

  3. IL-4 production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes food allergy by blocking regulatory T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C; Chatila, Talal

    2016-09-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote allergic inflammation. However their role in food allergy is largely unknown. We sought to investigate the role of ILC2s in food allergy. Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function mutation in the IL-4 receptor α chain (Il4raF709) were orally sensitized with food allergens, and the ILC2 compartment was analyzed. The requirement for ILC2s in food allergy was investigated by using Il4raF709, IL-33 receptor-deficient (Il1rl1(-/-)), IL-13-deficient (Il13(-/-)), and IL-4-deficient (Il4(-/-)) mice and by adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded ILC2s. Direct effects of ILC2s on regulatory T (Treg) cells and mast cells were analyzed in coculture experiments. Treg cell control of ILC2s was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Il4raF709 mice with food allergy exhibit increased numbers of ILC2s. IL-4 secretion by ILC2s contributes to the allergic response by reducing allergen-specific Treg cell and activating mast cell counts. IL-33 receptor deficiency in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice protects against allergen sensitization and anaphylaxis while reducing ILC2 induction. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Il13(-/-) but not Il4(-/-) ILC2s restored sensitization in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Treg cells suppress ILC2s in vitro and in vivo. IL-4 production by IL-33-stimulated ILC2s blocks the generation of allergen-specific Treg cells and favors food allergy. Strategies to block ILC2 activation or the IL-33/IL-33 receptor pathway can lead to innovative therapies in the treatment of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of technical and scientific support organization In Indonesian regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusri Heni, N.A.; Zarkasih, A.S.; Liliana, Y.P.; Salman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) has the function in controlling the utility of nuclear energy through regulation, licensing and inspection, with the aim, interalia, to ensure the welfare, the security and the peace of people, to assure the safety and the health of workers and public, and the environmental protection, and to prevent diversion of purpose of the nuclear material utilization (Article 14 and 15 of Act no 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy). The role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in supporting regulatory systems are importance increase the effectiveness and public confidence. The Center for Regulatory Assessment of Nuclear Installation and Nuclear Material and Center for Regulatory Assessment of Radiation Facilities and Radioactive Sources as part of BAPETEN organization has a function as technical and scientific support for regulatory systems. The purpose of this function is to provide technical and scientific basis for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety during regulatory processes, such as in the developing and establishing regulation, technical verification for licensing, assessment of inspection funding and enforcement. In order to meet the quality and effectiveness of technical and scientific result activity, those two centers for regulatory assesment used internal and external technical experts and joint cooperation with universities, research institutes or laboratories. The development of technical and scientific strategic planning in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety is done by the following increasing of : Human resources and expertise by internal and external training or on the job training; number for computer code to perform safety analysis, capability and quality for review and assessment, national and international cooperation, etc. (author)

  5. The role of lifestyle change in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Manuela GHEORGHE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a period where we are faced with rising healthcare costs, as well as an increased disease impact on the entire population of the country. Although the slogan “prevention is cheaper than cure” may seem old-fashioned, however, it is more true than ever. It is necessary to offer health education and also to promote health care in Romania, in accordance with the international standards, as adopted by the European Union. Health Promotion is the art and science of helping people change their lifestyle in order to achieve a state of optimal health, restoring the harmony at all levels of human existence. Promoting a lifestyle which given certain conditions maximizes health, welfare and human fulfilment represents a goal that does not belong exclusively to the health sector; all fields of activity, all those sectors that define the life of an individual or a community are essential parts of achieving a healthy lifestyle. Modern men adopt a lifestyle where sedentary life, overeating, smoking, erratic working hours and alcohol use are common behaviours. Therefore, they become vulnerable to a new class of diseases of multi-factorial aetiology where the lifestyle plays a prominent role. Although the lifestyle may be complex, it is still under personal control and lead by the ability to choose extensively, which can be of benefit to the person's life and health. Choices regarding health involve more than objective information. Health education should be an ongoing concern for health professionals and health educators, psychologists, sociologists, family, for those who through effective collaboration contribute to ensuring physical and mental health in the community, in the increasingly demanding conditions of the modern life, which raise difficult issues regarding human adaptability.

  6. The role of intellectual capital in promoting knowledge management initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeil Zaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital in promotion of successful knowledge management (KM initiatives. The conclusions are based on the results of field studies conducted in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. Before designing the conceptual framework, relevant literature pertaining to the history of the work at hand, was reviewed by the researcher. Based on the opinions of external experts, university professors and organization’s experienced executives, a research model was developed. Tools such as textual analysis and interviews were employed to explore relationships between intellectual capital and knowledge management. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire which measured research variables like intellectual capital indexes and KM processes. The output of structural equations models (SEM and LISREL statistical software showed that intellectual capital and its components have direct effects in promoting KM processes in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. By improving intellectual capital and its indexes, knowledge management can be improved.

  7. The role of promotion in alcoholism treatment marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A

    1988-01-01

    This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study.

  8. The role of self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and guilt on doping likelihood: A social cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Given the concern over doping in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role played by self-regulatory processes in the decision whether to use banned performance-enhancing substances. Grounded on Bandura's (1991) theory of moral thought and action, this study examined the role of self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and anticipated guilt on the likelihood to use a banned substance among college athletes. Doping self-regulatory efficacy was associated with doping likelihood both directly (b = -.16, P self-regulatory efficacy influences the likelihood to use banned performance-enhancing substances both directly and indirectly via moral disengagement.

  9. Functional promoter upstream p53 regulatory sequence of IGFBP3 that is silenced by tumor specific methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Tadashi; Shinji, Toshiyuki; Shiraha, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yumoto, Eichiro; Ono, Toshiro; Koide, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 functions as a carrier of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in circulation and a mediator of the growth suppression signal in cells. There are two reported p53 regulatory regions in the IGFBP3 gene; one upstream of the promoter and one intronic. We previously reported a hot spot of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 in human hepatocellular carcinomas and derivative cell lines. As the hot spot locates at the putative upstream p53 consensus sequences, these p53 consensus sequences are really functional is a question to be answered. In this study, we examined the p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3. Deletion, mutagenesis, and methylation constructs of IGFBP-3 promoter were assessed in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for promoter activity. Deletions and mutations of these sequences completely abolished the expression of IGFBP-3 in the presence of p53 overexpression. In vitro methylation of these p53 consensus sequences also suppressed IGFBP-3 expression. In contrast, the expression of IGFBP-3 was not affected in the absence of p53 overexpression. Further, we observed by electrophoresis mobility shift assay that p53 binding to the promoter region was diminished when methylated. From these observations, we conclude that four out of eleven p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter are essential for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3, and hypermethylation of these sequences selectively suppresses p53 induced IGFBP-3 expression in HepG2 cells

  10. THE ROLE OF PROMOTION ON MARKETING IN TURKISH DRUG INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Bilgener

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract\tMarketing has an important role in modern life. Marketing provides economical and social bene-fits with correleating between producers and consumers.\tPromotional activities are necessary for better marketing strategies. Therefore, firms have to give more importance to promotional activities. Promotional activities are marketing instruments that an-nounced all the knowledges about the products and services to their consumers, for surviving and de-veloping the firms.\tNowadays drug producers are marketing their products all arround the world. But, drugs are not ordinary products, for this reason more importance must be given to drug marketing andpromotion.\tThe purpose of this study is to determine the role of promotion within the marketing in Turkish Drug Industry. The material of this study is an uniform questionnaire with 41 questions applied to about 190-200 medical representatives who work in Çorum, Yozgat, Amasya and Tokat cities for 37 firms which are the members of Federation of Employer’s Organization in Pharmaceutical Industry and 14 firms which are profited by the services of this federation.\tIn this study, SPSS program (ver7.5 has been used for evaluation of the data. According to the re-sults, medical represantatives think that the drug sales will increase and wait the data of IMS (Inform Medicines Statistics will rise about 60-80%. 90% of the medical represantatives believe that the pa-ramedical activities are effective and 73% of them carry out paramedical studies.\tÖzet\tPazarlama modern yasantida önemli bir role sahiptir. Pazarlama üreticiler ve tüketiciler arasinda bir iliski kurarak, ekonomik ve sosyal faydalar saglar. Tanitim faaliyetleri daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için gereklidir. Bu nedenle sirketler daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için tanitim faaliyetlerine önem vermelidir. Tanitim faaliyetleri, isletmenin ürettigi mal ve hizmetleri tüketicilere duyuran, isletmenin gelisimini ve yasamasini

  11. Identification, occurrence, and validation of DRE and ABRE Cis-regulatory motifs in the promoter regions of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Aparna; Upadhyay, Swati; Sanchita; Sharma, Pooja; Singh, Seema; Phukan, Ujjal J; Meena, Abha; Khan, Feroz; Tripathi, Vineeta; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar; Shrama, Ashok

    2014-04-01

    Plants posses a complex co-regulatory network which helps them to elicit a response under diverse adverse conditions. We used an in silico approach to identify the genes with both DRE and ABRE motifs in their promoter regions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that Arabidopsis contains a set of 2,052 genes with ABRE and DRE motifs in their promoter regions. Approximately 72% or more of the total predicted 2,052 genes had a gap distance of less than 400 bp between DRE and ABRE motifs. For positional orientation of the DRE and ABRE motifs, we found that the DR form (one in direct and the other one in reverse orientation) was more prevalent than other forms. These predicted 2,052 genes include 155 transcription factors. Using microarray data from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) database, we present 44 transcription factors out of 155 which are upregulated by more than twofold in response to osmotic stress and ABA treatment. Fifty-one transcripts from the one predicted above were validated using semiquantitative expression analysis to support the microarray data in TAIR. Taken together, we report a set of genes containing both DRE and ABRE motifs in their promoter regions in A. thaliana, which can be useful to understand the role of ABA under osmotic stress condition. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. WTO+ commitments on services in Asian PTAs: The role of regulatory homogeneity and goods trade complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Shingal, Anirudh; Ro, Martin; Sauvé, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of applied services regulations in accounting for WTO+ commitments on trade in services in preferential trade agreements (PTAs) among Asian economies. The empirical findings suggest that Asian trading dyads with regulatory frameworks that are more similar and more trade-restrictive tend to undertake higher levels of WTO+ commitments on services in their PTAs. There is also evidence in the results for such WTO+ commitments being driven by goods trade complementarit...

  13. Security of handling radioactive sources and the role of the regulatory body in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.

    1998-01-01

    The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss the system adopted by the National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC) in handling the radioactive sources inside the country. The system concentrates mainly on the role of the centre concerning three main categories namely regulations, licensing and training. The mutual co-operation between the regulatory body and the other agencies concerning this matter is going to be presented. (author)

  14. Role of the regulatory authority in preparation of the NPP self assessment of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantchev, T [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-31

    We believe that with the assistance of the IAEA(ASSET Training Mission) the plant personnel will be able to prepare high quality Self Assessment Report. The main role of the Regulatory Body is to ensure correspondence with the IAEA requirements and to provide clear guidance for the most important items of the Plant Self Assessment Report. The involvement of the Operating Organization is also desirable in order to ensure the necessary resources for the implementation of the action plan. Figs.

  15. Role of the regulatory authority in preparation of the NPP self assessment of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.

    1996-01-01

    We believe that with the assistance of the IAEA(ASSET Training Mission) the plant personnel will be able to prepare high quality Self Assessment Report. The main role of the Regulatory Body is to ensure correspondence with the IAEA requirements and to provide clear guidance for the most important items of the Plant Self Assessment Report. The involvement of the Operating Organization is also desirable in order to ensure the necessary resources for the implementation of the action plan. Figs

  16. Role of Resistive Self-Regulatory Efficacy and Moral Disengagement in the Relationship between Values and Aggressiveness in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Albouza Y; d'Arripe-Longueville F; Corrion K

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes’ values are related to aggressiveness through self-regulatory mechanisms. Athletes (N=225) completed four questionnaires to assess their values, resistive self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and aggressiveness. The results of structural equation modeling showed a good fit to the data and illustrated that: (a) The status and moral values were indirectly associated with aggressiveness through the mediating roles of resistive self-regulatory efficac...

  17. Regulatory dendritic cells for promotion of liver transplant operational tolerance: Rationale for a clinical trial and accompanying mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Angus W; Humar, Abhinav; Lakkis, Fadi G; Metes, Diana M

    2018-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, bone marrow (BM)-derived innate immune cells that critically maintain self-tolerance in the healthy steady-state. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with capacity to suppress allograft rejection and promote transplant tolerance in pre-clinical models can readily be generated from BM precursors or circulating blood monocytes. These DCreg enhance allograft survival via various mechanisms, including promotion of regulatory T cells. In non-human primates receiving minimal immunosuppressive drug therapy (IS), infusion of DCreg of donor origin, one week before transplant, safely prolongs renal allograft survival and selectively attenuates anti-donor CD8 + memory T cell responses in the early post-transplant period. Based on these observations, and in view of the critical need to reduce patient dependence on non-specific IS agents that predispose to cardiometabolic side effects and renal insufficiency, we will conduct a first-in-human safety and preliminary efficacy study of donor-derived DCreg infusion to achieve early (18 months post-transplant) complete IS withdrawal in low-risk, living donor liver transplant recipients receiving standard-of-care IS (mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and steroids). We will test the hypothesis that, although donor-derived DCreg are short-lived, they will induce robust donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness. We will examine immunological mechanisms by sequential analysis of blood and tissue samples, incorporating cutting-edge technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular effects of autoimmune-risk promoter polymorphisms on expression, exon choice, and translational efficiency of interferon regulatory factor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel N; Lambert, Jared P; Till, Rodney E; Argueta, Lissenya B; Greenhalgh, Kathryn E; Henrie, Brandon; Bills, Trieste; Hawkley, Tyson F; Roznik, Marinya G; Sloan, Jason M; Mayhew, Vera; Woodland, Loc; Nelson, Eric P; Tsai, Meng-Hsuan; Poole, Brian D

    2014-05-01

    The rs2004640 single nucleotide polymorphism and the CGGGG copy-number variant (rs77571059) are promoter polymorphisms within interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5). They have been implicated as susceptibility factors for several autoimmune diseases. IRF5 uses alternative promoter splicing, where any of 4 first exons begin the mRNA. The CGGGG indel is in exon 1A's promoter; the rs2004640 allele creates a splicing recognition site, enabling usage of exon 1B. This study aimed at characterizing alterations in IRF5 mRNA due to these polymorphisms. Cells with risk polymorphisms exhibited ~2-fold higher levels of IRF5 mRNA and protein, but demonstrated no change in mRNA stability. Quantitative PCR demonstrated decreased usage of exons 1C and 1D in cell lines with the risk polymorphisms. RNA folding analysis revealed a hairpin in exon 1B; mutational analysis showed that the hairpin shape decreased translation 5-fold. Although translation of mRNA that uses exon 1B is low due to a hairpin, increased IRF5 mRNA levels in individuals with the rs2004640 risk allele lead to higher overall protein expression. In addition, several new splice variants of IRF5 were sequenced. IRF5's promoter polymorphisms alter first exon usage and increase transcription levels. High levels of IRF5 may bias the immune system toward autoimmunity.

  19. Two negative cis-regulatory regions involved in fruit-specific promoter activity from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Wu, Hanying; Zhang, Shanglong; Lu, Hongyu; Zhang, Lingxiao; Xu, Yong; Chen, Daming; Liu, Jingmei

    2009-01-01

    A 1.8 kb 5'-flanking region of the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, isolated from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.), has fruit-specific promoter activity in transgenic tomato plants. Two negative regulatory regions, from -986 to -959 and from -472 to -424, were identified in this promoter region by fine deletion analyses. Removal of both regions led to constitutive expression in epidermal cells. Gain-of-function experiments showed that these two regions were sufficient to inhibit RFP (red fluorescent protein) expression in transformed epidermal cells when fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S minimal promoter. Gel mobility shift experiments demonstrated the presence of leaf nuclear factors that interact with these two elements. A TCCAAAA motif was identified in these two regions, as well as one in the reverse orientation, which was confirmed to be a novel specific cis-element. A quantitative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay of stable transgenic tomato plants showed that the activities of chimeric promoters harbouring only one of the two cis-elements, or both, were approximately 10-fold higher in fruits than in leaves. These data confirm that the TCCAAAA motif functions as a fruit-specific element by inhibiting gene expression in leaves.

  20. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  1. The dual effects of leading for safety: The mediating role of employee regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Ronit; Katz-Navon, Tal; Delegach, Marianna

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the underlying mechanisms through which transformational and transactional leadership influence employee safety behaviors. Linking leadership theory with self-regulatory focus (SRF) theory, we examined a model of dual effects of leadership on safety initiative and safety compliance behaviors as mediated by promotion and prevention self-regulations. We conducted an experimental study (N = 107), an online study (N = 99) and a field study (N = 798 employees and 49 managers). Results demonstrated that followers' situational promotion focus mediated the positive relationship between transformational leadership and safety initiative behaviors. Through all 3 studies, transactional active leadership was positively associated with followers' situational prevention focus, however, the association between followers' prevention focus and safety compliance behaviors was inconsistent, showing the expected mediation relationships in the experimental setting, but not in the online and field studies. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Identification of cis-acting regulatory elements in the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1991-12-01

    The expression of hormone-inducible genes is determined by the interaction of trans-acting factors with hormone-inducible elements and elements mediating basal and cell-specific expression. We have shown earlier that the gene encoding the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is under the control of an estrogen response element (ERE). The present study was aimed at identifying cis-acting elements mediating basal expression of the OT gene. A construct containing sequences -381 to +36 of the human OT gene was linked to a reporter gene and transiently transfected into a series of neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Expression of this construct was cell specific: it was highest in the neuroblastoma-derived cell line, Neuro-2a, and lowest in NIH 3T3 and JEG-3 cells. By 5' deletion analysis, we determined that a segment from -49 to +36 was capable of mediating cells-pecific promoter activity. Within this segment, we identified three proximal promoter elements (PPE-1, PPE-2, and PPE-3) that are each required for promoter activity. Most notably, mutation of a conserved purine-rich element (GAGAGA) contained within PPE-2 leads to a 10-fold decrease in promoter strength. Gel mobility shift analysis with three different double-stranded oligonucleotides demonstrated that each proximal promoter element binds distinct nuclear factors. In each case, only the homologous oligonucleotide, but neither of the oligonucleotides corresponding to adjacent elements, was able to act as a competitor. Thus, a different set of factors appears to bind independently to each element. By reinserting the homologous ERE or a heterologous glucocorticoid response element upstream of intact or altered proximal promoter segments we determined that removal or mutation of proximal promoter elements decreases basal expression, but does not abrogate the hormone responsiveness of the promoter. In conclusion, these results indicate that an important component of the transcriptional activity of the OT

  3. Regulatory Roles for Long ncRNA and mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, Armen R.; Buiting, Coen; Kuiper, Renske A.; Coolen, Marcel W., E-mail: M.Coolen@gen.umcn.nl [Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences (NCMLS), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen 6500 HB (Netherlands)

    2013-04-26

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have identified the transcription of a much larger portion of the genome than previously anticipated. Especially in the context of cancer it has become clear that aberrant transcription of both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequent events. The current dogma of RNA function describes mRNA to be responsible for the synthesis of proteins, whereas non-coding RNA can have regulatory or epigenetic functions. However, this distinction between protein coding and regulatory ability of transcripts may not be that strict. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence for the existence of multifunctional RNAs that have both protein-coding and trans-regulatory roles. Moreover, we demonstrate that coding transcripts bind to components of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2) with similar affinities as non-coding transcripts, revealing potential epigenetic regulation by mRNAs. We hypothesize that studies on the regulatory ability of disease-associated mRNAs will form an important new field of research.

  4. Regulatory Roles for Long ncRNA and mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapetyan, Armen R.; Buiting, Coen; Kuiper, Renske A.; Coolen, Marcel W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have identified the transcription of a much larger portion of the genome than previously anticipated. Especially in the context of cancer it has become clear that aberrant transcription of both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequent events. The current dogma of RNA function describes mRNA to be responsible for the synthesis of proteins, whereas non-coding RNA can have regulatory or epigenetic functions. However, this distinction between protein coding and regulatory ability of transcripts may not be that strict. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence for the existence of multifunctional RNAs that have both protein-coding and trans-regulatory roles. Moreover, we demonstrate that coding transcripts bind to components of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2) with similar affinities as non-coding transcripts, revealing potential epigenetic regulation by mRNAs. We hypothesize that studies on the regulatory ability of disease-associated mRNAs will form an important new field of research

  5. Regulatory Roles for Long ncRNA and mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel W. Coolen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have identified the transcription of a much larger portion of the genome than previously anticipated. Especially in the context of cancer it has become clear that aberrant transcription of both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are frequent events. The current dogma of RNA function describes mRNA to be responsible for the synthesis of proteins, whereas non-coding RNA can have regulatory or epigenetic functions. However, this distinction between protein coding and regulatory ability of transcripts may not be that strict. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence for the existence of multifunctional RNAs that have both protein-coding and trans-regulatory roles. Moreover, we demonstrate that coding transcripts bind to components of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2 with similar affinities as non-coding transcripts, revealing potential epigenetic regulation by mRNAs. We hypothesize that studies on the regulatory ability of disease-associated mRNAs will form an important new field of research.

  6. The role of ghrelin and ghrelin-receptor gene variants and promoter activity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edwin A; King, Peter; Sidhu, Kally; Ohgusu, Hideko; Walley, Andrew; Lecoeur, Cecile; Gueorguiev, Maria; Khalaf, Sahira; Davies, Derek; Grossman, Ashley B; Kojima, Masayasu; Petersenn, Stephan; Froguel, Phillipe; Korbonits, Márta

    2009-08-01

    Ghrelin and its receptor play an important role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis, and therefore they are functional candidates for genes carrying susceptibility alleles for type 2 diabetes. We assessed common genetic variation of the ghrelin (GHRL; five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)) and the ghrelin-receptor (GHSR) genes (four SNPs) in 610 Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes and 820 controls. In addition, promoter reporter assays were conducted to model the regulatory regions of both genes. Neither GHRL nor GHSR gene SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes. One of the ghrelin haplotypes showed a marginal protective role in type 2 diabetes. We observed profound differences in the regulation of the GHRL gene according to promoter sequence variants. There are three different GHRL promoter haplotypes represented in the studied cohort causing up to 45% difference in the level of gene expression, while the promoter region of GHSR gene is primarily represented by a single haplotype. The GHRL and GHSR gene variants are not associated with type 2 diabetes, although GHRL promoter variants have significantly different activities.

  7. Moving through the stressed genome: Emerging regulatory roles for transposons in plant stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi Pooja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock’s original ’Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences which project TEs as distributed genomic control modules. According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution and function, and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  8. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original 'Controlling Element' hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as "distributed genomic control modules." According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement.

  9. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  10. The role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for reviewing and making licensing decisions to ensure that the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) high-level waste repository is designed, constructed, and operated without unreasonable risk to public health and safety. In implementing this responsibility, however, the commission's guidance to the staff is that, in the absence of unresolved safety concerns, the NRC regulatory program will not delay the executive branch's program as set forth in the DOE project decision schedule. The NRC role for the next several years will be to develop its licensing framework and to consult with DOE on its plans. An essential ingredient in the success of both NRC's and DOE's respective missions is the need for free and open exchange of information, which will assure us that the concerns of all parties are addressed. With regard to low-level radioactive waste, the states have the lead responsibility for disposal. The NRC also provides assistance to the states and compacts on such items as regulatory programs, site characterization, and mixed waste disposal. Another of the NRC's roles is in the management of uranium mill tailings. Currently, most of the NRC's attention is focused on ensuring adequate long-term stabilization of tailings

  11. [Analysis of cis-regulatory element distribution in gene promoters of Gossypium raimondii and Arabidopsis thaliana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gao-Fei; He, Shou-Pu; Du, Xiong-Ming

    2013-10-01

    Cotton genomic studies have boomed since the release of Gossypium raimondii draft genome. In this study, cis-regulatory element (CRE) in 1 kb length sequence upstream 5' UTR of annotated genes were selected and scanned in the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) and Gossypium raimondii (Gr) genomes, based on the database of PLACE (Plant cis-acting Regulatory DNA Elements). According to the definition of this study, 44 (12.3%) and 57 (15.5%) CREs presented "peak-like" distribution in the 1 kb selected sequences of both genomes, respectively. Thirty-four of them were peak-like distributed in both genomes, which could be further categorized into 4 types based on their core sequences. The coincidence of TATABOX peak position and their actual position ((-) -30 bp) indicated that the position of a common CRE was conservative in different genes, which suggested that the peak position of these CREs was their possible actual position of transcription factors. The position of a common CRE was also different between the two genomes due to stronger length variation of 5' UTR in Gr than At. Furthermore, most of the peak-like CREs were located in the region of -110 bp-0 bp, which suggested that concentrated distribution might be conductive to the interaction of transcription factors, and then regulate the gene expression in downstream.

  12. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  14. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  15. Using Patient Avatars to Promote Health Data Sharing Applications: Perspectives and Regulatory Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahi, Alan; Forgó, Nikolaus; Jensen, Sarah; Stauch, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The potential of ICT to address problems in modern healthcare is considerable, and an ICT-driven revolution in healthcare appears imminent. Such developments maybe viewed largely in positive terms. Thus they should result in enhanced treatment and care options, empowering patients--including by permitting greater self-management of illness outside hospital, while offering economic benefits and costs savings over traditional healthcare provision. However, the new possibilities also present manifold risks, such as of data breaches, encroachments on subject autonomy, as well as of other harms. This article considers some of the key regulatory challenges against the background of the progress of the current EU Commission-sponsored 'MyHealthAvatar' project.

  16. PlantCARE, a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements and a portal to tools for in silico analysis of promoter sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lescot, Magali; Déhais, Patrice; Thijs, Gert; Marchal, Kathleen; Moreau, Yves; Van de Peer, Yves; Rouzé, Pierre; Rombauts, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    PlantCARE is a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements, enhancers and repressors. Regulatory elements are represented by positional matrices, consensus sequences and individual sites on particular promoter sequences. Links to the EMBL, TRANSFAC and MEDLINE databases are provided when available. Data about the transcription sites are extracted mainly from the literature, supplemented with an increasing number of in silico predicted data. Apart from a general description for specific t...

  17. Promoting de-escalation of commitment: a regulatory-focus perspective on sunk costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Daniel C; Hui, Chin Ming

    2011-01-01

    People frequently escalate their commitment to failing endeavors. Explanations for such behavior typically involve loss aversion, failure to recognize other alternatives, and concerns with justifying prior actions; all of these factors produce recommitment to previous decisions with the goal of erasing losses and vindicating these decisions. Solutions to escalation of commitment have therefore focused on external oversight and divided responsibility during decision making to attenuate loss aversion, blindness to alternatives, and justification biases. However, these solutions require substantial resources and have additional adverse effects. The present studies tested an alternative method for de-escalating commitment: activating broad motivations for growth and advancement (promotion). This approach should reduce concerns with loss and increase perceptions of alternatives, thereby attenuating justification motives. In two studies featuring hypothetical financial decisions, activating promotion motivations reduced recommitment to poorly performing investments as compared with both not activating any additional motivations and activating motivations for safety and security (prevention).

  18. White paper on the promotion of an integrated risk assessment concept in European regulatory frameworks for chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M F; Roth, N; Aicher, L; Faust, M; Papadaki, P; Marchis, A; Calliera, M; Ginebreda, A; Andres, S; Kühne, R; Schüürmann, G

    2015-07-15

    The vision of a sustainable and safe use of chemicals to protect human health, preserve the environment and maintain the ecosystem requires innovative and more holistic approaches to risk assessment (RA) in order to better inform decision making. Integrated risk assessment (IRA) has been proposed as a solution to current scientific, societal and policy needs. It is defined as the mutual exploitation of environmental risk assessment (ERA) for human health risk assessment (HHRA) and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process. Extrapolating between species which are relevant for HHRA and ERA requires a detailed understanding of pathways of toxicity/modes of action (MoA) for the various toxicological endpoints. Significant scientific advances, changes in chemical legislation, and increasing environmental consciousness have created a favourable scientific and regulatory environment to develop and promote the concept and vision of IRA. An initial proof of concept is needed to foster the incorporation of IRA approaches into different chemical sectorial regulations and demonstrate their reliability for regulatory purposes. More familiarity and confidence with IRA will ultimately contribute to an overall reduction in in vivo toxicity testing requirements. However, significant progress will only be made if long-term support for MoA-related research is secured. In the short term, further exchange and harmonization of RA terminology, models and methodologies across chemical categories and regulatory agencies will support these efforts. Since societal values, public perceptions and cultural factors are of increasing importance for the acceptance of risk analysis and successful implementation of risk mitigation measures, the integration of socio-economic analysis and socio-behavioural considerations into the risk analysis process may help to produce a more

  19. The IL-33-ST2-MyD88 axis promotes regulatory T cell proliferation in the murine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Qi, Qianqian; Dong, Liyang; Wei, Chuan; Pu, Yanan; Li, Yalin; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun; Su, Chuan

    2018-05-05

    Hepatic Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for maintaining local immune homeostasis in the liver. However, the environmental cues required for hepatic Treg cell homeostasis are unclear. In this study, we showed that the IL-33 receptor ST2 was preferentially expressed on Treg cells in the mouse liver, but it was more lowly expressed in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and blood. More importantly, we found that IL-33 promoted the proliferation of hepatic Treg cells through myeloid differentiation factor MyD88 signaling concomitant with increased CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. These results suggested that IL-33 is a potential tissue-specific factor controlling Treg cell homeostasis via increased Treg proliferation in the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Health promotion competencies: providing a road map for health promotion to assume a prominent role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Trevor

    2009-06-01

    Understanding of health and its determinants is rapidly expanding and changing. The emergence of chronic diseases as the leading cause of global disease burden and improved understanding of social determinants of health has brought greater focus to the role of prevention in health. The IUHPE has shown outstanding leadership through the Galway Consensus Statement. Its three recommendations appropriately focus on stimulating dialogue, developing global consensus and communicating the results to key stakeholders. The IUHPE can further enhance progress of the statement by developing participative processes to ensure engagement and ownership by its members. The Galway Consensus Statement can be used to advance professional standards in global health promotion by: (1) providing a common language by which health promotion and its meaning can be communicated to others; (2) providing a framework for building capacity in the health promotion workforce and in the health workforce in general; (3) providing international consensus for consistency in university health promotion courses; (4) providing a framework for credentialing in health promotion; (5) better informing health promotion engagement with other significant workforce sectors and advancing partnership as a key way of working. A vital further application of the Galway Consensus Statement is to inform advocacy. Advocacy is vital to ensure health promotion is better resourced and prioritized by policy makers. Advocacy and communication are vital tools to highlight the evidence, establish the policy fit and infrastructure requirements of health promotion, and present health promotion solutions based on evidence of effectiveness.

  1. Adenylyl cyclase plays a regulatory role in development, stress resistance and secondary metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García-Martínez

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-C produces secondary metabolites of biotechnological interest, such as gibberellins, bikaverin, and carotenoids. Production of these metabolites is regulated by nitrogen availability and, in a specific manner, by other environmental signals, such as light in the case of the carotenoid pathway. A complex regulatory network controlling these processes is recently emerging from the alterations of metabolite production found through the mutation of different regulatory genes. Here we show the effect of the targeted mutation of the acyA gene of F. fujikuroi, coding for adenylyl cyclase. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of the AcyA protein showed different phenotypic alterations, including reduced growth, enhanced production of unidentified red pigments, reduced production of gibberellins and partially derepressed carotenoid biosynthesis in the dark. The phenotype differs in some aspects from that of similar mutants of the close relatives F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides: contrary to what was observed in these species, ΔacyA mutants of F. fujikuroi showed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress (H(2O(2, but no change in heavy metal resistance or in the ability to colonize tomato tissue, indicating a high versatility in the regulatory roles played by cAMP in this fungal group.

  2. Hematopoietic chimerism and transplantation tolerance: a role for regulatory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise ePasquet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacle in transplantation medicine is rejection of donor tissues by the host’s immune system. Immunosuppressive drugs can delay but not prevent loss of transplants, and their efficiency is strongly impacted by inter-individual pharmacokinetic differences. Moreover, due to the global immunosuppression induced and to the broad distribution of their targets amongst human tissues, these drugs have severe side effects. Induction of donor-specific non-responsiveness (i.e. immunological tolerance to transplants would solve these problems and would substantially ameliorate patients’ quality of life. It is widely believed that bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and resulting (mixed hematopoietic chimerism, invariably leads to immunological tolerance to organs of the same donor. A careful analysis of the literature, reviewed here, indeed shows that chimerism consistently prolongs allograft survival. However, in absence of additional conditioning leading to the development of active regulatory mechanisms, it does not prevent chronic rejection. A central role for active tolerance in transplantation-tolerance is also supported by recent data showing that genuine immunological tolerance to organ allografts can be achieved by combining induction of hematopoietic chimerism with infusion of regulatory T lymphocytes. Therefore, conditioning regimens that lead to the establishment of hematopoietic chimerism plus active regulatory mechanisms appear required for induction of genuine tolerance to allogeneic grafts.

  3. TSO Role in Supporting the Regulatory Authority in View of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamaza, A.; Vasilishin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Human and organizational factors are always of paramount importance at nuclear and radiation safety as well as in the safety regulation provision. Major NPP accidents occurred merely reaffirm this fact. The role of an authority that regulates nuclear safety increases each time in the aftermath of accidents perceived as a shock together with the importance of scientific and technical support. SEC NRS was established in 1987, the next year after the Chernobyl NPP accident aiming to strengthen supervision over works carried out at the nuclear industry enterprises. Currently SEC NRS provides comprehensive scientific and technical support to Rostechnadzor including safety review and regulatory legal documents development to regulate safety along with safety culture.

  4. The role of regulatory uncertainty in certificate markets: A case study of the Swedish/Norwegian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Price volatility in green certificate markets reflects uncertainty over future prices, representing a major source of risk for renewable energy generators. Price risk is considered the principal deficiency of this market-based policy since it causes investors to require higher returns. Moreover, investors are exposed to regulatory risk; namely, the risk that a change in the regulation will materially impact the certificate price. Regulatory uncertainty is reflected in market volatility exacerbating certificate price risk. Using an econometric approach, we investigate the role of regulatory changes on price volatility in the Swedish certificate market. The results of our analysis indicate that regulatory changes strongly affect certificate markets, resulting in periods of higher volatility. Moreover, we analyze whether certificate price volatility has changed after creating a joint Swedish/Norwegian market. Results indicate that the ambivalence surrounding the creation of this bigger market led to a period of increased price volatility between 2010 and 2011. Overall, this article brings a better understanding of the role of regulatory uncertainty on certificate markets, and gives evidence for its negative impact in terms of increased price volatility. - Highlights: • Paper analyzes the impact of regulatory changes on certificate price volatility. • Regulatory changes affect market volatility and price risk. • Regulatory uncertainty harms certificate markets. • The bigger Swedish/Norwegian market has not resulted in lower volatility yet

  5. Do regulatory mechanisms promote competition and mitigate market power? Evidence from Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Moreira, António C.; Mota, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between bidding quantities, marginal cost and market power measures in the Spanish wholesale electricity market for two different regulatory periods: 2002–2005 and 2006–2007. Using panel econometric techniques we find differences in the impacts on bidding strategies for both periods. Hence, the marginal cost and the market power measures affect bid and net quantities. The market power measures also suggest that the coefficient is consistently positive and highly significant for both periods. Moreover, the market power and marginal costs have mixed effects according to the models proposed for both periods. In addition, our results point to the effectiveness of the different effects of mitigating the market power in the Spanish electricity market. For the 2006–2007 period, the proposed causal relationships are partially validated by the cointegration results, which assumes there is a significant causality between the Lerner Index and the marginal cost. - Highlights: • Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. • Net supplier and net demander behavior in the spot market. • Panel cointegration methods used: FMOLS, PMG, MG, DFE and DOLS. • The price cap regulation is effective in mitigating market power. • Market power and marginal cost have positive effects on bidding strategies

  6. Cis-acting regulatory sequences promote high-frequency gene conversion between repeated sequences in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, Steven J; Baker, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the nature of recombination-prone regions of the genome. Previously, we reported that the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mu locus behaved as a hotspot for mitotic, intrachromosomal gene conversion (GC) between repeated mu constant (Cmu) regions in mouse hybridoma cells. To investigate whether elements within the mu gene regulatory region were required for hotspot activity, gene targeting was used to delete a 9.1 kb segment encompassing the mu gene promoter (Pmu), enhancer (Emu) and switch region (Smu) from the locus. In these cell lines, GC between the Cmu repeats was significantly reduced, indicating that this 'recombination-enhancing sequence' (RES) is necessary for GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. Importantly, the RES fragment stimulated GC when appended to the same Cmu repeats integrated at ectopic genomic sites. We also show that deletion of Emu and flanking matrix attachment regions (MARs) from the RES abolishes GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. However, no stimulation of ectopic GC was observed with the Emu/MARs fragment alone. Finally, we provide evidence that no correlation exists between the level of transcription and GC promoted by the RES. We suggest a model whereby Emu/MARS enhances mitotic GC at the endogenous IgH mu locus by effecting chromatin modifications in adjacent DNA.

  7. Role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness, thus these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace. One of the important consequences of these types of behaviors is knowledge sharing. Thus, the current study examined the role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing. Method: A descriptive correlation design was employed in this study. We collected the data from Kharazmi University employees in city of Tehran in 2014. The statistical population consisted of 484 Kharazmi University employees from which 210 persons were selected randomly (using simple random sampling by the Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. Data werecollected through organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire and knowledge sharing questionnaire. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. These coefficients were 0.80 for attitude toward knowledge sharing and 0.77 for intention to share knowledge. Also, for organizational citizenship behavior it ranged from 0.71 (courtesy to 0.82 (altruism. To determine the validity, content validity method was applied. All descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were performed using SPSS 19. Results: The results of t-test indicated that the means of organizational citizenship behavior (mean=2.50 and all its dimensions (altruism: 2.60, conscientiousness: 2.52, sportsmanship: 2.41, courtesy: 2.49, civic virtue: 2.45 among employees were at the moderate level. The results showed that the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and knowledge sharing was significant (r=0.50, P<0.001. Other results showed that the correlations between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior dimensions - Altruism (r=0.35, Conscientiousness (r=0.19, Sportsmanship (r=0.46, Courtesy (r=0.39, Civic virtue (r=0

  8. The Role of RANTES Promoter Polymorphism in Functional Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Hirata, Ichiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Altered inflammatory immune responses have been shown to be associated with functional gastro intestinal disorder. We aimed to clarify the effect of functional promoter polymorphism of RANTES, which is a potent chemoattractant peptide for memory T lymphocytes and eosinophils, on the risk of functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population. RANTES promoter C-28G polymorphism was genotyped in 246 subjects including 134 FD patients according to Roma III criteria and 112 non-symptomatic healthy cont...

  9. The Role of Level-3 PSA in the Regulatory Structure for the Licensing of Future NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Han, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) provides a systematic analysis to identify and quantify all risks that the plant imposed to the operators, general public and the environment and thus demonstrates compliance to regulatory risk criteria. Therefore, the PSA has been being played an important role in the development of safety requirements for the existing plants, mainly reactors using light water technology. However, the existing safety requirements may not be fully applicable to the future reactors due to the advances in technology, new safety options, and new strategies for managing abnormal plant conditions. Therefore, a comprehensive set of technology-neutral safety requirements are being developed by the IAEA and USNRC. Especially, USNRC is developing a basis for a regulatory structure that is applicable to all types of reactor designs, including gas-cooled, liquid metal, and heavy and light water-moderated reactors because metrics such as core damage and large early release may not be applicable to some advanced reactor designs. They are developing this kind of basis for a regulatory structure in order to provide a technology neutral safety approach that will guide the design, construction and operation, as well as safety assessment, of innovative reactors. They are using the quantitative safety goals expressed by means of a frequency-consequence diagram. Within this approach, the scope of the PSA needs to encompass a whole spectrum of off-normal events including frequent, infrequent, and rare initiating events and event sequences. These events include a spectrum of releases from minor to major, and sequences that address conditions less than the core damage sequences. It also needs to address the dose consequences of these event sequences as measured at the exclusion area boundary (EAB). In order to obtain dose consequences for the whole spectrum of off-normal events, the dose evaluation by using the deterministic and probabilistic approaches has to be

  10. PlantPAN: Plant promoter analysis navigator, for identifying combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with distance constraint in plant gene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsien-Da

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of transcriptional regulation in plant genes is important area of research for plant scientists, following the mapping of various plant genomes, such as A. thaliana, O. sativa and Z. mays. A variety of bioinformatic servers or databases of plant promoters have been established, although most have been focused only on annotating transcription factor binding sites in a single gene and have neglected some important regulatory elements (tandem repeats and CpG/CpNpG islands in promoter regions. Additionally, the combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs is important in regulating the gene group that is associated with the same expression pattern. Therefore, a tool for detecting the co-regulation of transcription factors in a group of gene promoters is required. Results This study develops a database-assisted system, PlantPAN (Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator, for recognizing combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with a distance constraint in sets of plant genes. The system collects the plant transcription factor binding profiles from PLACE, TRANSFAC (public release 7.0, AGRIS, and JASPER databases and allows users to input a group of gene IDs or promoter sequences, enabling the co-occurrence of combinatorial transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs within a defined distance (20 bp to 200 bp to be identified. Furthermore, the new resource enables other regulatory features in a plant promoter, such as CpG/CpNpG islands and tandem repeats, to be displayed. The regulatory elements in the conserved regions of the promoters across homologous genes are detected and presented. Conclusion In addition to providing a user-friendly input/output interface, PlantPAN has numerous advantages in the analysis of a plant promoter. Several case studies have established the effectiveness of PlantPAN. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://PlantPAN.mbc.nctu.edu.tw.

  11. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

  12. IL-5 promotes induction of antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells that suppress autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Giang T; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Carter, Nicole M; Verma, Nirupama D; Plain, Karren M; Boyd, Rochelle; Robinson, Catherine M; Nomura, Masaru; Killingsworth, Murray; Hall, Bruce M

    2012-05-10

    Immune responses to foreign and self-Ags can be controlled by regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD4 and IL-2Rα chain (CD25). Defects in Tregs lead to autoimmunity, whereas induction of Ag-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs restores tolerance. Ag-specific CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+Tregs activated by the T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine, IL-4, and specific alloantigen promote allograft tolerance. These Tregs expressed the specific IL-5Rα and in the presence of IL-5 proliferate to specific but not third-party Ag. These findings suggest that recombinant IL-5 (rIL-5) therapy may promote Ag-specific Tregs to mediate tolerance. This study showed normal CD4+CD25+ Tregs cultured with IL-4 and an autoantigen expressed Il-5rα. Treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis with rIL-5 markedly reduced clinical paralysis, weight loss, demyelination, and infiltration of CD4+ (Th1 and Th17) CD8+ T cells and macrophages in nerves. Clinical improvement was associated with expansion of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs that expressed Il-5rα and proliferated only to specific autoantigen that was enhanced by rIL-5. Depletion of CD25+ Tregs or blocking of IL-4 abolished the benefits of rIL-5. Thus, rIL-5 promoted Ag-specific Tregs, activated by autoantigen and IL-4, to control autoimmunity. These findings may explain how Th2 responses, especially to parasitic infestation, induce immune tolerance. rIL-5 therapy may be able to induce Ag-specific tolerance in autoimmunity.

  13. A NAP-AAO3 Regulatory Module Promotes Chlorophyll Degradation via ABA Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Leaves[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyll degradation is an important part of leaf senescence, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Excised leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI (NAP) transcription factor mutant (nap) exhibited lower transcript levels of known chlorophyll degradation genes, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1), NON-YELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), and PHEIDE a OXYGENASE (PaO), and higher chlorophyll retention than the wild type during dark-induced senescence. Transcriptome coexpression analysis revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism/signaling genes were disproportionately represented among those positively correlated with NAP expression. ABA levels were abnormally low in nap leaves during extended darkness. The ABA biosynthetic genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE2, ABA DEFICIENT3, and ABSCISIC ALDEHYDE OXIDASE3 (AAO3) exhibited abnormally low transcript levels in dark-treated nap leaves. NAP transactivated the promoter of AAO3 in mesophyll cell protoplasts, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that NAP can bind directly to a segment (−196 to −162 relative to the ATG start codon) of the AAO3 promoter. Exogenous application of ABA increased the transcript levels of SGR1, NYC1, PPH, and PaO and suppressed the stay-green phenotype of nap leaves during extended darkness. Overexpression of AAO3 in nap leaves also suppressed the stay-green phenotype under extended darkness. Collectively, the results show that NAP promotes chlorophyll degradation by enhancing transcription of AAO3, which leads to increased levels of the senescence-inducing hormone ABA. PMID:25516602

  14. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Guo, Renfeng [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhu, Maoxiang, E-mail: zhumx@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Biorepository regulatory frameworks: building parallel resources that both promote scientific investigation and protect human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko-Varga, György; Baker, Mark S; Boja, Emily S; Rodriguez, Henry; Fehniger, Thomas E

    2014-12-05

    the future. In this brief overview, we provide practical information to the potential users of biorepositories about some of the current developments in both the methodology of sample acquisition and in the regulatory environment governing their use.

  16. Association of the CC genotype of the regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism (-938C>A) with better 2-year survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hindy, Nicolai; Bachmann, Hagen S; Lambertz, Nicole; Adamzik, Michael; Nückel, Holger; Worm, Karl; Zhu, Yuan; Sure, Ulrich; Siffert, Winfried; Sandalcioglu, I Erol

    2011-06-01

    Bcl-2 plays a key role in the downregulation of apoptosis and proliferation and leads to increased chemoresistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The authors investigated the role of a common regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphism (-938C>A), which is located in the inhibitory P2 promoter of BCL2. Data from 160 patients suffering from GBM were retrospectively evaluated. Study inclusion criteria consisted of available DNA and, in patients still alive, a follow-up of at least 24 months. Results were analyzed with respect to the basic clinical data, type of surgical intervention (gross-total resection [GTR] versus stereotactic biopsy [SB]), adjuvant therapy, MGMT promoter methylation, and survival at the 2-year follow-up. At the 2-year follow-up, 127 (79.4%) of the 160 patients had died. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significantly higher rate of survival for homo- and heterozygous C-allele carriers (p = 0.031). In the GTR group, the survival rate was 47.1% for homozygous C-allele carriers, 32.0% for heterozygous C-allele carriers, and only 21.4% for homozygous A-allele carriers (p = 0.024). The SB group showed no genotype-dependent differences. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that the BCL2 (-938AA) genotype was an independent negative prognostic factor for 2-year survival in the GTR group according to the BCL2 (-938CC) genotype reference group (hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.14-5.48, p = 0.022). These results suggested that the (-938C>A) polymorphism is a survival prognosticator as well as a marker for a high-risk group among patients with GBM who underwent GTR.

  17. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Recruit CCR6+ Regulatory T Cells and Promote the Development of Colorectal Cancer via Enhancing CCL20 Production in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhang, Weiwei; Ke, Fang; Leng, Qibin; Wang, Hong; Chen, Jinfei; Wang, Honglin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) remodel the colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment. Yet, findings on the role of TAMs in CRC seem to be contradictory compared with other cancers. FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg)-cells dominantly infiltrate CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism in which TAMs may contribute to the trafficking of Treg-cells to the tumor mass remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings CRC was either induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and H. pylori or established by subcutaneous injection of mouse colorectal tumor cell line (CMT93) in mice. CMT93 cells were co-cultured with primary macrophages in a transwell apparatus. Recruitment of FoxP3 green fluorescence protein positive (FoxP3GFP+) Treg-cells was assessed using the IVIS Imaging System or immunofluorescence staining. A role for macrophages in trafficking of Treg-cells and in the development of CRC was investigated in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b-DTR) transgenic C57BL/6J mice in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Treg-cells remarkably infiltrated solid tumor, and predominantly expressed the homing chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in the induced CRC model. Both CMT93 cancer cells and macrophages produced a large amount of CCL20, the sole ligand of CCR6 in vitro and in vivo. Injection of recombinant mouse CCL20 into tumor sites promoted its development with a marked recruitment of Treg-cells in the graft CRC model. Conditional macrophage ablation decreased CCL20 levels, blocked Treg-cell recruitment and inhibited tumor growth in CD11b-DTR mice grafted with CMT93. Conclusions/Significance TAMs recruit CCR6+ Treg-cells to tumor mass and promote its development via enhancing the production of CCL20 in a CRC mouse model. PMID:21559338

  18. Characterization of the bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein gene family – analysis of gene sequences, regulatory regions within the promoter and expression of selected genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs belong to a large family of aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placenta of species in the Artiodactyla order. In cattle, the PAG gene family is comprised of at least 22 transcribed genes, as well as some variants. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the PAG family segregates into 'ancient' and 'modern' groupings. Along with sequence differences between family members, there are clear distinctions in their spatio-temporal distribution and in their relative level of expression. In this report, 1 we performed an in silico analysis of the bovine genome to further characterize the PAG gene family, 2 we scrutinized proximal promoter sequences of the PAG genes to evaluate the evolution pressures operating on them and to identify putative regulatory regions, 3 we determined relative transcript abundance of selected PAGs during pregnancy and, 4 we performed preliminary characterization of the putative regulatory elements for one of the candidate PAGs, bovine (bo PAG-2. Results From our analysis of the bovine genome, we identified 18 distinct PAG genes and 14 pseudogenes. We observed that the first 500 base pairs upstream of the translational start site contained multiple regions that are conserved among all boPAGs. However, a preponderance of conserved regions, that harbor recognition sites for putative transcriptional factors (TFs, were found to be unique to the modern boPAG grouping, but not the ancient boPAGs. We gathered evidence by means of Q-PCR and screening of EST databases to show that boPAG-2 is the most abundant of all boPAG transcripts. Finally, we provided preliminary evidence for the role of ETS- and DDVL-related TFs in the regulation of the boPAG-2 gene. Conclusion PAGs represent a relatively large gene family in the bovine genome. The proximal promoter regions of these genes display differences in putative TF binding sites, likely contributing to observed

  19. Nox2 in regulatory T cells promotes angiotensin II-induced cardiovascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Amber; Trevelin, Silvia Cellone; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Becker, Pablo D; Ortiz, Carla; Smyth, Lesley A; Peng, Qi; Elgueta, Raul; Sawyer, Greta; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-04-24

    The superoxide-generating enzyme Nox2 contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling triggered by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Multiple Nox2-expressing cells are implicated in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced pathophysiology, but the importance of Nox2 in leukocyte subsets is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Nox2 in T cells, particularly Tregs. Mice globally deficient in Nox2 displayed increased numbers of Tregs in the heart at baseline whereas AngII-induced T-effector cell (Teffs) infiltration was inhibited. To investigate the role of Treg Nox2, we generated a mouse line with CD4-targeted Nox2 deficiency (Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+). These animals showed inhibition of AngII-induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling related to increased tissue-resident Tregs and reduction in infiltrating Teffs, including Th17 cells. The protection in Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+ mice was reversed by anti-CD25 Ab-depletion of Tregs. Mechanistically, Nox2-/y Tregs showed higher in vitro suppression of Teffs proliferation than WT Tregs, increased nuclear levels of FoxP3 and NF-κB, and enhanced transcription of CD25, CD39, and CD73. Adoptive transfer of Tregs confirmed that Nox2-deficient cells had greater inhibitory effects on AngII-induced heart remodeling than WT cells. These results identify a previously unrecognized role of Nox2 in modulating suppression of Tregs, which acts to enhance hypertension and cardiac remodeling.

  20. Promotion and Support of Strong Safety Culture at the Hungarian Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bódis, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) in 2014 carried out a self-assessment in order to preparation for IAEA IRRS mission. As a result of the SWOT analysis it was concluded that for the promotion, development and improvement of safety culture at the HAEA is displayed only on the policy level. In order to obtain a greater emphasis on safety culture within the organization a working group was created. The task of the working group was to define the proposed actions to develop the organizational safety culture. The working group reviewed the current situation, the international experiences and proposed on this basis the elaboration of a guideline regarding to organizational safety culture, to integrate this guideline into the organizational training program so as to apply to all levels of the organization and presentation of the safety culture as part of the training of new comers. Results so far: The working group has defined the main tasks and the connecting milestones in order to develop and improve the organizational safety culture at the HAEA. HAEA has elaborated a guideline for performing safety culture self-assessment based on IAEA and other relevant documents.

  1. Late engagement of CD86 after influenza virus clearance promotes recovery in a FoxP3+ regulatory T cell dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Moser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV infection in the respiratory tract triggers robust innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in both virus clearance and lung inflammation and injury. After virus clearance, resolution of ongoing inflammation and tissue repair occur during a distinct recovery period. B7 family co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 have important roles in modulating T cell activity during the initiation and effector stages of the host response to IAV infection, but their potential role during recovery and resolution of inflammation is unknown. We found that antibody-mediated CD86 blockade in vivo after virus clearance led to a delay in recovery, characterized by increased numbers of lung neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in airways and lung interstitium, but no change in conventional IAV-specific T cell responses. However, CD86 blockade led to decreased numbers of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, and adoptive transfer of Tregs into αCD86 treated mice rescued the effect of the blockade, supporting a role for Tregs in promoting recovery after virus clearance. Specific depletion of Tregs late after infection mimicked the CD86 blockade phenotype, confirming a role for Tregs during recovery after virus clearance. Furthermore, we identified neutrophils as a target of Treg suppression since neutrophil depletion in Treg-depleted mice reduced excess inflammatory cytokines in the airways. These results demonstrate that Tregs, in a CD86 dependent mechanism, contribute to the resolution of disease after IAV infection, in part by suppressing neutrophil-driven cytokine release into the airways.

  2. Imagining roles for epigenetics in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Koehly, Laura M

    2017-04-01

    Discoveries from the Human Genome Project have invigorated discussions of epigenetic effects-modifiable chemical processes that influence DNA's ability to give instructions to turn gene expression on or off-on health outcomes. We suggest three domains in which new understandings of epigenetics could inform innovations in health promotion research: (1) increase the motivational potency of health communications (e.g., explaining individual differences in health outcomes to interrupt optimistic biases about health exposures); (2) illuminate new approaches to targeted and tailored health promotion interventions (e.g., relapse prevention targeted to epigenetic responses to intervention participation); and (3) inform more sensitive measures of intervention impact, (e.g., replace or augment self-reported adherence). We suggest a three-step process for using epigenetics in health promotion research that emphasizes integrating epigenetic mechanisms into conceptual model development that then informs selection of intervention approaches and outcomes. Lastly, we pose examples of relevant scientific questions worth exploring.

  3. Intradermal application of vitamin D3 increases migration of CD14+ dermal dendritic cells and promotes the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakdash, Ghaith; Schneider, Laura P.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; de Jong, Esther C.

    2013-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D3 (VitD) is a potent immunosuppressive drug. Its effects are mediated in part through dendritic cells (DCs) that promote the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, it remains elusive how VitD would influence the different human skin DC subsets, e.g.,

  4. Development of a conceptual model of the role of hospital nurses in health promotion in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoqirat, N

    2015-05-19

    International evidence reveals that hospital nurses have not been able to incorporate health promotion effectively into the framework of their care. This can be attributed to unclear conceptualizing of the barriers and facilitators to the role of nurses in health promotion. An integrative review was carried out to develop a conceptual model to assist hospital nurses in Jordan to understand how health promotion activities can be developed. Factors affecting the involvement of nurses in health promotion - ranging from limited knowledge about health promotion to the social image of nursing - can be structured into three levels: the micro (individual), meso (organizational) and macro (population). By understanding the interplay of factors between and within the levels, nurses and other health professionals can draw on the individual, social and organizational factors that influence nurses' role in health promotion. The proposed model can be considered as a springboard for developing health promotion activities related to hospitals in other Muslim-majority contexts.

  5. The Role of Formative Feedback in Promoting Higher Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    An International Multi-disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. AFRREV ... make contribution to this research gap by proposing a theoretical feedback model that can promote higher order thinking skills in the classroom. The proposed ..... process; students provided with tasks that are novel, complex, creative, and non- algorithmic ...

  6. The role of the education system in promoting unity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rwandan Commission for Human Rights (HRC), NURC, and the Ministry of Education are working in collaboration to draw a more acceptable History syllabus that will promote national unity and reconciliation without distorting the truth. The government has also introduced civic and political education in primary and ...

  7. Regulatory T-cells in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: their role in disease progression and autoimmune cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Deepesh P; Varma, Subhash; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Bose, Parveen; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2013-05-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have been shown to be important for the balance of autoimmunity and oncogenesis. Tregs have a protective role in autoimmune diseases and conversely promote oncogenesis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unique in being at the cross-roads of oncogenesis and autoimmunity. We studied Tregs, defined as CD4+CD25(high)CD127(low)FOXP3+, in 32 treatment-naive patients with CLL. Our study shows that patients with CLL had a higher absolute Treg count than the control group (p < 0.001). A progressive increase of Tregs was noted in advanced stages of the disease (p < 0.001). The increase in absolute Treg count is more significant than the increase in percentage Tregs. The absolute Treg count appears to be more important in disease pathogenesis. The absolute Treg count was significantly higher in those patients having autoimmune cytopenias. There was an inverse correlation between lymphocyte doubling time and absolute Treg count (p = 0.03). The absolute Treg count may be used as a prognostic marker in CLL.

  8. Negative emotions and behaviour: The role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesurado, Belén; Vidal, Elisabeth Malonda; Mestre, Anna Llorca

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test a longitudinal model that analyses the direct effect of negative emotions (anger, depression and anxiety, wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) in adolescents. And the indirect effect of negative emotions (wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) through regulatory emotional self-efficacy. Data was obtained from 417 adolescents in a two-wave longitudinal study (225 girls, M age = 14.70 years) from schools located in Valencia, Spain. SEM was employed to explore longitudinal models. The results showed that anger had a direct relationship with prosocial behaviour and aggression, measured two years later. However, the depression and anxiety states did not predict prosociality and aggressiveness. The mediation role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy between negative emotion and behaviours was only partially confirmed. Finally, only the perception of self-efficacy in expressing positive affect is related to prosociality and aggressiveness. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Business Education in Promoting Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman Dauda Gidado; Philo Akaeze

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is encouraged in Nigeria because it could lead to self-employment, help in reducing unemployment and contribute towards development of the country. Business education is described as an ‘education for business and about business’. It equips its recipients with creative skills that would make them to perform well as entrepreneurs. This paper thus, sees Business education as having the potentials for promoting and encouraging entrepreneurship in Nigeria because; it could equip ...

  10. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding. PMID:26327359

  11. Regulatory T cells (Treg and Their Roles in Immune System with Respect to Immunopathological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kondělková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress immune response, thereby maintaining homeostasis and self-tolerance. It has been shown that Tregs are able to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine production and play a critical role in preventing autoimmunity. Different subsets with various functions of Treg cells exist. Tregs can be usually identified by flow cytometry. The most specific marker for these cells is FoxP3, which is localized intracellulary. Selected surface markers such as CD25high (high molecular density and CD127low (low molecular density could serve as surrogate markers to detect Tregs in a routine clinical practice. Dysregulation in Treg cell frequency or functions may lead to the development of autoimmune disease. Therapeutical Treg modulation is considered to be a promising therapeutical approach to treat some selected disorders, such as allergies, and to prevent allograft rejection.

  12. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding.

  13. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.

  14. Helios expression in regulatory T cells promotes immunosuppression, angiogenesis and the growth of leukemia cells in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Li, Dong; Huang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Panpan; Shi, Qing; Zhang, Bing; Ju, Xiuli

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) are crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, FoxP3 does not function alone and Helios is considered a potential candidate for defining Treg subsets. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of Helios for identifying Tregs in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). Our results demonstrated that patients with pre-B ALL had a higher percentage of Helios + FoxP3 + CD4 + Tregs. And there was a positive correlation between the expression of Helios and the suppressive function of Tregs, the risk gradation of ALL. Helios in combination with CD4 and FoxP3 may be an effective way to detect functional Tregs in pre-B ALL by promoting the secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Furthermore, Helios + Tregs could regulate angiogenesis in the BM niche of pre-B ALL via the VEGFA/VEGFR2 pathway. We also found Helios + Tregs decreased apoptosis rate of nalm-6 cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. In summary, these data strongly imply the physiological importance of Helios expression in Tregs, and suggest that the manipulation of Helios may serve as a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 159 THE ROLE OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS IN PROMOTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    instability, musicians and music have a holistic role to play. And this is ... musicians useful, so that the child grows up a responsible ... endearing messages of body movements… ... In a similar development, he encouraged people never to be.

  16. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  17. Induction of regulatory T cells: A role for probiotics and prebiotics to suppress autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Kumar, Prasant; Laddha, Naresh C; Kemp, E Helen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells that play a vital role in suppressing inflammation and maintaining immune tolerance. Given the crucial role of Tregs in maintaining immune homeostasis, it is probably not surprising that many microbial species and their metabolites have the potential to induce Tregs. There is now great interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics and prebiotics based strategies for a range of autoimmune disorders. This review will summarise recent findings concerning the role of probiotics and prebiotics in induction of Tregs to ameliorate the autoimmune conditions. In addition, the article is focused to explain the different mechanisms of Treg induction and function by these probiotics and prebiotics, based on the available studies till date. The article further proposes that induction of Tregs by probiotics and prebiotics could lead to the development of new therapeutic approach towards curbing the autoimmune response and as an alternative to detrimental immunosuppressive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential regulatory roles of NAD(+) and its metabolism in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jia-Ping; Hu, Jiong-Yu; Huang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    (Macro)autophagy mediates the bulk degradation of defective organelles, long-lived proteins and protein aggregates in lysosomes and plays a critical role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Defective autophagy processes have been found to contribute to a variety of metabolic diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy are not fully understood. Increasing data indicate that nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD(+)) homeostasis correlates intimately with autophagy. NAD(+) is a ubiquitous coenzyme that functions primarily as an electron carrier of oxidoreductase in multiple redox reactions. Both NAD(+) homeostasis and its metabolism are thought to play critical roles in regulating autophagy. In this review, we discuss how the regulation of NAD(+) and its metabolism can influence autophagy. We focus on the regulation of NAD(+)/NADH homeostasis and the effects of NAD(+) consumption by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation by sirtuins and NAD(+) metabolites on autophagy processes and the underlying mechanisms. Future studies should provide more direct evidence for the regulation of autophagy processes by NAD(+). A better understanding of the critical roles of NAD(+) and its metabolites on autophagy will shed light on the complexity of autophagy regulation, which is essential for the discovery of new therapeutic tools for autophagy-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Regulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in Bone Remodeling and Perspectives as Biomarkers in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengge Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are involved in many cellular and molecular activities and played important roles in many biological and pathological processes, such as tissue formation, cancer development, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will present the updated research on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the expression profiles of microRNAs in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture patients. The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed.

  20. Regulatory T cells are strong promoters of acute ischemic stroke in mice by inducing dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Kraft, Peter; Dreykluft, Angela; Hagedorn, Ina; Göbel, Kerstin; Schuhmann, Michael K; Langhauser, Friederike; Helluy, Xavier; Schwarz, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Mayer, Christian T; Brede, Marc; Varallyay, Csanad; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Magnus, Tim; Meuth, Sven G; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Zernecke, Alma; Sparwasser, Tim; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Wiendl, Heinz

    2013-01-24

    We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of Tregs after experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Selective depletion of Tregs in the DEREG mouse model dramatically reduced infarct size and improved neurologic function 24 hours after stroke and this protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarct development. The specificity of this detrimental Treg effect was confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments in wild-type mice and in Rag1(-/-) mice lacking lymphocytes. Mechanistically, Tregs induced microvascular dysfunction in vivo by increased interaction with the ischemic brain endothelium via the LFA-1/ICAM-1 pathway and platelets and these findings were confirmed in vitro. Ablation of Tregs reduced microvascular thrombus formation and improved cerebral reperfusion on stroke, as revealed by ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 17.6 Tesla. In contrast, established immunoregulatory characteristics of Tregs had no functional relevance. We define herein a novel and unexpected role of Tregs in a primary nonimmunologic disease state.

  1. Role of the DmpR-mediated regulatory circuit in bacterial biodegradation properties in methylphenol-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarand, I; Skärfstad, E; Forsman, M; Romantschuk, M; Shingler, V

    2001-01-01

    Pathway substrates and some structural analogues directly activate the regulatory protein DmpR to promote transcription of the dmp operon genes encoding the (methyl)phenol degradative pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. While a wide range of phenols can activate DmpR, the location and nature of substituents on the basic phenolic ring can limit the level of activation and thus utilization of some compounds as assessed by growth on plates. Here we address the role of the aromatic effector response of DmpR in determining degradative properties in two soil matrices that provide different nutritional conditions. Using the wild-type system and an isogenic counterpart containing a DmpR mutant with enhanced ability to respond to para-substituted phenols, we demonstrate (i) that the enhanced in vitro biodegradative capacity of the regulator mutant strain is manifested in the two different soil types and (ii) that exposure of the wild-type strain to 4-methylphenol-contaminated soil led to rapid selection of a subpopulation exhibiting enhanced capacities to degrade the compound. Genetic and functional analyses of 10 of these derivatives demonstrated that all harbored a single mutation in the sensory domain of DmpR that mediated the phenotype in each case. These findings establish a dominating role for the aromatic effector response of DmpR in determining degradation properties. Moreover, the results indicate that the ability to rapidly adapt regulator properties to different profiles of polluting compounds may underlie the evolutionary success of DmpR-like regulators in controlling aromatic catabolic pathways.

  2. School health promotion--international perspectives and role of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasla, Munira; Prasla, Shameer Ali

    2011-01-01

    Schools have great potential in health promotion; however, this is often neglected area and fewer efforts are done in exploring status of school health promotion in Pakistan. This paper attempts to outline brief historical background of school health promotion in Pakistan; presents critical review of some international school health promotion perspectives; and finally explore opportunities and role of healthcare professionals in Pakistan's context. A critical review of peer-reviewed literature divided into two broad themes of international perspectives on school health promotion, and role of healthcare professionals. Results are presented in cross-cutting themes and in narrative style. School health promotion is very diverse phenomenon, situated in respective cultural contexts. Programmes pesent a range of characteristics from focusing on integrated approach to health education to behavioural changes; and from involving youngsters to policy advocacy. Like the programmes, role of healthcare professionals is also varied and dynamic and without clearly defining their role, development of effective health promotion programmes is difficult. School health promotion could be facilitated by appropriate trainings for healthcare professionals and evidence-based policy changes.

  3. Information to Improve Public Perceptions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA’s Tobacco Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Osman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA has had regulatory authority over tobacco products since 2009, public awareness of this authority remains limited. This research examines several broad types of information about FDA tobacco regulatory mission that may improve the perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, 1766 adults, smokers and non-smokers, were randomly assigned to view a statement about FDA regulatory authority that varied three information types in a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects experimental design: (1 FDA’s roles in regulating tobacco (yes/no; (2 The scientific basis of regulations (yes/no; and (3 A potential protective function of regulations (yes/no. Using factorial ANOVA, we estimated the main and interactive effects of all three types of information and of smoking status on the perceptions of FDA. Participants that were exposed to information on FDA roles reported higher FDA credibility and a greater perceived knowledge of FDA than those who did not. Exposure to information about the scientific basis of regulations led to more negative views of the tobacco industry. Participants who learned of the FDA’s commitment to protecting the public reported higher FDA credibility and more positive attitudes toward regulations than those who did not learn of this commitment. We observed no significant interaction effects. The findings suggest that providing information about the regulatory roles and protective characterization of the FDA’s tobacco regulatory mission positively influence public perceptions of FDA and tobacco regulations.

  4. The Role of Training and Promotion to Increase The 3rd Party Funds Indonesian Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study aims to determine whether the role of training is much larger than the promotion in raising third-party funds in Islamic banks in Indonesia given the cost of the training is spent is greater than the cost of promotion. This study empirically examines the relationship and impact of training and promotion to raise funds for a 3rd party in Indonesia Islamic banks.Methods – This study uses secondary data Islamic commercial banks in the form of panel (time-series and cross-section of Bank Indonesia data from 2010 until 2012. There are two independent variables training cost (X1 and promotion cost (X2 and one dependent variable is 3rd-party funds (Y. The analysis technique used path analysis to examine the role of training and the promotion of financial performance (The 3rd Party Funds.Result – Simultaneously, training and promotion gives an effect by 52%, and partially or individual training gives an insignificant negative effect, while the promotion has a significant positive impact on financial performance (financial-party funds on Islamic banking.Conclusion – The role of promotion is higher in raising The 3rd Party Funds than training. Keywords : Cost, Training, Promotion, The 3rd Party Funds 

  5. Functional dissection of the promoter of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 reveals a novel pollen-specific, and conserved cis-regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, K; Schrauwen, J; Wullems, G; Twell, D

    1995-07-01

    Regulatory elements within the promoter of the pollen-specific NTP303 gene from tobacco were analysed by transient and stable expression analyses. Analysis of precisely targeted mutations showed that the NTP303 promoter is not regulated by any of the previously described pollen-specific cis-regulatory elements. However, two adjacent regions from -103 to -86 bp and from -86 to -59 bp were shown to contain sequences which positively regulated the NTP303 promoter. Both of these regions were capable of driving pollen-specific expression from a heterologous promoter, independent of orientation and in an additive manner. The boundaries of the minimal, functional NTP303 promoter were determined to lie within the region -86 to -51 bp. The sequence AAATGA localized from -94 to -89 bp was identified as a novel cis-acting element, of which the TGA triplet was shown to comprise an active part. This element was shown to be completely conserved in the similarly regulated promoter of the Bp 10 gene from Brassica napus encoding a homologue of the NTP303 gene.

  6. The role of the film as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pavković Vladimir; Filipović Vinka; Vlastelica-Bakić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses different film genres and their role as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy. The general objective of the paper is to point to the significance of film for the tourist destination recognisability as well as its perception in the public eye. The specific objectives of the paper are directed at the analysis of individual roles that different film genres have in the tourist destination promotion strategy. The research methods emplo...

  7. Immigrant parents role in mental health promotion of their primary school children.

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    KEMI TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Health Care and Social Services Degree Programme in Nursing SHOBHA ADHIKARI IMMIGRANT PARENTS ROLE IN MENTAL HEALTH PROMOTION OF THEIR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Bachelor’s Thesis 46 pages Advisors: Arja Meinilä and Hannele Pietiläinen ________________________________________ Key words: immigrant parents, children, mental health, promotion, school, cooperation This thesis deals with the immigrant parents’ role in mental healt...

  8. Uncovering a Dual Regulatory Role for Caspases During Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Veronica G; Yu, Kebing; Gnad, Florian; Pferdehirt, Rebecca R; Li, Han; Ma, Taylur P; Jeon, Diana; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Forrest, William; Ashkenazi, Avi; Overall, Christopher M; Lill, Jennie R

    2016-07-01

    Many diseases are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which results from an accumulation of misfolded proteins. This triggers an adaptive response called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), and prolonged exposure to ER stress leads to cell death. Caspases are reported to play a critical role in ER stress-induced cell death but the underlying mechanisms by which they exert their effect continue to remain elusive. To understand the role caspases play during ER stress, a systems level approach integrating analysis of the transcriptome, proteome, and proteolytic substrate profile was employed. This quantitative analysis revealed transcriptional profiles for most human genes, provided information on protein abundance for 4476 proteins, and identified 445 caspase substrates. Based on these data sets many caspase substrates were shown to be downregulated at the protein level during ER stress suggesting caspase activity inhibits their cellular function. Additionally, RNA sequencing revealed a role for caspases in regulation of ER stress-induced transcriptional pathways and gene set enrichment analysis showed expression of multiple gene targets of essential transcription factors to be upregulated during ER stress upon inhibition of caspases. Furthermore, these transcription factors were degraded in a caspase-dependent manner during ER stress. These results indicate that caspases play a dual role in regulating the cellular response to ER stress through both post-translational and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Moreover, this study provides unique insight into progression of the unfolded protein response into cell death, which may help identify therapeutic strategies to treat ER stress-related diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  10. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Has a Protective Role in the Host Response to Endotoxic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joly

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF 6, a member of the IRF family, is essential for epidermal and orofacial embryonic development. Irf6 is strongly expressed in keratinocytes, in which it regulates epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and migration. A recent role for Irf6 in Toll-like receptor 2-dependent chemokine gene expression was also reported in an epithelial cell line. However, a function for Irf6 in innate immune cells was not previously reported. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of Irf6 in bone marrow-derived neutrophils and macrophages. We show here, using a conditional knockout of Irf6 in lysosymeM expressing cells, that Irf6 is required for resistance to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. In addition, Irf6-deficient bone marrow-derived neutrophils exhibited increased chemotactic index and velocity compared with wild-type cells in vitro. TLR4-specific KC and IL6 secretions were upregulated in Irf6-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. These cells also exhibited an increased level of phosphorylated IkBa. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for Irf6 in the resistance to endotoxic shock due to NFk-B-mediated alteration of cytokine production.

  11. The roles of antitrust law and regulatory oversight in the restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, C.A.; Little, M.B.

    1999-05-01

    The introduction of retail wheeling is changing the roles of regulators and the courts. When states unbundle the vertically integrated investor-owned utility (IOU) into generation companies, transmission companies, and distribution companies, antitrust enforcement and policy setting by the state public utility/service commissions (PUCs) will be paramount. As was seen in the deregulation of the airline industry, vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws by the courts and proper policy setting by the regulators are the keys to a successful competitive market. Many of the problems raised in the airline deregulation movement came about due to laxity in correcting clear antitrust violations and anti-competitive conditions before they caused damage to the market. As retail wheeling rolls out, it is critical for state PUCs to become attuned to these issues and, most of all, to have staff trained in these disciplines. The advent of retail wheeling changes the application of the State Action Doctrine and, in turn, may dramatically alter the role of the state PUC--meaning antitrust law and regulatory oversight must step in to protect competitors and consumers from monopolistic abuse.

  12. Circular RNA Profiling and Bioinformatic Modeling Identify Its Regulatory Role in Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing-Ya; He, Chong-Xin; Wang, Yu-Qin; Sun, Chao; Li, Guang-Ming; Su, Qing; Pan, Qin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) exhibit a wide range of physiological and pathological activities. To uncover their role in hepatic steatosis, we investigated the expression profile of circRNAs in HepG2-based hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat stimulation. Differentially expressed circRNAs were subjected to validation using QPCR and functional analyses using principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, target prediction, gene ontology (GO), and pathway annotation, respectively. Bioinformatic integration established the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network so as to identify the mechanisms underlying circRNAs' metabolic effect. Here we reported that hepatic steatosis was associated with a total of 357 circRNAs. Enrichment of transcription-related GOs, especially GO: 0006355, GO: 004589, GO: 0045944, GO: 0045892, and GO: 0000122, demonstrated their specific actions in transcriptional regulation. Lipin 1 (LPIN1) was recognized to mediate the transcriptional regulatory effect of circRNAs on metabolic pathways. circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network further identified the signaling cascade of circRNA_021412/miR-1972/LPIN1, which was characterized by decreased level of circRNA_021412 and miR-1972-based inhibition of LPIN1. LPIN1-induced downregulation of long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) expression finally resulted in the hepatosteatosis. These findings identify circRNAs to be important regulators of hepatic steatosis. Transcription-dependent modulation of metabolic pathways may underlie their effects, partially by the circRNA_021412/miR-1972/LPIN1 signaling.

  13. The role of energy economists in promoting sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The role of energy in pursuit of policies seeking sustainable development is crucial. Correspondingly, the work of energy economists will be affected in many traditional areas of analysis and will require enhanced scope and new expertise. This would lead to a better understanding of the place of natural resources in the production process, better delineation of trade-offs between avoidance of ecological degradation and economic stagnation, and more interdisciplinary feed-back. (author)

  14. The effects of message framing and risk perceptions for HPV vaccine campaigns: focus on the role of regulatory fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of framing and risk perception, and their interaction effects on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Based on a 2 (message frames) × 2 (perceived risk) experimental design, the interaction effects reveal the effectiveness of loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages would be maximized for high (vs. low) perceived risk condition. Based on regulatory fit principles the synergy effects are shown in terms of attitudes toward advertising and HPV vaccination, HPV vaccination intention, and ad-promoted behavioral intention. The findings indicate right message appeals should be selected for the right target audiences in the setting of HPV vaccine promotions.

  15. Health promotion through employee assistance programs: a role for occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, M

    1986-11-01

    Health promotion is predicted to have a major impact on occupational therapy practice. Keeping people well and promoting a healthy life-style will be the focus for the future. Many companies and agencies are taking the lead by instituting employee assistance programs (EAPs). With the de-emphasis on long-term hospital care, many occupational therapists will be seeking employment with community health programs. This paper advocates a role for occupational therapists in health promotion and disease prevention in an EAP. A description of EAPs and the contributions that occupational therapists can make to these programs is offered. Practice and education considerations for occupational therapists' roles in EAPs are provided.

  16. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite...

  17. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation

  18. Promoting Mental Health Equity: The Role of Integrated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, David; Rachel, Sharon A

    2017-12-01

    People suffering from mental illness experience poor physical health outcomes, including an average life expectancy of 25 years less than the rest of the population. Stigma is a frequent barrier to accessing behavioral health services. Health equity refers to the opportunity for all people to experience optimal health; the social determinants of health can enable or impede health equity. Recommendations from the U.S. government and the World Health Organization support mental health promotion while recognizing barriers that preclude health equity. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended screening all adults for depression. The Satcher Health Leadership Institute at the Morehouse School of Medicine (SHLI/MSM) is committed to developing leaders who will help to reduce health disparities as the nation moves toward health equity. The SHLI/MSM Integrated Care Leadership Program (ICLP) provides clinical and administrative healthcare professionals with knowledge and training to develop culturally-sensitive integrated care practices. Integrating behavioral health and primary care improves quality of life and lowers health system costs.

  19. Promoting clean energy technology entrepreneurship: The role of external context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, Joel; Marcus, Alfred A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how political, social and economic factors influence clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). Government policies supporting clean energy technology development and the development of markets for clean energy create opportunities for CETE. However, the extent to which such opportunities lead to the emergence of new clean energy businesses depends on a favorable external context promoting CETE. This study employs a novel dataset combining indicators of the policy and social context of CETE with information on clean energy technology startup firms in the USA to provide empirical evidence that technological and market conditions supporting clean energy induce more extensive CETE under contexts where local attention to clean energy issues and successful firms commercializing clean energy technologies are more prominent. By establishing that CETE is contingent upon a supportive local environment as well as technology and market opportunities, the study holds relevance for policy makers and clean energy technology firms. - Highlights: • Influence of political, social and economic factors on clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). • CETE more prominent with clean energy technology availability. • Greater when local attention interacts with technology availability and market opportunities. • Greater when local firms successfully commercialize technologies. • Novel dataset and Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation.

  20. Epistemic beliefs' role in promoting misperceptions and conspiracist ideation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kelly Garrett

    Full Text Available Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts, importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence, and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political. Analyses confirm that these factors complement established predictors of misperception, substantively increasing our ability to explain both individuals' propensity to engage in conspiracist ideation, and their willingness to embrace falsehoods about high-profile scientific and political issues. Individuals who view reality as a political construct are significantly more likely to embrace falsehoods, whereas those who believe that their conclusions must hew to available evidence tend to hold more accurate beliefs. Confidence in the ability to intuitively recognize truth is a uniquely important predictor of conspiracist ideation. Results suggest that efforts to counter misperceptions may be helped by promoting epistemic beliefs emphasizing the importance of evidence, cautious use of feelings, and trust that rigorous assessment by knowledgeable specialists is an effective guard against political manipulation.

  1. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  2. Generation of dTALEs and Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters for Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tom; Tissier, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors with programmable DNA-binding specificity constitute valuable tools for the design of orthogonal gene regulatory networks for synthetic biology. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), as natural transcription regulators, were used to design, build, and test libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters (STAPs) that show a broad range of expression levels in plants. In this chapter, we present protocols for the construction of artificial TALEs and corresponding STAPs.

  3. RNA SURVEILLANCE– AN EMERGING ROLE FOR RNA REGULATORY NETWORKS IN AGING

    OpenAIRE

    Montano, Monty; Long, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we describe recent advances in the field of RNA regulatory biology and relate these advances to aging science. We introduce a new term, RNA surveillance, an RNA regulatory process that is conserved in metazoans, and describe how RNA surveillance represents molecular cross-talk between two emerging RNA regulatory systems – RNA interference and RNA editing. We discuss how RNA surveillance mechanisms influence mRNA and microRNA expression and activity during lifespan. Additionall...

  4. Personalisation of promotional offers in a mobile coupon service context: the role of regulatory fit

    OpenAIRE

    Khajehzadeh, Saman

    2017-01-01

    This thesis theoretically develops and empirically tests a model of personalisation in the context of mobile couponing. The focus is in particular on personalised mobile coupon services provided to shoppers in shopping centres while they shop. To use such a service, customers sign up once and then send requests to receive new offers whenever they wish during their shopping trip. Three factors are identified as the key cues conveyed by a mobile coupon. The three factors consist of: the type of...

  5. Multiple cis-regulatory elements are involved in the complex regulation of the sieve element-specific MtSEO-F1 promoter from Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsenez, M; Rüping, B; Behrens, S; Twyman, R M; Noll, G A; Prüfer, D

    2012-09-01

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family includes several members that are expressed specifically in immature sieve elements (SEs) in the developing phloem of dicotyledonous plants. To determine how this restricted expression profile is achieved, we analysed the SE-specific Medicago truncatula SEO-F1 promoter (PMtSEO-F1) by constructing deletion, substitution and hybrid constructs and testing them in transgenic tobacco plants using green fluorescent protein as a reporter. This revealed four promoter regions, each containing cis-regulatory elements that activate transcription in SEs. One of these segments also contained sufficient information to suppress PMtSEO-F1 transcription in the phloem companion cells (CCs). Subsequent in silico analysis revealed several candidate cis-regulatory elements that PMtSEO-F1 shares with other SEO promoters. These putative sieve element boxes (PSE boxes) are promising candidates for cis-regulatory elements controlling the SE-specific expression of PMtSEO-F1. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Role of Mobile Technology in Promoting Campus-Wide Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irshad; Adeeb, Muhammad Aslam

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of mobile technology in promoting campus-wide learning environment. Its main objectives were to a) evaluate the role of mobile technology in higher education in terms of its i). appropriateness ii). flexibility iii). Interactivity, & iv). availability & usefulness and to b). identify the problems of…

  7. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling.

  8. Evidence for a role of regulatory T cells in mediating the atheroprotective effect of apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigren, M; Kolbus, D; Dunér, P; Ljungcrantz, I; Söderberg, I; Björkbacka, H; Fredrikson, G N; Nilsson, J

    2011-05-01

    Autoimmune responses against oxidized low-density lipoprotein are considered to play an important pro-inflammatory role in atherosclerosis and to promote disease progression. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive cells that have an important part in maintaining self-tolerance and protection against autoimmunity. We investigated whether aBp210, a prototype atherosclerosis vaccine based on a peptide sequence derived from apolipoprotein B, inhibits atherosclerosis through the activation of Tregs. Six-week-old Apoe(-/-) mice were immunized with aBp210 and received booster immunizations 3 and 5 weeks later, as well as 1 week before being killed at 25 weeks of age. At 12 weeks, immunized mice had increased expression of the Treg marker CD25 on circulating CD4 cells, and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 release from splenocytes was markedly depressed. At 25 weeks, there was a fivefold expansion of splenic CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3 Tregs, a 65% decrease in Con A-induced splenic T-cell proliferation and a 37% reduction in the development of atherosclerosis in immunized mice. Administration of blocking antibodies against CD25 neutralized aBp210-induced Treg activation as well as the reduction of atherosclerosis. The present findings demonstrate that immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice with the apolipoprotein B peptide vaccine aBp210 is associated with activation of Tregs. Administration of antibodies against CD25 results in depletion of Tregs and blocking of the atheroprotective effect of the vaccine. Modulation in atherosclerosis-related autoimmunity by antigen-specific activation of Tregs represents a novel approach for treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Role of regulatory T cells in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing relapse-preventive immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Frida Ewald; Nilsson, Malin; Rydström, Anna; Aurelius, Johan; Riise, Rebecca E; Movitz, Charlotta; Bernson, Elin; Kiffin, Roberta; Ståhlberg, Anders; Brune, Mats; Foà, Robin; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B; Martner, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (T regs ) have been proposed to dampen functions of anti-neoplastic immune cells and thus promote cancer progression. In a phase IV trial (Re:Mission Trial, NCT01347996, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) 84 patients (age 18-79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received ten consecutive 3-week cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to prevent relapse of leukemia in the post-consolidation phase. This study aimed at defining the features, function and dynamics of Foxp3 + CD25 high CD4 + T regs during immunotherapy and to determine the potential impact of T regs on relapse risk and survival. We observed a pronounced increase in T reg counts in peripheral blood during initial cycles of HDC/IL-2. The accumulating T regs resembled thymic-derived natural T regs (nT regs ), showed augmented expression of CTLA-4 and suppressed the cell cycle proliferation of conventional T cells ex vivo. Relapse of AML was not prognosticated by T reg counts at onset of treatment or after the first cycle of immunotherapy. However, the magnitude of T reg induction was diminished in subsequent treatment cycles. Exploratory analyses implied that a reduced expansion of T regs in later treatment cycles and a short T reg telomere length were significantly associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Our results suggest that immunotherapy with HDC/IL-2 in AML entails induction of immunosuppressive T regs that may be targeted for improved anti-leukemic efficiency.

  10. A PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liang, Tingyu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Wen; Xu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Ding, Yaozhong

    2017-10-17

    Collagen XVII expression has recently been demonstrated to be correlated with the tumor malignance. While Collagen XVII is known to be widely distributed in neurons of the human brain, its precise role in pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene in GMB using transcriptome sequencing. Although fusion gene did not result in measurable fusion protein production, its presence is accompanied with high levels of COL17A1 expression, revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Collagen XVII expression by PTEN-COL17A1 gene fusion. Knocked down Collagen XVII expression in glioma cell lines resulted in decreased tumor invasiveness, along with significant reduction of MMP9 expression, while increased Collagen XVII expression promotes invasive activities of glioma cells and associated with GBM recurrences. Together, our results uncovered a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance, and demonstrated that COL17A1 could serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for GBM.

  11. The regulatory role of heparin on c-Met signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşcan, Evin; Güneş, Aysim; Korhan, Peyda; Yılmaz, Yeliz; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2017-06-01

    The role of heparin as an anticoagulant is well defined; however, its role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is not clear yet. Some studies have shown that anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients improve overall survival, however, recent clinical trials have not shown a survival benefit in cancer patients receiving heparin treatment. In our previous studies we have shown the inhibitory effects of heparin on Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)-induced invasion and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we showed the differential effects of heparin on the behaviors of HCC cells based on the presence or absence of HGF. In the absence of HGF, heparin activated HGF/c-Met signaling and promoted motility and invasion in HCC cells. Heparin treatment led to c-Met receptor dimerization and activated c-Met signaling in an HGF independent manner. Heparin-induced c-Met activation increased migration and invasion through ERK1/2, early growth response factor 1 (EGR1) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) axis. Interestingly, heparin modestly decreased the proliferation of HCC cells by inhibiting activatory phosphorylation of Akt. The inhibition of c-Met signaling reversed heparin-induced increase in motility and invasion and, proliferation inhibition. Our study provides a new perspective into the role of heparin on c-Met signaling in HCC.

  12. The regulatory role of the Hungarian Geological Survey in the closure of Mecsek uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamor, T.; Gombor, L.

    2001-01-01

    Under Mining Act XLIII established in 1993, the Hungarian Geological Survey was given a wide range of authority related to the environment, mining, nuclear and general constructions. In implementing these task the Survey will be supported by the well established Geological Institute of Hungary and the Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute. The Survey's role in the nuclear field includes the licensing of plans and reports on geologically related research to any nuclear facilities. The Hungarian Geological Survey is also co-authority on matters related to the establishment, construction, modification and closure, environmental protection of nuclear facilities in general and all matter related to uranium mining. The Survey's regulatory activity in radioactive waste management follows the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Tourism 62/1997 which is based on the Atomic Energy Act CXVI of 1966. These regulations were prepared in harmony with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency conventions, standards and guides and those of other countries. Case histories on the applications of these regulations to the closure of Mecsek uranium mine and the operation of the research laboratory tunnel for long-lived, high level radioactive waste are presented here. (author)

  13. Regulatory T cells as suppressors of anti-tumor immunity: Role of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Veronica; Di Rella, Francesca; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-derived metabolic restrictions can drive T cell hyporesponsiveness and immune tolerance. For example, several glycolytic enzymes, deregulated in cancer, contribute to tumor progression independently from their canonical metabolic activity. Indeed, they can control apoptosis, gene expression and activation of specific intracellular pathways, thus suggesting a direct link between metabolic switches and pro-tumorigenic transcriptional programs. Focus of this review is to define the specific metabolic pathways controlling Treg cell immunobiology in the context of anti-tumor immunity and tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulatory role for the memory B cell as suppressor-inducer of feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.W.; Thomas, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    A regulatory role is proposed for the antigen-responsive B cell, as suppressor-inducer of feedback control during the secondary response in vivo. In a double adoptive transfer of memory cells primed to a thymus-dependent antigen from one irradiated host to another, antigen-specific suppressors are generated after a critical time in the primary recipient, able to entirely ablate a secondary anti-hapten response. Positive cell selection in the fluorescence-activated cell sorter confirmed that suppression was mediated by an Lyt-2+ T cell; however, positively selected B cells were also inhibitory and able to induce suppressors in a carrier-specific manner: B hapten induced suppressors in a carrier-primed population, and B carrier induced suppressors in a hapten-carrier population. At the peak of the antibody response in the primary host, memory B cells and their progeny were unable to differentiate further to plasma cells due to their intrinsic suppressor-inducer activity, but this autoregulatory circuit could be severed by adoptive transfer to carrier-primed, X-irradiated recipients

  15. Evidence for roles of the Escherichia coli Hda protein beyond regulatory inactivation of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jamie C; Sutton, Mark D

    2012-08-01

    The ATP-bound form of the Escherichia coli DnaA protein binds 'DnaA boxes' present in the origin of replication (oriC) and operator sites of several genes, including dnaA, to co-ordinate their transcription with initiation of replication. The Hda protein, together with the β sliding clamp, stimulates the ATPase activity of DnaA via a process termed regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA), to regulate the activity of DnaA in DNA replication. Here, we used the mutant dnaN159 strain, which expresses the β159 clamp protein, to gain insight into how the actions of Hda are co-ordinated with replication. Elevated expression of Hda impeded growth of the dnaN159 strain in a Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Hda managing the actions of these Pols. In a wild-type strain, elevated levels of Hda conferred sensitivity to nitrofurazone, and suppressed the frequency of -1 frameshift mutations characteristic of Pol IV, while loss of hda conferred cold sensitivity. Using the dnaN159 strain, we identified 24 novel hda alleles, four of which supported E. coli viability despite their RIDA defect. Taken together, these findings suggest that although one or more Hda functions are essential for cell viability, RIDA may be dispensable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Regulatory Role of MicroRNAs in EMT and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Zaravinos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a powerful process in tumor invasion, metastasis, and tumorigenesis and describes the molecular reprogramming and phenotypic changes that are characterized by a transition from polarized immotile epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal cells. It is now well known that miRNAs are important regulators of malignant transformation and metastasis. The aberrant expression of the miR-200 family in cancer and its involvement in the initiation and progression of malignant transformation has been well demonstrated. The metastasis suppressive role of the miR-200 members is strongly associated with a pathologic EMT. This review describes the most recent advances regarding the influence of miRNAs in EMT and the control they exert in major signaling pathways in various cancers. The ability of the autocrine TGF-β/ZEB/miR-200 signaling regulatory network to control cell plasticity between the epithelial and mesenchymal state is further discussed. Various miRNAs are reported to directly target EMT transcription factors and components of the cell architecture, as well as miRNAs that are able to reverse the EMT process by targeting the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. The link between cancer stem cells and EMT is also reported and the most recent developments regarding clinical trials that are currently using anti-miRNA constructs are further discussed.

  17. Opposing roles for interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3 and type I interferon signaling during plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami A Patel

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. In this work, we addressed the role of type I IFN during Yersinia pestis infection in a murine model of septicemic plague. Transcription of IFN-β was induced in vitro and in vivo and contributed to pathogenesis. Mice lacking the IFN-I receptor, Ifnar, were less sensitive to disease and harbored more neutrophils in the later stage of infection which correlated with protection from lethality. In contrast, IRF-3, a transcription factor commonly involved in inducing IFN-β following bacterial infection, was not necessary for IFN production but instead contributed to host defense. In vitro, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages and neutrophils was more effective in the presence of IRF-3 and was not affected by IFN-β signaling. This activity correlated with limited bacterial growth in vivo in the presence of IRF-3. Together the data demonstrate that IRF-3 is able to activate pathways of innate immunity against bacterial infection that extend beyond regulation of IFN-β production.

  18. Role of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the final disposal of radioactive wastes in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraitis, E.J.; Siraky, G.; Novo, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the legislative and regulatory framework in which the final disposal of radioactive wastes is carried out in Argentina. The activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and the applied approaches in relation to inspection of facilities, safety assessments of associated systems and collaboration in the matter with international agencies are also exposed. (author) [es

  19. DnaA protein DNA-binding domain binds to Hda protein to promote inter-AAA+ domain interaction involved in regulatory inactivation of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-08-19

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

  20. DnaA Protein DNA-binding Domain Binds to Hda Protein to Promote Inter-AAA+ Domain Interaction Involved in Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. PMID:21708944

  1. The Principal's Role in Promoting Teachers' Extra-Role Behaviors: Some Insights from Road-Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to understand the principal's role in promoting or inhibiting the appearance of teacher organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in safety education. Based on semistructured interviews with 30 teachers and 10 principals working in the Israeli State Education System, it was found that the principal influences teacher OCB…

  2. Position and Role of Promotion in the Marketing Communication System at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New types of advertizing have appeared apart from classical mass media due to the shrinking effectiveness of traditional advertizing messages. Promotions are not a brand new instrument for communicating and promoting goods and services to the market, but once organized and in a correct manner, they will be capable to bring success and good financial returns. Each promotion needs to be thoroughly elaborated and permanently controlled, being an instrument of marketing communications capable to have either positive or negative implications for the consumer attitude to a company. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the importance of promotions for company performance and effective communication with customers; to define the criteria for planning and organization of an effective promotion as part of marketing communication at company level. The essential meaning of promotion and its role in the system of marketing communications is highlighted. The most common mistakes in organizing promotions are shown; the criteria for effective planning of promotion campaign and the criteria for successful organization of a promotion are given.

  3. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Brian F; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Clark, Barbara J

    2005-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members. Classically, binding of phosphorylated CREB to cis-acting cAMP-responsive elements (5'-TGACGTCA-3') within target gene promoters leads to recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). Herein we examined the extent of CREB family member phosphorylation on protein-DNA interactions and CBP recruitment with the StAR promoter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-1 are expressed in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells, yet only CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated. (Bu)2cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells increased CREB phosphorylation approximately 2.3-fold within 30 min but did not change total nuclear CREB expression levels. Using DNA-affinity chromatography, we now show that CREB and ATF-1, but not CREM, interact with the StAR promoter, and this interaction is dependent on the activator protein-1 (AP-1) cis-acting element within the cAMP-responsive region. In addition, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) association with the StAR promoter but did not influence total CREB interaction. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated CREB binding to the StAR proximal promoter is independent of (Bu)2cAMP-treatment, confirming our in vitro analysis. However, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased P-CREB and CBP interaction with the StAR promoter, demonstrating for the first time the physical role of P-CREB:DNA interactions in CBP recruitment to the StAR proximal promoter.

  4. Broadening the cancer and cognition landscape: the role of self-regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jamie; Das, Enny; Schagen, Sanne B; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Cameron, Linda D; Ahles, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning have emerged as one of the key foci of cancer survivorship research, but little is known about how psychological variables other than depression influence these relationships. To illustrate the potential of social psychological perspectives, we examine how a self-regulatory analysis and specific self-regulatory challenges of contending with cancer-related expectancies and stereotypes provide conceptual frameworks for understanding some of the potential causes and consequences of cancer-related cognitive deficits. Literatures on cancer-related cognitive deficits, self-regulatory ego depletion, expectancy stereotypes, and their points of convergence are briefly reviewed. A review and conceptual integration of relevant literatures suggest that coping with cancer can impair self-regulatory capacity. There is an overlap between cognitive deficits associated with self-regulatory challenge and with cancer and its treatment, and restoring self-regulatory resources can attenuate cancer-related cognitive deficits. Examination of specific regulatory challenges of contending with expectancies and stereotypes related to treatment suggests insights that can inform when and among whom cognitive deficits may most likely emerge. Integrating social psychological ideas with a substantial knowledge base can illustrate novel research trajectories that can deepen our understanding of cancer-related cognitive deficits and their impact on psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The role of the film as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different film genres and their role as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy. The general objective of the paper is to point to the significance of film for the tourist destination recognisability as well as its perception in the public eye. The specific objectives of the paper are directed at the analysis of individual roles that different film genres have in the tourist destination promotion strategy. The research methods employed in the paper entail film identification and its role in media communications, the identification both of different film genres and their specific features, then, the observation of their application in the tourist destination promotion strategy, and eventually, the identification of their significance in the process of raising the public's awareness of the destination itself as well as the creation of positive perception of the destination with the targeted audience. In this regard, the paper focuses on the following: feature films, documentary films, tourist-related report, promotional tourist films, messages conveyed through films to the targeted audience as well as the strategies and methods employed in the film as a promotional tool. One of the key findings of the paper is to highlight the significance of each film genre in the process of tourist destination promotion, whereas their combination represents an important segment of media strategies in the field of tourism, and is a prerequisite for the desired positioning in the contemporary tourism market.

  6. The role of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in liver transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Carper, K; Zheng, X X; Kuhr, C S; Reyes, J D; Liang, Y; Perkins, D L; Thomson, A W; Perkins, J D

    2006-12-01

    The liver has long been considered a tolerogenic organ that favors the induction of peripheral tolerance. The mechanisms underlying liver tolerogenicity remain largely undefined. In this study, we characterized Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in liver allograft recipients and examined the role of Treg in inherent liver tolerogenicity by employing the mouse spontaneous liver transplant tolerance model. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from C57BL/10 (H2b) to C3H/HeJ (H2k) mice. The percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Treg was expanded in the liver grafts and recipient spleens from day 5 up to day 100 posttransplantation, associated with high intracellular Foxp3 and CTLA4 expression. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated significant numbers of Foxp3+ cells in the liver grafts and recipient spleens and increased transforming growth factor beta expression in the recipient spleens throughout the time courses. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from the long-term liver allograft survivors significantly prolonged donor heart graft survival. Depletion of recipient CD4+ CD25+ Treg using anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (250 microg/d) induced acute liver allograft rejection, associated with elevated anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses, CTL and natural killer activities, enhanced interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma, IL-10, and decreased IL-4 production, and decreased T-cell apoptotic activity in anti-CD25-treated recipients. Moreover, CTLA4 blockade by anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody administration exacerbated liver graft rejection when combined with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody. Thus, Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25+ Treg appear to underpin spontaneous acceptance of major histocompatability complex- mismatched liver allografts in mice. CTLA4, IL-4, and apoptosis of alloreactive T cells appear to contribute to the function of Treg and regulation of graft outcome.

  7. Four regulatory elements in the human c-fos promoter mediate transactivation by HTLV-1 Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, C; Verrier, B

    1991-04-01

    Expression of the human c-fos proto-oncogene is activated in trans by the Tax protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). Indeed, we show here that a HeLa clone stably transfected by Tax expresses Fos at a high level. We also show that multiple elements of the human c-fos promoter, i.e. the v-sis conditioned medium inducible element (SIE), the dyad symmetry element (DSE) necessary for growth factor induction, the octanucleotide direct repeat element (DR), and the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) centred at -60, can all mediate Tax transactivation. In the DSE, the 10bp central core that binds the serum response factor (SRF) is, by itself, sufficient to mediate Tax transactivation. Moreover, a CRE-binding protein is involved in Tax activation through the CRE-60 element. Since Fos is a transregulator of cellular genes, our results suggest that the oncoprotein plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-1 in conjunction with other Tax-inducible genes.

  8. Cytokines affecting CD4+T regulatory cells in transplant tolerance. III. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes survival of alloantigen-specific CD4+ T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce M; Plain, Karren M; Tran, Giang T; Verma, Nirupama D; Robinson, Catherine M; Nomura, Masaru; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J

    2017-08-01

    CD4 + T cells mediate antigen-specific allograft tolerance, but die in culture without activated lymphocyte derived cytokines. Supplementation of the media with cytokine rich supernatant, from ConA activated spleen cells, preserves the capacity of tolerant cells to transfer tolerance and suppress rejection. rIL-2 or rIL-4 alone are insufficient to maintain these cells, however. We observed that activation of naïve CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg with alloantigen and the Th2 cytokine rIL-4 induces them to express interleukin-5 specific receptor alpha (IL-5Rα) suggesting that IL-5, a Th2 cytokine that is produced later in the immune response may promote tolerance mediating Treg. This study examined if recombinant IL-5(rIL-5) promoted survival of tolerant CD4 + , especially CD4 + CD25 + T cells. CD4 + T cells, from DA rats tolerant to fully allogeneic PVG heart allografts surviving over 100days without on-going immunosuppression, were cultured with PVG alloantigen and rIL-5. The ability of these cells to adoptively transfer tolerance to specific-donor allograft and suppress normal CD4 + T cell mediated rejection in adoptive DA hosts was examined. Tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells' response to rIL-5 and expression of IL-5Rα was also assessed. rIL-5 was sufficient to promote transplant tolerance mediating CD4 + T cells' survival in culture with specific-donor alloantigen. Tolerant CD4 + T cells cultured with rIL-5 retained the capacity to transfer alloantigen-specific tolerance and inhibited naïve CD4 + T cells' capacity to effect specific-donor graft rejection. rIL-5 promoted tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells' proliferation in vitro when stimulated with specific-donor but not third-party stimulator cells. Tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells expressed IL-5Rα. This study demonstrated that IL-5 promoted the survival of alloantigen-specific CD4 + CD25 + T cells that mediate transplant tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of promoter element in c-mpl gene expression induced by TPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Masataka; Morikawa, Shigeru; Fuse, Akira; Sato, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor, c-Mpl, play the crucial role for the development of megakaryocyte and considered to regulate megakaryocytopoiesis. Previously we reported that TPO increased the c-mpl promoter activity determined by a transient expression system using a vector containing the luciferase gene as a reporter and the expression of the c-mpl gene is modulated by transcription through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway in the megakaryoblastic cells. In this research, to elucidate the required elements in c-mpl promoter, the promoter activity of the deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were measured by a transient transfection assay system. Destruction of -77GATA in c-mpl promoter decreased the activity by 22.8%. Our study elucidated that -77GATA involved in TPO-induced c-mpl gene expression in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, CMK.

  10. The Role of Turkish National Holidays in Promoting Character and Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikalin, Mehmet; Kilic, Hamide

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces the history and development of Turkish national holidays. It also describes how these holidays being celebrated overtime in Turkey. Thus, the purpose of this article is providing fundamental information regarding Turkish national holidays and discussing possible role of these holidays in promoting character and…

  11. The Role of the Chief Student Affairs Officer in Promoting the Jesuit Mission of the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Lisa Rose

    2012-01-01

    "The Role of the Chief Student Affairs Officer in Promoting the Jesuit Mission of the University" is a qualitative comparative case study of three lay (non-cleric, non-Jesuit) chief student affairs officers employed in three U.S. Jesuit higher educational institutions. As the number of Jesuits decreases, a significant question is how the…

  12. Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

  13. The Role of Teachers in Promoting Learner Autonomy in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Saleema M.

    2017-01-01

    Today, learner autonomy is considered as a desirable goal in language education. The movement towards learner-centered approaches has resulted in more emphasis on the benefits of learner autonomy in the success of language education. The objective of the study was to investigate the roles of the teachers in promoting learner autonomy in Saudi EFL…

  14. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    OpenAIRE

    Meghal Patel; Margaret Ann Miller

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted followi...

  15. Regulatory role of neuron-restrictive silencing factor in expression of TRPC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Nakayama, Shinnsuke; Satoh, Eisaku; Iino, Kenji; Sasano, Hironobu; Mori, Yasuo; Kuromitsu, Sadao; Imagawa, Keiichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Murakami, Manabu

    2006-01-01

    Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds its consensus element to repress the transcription of various genes. The dominant-negative form (dnNRSF) has a hypertrophic effect on cardiogenesis through an unidentified mechanism. We examined the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel proteins, using transgenic mice overexpressing dnNRSF (dnNRSF mice). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed an interaction between NRSF and a neuron-restrictive silencer element-like sequence in intron 4 of TRPC1 genomic DNA. According to RT-PCR and Western analyses, TRPC1 was up-regulated in dnNRSF mouse heart. Transient overexpression of TRPC1 in HEK 293T cells increased the activity of the nuclear factor in activated T cells (NFAT) promoter and stimulated store-operated Ca 2+ channel (SOCC)-mediated Ca 2+ entry. Transfection of TRPC1 into primary cardiomyocytes increased NFAT activity, indicating a major role for TRPC1 in NFAT activation. Our findings strongly suggest that NRSF regulates TRP1 gene expression and causes changes in the levels of calcium entry through SOCCs

  16. Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…

  17. Assessing the role of regulatory bodies in managing health professional issues and errors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Legido-Quigley, H; Panteli, D; Mckee, M

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores how medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries manage professional issues involving quality and patient safety, to build on limited existing information on procedures for regulating medical professionals in Europe. Twelve vignettes describing scenarios of concerns about standards of physicians were developed, covering clinical, criminal and administrative matters. Medical regulatory bodies in nine European countries were asked what action they would normally take in each situation. Their responses were related to their regulatory mandate. Responses varied greatly across participating countries. Regulators are always involved where patients are at risk or where a criminal offence is committed within the clinical setting. Non-criminal medical issues were generally handled by the employer, if any, at their discretion. Countries varied in the use of punitive measures, the extent to which they took an interest in issues arising outside professional activities, and whether they dealt with issues themselves or referred cases to another regulatory authority or took no action at all. There is little consistency across Europe on the regulation of medical professionals. There is considerable diversity in the range of topics that regulatory bodies oversee, with almost all covering health care quality and safety and others encompassing issues related to reputation, respect and trust. These inconsistencies have significant implications for professional mobility, patient safety and quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  18. The role of regulatory council in the energy sector from the aspect of consumers' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, E.; Pavlovic, D.; Boljesic, K.

    2003-01-01

    The consumers' protection legal base, with few factors of new legislative consumers' protection legislation in European Union, in the Law on Consumers' Protection, and in the set of the Croatian Energy Laws is shown in this paper. Special attention in this paper is paid on five factors of regulatory body's orientation to the consumers' protection field, which energy regulatory body's policy should be included. The model of consumers' protection in the energy sector is shown, with the scheme of Three-component interactive subsystems: basic legislation which is determined consumers' protection policy, planning activities for consumers' protection (short and long time plans), and performing activities for consumers' protection. Furthermore, the approach of consumers' protection in the energy sectors in European Union are described. The paper gives the model of consumers' protection in the Croatian energy sector, and Croatian Energy Regulatory Council' approach to this issue. The table, with the data of specific consumers' protection problems in practice, those the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council as a regulatory body have been settled, is shown.(author)

  19. Regulation and regulatory role of WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during bovine dominant follicle selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S P Gupta

    Full Text Available Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest and F2 (second largest follicles isolated at predeviation (PD and onset of diameter deviation (OD stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM, PD, OD and early dominance (ED stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection.

  20. Quality and safety of nuclear installations: the role of administration, and, nuclear safety and regulatory procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1979-12-01

    In the first paper the author defines the concepts of safety and quality and describes the means of intervention by the Public Authorities in safety matters of nuclear installations. These include individual authorisations, definition and application of technical rules and surveillance of installations. In the second paper he defines the distinction between radiation protection and safety and presents the legislative and regulatory plan for nuclear safety in France. A central safety service for nuclear installations was created in March 1973 within the Ministry of Industrial and Scientific Development, where, amongst other tasks, it draws up regulatory procedures and organizes inspections of the installations. The main American regulations for light water reactors are outlined and the French regulatory system for different types of reactors discussed

  1. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IN PROMOTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role that the International Monetary Fund performs in promoting global economic stability. Global economic and financial stability plays a key role in the financial system and the economy as a whole. The increase in the importance of the concept of financial stability by supervisors at both European and global level was concretized by defining a framework for the operationalization of macroprudential policy, together with the establishment of coordination bodies in this field, thus recognizing its role in the mix of established economic policies such as monetary, fiscal or competitive policy.

  2. The role of the US regulatory process in public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper focuses, on NRC's regulatory responsibilities in relation to public acceptance of nuclear power. Since public attitudes in the United States may influence reaction to nuclear power in other nations, it is fair to say that the credibility of our regulatory program has international significance. Stated simply, unless the public is convinced that the regulatory process is effective in assuring safety, safeguarding nuclear facilities and materials, and protecting the environment, the use of nuclear power could be curtailed or even brought to a halt. Not only must the regulatory process be effective, it must at the same time be recognized by the public as being effective. Opinion polls in the United States have shown consistently that a majority of Americans believe it is important to develop nuclear power to help meet our future energy needs. The direction of public concern has shifted from year to year. Most recently, public apprehension has been expressed about the potential hazards of long-term storage of the high-level wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and about the risks that nuclear materials and facilities may be subject to theft or diversion or sabotage. Uppermost in the public mind is the question whether the regulatory process can cope with these potential threats to public health and safety. The licensing process of the NRC is conducted in full public view. Issues of a generic nature are aired in rulemaking hearings, while each proposal to construct and operate a nuclear power plant or a facility such as fuel reprocessing plant is the subject of public hearings, which are held near the site of the proposed plant. During the last two years, we have noted that some persons who object to nuclear power plants have indicated that they believe that decisions to permit construction of such plants should be made at the State government level, rather than by a Federal agency. As a result, there now are movements to enact State laws and to set up State

  3. Probabilistic risk analysis and its role in regulatory activity in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo-Sanchez, C.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses the criterion adopted for regulatory activity in a developing country with a nuclear power plant. He describes the problems that have to be overcome as a result of changes in the regulations during construction of the plant. There is discussion of the action taken by the regulatory body when introducing the method of probabilistic risk analysis. The part played by this form of analysis in quantifying the safety objectives proposed in the USA together with its limitations and the problems involved in this methodology are examined. Lastly, the author gives an opinion on the use that probabilistic risk analysis should be put to in developing countries such as Mexico. (author)

  4. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  5. IFNγ signaling endows DCs with the capacity to control type I inflammation during parasitic infection through promoting T-bet+ regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Mi Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IFNγ signaling drives dendritic cells (DCs to promote type I T cell (Th1 immunity. Here, we show that activation of DCs by IFNγ is equally crucial for the differentiation of a population of T-bet+ regulatory T (Treg cells specialized to inhibit Th1 immune responses. Conditional deletion of IFNγ receptor in DCs but not in Treg cells resulted in a severe defect in this specific Treg cell subset, leading to exacerbated immune pathology during parasitic infections. Mechanistically, IFNγ-unresponsive DCs failed to produce sufficient amount of IL-27, a cytokine required for optimal T-bet induction in Treg cells. Thus, IFNγ signalling endows DCs with the ability to efficiently control a specific type of T cell immunity through promoting a corresponding Treg cell population.

  6. Regulatory role of melatonin and BMP-4 in prolactin production by rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Fujisawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Nahoko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Nishiyama, Yuki; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Wada, Jun; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release. Melatonin receptor activation also suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of Smad and transcription of the BMP-target gene Id-1, while BMP-4 treatment upregulated MT2 expression. Melatonin receptor activation suppressed basal, BMP-4-induced and forskolin-induced cAMP synthesis; however, BtcAMP-induced prolactin mRNA expression was not affected by melatonin or ramelteon, suggesting that MT2 activation leads to inhibition of prolactin production through the suppression of Smad signaling and cAMP synthesis. Experiments using intracellular signal inhibitors revealed that the ERK pathway is, at least in part, involved in prolactin induction by GH3 cells. Thus, a new regulatory role of melatonin involving BMP-4 in prolactin secretion was uncovered in lactotrope GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular promoters incorporated into the adenovirus genome: effects of viral regulatory elements on transcription rates and cell specificity of albumin and beta-globin promoters.

    OpenAIRE

    Babiss, L E; Friedman, J M; Darnell, J E

    1986-01-01

    In the accompanying paper (Friedman et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3791-3797, 1986), hepatoma-specific expression of the rat albumin promoter within the adenovirus genome was demonstrated. However, the rate of transcription was very low compared with that of the endogenous chromosomal albumin gene. Here we show that in hepatoma cells the adenovirus E1A enhancer, especially in the presence of E1A protein, greatly stimulates transcription from the albumin promoter but not the mouse beta-globin prom...

  8. On the role of sparseness in the evolution of modularity in gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Soto, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Modularity is a widespread property in biological systems. It implies that interactions occur mainly within groups of system elements. A modular arrangement facilitates adjustment of one module without perturbing the rest of the system. Therefore, modularity of developmental mechanisms is a major factor for evolvability, the potential to produce beneficial variation from random genetic change. Understanding how modularity evolves in gene regulatory networks, that create the distinct gene activity patterns that characterize different parts of an organism, is key to developmental and evolutionary biology. One hypothesis for the evolution of modules suggests that interactions between some sets of genes become maladaptive when selection favours additional gene activity patterns. The removal of such interactions by selection would result in the formation of modules. A second hypothesis suggests that modularity evolves in response to sparseness, the scarcity of interactions within a system. Here I simulate the evolution of gene regulatory networks and analyse diverse experimentally sustained networks to study the relationship between sparseness and modularity. My results suggest that sparseness alone is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain modularity in gene regulatory networks. However, sparseness amplifies the effects of forms of selection that, like selection for additional gene activity patterns, already produce an increase in modularity. That evolution of new gene activity patterns is frequent across evolution also supports that it is a major factor in the evolution of modularity. That sparseness is widespread across gene regulatory networks indicates that it may have facilitated the evolution of modules in a wide variety of cases.

  9. Reducing the Effect of Stereotype Threat: The Role of Coaction Contexts and Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Dong, Xuanhao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of competition and cooperation contexts, as well as regulatory fit, on reducing the negative influence of stereotype threat. Experiment 1 demonstrated that in high stereotype threat conditions, participants in the cooperation context scored significantly higher on a math test than those in the competition…

  10. Development of safety culture at Kozloduy NPP: The role of the regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliovsky, Ventzislav

    2002-01-01

    An evolution is made upon external factor that accompany the development of safety culture at Kozloduy NPP (KNPP). The two basic stages and the major results achieved independently and with external assistance were considered in the process of development of safety culture. The areas in which the regulatory body insists on having active participation were defined. (author)

  11. A Proteome-wide, Quantitative Survey of In Vivo Ubiquitylation Sites Reveals Widespread Regulatory Roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Sebastian Alexander; Beli, Petra; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2011-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin is a fundamentally important regulatory mechanism. However, proteome-wide analysis of endogenous ubiquitylation remains a challenging task, and almost always has relied on cells expressing affinity tagged ubiquitin. Here we combine single...

  12. FTY720 ameliorates murine sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease by promoting expansion of splenic regulatory cells and inhibiting immune cell infiltration into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Doanh Le; Matsushita, Takashi; Jin, Guihua; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2013-06-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) exerts a variety of activities in immune, inflammatory, and vascular systems. S1P plays an important role in systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. Regulation of S1P in fibrotic diseases as well as in SSc was recently reported. FTY720, an oral S1P receptor modulator, has been shown to be a useful agent for the prevention of transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. Murine sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a model for human sclerodermatous chronic GVHD and SSc. We undertook this study to investigate the effects of FTY720 in murine sclerodermatous chronic GVHD. FTY720 was orally administered to allogeneic recipient mice from day 0 to day 20 (short-term, early-treatment group), from day 0 to day 42 (full-term, early-treatment group), or from day 22 to day 42 (delayed-treatment group) after bone marrow transplantation. Delayed administration of FTY720 attenuated, and early administration of FTY720 inhibited, the severity and fibrosis in murine sclerodermatous chronic GVHD. With early treatment, FTY720 induced expansion of splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Treg cells, and Breg cells. Vascular damage in chronic GVHD was inhibited by FTY720 through down-regulating serum levels of S1P and soluble E-selectin. FTY720 inhibited infiltration of immune cells into skin. Moreover, FTY720 diminished the expression of messenger RNA for monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, RANTES, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-17A, and transforming growth factor β1 in the skin. FTY720 suppressed the immune response by promoting the expansion of regulatory cells and reducing vascular damage and infiltration of immune cells into the skin. Taken together, these results have important implications for the potential use of FTY720 in the treatment of sclerodermatous chronic GVHD and SSc in humans. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. LINKING ADMINISTRATORS ROLES IN CAREER PROGRAMS TO PROACTIVE BEHAVIOR AS A DETERMINANT OF EMPLOYEES PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship between administrators roles in career programs, proactive behavior and employees promotion opportunities. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from employees who work in an established private oil and gas firm in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrate that the ability of administrators to plan and managecareer programs have strongly invoked employees proactive behavior. As a result, this situation may lead to an enhance employees promotion opportunities in the organizational sample. Further, this study offers discussion, implications and conclusion.

  14. Hydrostatic pressure promotes the proliferation and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: The roles of RhoA and Rac1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hua Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that hydrostatic pressure can serve as an active regulator for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. The current work further investigates the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 in hydrostatic pressure-related effects on BMSCs. Flow cytometry assays showed that the hydrostatic pressure promoted cell cycle initiation in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. Furthermore, fluorescence assays confirmed that RhoA played a positive and Rac1 displayed a negative role in the hydrostatic pressure-induced F-actin stress fiber assembly. Western blots suggested that RhoA and Rac1 play central roles in the pressure-inhibited ERK phosphorylation, and Rac1 but not RhoA was involved in the pressure-promoted JNK phosphorylation. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR experiments showed that pressure promoted the expression of osteogenic marker genes in BMSCs at an early stage of osteogenic differentiation through the up-regulation of RhoA activity. Additionally, the PCR results showed that pressure enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes in BMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation via the up-regulation of Rac1 activity. Collectively, our results suggested that RhoA and Rac1 are critical to the pressure-induced proliferation and differentiation, the stress fiber assembly, and MAPK activation in BMSCs.

  15. Hydrostatic pressure promotes the proliferation and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: The roles of RhoA and Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yin-Hua; Lv, Xin; Liu, Yan-Li; Zhao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yong-Jin; Zhang, Min

    2015-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that hydrostatic pressure can serve as an active regulator for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The current work further investigates the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) in hydrostatic pressure-related effects on BMSCs. Flow cytometry assays showed that the hydrostatic pressure promoted cell cycle initiation in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. Furthermore, fluorescence assays confirmed that RhoA played a positive and Rac1 displayed a negative role in the hydrostatic pressure-induced F-actin stress fiber assembly. Western blots suggested that RhoA and Rac1 play central roles in the pressure-inhibited ERK phosphorylation, and Rac1 but not RhoA was involved in the pressure-promoted JNK phosphorylation. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments showed that pressure promoted the expression of osteogenic marker genes in BMSCs at an early stage of osteogenic differentiation through the up-regulation of RhoA activity. Additionally, the PCR results showed that pressure enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes in BMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation via the up-regulation of Rac1 activity. Collectively, our results suggested that RhoA and Rac1 are critical to the pressure-induced proliferation and differentiation, the stress fiber assembly, and MAPK activation in BMSCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Role of Higher Education in Promoting Lifelong Learning. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies: No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…

  17. The role of stress in the relationships between gender and health-promoting behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Michal

    2010-09-01

    Studies have shown that in Western societies, women live longer than men. Among other factors, this has been attributed to health behaviours; men engage in health-risking behaviours, while women perform health-promoting behaviours. These tendencies were argued to align with cultural notions of masculinity and femininity. There may be some evidence, however, that men and women engage in different types of health-promoting behaviours, and stress may play a role in these tendencies. This study attempts to examine the various types of health-promoting behaviours women engage in and compare them to the tendencies of men. Secondly, it examines the mediating role of stress in the relationships between gender and health-promoting behaviours. The sample was comprised of 402 young Israeli adults. Half were undergraduate university students majoring in social work. The remaining participants were sampled by 'snowball sampling'. Participants completed a questionnaire containing 63 closed-ended questions on various health issues. For the purpose of this study, gender, stress and health-promoting behaviours measures were used. Data were collected over three academic years by the teacher responsible for the course and were received by the author at the end of the data collection phase. The study was approved by the institution's internal review board. The results indicate that,-while women engage in 'type 2 behaviours'- refraining from smoking and drinking, eating breakfast regularly and sleeping 7-8 hours per night-men engage in 'type 1 behaviours'- physical exercise, refraining from snacking, and maintaining an appropriate body mass. We also found that, to some extent, women refrain from 'type 1 behaviours' because of their levels of general stress. Our study suggests that the social construction of masculinity and femininity which undermines individuals' health needs to be challenged and addressed. In particular, the enduring role of stress in women's health outcomes should be

  18. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    inactivation of promoter 1B is disease causing in FAP; (ii) expression of transcripts from promoter 1B is generated at considerable higher levels compared with 1A, demonstrating a hitherto unknown importance of 1B; (iii) adenoma formation in FAP, caused by impaired function of promoter 1B, does not require......Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half...... of this promoter in the largest family (Family 1) of the Swedish Polyposis Registry. The mutation leads to an imbalance in allele-specific expression of APC, and transcription from promoter 1B was highly impaired in both normal colorectal mucosa and blood from mutation carriers. To establish the significance...

  19. The Role of Regulatory Pressure in Banks’ Capital and Risk Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tanda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Capital regulation represents the core of prudential regulation in banking. Despite the aim of the regulators to have a safer and more robust banking industry, the effects of capital regulation on banks’ capital and risk decisions appear ambiguous. The paper analyses the relationship between capital and risk changes and the impact of regulatory pressure for a sample of European banks during the period 2006–2010, which encompasses the start of the latest financial crisis. Results highlight that banks tend to adopt a different behaviour depending on the capital ratio considered, supporting the so-called ‘gamble for resurrection’ hypothesis. Evidence supports the rethinking of the regulatory framework, especially with reference to higher and stricter capital requirements.

  20. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  1. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Namkoong

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1 and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1, with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  2. An essential regulatory role of downstream of kinase-1 in the ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Lee

    Full Text Available The downstream of kinase (DOK-1 is involved in the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK pathway in mast cells, but the role of DOK-1 in the pathogenesis of asthma has not been defined. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel regulatory role of DOK-1 in airway inflammation and physiologic responses in a murine model of asthma using lentiviral vector containing DOK-1 cDNA or DOK-1-specific ShRNA. The OVA-induced inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine expression, and mucus response were significantly reduced in DOK-1 overexpressing mice compared to OVA-challenged control mice. The transgenic introduction of DOK-1 significantly stimulated the activation and expression of STAT-4 and T-bet, while impressively inhibiting the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in airway epithelial cells. On the other hand, DOK-1 knockdown mice enhanced STAT-6 expression and its nuclear translocation compared to OVA-challenged control mice. When viewed in combination, our studies demonstrate DOK-1 regulates allergen-induced Th2 immune responses by selective stimulation and inhibition of STAT-4 and STAT-6 signaling pathways, respectively. These studies provide a novel insight on the regulatory role of DOK-1 in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which has therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.

  3. Role of plant MicroRNA in cross-species regulatory networks of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yanpu; Liu, Yuanning; Liu, Haiming; Wang, Hongyu; Jin, Wen; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Dong

    2016-08-08

    It has been found that microRNAs (miRNAs) can function as a regulatory factor across species. For example, food-derived plant miRNAs may pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, enter into the plasma and serum of mammals, and interact with endogenous RNAs to regulate their expression. Although this new type of regulatory mechanism is not well understood, it provides a fresh look at the relationship between food consumption and physiology. To investigate this new type of mechanism, we conducted a systematic computational study to analyze the potential functions of these dietary miRNAs in the human body. In this paper, we predicted human and plant target genes using RNAhybrid and set some criteria to further filter them. Then we built the cross-species regulatory network according to the filtered targets, extracted central nodes by PageRank algorithm and built core modules. We summarized the functions of these modules to three major categories: ion transport, metabolic process and stress response, and especially some target genes are highly related to ion transport, polysaccharides and the lipid metabolic process. Through functional analysis, we found that human and plants have similar functions such as ion transport and stress response, so our study also indicates the existence of a close link between exogenous plant miRNA targets and digestive/urinary organs. According to our analysis results, we suggest that the ingestion of these plant miRNAs may have a functional impact on consuming organisms in a cross-kingdom way, and the dietary habit may affect the physiological condition at a genetic level. Our findings may be useful for discovering cross-species regulatory mechanism in further study.

  4. The impact of the new regulatory paradigm on the role of banks in financing the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Barut, M.-L.; Rouillé, N.; Sanchez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis exposed the weaknesses and excesses of the banking system, notably its growing reliance on short-term market financing, excessive levels of leverage, and the fact that many banks were conducting high-risk market activities alongside retail banking activities. In 2009, in reaction to the crisis, regulatory authorities embarked on an ambitious agenda of reforms to financial regulations, aimed at cleaning up and reinforcing the banking system and ensuring it can meet the cre...

  5. Childhood cumulative risk and obesity: the mediating role of self-regulatory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether early childhood risk exposures are related to weight gain in adolescence and evaluate an underlying mechanism, self-regulatory behavior, for the risk-obesity link. Cumulative risk exposure to 9 sociodemographic (eg, poverty), physical (eg, substandard housing), and psychosocial (eg, family turmoil) stressors was assessed in 244 nine-year-old children. BMI was calculated at age 9 and then 4 years later. At age 9, children's ability to delay gratification as an index of self-regulatory behavior was assessed. Path analyses were then estimated to evaluate our mediational model (Cumulative risk → Self-regulation → BMI) over a 4-year period in a prospective, longitudinal design. Nine-year-old children exposed to a greater accumulation of multiple risk factors show larger gains in adiposity over the next four year period, net of their initial BMI. These gains in BMI during early adolescence are largely accounted for by deteriorated self-regulatory abilities among children facing more cumulative risks. Early childhood risk exposure leads to larger gains in BMI in adolescence. Given the importance of childhood adiposity to the development of obesity later in life, understanding the underlying mechanisms that link early experience to weight gain is an essential task. Deficiencies in self-regulation in response to chronic stress appears to be an important agent in the obesity epidemic.

  6. The mass media role in acceptance activities of Slovak Republic's Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, Mojmir

    1998-01-01

    Communication is the vital link between Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the public. If people do not know and understand the facts on which optimal a safety energy choice decisions should be based they cannot make informed decisions on how their own objectives can be met. The following ten commandments of communications are pointed out: be yourself; be comfortable and confident; be honest; be brief; be human; be personal; be positive and consistent; be attentive; be energetic; be committed and sincere. The important aspect is to test whether the nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic is acceptable according to mandatory rules and if its operation is regulated by the state through the independent institution - the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). The media in Slovakia has on important power. Many organizations are therefore apprehensive when dealing with the press, radio and television. Many people would simply prefer not to get panicked when the dreaded microphones and cameras do appear. UJD considers the whole area of public relations as an essential component of its activity. UJD intends to offer the public true, systematic, qualified, understandable and independent information, regarding the safety of nuclear power plants, as well as regarding the methods and results of UJD work. Generally, public information is considered a significant contribution to the creation of confidence into the regulatory work. The paper presents the UJD communication program and relations with media as well as the preparedness of public information in case of emergency

  7. Collective statement on the role of research in a nuclear regulatory context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the present context of deregulation and privatisation of the nuclear industry, maintaining an adequate level of nuclear safety research is a primary concern for nuclear regulators, researchers and nuclear power plant licensees, as well as for government officials and the public. While these different stakeholders may have common concerns and interests, there may also be differences. At the international level, it is important to understand that divisions exist both within and among countries, not only in national cultures but also in the way regulators, researchers and licensees view the rote of research. An international gathering under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) took place in June 2001, bringing together heads of nuclear regulatory bodies of NEA Member countries, senior regulators, senior executives of research organisations and leaders from the nuclear industry to discuss their perceptions of the rote of research in a nuclear regulatory context. This collective statement represents an international consensus on a rationale for regulatory research for currently operating nuclear reactors and for future reactors, and sets forth specific recommendations to NEA standing technical committees and Member countries. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, senior researchers and industry leaders. Government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  8. Dual Role of GM-CSF as a Pro-Inflammatory and a Regulatory Cytokine: Implications for Immune Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Palash; Budnick, Isadore; Singh, Medha; Thiruppathi, Muthusamy; Alharshawi, Khaled; Elshabrawy, Hatem; Holterman, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is generally recognized as an inflammatory cytokine. Its inflammatory activity is primarily due its role as a growth and differentiation factor for granulocyte and macrophage populations. In this capacity, among other clinical applications, it has been used to bolster anti-tumor immune responses. GM-CSF-mediated inflammation has also been implicated in certain types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, agents that can block GM-CSF or its receptor have been used as anti-inflammatory therapies. However, a review of literature reveals that in many situations GM-CSF can act as an anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine. We and others have shown that GM-CSF can modulate dendritic cell differentiation to render them “tolerogenic,” which, in turn, can increase regulatory T-cell numbers and function. Therefore, the pro-inflammatory and regulatory effects of GM-CSF appear to depend on the dose and the presence of other relevant cytokines in the context of an immune response. A thorough understanding of the various immunomodulatory effects of GM-CSF will facilitate more appropriate use and thus further enhance its clinical utility. PMID:25803788

  9. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  10. Regulatory role of XynR (YagI) in catabolism of xylonate in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Momiyama, Eri; Yamanaka, Yuki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The genome of Escherichia coli K-12 contains ten cryptic phages, altogether constituting about 3.6% of the genome in sequence. Among more than 200 predicted genes in these cryptic phages, 14 putative transcription factor (TF) genes exist, but their regulatory functions remain unidentified. As an initial attempt to make a breakthrough for understanding the regulatory roles of cryptic phage-encoded TFs, we tried to identify the regulatory function of CP4-6 cryptic prophage-encoded YagI with unknown function. After SELEX screening, YagI was found to bind mainly at a single site within the spacer of bidirectional transcription units, yagA (encoding another uncharacterized TF) and yagEF (encoding 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase, and dehydratase, respectively) within this prophage region. YagEF enzymes are involved in the catabolism of xylose downstream from xylonate. We then designated YagI as XynR (regulator of xylonate catabolism), one of the rare single-target TFs. In agreement with this predicted regulatory function, the activity of XynR was suggested to be controlled by xylonate. Even though low-affinity binding sites of XynR were identified in the E. coli K-12 genome, they all were inside open reading frames, implying that the regulation network of XynR is still fixed within the CR4-6 prophage without significant influence over the host E. coli K-12. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Promoting Risk-Taking and Physically Challenging Play in Australian Early Childhood Settings in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a survey of Early Childhood Education and Care services in Australia. The study investigated outdoor play provision in terms of space, resources and planning for risk-taking in play. Overall, the results indicate that the participating centres are well-resourced to promote physical play, but vary in terms of…

  12. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Bjerking, G; Knudsen, J

    1996-01-01

    for the ACBP DR-1 element. Addition of peroxisome proliferators (PP) to H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells led to an increase in the ACBP mRNA level, indicating that the DR-1 element could be a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). Analysis of the ACBP promoter by transient transfection showed...

  13. Synthetic Nanoparticles That Promote Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expressing Regulatory T Cells in the Lung and Resistance to Allergic Airways Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohimah Mohamud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP (PS50G, unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2 expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.

  14. The predictive role of health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress in aneurysmal rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Chang G; Hughes, Tonda L; Jun, Sang-Eun; Whang, Kum; Kim, Nahyun

    2018-03-01

    To examine the roles of two modifiable factors-health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress-in predicting aneurysmal rupture. Unruptured intracranial aneurysm detection produces significant stress and anxiety in patients because of the risk of rupture. Compared to nonmodifiable risk factors for rupture such as age, gender and aneurysm size/location, less attention has been given to modifiable risk factors. Two modifiable factors, health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress, have hardly been examined as potential predictors of rupture. This study used a cross-sectional design. We assessed 155 patients with intracranial aneurysms-that is, subarachnoid haemorrhage (n = 77) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (n = 78)-to examine (i) baseline characteristics (patient and aneurysmal factors), (ii) health-related factors (lifestyle habits and health-promoting behaviour) and (iii) perceived stress levels (psychological stress and physical stress). Patient records provided medical histories and aneurysmal factors; other data were collected using a structured questionnaire addressing lifestyle habits, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II to measure health-promoting behaviour and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire to measure perceived-psychological stress and perceived-physical stress levels. Bivariate analysis indicated that aneurysm rupture risk was associated with female gender, aneurysm size/location, defecation frequency, hyperlipidaemia, sedentary time, low Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II mean scores and high perceived-psychological stress scores. After adjusting for known risk factors, the mean Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II and perceived-psychological stress scores remained robust predictors of rupture. Furthermore, known risk factors combined with these scores had greater predictive power than known risk factors alone. Health-promoting behaviour and psychological stress are promising modifiable factors for reducing risk of aneurysmal

  15. Growth of health maintenance organisations in Nigeria and the potential for a role in promoting universal coverage efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential for private health insurance (PHI) and private organisations to contribute to universal health coverage (UHC). Yet evidence from low and middle income countries remains very thin. This paper examines the evolution of health maintenance organisations (HMOs) in Nigeria, the nature of the PHI plans and social health insurance (SHI) programmes and their performance, and the implications of their business practices for providing PHI and UHC-related SHI programmes. An embedded case study design was used with multiple subunits of analysis (individual HMOs and the HMO industry) and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, and the study was guided by the structure-conduct-performance paradigm that has its roots in the neo-classical theory of the firm. Quantitative data collection and 35 in-depth interviews were carried out between October 2012 to July 2013. Although HMOs first emerged in Nigeria to supply PHI, their expansion was driven by their role as purchasers in the government's national health insurance scheme that finances SHI programmes, and facilitated by a weak accreditation system. HMOs' characteristics distinguish the market they operate in as monopolistically competitive, and HMOs as multiproduct firms operating multiple risk pools through parallel administrative systems. The considerable product differentiation and consequent risk selection by private insurers promote inefficiencies. Where HMOs and similar private organisations play roles in health financing systems, effective regulatory institutions and mandates must be established to guide their behaviours towards attainment of public health goals and to identify and control undesirable business practices. Lessons are drawn for policy makers and programme implementers especially in those low and middle-income countries considering the use of private organisations in their health financing systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsova, N; Kumar, S; Guzman-Marin, R; Alam, M N; Szymusiak, R; McGinty, D

    2009-10-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chronic single-unit recording techniques. We found that WAG/Rij rats exhibited a lack of sleep-associated c-Fos activation of GABAergic MnPN and VLPO neurons, a lower percentage of MnPN and VLPO cells increasing discharge during sleep and reduced firing rates of MnPN sleep-active neurons, compared to non-epileptic rats. The role of sleep-promoting mechanisms in pathogenesis of absence seizures was assessed in non-epileptic rats using electrical stimulation and chemical manipulations restricted to the MnPN. We found that fractional activation of the sleep-promoting system in waking was sufficient to elicit absence-like seizures. Given that reciprocally interrelated sleep-promoting and arousal neuronal groups control thalamocortical excitability, we hypothesize that malfunctioning of sleep-promoting system results in impaired ascending control over thalamocortical rhythmogenic mechanisms during wake-sleep transitions thus favoring aberrant thalamocortical oscillations. Our findings suggest a pathological basis for AE-associated sleep abnormalities and a mechanism underlying association of absence seizures with wake-sleep transitions.

  17. Regulatory elements in vivo in the promoter of the abscisic acid responsive gene rab17 from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busk, P K; Jensen, A B; Pagès, M

    1997-06-01

    The rab17 gene from maize is transcribed in late embryonic development and is responsive to abscisic acid and water stress in embryo and vegetative tissues. In vivo footprinting and transient transformation of rab17 were performed in embryos and vegetative tissues to characterize the cis-elements involved in regulation of the gene. By in vivo footprinting, protein binding was observed to nine elements in the promoter, which correspond to five putative ABREs (abscisic acid responsive elements) and four other sequences. The footprints indicated that distinct proteins interact with these elements in the two developmental stages. In transient transformation, six of the elements were important for high level expression of the rab17 promoter in embryos, whereas only three elements were important in leaves. The cis-acting sequences can be divided in embryo-specific, ABA-specific and leaf-specific elements on the basis of protein binding and the ability to confer expression of rab17. We found one positive, new element, called GRA, with the sequence CACTGGCCGCCC. This element was important for transcription in leaves but not in embryos. Two other non-ABRE elements that stimulated transcription from the rab17 promoter resemble previously described abscisic acid and drought-inducible elements. There were differences in protein binding and function of the five ABREs in the rab17 promoter. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. The in vivo data obtained suggest that an embryo-specific pathway regulates transcription of the rab genes during development, whereas another pathway is responsible for induction in response to ABA and drought in vegetative tissues.

  18. [Regulatory Mechanisms of PD-L1 Expression and Its Role in Immune Evasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade therapy using anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies can unleash anti-tumor immunity and induce durable remission in a variety ofhuman cancers. However, the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 expression mediating immune evasion ofcancer cells have not been fully elucidated, including the genetic alterations causing PD-L1 overexpression. Recently, we have reported a novel genetic mechanism ofimmune evasion associated with structural variations(SVs)disrupting the 3'-untranslated region(UTR)ofthe PD-L1 gene in various malignancies, such as aggressive lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancers. Despite a heterogenous nature ofthese SVs, they are closely associated with a marked upregulation of PD-L1 expression, which augments tumor growth and escape from anti-tumor immunity. Here we present an overview of the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells, highlighting the genetic mechanisms of PD-L1 constitutive activation, with specific focus on PD-L1 3'-UTR disruption.

  19. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  20. Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

  1. Understanding the relative roles of pharmacogenetics and ontogeny in pediatric drug development and regulatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, J Steven; Kearns, Gregory L; Spielberg, Stephen P; van den Anker, John

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dose-exposure-response relationship across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns to infants, children, adolescents, and adults is a major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies. Over the past 3 decades, clinical investigations of many drugs commonly used in pediatric therapeutics have provided valuable insights into age-associated differences in drug disposition and action. However, our understanding of the contribution of genetic variation to variability in drug disposition and response in children generally has lagged behind that of adults. This article proposes a systematic approach that can be used to assess the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation for a given compound. Application of the strategy is illustrated using the current regulatory dilemma posed by the safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter cough and cold remedies as an example. The results of the analysis can be used to aid in the design of studies to yield maximally informative data in pediatric populations of different ages and developmental stages and thereby improve the efficiency of study design.

  2. Role of In Vitro Release Methods in Liposomal Formulation Development: Challenges and Regulatory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deepak; Gupta, Nilesh; Mulla, Nihal S; Shukla, Snehal; Guerrero, Yadir A; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-11-01

    In the past few years, measurement of drug release from pharmaceutical dosage forms has been a focus of extensive research because the release profile obtained in vitro can give an indication of the drug's performance in vivo. Currently, there are no compendial in vitro release methods designed for liposomes owing to a range of experimental challenges, which has created a major hurdle for both development and regulatory acceptance of liposome-based drug products. In this paper, we review the current techniques that are most often used to assess in vitro drug release from liposomal products; these include the membrane diffusion techniques (dialysis, reverse dialysis, fractional dialysis, and microdialysis), the sample-and-separate approach, the in situ method, the continuous flow, and the modified United States Pharmacopeia methods (USP I and USP IV). We discuss the principles behind each of the methods and the criteria that assist in choosing the most appropriate method for studying drug release from a liposomal formulation. Also, we have included information concerning the current regulatory requirements for liposomal drug products in the United States and in Europe. In light of increasing costs of preclinical and clinical trials, applying a reliable in vitro release method could serve as a proxy to expensive in vivo bioavailability studies. Graphical Abstract Appropriate in-vitro drug release test from liposomal products is important to predict the in-vivo performance.

  3. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  4. Interaction between the immune system and acute myeloid leukemia: A model incorporating promotion of regulatory T cell expansion by leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshiaki; Saikawa, Yutaka; Nishiyama, Nobuaki

    2018-03-01

    Population dynamics of regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for the underlying interplay between leukemic and immune cells in progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The goal of this work is to elucidate the dynamics of a model that includes Treg, which can be qualitatively assessed by accumulating clinical findings on the impact of activated immune cell infusion after selective Treg depletion. We constructed an ordinary differential equation model to describe the dynamics of three components in AML: leukemic blast cells, mature regulatory T cells (Treg), and mature effective T cells (Teff), including cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The model includes promotion of Treg expansion by leukemic blast cells, leukemic stem cell and progenitor cell targeting by Teff, and Treg-mediated Teff suppression, and exhibits two coexisting, stable steady states, corresponding to high leukemic cell load at diagnosis or relapse, and to long-term complete remission. Our model is capable of explaining the clinical findings that the survival of patients with AML after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is influenced by the duration of complete remission, and that cut-off minimal residual disease thresholds associated with a 100% relapse rate are identified in AML. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Socially shared regulation of learning in CSCL: Understanding and promoting individual- and group-level shared regulatory activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hadwin, Allyson; Järvenoja, Hanna; Malmberg, Jonna; Miller, Mariel; Laru, Jari

    2018-01-01

    The field of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is progressing instrumentally and theoretically. Nevertheless, few studies examine the effectiveness and efficiency of CSCL with respect to cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social issues, despite the fact that the role of

  6. Potential gene regulatory role for cyclin D3 in muscle cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that expression of cyclin D3 in undifferentiated myoblasts altered histone epigenetic marks at promoters of muscle-specific genes like MyoD, Pax7, myogenin and muscle creatine kinase but not non-muscle genes. Cyclin D3 expression also reduced the mRNA ...

  7. Specific interactions between transcription factors and the promoter-regulatory region of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazal, P.; Lubon, H.; Hennighausen, L.

    1988-01-01

    Repeat sequence motifs as well as unique sequences between nucleotides -150 and -22 of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 gene interact in vitro with nuclear proteins. The authors show that a transcriptional element between nucleotides -91 and -65 stimulated promoter activity in vivo and in vitro by binding specific cellular transcription factors. Finally, a common sequence motif, (T)TGG/AC, present in 15 of the determined binding sites suggests a particular class of nuclear factors associated with the immediate-early 1 gene

  8. Regulatory aspects of teratology: role of the Food and Drug Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, F.O.

    1982-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is a scientific regulatory agency whose consumer protection activities cover a wide range of products including foods and additives, and pesticide residues on foods; drugs; cosmetics; medical devices; and radiation-emitting electronic products. Amongst its concerns is the possible teratogen effects of regulated products to which the pregnant woman is exposed. The policies and programs of the agency directed toward reducing such risks to the unborn are reviewed. These measures include guidelines for animal reproduction studies and for clinical trials involving women to childbearing potential; labeling of products to disclose known or possible harm to the fetus or embryo; surveillance procedures designed to detect previously unsuspected adverse effects of marketed products; research activities designed to develop better understanding of developmental toxicology and improved techniques for detecting embryocidal and embryotoxic effects; and educational efforts directed both to professionals and the public regarding hazards to the unborn of agency-regulated products

  9. Pathogenesis and pharmacologic treatment of obesity: the role of energy regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manulu, Mangatas S M; Sutanegara, I N Dwi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem affecting millions of people. This is a chronic, stigmatized, and costly disease, rarely curable and is increasing in prevalence to a point today where we define obesity as an epidemic disease that not only in developed but also on developing countries. The pathogenesis of obesity is largely unknown, especially about energy regulatory mechanism that involved wide area of neuroendocrinology that is very interesting but very complex and makes internists "refuse" to learn. Obesity occurs through a longstanding imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, influenced by a complex biologic system that regulates appetite and adiposity. Obesity influences the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, kidney, heart, and cerebrovascular disease. It is very wise for every internist to learn the pathogenesis and treatment of this worldwide diseases. Until now, the available treatments, including drugs, are palliative and are effective only while the treatment is being actively used; and besides so many side effects reported.

  10. Regulatory role and approach of BARC Safety Council in safety and occupational health in BARC facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Jayarajan, K.; Taly, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is involved in multidisciplinary research and developmental activities, related to peaceful use of nuclear energy and its societal benefits. In order to achieve high level of performance of these facilities, the best efforts are made to maintain good health of the plant personnel and good working conditions. BARC Safety Council (BSC), which is the regulatory body for BARC facilities, regulates radiation safety, industrial safety and surveillance of occupational health, by implementing various rules and guidelines in BARC facilities. BARC Safety framework consists of various committees in a 3-tier system. The first tier is BSC, which is the apex body authorized for issuing directives, permissions, consents and authorizations. It is having responsibility of ensuring protection and safety of public, environment, personnel and facilities of BARC through enforcement of radiation protection and industrial safety programmes. Besides the 18 committees in 2"n"d tier, there are 6 other expert committees which assist in functioning of BSC. (author)

  11. Regulatory coiled-coil domains promote head-to-head assemblies of AAA+ chaperones essential for tunable activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroni, Marta; Franke, Kamila B; Maurer, Michael; Jäger, Jasmin; Hantke, Ingo; Gloge, Felix; Linder, Daniela; Gremer, Sebastian; Turgay, Kürşad; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-11-22

    Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA. ClpC forms large two-helical assemblies that associate via head-to-head contacts between coiled-coil middle domains (MDs). MecA converts this resting state to an active planar ring structure by binding to MD interaction sites. Loss of ClpC repression in MD mutants causes constitutive activation and severe cellular toxicity. These findings unravel an unexpected regulatory concept executed by coiled-coil MDs to tightly control AAA+ chaperone activity.

  12. Role of bundle helices in a regulatory crosstalk in the trimeric betaine transporter BetP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Rebecca M; Perez, Camilo; Koshy, Caroline; Ziegler, Christine

    2011-12-02

    The Na(+)-coupled betaine symporter BetP regulates transport activity in response to hyperosmotic stress only in its trimeric state, suggesting a regulatory crosstalk between individual protomers. BetP shares the overall fold of two inverted structurally related five-transmembrane (TM) helix repeats with the sequence-unrelated Na(+)-coupled symporters LeuT, vSGLT, and Mhp1, which are neither trimeric nor regulated in transport activity. Conformational changes characteristic for this transporter fold involve the two first helices of each repeat, which form a four-TM-helix bundle. Here, we identify two ionic networks in BetP located on both sides of the membrane that might be responsible for BetP's unique regulatory behavior by restricting the conformational flexibility of the four-TM-helix bundle. The cytoplasmic ionic interaction network links both first helices of each repeat in one protomer to the osmosensing C-terminal domain of the adjacent protomer. Moreover, the periplasmic ionic interaction network conformationally locks the four-TM-helix bundle between the same neighbor protomers. By a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, cross-linking, and betaine uptake measurements, we demonstrate how conformational changes in individual bundle helices are transduced to the entire bundle by specific inter-helical interactions. We suggest that one purpose of bundle networking is to assist crosstalk between protomers during transport regulation by specifically modulating the transition from outward-facing to inward-facing state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empowering Effective STEM Role Models to Promote STEM Equity in Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, T.; Taylor, J.

    2017-12-01

    Empowering Effective STEM Role Models, a three-hour training developed and successfully implemented by NASA Langley Research Center's Science Directorate, is an effort to encourage STEM professionals to serve as role models within their community. The training is designed to help participants reflect on their identity as a role model and provide research-based strategies to effectively engage youth, particularly girls, in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). Research shows that even though girls and boys do not demonstrate a significant difference in their ability to be successful in mathematics and science, there is a significant difference in their confidence level when participating in STEM subject matter and pursuing STEM careers. The Langley training model prepares professionals to disrupt this pattern and take on the habits and skills of effective role models. The training model is based on other successful models and resources for role modeling in STEM including SciGirls; the National Girls Collaborative; and publications by the American Association of University Women and the National Academies. It includes a significant reflection component, and participants walk through situation-based scenarios to practice a focused suite of research-based strategies. These strategies can be implemented in a variety of situations and adapted to the needs of groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields. Underpinning the training and the discussions is the fostering of a growth mindset and promoting perseverance. "The Power of Yet" becomes a means whereby role models encourage students to believe in themselves, working toward reaching their goals and dreams in the area of STEM. To provide additional support, NASA Langley role model trainers are available to work with a champion at other organizations to facilitate the training. This champion helps recruit participants, seeks leadership buy-in, and helps provide valuable insights for needs and

  14. The role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    Much of the development of family therapy as a discipline was an outcome of the clinical, training, and theory-building activities conducted at family institutes around the United States. Beginning in the 1960s, these institutes were the crucibles in which the concepts and practices of family therapy flourished. The author, a leader at one of the largest family institutes in the United States, discusses the role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy, as well as the challenges of doing so. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  15. Lithium-Induced Neuroprotection is Associated with Epigenetic Modification of Specific BDNF Gene Promoter and Altered Expression of Apoptotic-Regulatory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar eDwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD, one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons.

  16. Health promotion messages: the role of social presence for food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Jenny V; Kulesz, Micaela M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether social presence cues encourage consumers to self-regulate and select healthier food products. In the first experiment, workers completed food choices in an e-commerce environment. After the activation of health-related goals, they saw a social presence cue and were asked to choose between healthy and unhealthy food options. The analyses revealed main effects of social presence and health goal activation on food choices. These effects were additive, such that the combination of social presence and health goals induced significantly healthier choices compared with the control group. The second experiment further examined social presence cues that were presented on a menu. The results showed significant effects on food choices and on the perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. These findings indicate that social presence cues could be employed to increase healthful eating and, furthermore, that it may be useful to co-activate multiple cues in health promotion messages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perilipin-mediated lipid droplet formation in adipocytes promotes sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 processing and triacylglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1 has been thought to be a critical factor that assists adipogenesis. During adipogenesis SREBP-1 stimulates lipogenic gene expression, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ enhances perilipin (plin gene expression, resulting in generating lipid droplets (LDs to store triacylglycerol (TAG in adipocytes. Plin coats adipocyte LDs and protects them from lipolysis. Here we show in white adipose tissue (WAT of plin-/- mice that nuclear active SREBP-1 and its target gene expression, but not nuclear SREBP-2, significantly decreased on attenuated LD formation. When plin-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs differentiated into adipocytes, attenuated LDs were formed and nuclear SREBP-1 decreased, but enforced plin expression restored them to their original state. Since LDs are largely derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, alterations in the ER cholesterol content were investigated during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The ER cholesterol greatly reduced in differentiated adipocytes. The ER cholesterol level in plin-/- WAT was significantly higher than that of wild-type mice, suggesting that increased LD formation caused a change in ER environment along with a decrease in cholesterol. When GFP-SREBP-1 fusion proteins were exogenously expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a mutant protein lacking the S1P cleavage site was poorly processed during adipogenesis, providing evidence of the increased canonical pathway for SREBP processing in which SREBP-1 is activated by two cleavage enzymes in the Golgi. Therefore, LD biogenesis may create the ER microenvironment favorable for SREBP-1 activation. We describe the novel interplay between LD formation and SREBP-1 activation through a positive feedback loop.

  18. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, SOD and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  19. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.

  20. THE ROLE OF SCHOOL TECHNICIANS IN PROMOTING SCIENCE THROUGH PRACTICAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T. Helliar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the role of practical work in UK’s secondary school science lessons, the impact that practical work has in the promotion of science, the challenges created through use of non-specialist science teachers and a possible additional role for science technicians. The paper considers how improved deployment of suitably experienced school science technicians and their recognition, by schools’ management, for their involvement in the delivery of training in the use of practical work, for less experienced teachers, could benefit schools and their students. This together with its companion paper endeavours to show how the more effective use of practical work and technicians can encourage more students to select science at higher, non-compulsory levels.

  1. Promoting a skills-based agenda in Olympic sports: the role of skill-acquisition specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2009-11-01

    We highlight the importance of promoting a skills-based agenda in the development and preparation of Olympic athletes. The role that specialists with a background in skill acquisition can play is illustrated and the need to move towards a culture where evidence-based practice permeates all aspects of this process reiterated. We provide examples from contemporary research to illustrate how skill-acquisition theory and practice can help inform and guide practitioners, coaches, and administrators in their quest to develop Olympic athletes. Although the acquisition and refinement of skills are essential to performance in most Olympic sports, paradoxically the area of skill acquisition has not impacted in a concerted and meaningful way on this agenda. Skill-acquisition specialists need to be more proactive in forging links with elite sport, whereas practitioners, coaches, and administrators need to appreciate the important role that sports scientists with a background in this area can play in helping to develop future generations of podium athletes.

  2. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity.

  3. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  4. A regulatory perspective of the role of construction in revitalizing the United States nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technical and managerial experience in nuclear power plant construction is presented from the perspective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the context of actions that would contribute to revitalizing the nuclear industry in the United States of America, greater effectiveness of utility management during construction is proposed. The reasons why management effectiveness is so important are developed beginning with summaries of defects that were built into several US plants under construction. The root causes of these significant defects were management failures. In terms of benefits, effective management is important because of its effects on nuclear safety, project construction costs, and future reliability of the plant after commissioning. Actions that would enhance good management include emphasizing the inseparable nature of production and quality, that quality cannot be inspected into a plant, and that a strong construction management staff and exchanges of experience and information are essential. Techniques that have been used successfully in construction management are discussed. NRC and industry initiatives are in progress to improve management responsibility and learning from experience. Projects include Owner's Certification, assessments of licensee performance, fostering good practices across the industry, and improving the NRC inspection programme. Revitalization will not be easy, but it is achievable. (author)

  5. Apoptosis following interleukin-2 withdrawal from T cells: evidence for a regulatory role of CD18 (beta 2-integrin) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, C; Gladstone, P; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    , these findings suggest that CD18 molecules (beta 2-integrins) play a regulatory role in the apoptotic response following cytokine withdrawal, and that the regulation is mediated, at least partly, through T-T cell interactions. Thus, apoptotic death following IL-2 deprivation appears to be under "social" control...... activated T cells. Thus, removal of IL-2 from proliferating T cells not only induces growth arrest, but triggers a massive cell death due to apoptosis. While the apoptotic response involves a series of well-described events, it remains less clear how apoptosis is regulated following IL-2 withdrawal. Here...... molecules (CD28, CD29, CD49d, CD80, CD86) did not. Secondly, IL-2 withdrawal resulted in a retarded apoptotic response in LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) negative T cells obtained from a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient, as compared to LFA-1 positive T cell lines. Thirdly, co-culture of LFA-1 positive...

  6. Strategies for patient empowerment through the promotion of medicines in Israel: regulatory framework for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Grotto, Itamar; Marom, Eli

    2017-09-29

    The correct and rational use of medications can have a positive direct impact on disease outcomes, as well on the utilization of the health system resources. Unfortunately, 50% of the patients do not take their medications as prescribed, largely due to lack of patients' understanding of their medical condition, as well as the lack of reliable medicine information.There are multiple strategies implemented in many countries to tackle this challenge including: disease awareness campaigns (DAC) to raise the public awareness to specific diseases, direct-to-consumer advertisement (DTCA) to raise the public awareness to prescription medicines, specific treatments and over-the-counter (OTC) products to improve the accessibility of patients to specific medicines.Prior to 2013, the Israeli policy prohibited prescribing medication advertising and prevented the flow of information from pharmaceutical companies to the patient. In the last five years, the Pharmaceutical division in the Israeli Ministry of Health, as part of the "empowering the patient" agenda, has taken new innovative approaches to raise public awareness to diseases, medications and appropriate usage, as well as promotion of information to improve patient adherence to the prescribed medication.This paper elaborates on the aforementioned strategies implemented in developed countries, and specifically focuses on newly implemented strategies and regulations in Israel regarding pre- and post-prescription information, to improve patient appropriate utilization and adherence to medication.

  7. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M. A.; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, M.; Torres, M. S.; White, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  8. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael C; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Yates, John R; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in wild type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases. PMID:19888214

  9. Deep transcriptome profiling of mammalian stem cells supports a regulatory role for retrotransposons in pluripotency maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Alexandre; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Yamada, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    The importance of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs in the regulation of pluripotency has been documented; however, the noncoding components of stem cell gene networks remain largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of noncoding RNAs in the pluripotent state, with particular emphasis on nucl...

  10. Regulatory aspects of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Regulatory systems in the field of radiopharmaceuticals have two main purposes: efficacy and safety. Efficacy expresses the quality of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for the patient. Safety involves the patient, the staff, and the environment. The world situation regarding regulations for radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed on the basis of a survey in WHO Member States. The main content of such regulations is discussed. The special properties of radiopharmaceuticals compared with ordinary drugs may call for modified regulations. Several countries are preparing such regulations. Close co-operation and good understanding among scientists working in hospital research, industry and regulatory bodies will be of great importance for the fast and safe introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals for the benefit of the patient. Before introducing new legislation in this field, a radiopharmaceutical expert should analyse the situation in the country and the relationship to the existing regulations. It is expected that the most important factor in promoting the fast introduction of new, safe and effective radiopharmaceuticals will be the training of people working within the regulatory bodies. It is foreseen that the IAEA and WHO will have an important role to play by providing expert advice and training in this area. (author)

  11. Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit Isoforms Regulate Growth and Differentiation in Mucor circinelloides: Essential Role of PKAR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, J.; McCormack, B.; Navarro, E.; Moreno, S.; Garre, V.

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation in the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides. PKA holoenzyme is comprised of two catalytic (C) and two regulatory (R) subunits. In M. circinelloides, four genes encode the PKAR1, PKAR2, PKAR3, and PKAR4 isoforms of R subunits. We have constructed null mutants and demonstrate that each isoform has a different role in growth and differentiation. The most striking finding is that pkaR4 is an essential gene, because only heterokaryons were obtained in knockout experiments. Heterokaryons with low levels of wild-type nuclei showed an impediment in the emission of the germ tube, suggesting a pivotal role of this gene in germ tube emergence. The remaining null strains showed different alterations in germ tube emergence, sporulation, and volume of the mother cell. The pkaR2 null mutant showed an accelerated germ tube emission and was the only mutant that germinated under anaerobic conditions when glycine was used as a nitrogen source, suggesting that pkaR2 participates in germ tube emergence by repressing it. From the measurement of the mRNA and protein levels of each isoform in the wild-type and knockout strains, it can be concluded that the expression of each subunit has its own mechanism of differential regulation. The PKAR1 and PKAR2 isoforms are posttranslationally modified by ubiquitylation, suggesting another regulation point in the specificity of the signal transduction. The results indicate that each R isoform has a different role in M. circinelloides physiology, controlling the dimorphism and contributing to the specificity of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway. PMID:22635921

  12. Regulatory roles and therapeutic potential of microRNA in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Jun; Yang, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded noncoding RNAs involved in various biological processes, including cell differentiation and development. They play multiple key roles as tumour suppressors, oncogenes or both in particular cases. This review aims to summarise current findings of the expression of miRNAs and their role in clinical oncology. Current knowledge regarding the involvement of miRNAs in different sarcoma subtypes will be assessed, in conjunction with their potential application as therapeutic targets. Relevant articles in scientific databases were identified using a combination of search terms, including "microRNA," "deregulation," "sarcoma," and "targeted therapy". These databases included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Review, Pubmed and Scopus. Aberrant miRNA expression patterns have been identified in a range of sarcoma subtypes, and differences in miRNA expression profiles between malignant cells and their normal counterparts suggests that miRNAs play key roles in sarcoma development. The identification of unique miRNA patterns in individual tumour types could possibly be used as a diagnostic tool in sarcoma. Moreover, identification of these miRNAs provides novel targets for the development of therapeutic strategies in distinct sarcoma subtypes. miRNAs hold significant potential as diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets in sarcoma. Possible future clinical applications include the use of miRNA pathways as therapeutic targets or miRNA expression profiling as a means of patient selection. The involvement miRNAs will undoubtedly contribute to the advancement of future targeted therapeutic interventions in sarcoma, and further establishment of appropriate delivery systems is vital for their use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Promoting flood risk reduction: The role of insurance in Germany and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-10-01

    Improving society's ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from flooding requires integrated, anticipatory flood risk management (FRM). However, most countries still focus their efforts on responding to flooding events if and when they occur rather than addressing their current and future vulnerability to flooding. Flood insurance is one mechanism that could promote a more ex ante approach to risk by supporting risk reduction activities. This paper uses an adapted version of Easton's System Theory to investigate the role of insurance for FRM in Germany and England. We introduce an anticipatory FRM framework, which allows flood insurance to be considered as part of a broader policy field. We analyze if and how flood insurance can catalyze a change toward a more anticipatory approach to FRM. In particular we consider insurance's role in influencing five key components of anticipatory FRM: risk knowledge, prevention through better planning, property-level protection measures, structural protection and preparedness (for response). We find that in both countries FRM is still a reactive, event-driven process, while anticipatory FRM remains underdeveloped. Collaboration between insurers and FRM decision-makers has already been successful, for example in improving risk knowledge and awareness, while in other areas insurance acts as a disincentive for more risk reduction action. In both countries there is evidence that insurance can play a significant role in encouraging anticipatory FRM, but this remains underutilized. Effective collaboration between insurers and government should not be seen as a cost, but as an investment to secure future insurability through flood resilience.

  14. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-07

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  16. The role of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuko; Fujii, Yuuko; Sugiyama, Reina; Konishi, Tenji

    2016-01-11

    Yokukansan is a traditional Japanese "Kampo" medicine derived from Yi-Gan San in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have been published on its effects and mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the sleep-promoting effects of Yokukansan. Yokukansan composes of seven crude drugs: Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium Rhizome, Japanese Angelica Root, Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza. Although each has distinctive effects in isolation, they combine to work as a sleep aid in the Yokukansan formula. We examined the roles of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan. In this study, we used an easy in vivo assay method which we developed previously to screen sleeping substances using thermography. This assay method focuses on the decrease in skin temperature of mice during sleep inducement. By administering the crude drug components of Yokukansan one at a time, it was possible to separate them into two groups: those that caused a decrease in body temperature (Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium rhizome, and Japanese Angelica root) and those that did not (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza). Accordingly, it was thought that the crude drugs causing a drop in body temperature were responsible for promoting sleep, while those in the other group would have no such effect in isolation. To investigate whether the crude drugs that did not cause a decrease in body temperature might be unnecessary for the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan, a number of decoctions were prepared using only six of the seven crude drug components, excluding a different crude drug in each case. Results showed that when any of the three components (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, or Glycyrrhiza) of Yokukansan that had no effect on body temperature in isolation were removed from Yokukansan, the resulting extract no longer had any of Yokukansan's sleep-promoting effects. This result

  17. The AA genotype of the regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism ( 938C>A) is associated with a favorable outcome in lymph node negative invasive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hagen S; Otterbach, Friedrich; Callies, Rainer; Nückel, Holger; Bau, Maja; Schmid, Kurt W; Siffert, Winfried; Kimmig, Rainer

    2007-10-01

    Expression of the antiapoptotic and antiproliferative protein Bcl-2 has been repeatedly shown to be associated with better clinical outcome in breast cancer. We recently showed a novel regulatory (-938C>A) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter generating significantly different BCL2 promoter activities. Paraffin-embedded neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues from 274 patients (161 still alive after a follow-up period of at least 80 months) with primary unilateral invasive breast carcinoma were investigated. Bcl-2 expression of tumor cells was shown by immunohistochemistry; nonneoplastic tissues were used for genotyping. Both the Bcl-2 expression and the (-938C>A) genotypes were correlated with the patients' survival. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant association of the AA genotype with increased survival (P = 0.030) in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients, whereas no genotype effect could be observed in lymph node-positive cases. Ten-year survival rates were 88.6% for the AA genotype, 78.4% for the AC genotype, and 65.8% for the CC genotype. Multivariable Cox regression identified the BCL2 (-938CC) genotype as an independent prognostic factor for cancer-related death in lymph node-negative breast carcinoma patients (hazard ratio, 3.59; P = 0.032). Immunohistochemical Bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with the clinical outcome of lymph node-positive but not of lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. In lymph node-negative cases, the (-938C>A) SNP was both significantly related with the immunohistochemically determined level of Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.044) and the survival of patients with Bcl-2-expressing carcinomas (P = 0.006). These results suggest the (-938C>A) polymorphism as a survival prognosticator as well as indicator of a high-risk group within patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer.

  18. The regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism (-938C>A) is associated with relapse and survival of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnerdt, G F; Franz, P; Bankfalvi, A; Grehl, S; Kelava, A; Nückel, H; Lang, S; Schmid, K W; Siffert, W; Bachmann, H S

    2009-06-01

    Expression of the antiapoptotic and antiproliferative protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) has been repeatedly shown to be associated with better locoregional control and patients' survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A regulatory (-938C>A) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter generates significantly different BCL2 promoter activities and has been associated with outcome in different malignancies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible influence of the (-938C>A) SNP on survival of patients suffering from OSCC. One hundred and thirty-three patients with primary OSCC were retrospectively investigated. Bcl-2 expression of tumor cells was demonstrated by means of immunohistochemistry. Both the Bcl-2 expression and the (-938C>A) genotypes were correlated with the patients' survival. The (-938C>A) SNP was significantly related to Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant association of the -938 SNP with relapse-free (P = 0.0283) and overall survival (P = 0.0247). Multiple Cox regression identified the BCL2 (-938CC) genotype as an independent prognostic factor for relapse [hazard ratio (HR) 1.898, P = 0.021] as well as for death in OSCC patients (HR 1.897, P = 0.013). The (-938C>A) SNP represents a potential novel prognostic marker in patients with OSCC that could help to identify a group of patients at high risk for relapse and death.

  19. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohna Bandyopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  20. 100% ♥ Indonesia: Role of Government Campaign to Promote Local Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the role of government buy-local campaign to increase consumer willingness to purchase local products in Indonesia. This paper also aims to identify relevant mediating variables between exposure to “buy local” campaign and willingness to purchase local products. This research use questionnaire data from 394 respondents selected using purposive sampling method. Product specific constructs are asked and analyzed separately in four different product categories (e.g. Produce, Leather, Culinary and Creative products. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Model and compared further between product categories. The study found that exposure to the buy local promotion campaign does increase consumer ethnocentrism, attitude toward the campaign and toward domestic products. Consumer ethnocentrism does increase attitude toward domestic product and willingness to purchase local products.

  1. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  2. The role of law in addressing mental health-related aspects of disasters and promoting resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie

    2012-01-01

    Law plays a critical role in emergency preparedness and disaster response by establishing an infrastructure for the response and facilitating coordination among the federal, state, and local governments. Once a disaster occurs, certain legal mechanisms are activated to ensure that individuals' needs for mental health care are met, both for pre-existing and emergent conditions. This includes the rapid deployment of mental health care personnel and the implementation of crisis counseling programs in affected regions. By facilitating an influx of resources, including personnel, supplies, and financial assistance, the law can help communities quickly rebound and return to a sense of normal. Drawing on examples from the United States, this article illustrates the diverse ways in which the law simultaneously addresses mental health-related aspects of disasters and promotes resilience within affected communities.

  3. THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRĂGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important development banks which finances private initiatives in the Central and Eastern Europe countries is the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD. EBRD as international financial institution plays a very important role in the development of many sectors such as agribusiness, energy efficiency, financial institutions, manufacturing, municipal and environmental infrastructure, natural resources, power and energy, property and tourism, telecommunications, information technology and media, transport. Its objectives aim to promote transition to market economies by investing mainly in the private sector, to mobilize significant foreign direct investment, to support privatization, restructuring and better municipal services to improve people’s lives and to encourage environmentally sound and sustainable development. The present scientific article focuses on the last objective respectively the bank commitment to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development and shortly presents EBRD environmental policy because EBRD, unlike other development banks, has strong and imperative regulations regarding this issue. This is why all the EBRD potential beneficiaries must prove that their projects are environmentally sound.

  4. THE PRINCIPALS’ ROLE IN DEVELOPING SOCIAL CAPITAL FORTHE PROMOTION OF HEALTHY SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siphokazi Kwatubana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schoolleaders’ individual and collective efforts are essential in the promotion ofhealthy school environments. In this respect, the building of social capital is veryimportant for a school’s improvement. The aim of this paper was to determine therole principals played in developing social capital to enhance healthy schoolenvironments. The study was conducted in two districts, one in the Gauteng andthe other in the Free State provinces of South Africa. It was undertaken as aqualitative research study that involved seven participants. Data collectionstrategies employed included narratives, individual interviews and field notes. Thestudy was considered important in its application of the social capital theory todetermine the role of principals in solicitingeconomic resources for their schools.From the findings, the main challenge that was common in all the participatingschools was the lack of resources for the Promotion ofHealthySchoolEnvironments. It was found that some principals were able to identify andapproach companies that could assist their schools but were then unable to buildtrusting relationships. In view of the findings, this research recommendstrainingto equip principals with skills to enable them tomobilise resources by takingadvantage ofsocial capitalin their communities.

  5. Culture and Its Role in Promoting Democracy and Good Governance in Africa: Finding the Missing Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Justine Igbokwe-Ibeto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the role of culture in promoting democracy and good governance in Africa. It also explores the concepts surrounding an optimal governance arrangement for cultural and democratic institutions and the challenges current arrangements have on organizational governance and structures to deliver optimal and effective outcomes. The paper argues that for culture to promote democracy and good governance, actions should be taken towards cultural re-orientation with the aim of making it useful to our democracy and governance. The emphasis on humanity and personhood finds expression in several African maxims. Regrettably, the culture of individualism and primitive accumulation of wealth have dislocated humanity and personhood in Africa. We therefore, recommend among others, that communalism, high moral order in governance, community and state relations based on duties and obligations of the people to the state, deep sense of hard work and self-reliant, even as they embrace best practices from outside the continent of Africa. With these and other steps if implemented will launch the continent on the path of democratization and good governance by retrieving and showcasing its uniqueness as a people with deep sense of history and pride.

  6. In silico analysis, mapping of regulatory elements and corresponding dna-protein interaction in polyphenol oxidase gene promoter from different rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Rehman, M.; Aziz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important enzyme that has positive impact regarding plant resistance against different biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study PPO promoter from six different rice varieties was amplified and then analyzed for cis- and trans-acting elements. The study revealed a total of 79 different cis-acting regulatory elements including 11 elements restricted to only one or other variety. Among six varieties Pakhal-Basmati had highest number (5) of these elements, whereas C-622 and Rachna-Basmati have no such sequences. Rachna-Basmati, IR-36-Basmati and Kashmir- Basmati had 1, 2 and 3 unique elements, respectively. Different elementsrelated to pathogen, salt and water stresses were found, which may be helpful in controlling PPO activity according to changing environment. Moreover, HADDOCK was used to understand molecular mechanism of PPO regulation and it was found that DNA-protein interactions are stabilized by many potential hydrogen bonds. Adenine and arginine were the most reactive residues in DNA and proteins respectively.Structural comparison of different protein-DNA complexes show that even a highly conserved transcriptional factor can adopt different conformations when they contact a different DNA binding sequence, however their stable interactions depend on the number of hydrogen bonds formed and distance. (author)

  7. Adrenaline promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via HuR-TGFβ regulatory axis in pancreatic cancer cells and the implication in cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaorui; Luo, Huiwen; Xu, Lijuan; Lu, Xiaozhao; Lu, Jianguo

    2017-11-25

    Psychological stress has recently been described as a risk factor in the development of pancreatic cancer. Here, we reported that increased neurotransmitter adrenaline was associated with the poor survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Moreover, in the cell model study, we found adrenaline promoted pancreatic cell PANC-1 migration in a dose dependent manner. Block of the β2-adrenoreceptor with ICI118,551, significantly reduced cell migration. Further study found that adrenaline induced a cytoplasmic translocation of RNA binding protein HuR, which in turn activated TGFβ, as shown by the SBE luciferase assay and phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Either HuR knockdown or TGFβ inhibition reduced cell migration induced by adrenaline. Taken together, our study here revealed that adrenaline-HuR-TGFβ regulatory axis at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced metastasis in PANC-1 cells, shedding light on therapeutic targeting psychological stress in improving the prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving nuclear regulation. NEA regulatory guidance booklets volumes 1-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A common theme throughout the series of NEA regulatory guidance reports, or 'green booklets', is the premise that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are continuously maintained and operated in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective the regulator must bear in mind that it is the operator that has responsibility for safely operating the nuclear facility; the role of the regulator is to assess and to provide assurance regarding the operator's activities in terms of assuming that responsibility. The full series of these reports was brought together in one edition for the first time in 2009 and was widely found to be a useful resource. This second edition comprises 14 volumes, including the latest on The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services. The reports address various challenges that could apply throughout the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including design, siting, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning. The compilation is intended to serve as a knowledge management tool both for current regulators and the new nuclear professionals and organisations entering the regulatory field. Contents: Executive Summary; Regulatory Challenges: 1. The Role of the Nuclear Regulator in Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture; 2. Regulatory Response Strategies for Safety Culture Problems; 3. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Related to Human Performance; 4. Regulatory Challenges in Using Nuclear Operating Experience; 5. Nuclear Regulatory Review of Licensee Self-assessment (LSA); 6. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Arising from Competition in Electricity Markets; 7. The Nuclear Regulatory Challenge of Judging Safety Back-fits; 8. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors; 9. The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services

  9. Emergency planning and response - role nad responsibilities of the regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a emergency plan and organisation of adequate emergency preparedness in case of radiological accident in NPP cannot be effective without the appropriate preparatory work. In most countries, also in Republic of Bulgaria, several organisations are identified to have a potential role to play in a radiological emergency. For these reason is very important to have a national organisation, with a mandate to organise, inspect and co-ordinate the possibility of ministries and institution to react in case of radiological emergency, i.e. to quarantine the possibility for implementation of adequate counter measure for protection of the population and environment in case of radiological emergency in NPP. For the purposes of the emergency planning and response the NPP operator, ministries and the institutions developed an Emergency plan - NPP Emergency Plan and National Emergency Plan. The development of the emergency plans will be impossible without the good co-operation of the organisations which have a responsibilities in a radiological emergency. Once emergency plans are adopted, each individual organisation, also the NPP operator, must ensure that in can carry out its role effectively in accordance with the emergency plan and can develop the appropriate organisation for action and implementation of protection counter measures. For testing the emergency plans a regular exercise must be organised. Periodic reviews of the plan and modifications, based on actual events and exercise experience must be performed. The main aim of these report is to present the Bulgarian emergency planning organisation and response by explaining the national emergency panning and response legislation, implementation of IAEA recommendations and exercise experience

  10. The role of health promotion behavior in controlling anxiety and stress in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Samiei Siboni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important, worldwide chronic diseases. In most cases the real cause of hypertension is not clear but recent studies have shown that unhealthy lifestyle may lead to stress, anxiety and hypertension.    METHODS: The study design of this article was written based on reviewing published articles in scientific database including ISI web of knowledge, Medline, pub med, Elsevier. The articles about healthy lifestyle, stress and anxiety in patients with hypertension was reviewed.    RESULTS: Hypertension was the major risk factor for developing cardiovascular and renal disease. In most cases the real cause of hypertension was not clear but recent studies have shown that unhealthy lifestyle may lead to stress, anxiety and hypertension. Lifestyle factors were critical determinants of blood pressure levels operating against a background of genetic susceptibility. An improving healthy lifestyle behavior was important in improving health and was a multidimensional pattern. Not all strategies would be effective for every individual, but to some extent all patients being treated for hypertension should incorporate elements of therapeutic lifestyle changes into their treatment regimen. Healthcare providers play an important role in teaching individuals with hypertension on health promotion program and healthy lifestyles. Not only healthcare providers, advice that controlling hypertension is integral, but also patients should follow that advice. Special attention must be paid to intervention programs aimed at modifying lifestyle and providing education on stress management techniques. Non pharmacologic interventions include methods to modify lifestyle and reduce or coping with stress and anxiety such as: stress management intervention (SMI, dietary sodium reduction, weight reduction, supplement regimens utilizing calcium, magnesium, fish oil, and potassium.    CONCLUSION: Several studies in the context of

  11. The regulatory role of the state strategic management in the development of the regional entrepreneurial sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhneva Nina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of state strategic management (SGSO today is an Outpost of the state, exercising the functions of strategic management, development and predicates, and conducting an evaluation of the effectiveness and quality of the planned trajectories of economic development of the regions, regions and the state as a whole. It SGSW today is designed to ensure that the nationally oriented domestic policies that contribute to progressive and bold actions of the Russian Federation on the world stage. SHSU today is to create conditions for the development of science, research training, new knowledge-based economy. SHSU should form a system of state orders, which is of fundamental importance for the development of strategic projects in the field of medicine and health, agriculture, defense industry, etc. And, most importantly, SHSU needs today and support the process of re-industrialization of the country, technical re-equipment of all areas of production and management. In the new knowledge economy SHSU performs the role of the intellectual and information center regulation and strategic planning of development of the entire socio-economic sphere of the society centre to ensure the development of a database of fundamental and applied research, development, centre, guaranteeing the protection of copyright and introduction of innovative products, including new technical and technological solutions.

  12. The Regulatory Role of Signaling Crosstalk in Hypertrophy of MSCs and Human Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes is a main barrier in application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for cartilage repair. In addition, hypertrophy occurs occasionally in osteoarthritis (OA. Here we provide a comprehensive review on recent literature describing signal pathways in the hypertrophy of MSCs-derived in vitro differentiated chondrocytes and chondrocytes, with an emphasis on the crosstalk between these pathways. Insight into the exact regulation of hypertrophy by the signaling network is necessary for the efficient application of MSCs for articular cartilage repair and for developing novel strategies for curing OA. We focus on articles describing the role of the main signaling pathways in regulating chondrocyte hypertrophy-like changes. Most studies report hypertrophic differentiation in chondrogenesis of MSCs, in both human OA and experimental OA. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is not under the strict control of a single pathway but appears to be regulated by an intricately regulated network of multiple signaling pathways, such as WNT, Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ, Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Indian hedgehog (IHH, Fibroblast growth factor (FGF, Insulin like growth factor (IGF and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF. This comprehensive review describes how this intricate signaling network influences tissue-engineering applications of MSCs in articular cartilage (AC repair, and improves understanding of the disease stages and cellular responses within an OA articular joint.

  13. Regulatory mechanisms of RNA function: emerging roles of DNA repair enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobert, Laure; Nilsen, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    The acquisition of an appropriate set of chemical modifications is required in order to establish correct structure of RNA molecules, and essential for their function. Modification of RNA bases affects RNA maturation, RNA processing, RNA quality control, and protein translation. Some RNA modifications are directly involved in the regulation of these processes. RNA epigenetics is emerging as a mechanism to achieve dynamic regulation of RNA function. Other modifications may prevent or be a signal for degradation. All types of RNA species are subject to processing or degradation, and numerous cellular mechanisms are involved. Unexpectedly, several studies during the last decade have established a connection between DNA and RNA surveillance mechanisms in eukaryotes. Several proteins that respond to DNA damage, either to process or to signal the presence of damaged DNA, have been shown to participate in RNA quality control, turnover or processing. Some enzymes that repair DNA damage may also process modified RNA substrates. In this review, we give an overview of the DNA repair proteins that function in RNA metabolism. We also discuss the roles of two base excision repair enzymes, SMUG1 and APE1, in RNA quality control.

  14. Regulatory Role of N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) Methylation in RNA Processing and Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenqiang; Ji, Xinying; Guo, Xiangqian; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-09-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) modification is an abundant and conservative RNA modification in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. m 6 A modification mainly occurs in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and near the stop codons of mRNA. Diverse strategies have been developed for identifying m 6 A sites in single nucleotide resolution. Dynamic regulation of m 6 A is found in metabolism, embryogenesis, and developmental processes, indicating a possible epigenetic regulation role along RNA processing and exerting biological functions. It has been known that m 6 A editing involves in nuclear RNA export, mRNA degradation, protein translation, and RNA splicing. Deficiency of m 6 A modification will lead to kinds of diseases, such as obesity, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), infertility, and developmental arrest. Some specific inhibitors against methyltransferase and demethylase have been developed to selectively regulate m 6 A modification, which may be advantageous for treatment of m 6 A related diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2534-2543, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Novel mitochondrial substrates of omi indicate a new regulatory role in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Johnson

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protease OMI (also known as HtrA2 has been implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD and deletion or protease domain point mutations have shown profound neuropathologies in mice. A beneficial role by OMI, in preserving cell viability, is assumed to occur via the avoidance of dysfunctional protein turnover. However relatively few substrates for mitochondrial Omi are known. Here we report our identification of three novel mitochondrial substrates that impact metabolism and ATP production. Using a dual proteomic approach we have identified three interactors based upon ability to bind to OMI, and/or to persist in the proteome after OMI activity has been selectively inhibited. One candidate, the chaperone HSPA8, was common to each independent study. Two others (PDHB subunit and IDH3A subunit did not appear to bind to OMI, however persisted in the mito-proteome when OMI was inhibited. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH are two key Kreb's cycle enzymes that catalyse oxidative decarboxylation control points in mitochondrial respiration. We verified both PDHB and IDH3A co-immunoprecipitate with HSPA8 and after elution, were degraded by recombinant HtrA2 in vitro. Additionally our gene expression studies, using rotenone (an inhibitor of Complex I showed Omi expression was silenced when pdhb and idh3a were increased when a sub-lethal dose was applied. However higher dose treatment caused increased Omi expression and decreased levels of pdhb and idh3a transcripts. This implicates mitochondrial OMI in a novel mechanism relating to metabolism.

  16. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Vejan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer—thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  17. Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogi Kazutaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.

  18. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. THE ROLE OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL ENGLISH LITERACY ACTIVITIES IN PROMOTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIES SETIASIH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the role of out-of-school English literacy activities in promoting students’ English literacy at an elementary school in Bandung. The study is an attempt to respond to controversy among decision makers about the idea of offering English at elementary schools and the reality that at the school where the research was conducted, English is fully used as a means of instruction for English, Mathematics, and Science. Considering that literacy is shaped in socio-cultural contexts, the researcher assumed that the students acquired and developed their English literacy not only at school but also outside of school. Their out-of-school English literacy activities might contribute to their English literacy development. The research aims were to investigate the students’ English literacy level and to identify their out-of-school literacy activities. The theoretical framework covered the cognitive and socio-cultural theories of literacy. The research results were: 1 the majority of the fourth grade students were in early advanced and advanced levels for the aspects of reading and writing proficiency; and 2 their out-of-school English literacy activities played an important role in building their English literacy.

  20. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-04-29

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  1. School health promotion providers' roles in practice and theory: results from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Friedrich; Gugglberger, Lisa; Dür, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Implementation is critical to the success of health promotion (HP) in schools, but little is known about how schools can best be assisted during this process. This article focuses on Austrian HP providers and aspects their roles incorporate. To investigate the providers' role in the practice of HP implementation and how it differs from its official description. On the basis of these findings, implications are suggested. The data were gathered within the framework of an explorative case study of complex HP interventions. We draw on four interviews with HP organisation staff, five documents from the providers' organisations and seven interviews with school staff from three schools. In practice, providers took up different responsibilities, e.g., acting as emotional support to school staff and supporting the documentation of projects, guided more by the schools' needs than by the programmes they are helping to implement. Providers focused mostly on the implementation of single activities and did little to emphasize the necessity of organisational change. Our findings suggest that providers' background in health should be complemented by a deeper understanding of the importance of organisational change to further support HP implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Progranulin Plays a Central Role in Host Defense during Sepsis by Promoting Macrophage Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhixin; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Liping; Xu, Fang; Tao, Xintong; Zhang, Hua; Lin, Xue; Kang, Lihua; Xiang, Yu; Lai, Xaiofei; Zhang, Qun; Huang, Kun; Dai, Yubing; Yin, Yibing; Cao, Ju

    2016-11-15

    Progranulin, a widely expressed protein, has multiple physiological functions. The functional role of progranulin in the host response to sepsis remains unknown. To assess the role of progranulin in the host response to sepsis. Effects of progranulin on host response to sepsis were determined. Progranulin concentrations were significantly elevated in adult (n = 74) and pediatric (n = 26) patients with sepsis relative to corresponding healthy adult (n = 36) and pediatric (n = 17) control subjects, respectively. By using a low-lethality model of nonsevere sepsis, we observed that progranulin deficiency not only increased mortality but also decreased bacterial clearance during sepsis. The decreased host defense to sepsis in progranulin-deficient mice was associated with reduced macrophage recruitment, with correspondingly impaired chemokine CC receptor ligand 2 (CCL2) production in peritoneal lavages during the early phase of sepsis. Progranulin derived from hematopoietic cells contributed to host defense in sepsis. Therapeutic administration of recombinant progranulin not only rescued impaired host defense in progranulin-deficient mice after nonsevere sepsis but also protected wild-type mice against a high-lethality model of severe sepsis. Progranulin-mediated protection against sepsis was closely linked to improved peritoneal macrophage recruitment. In addition, CCL2 treatment of progranulin-deficient mice improved survival and decreased peritoneal bacterial loads during sepsis, at least in part through promotion of peritoneal macrophage recruitment. This proof-of-concept study supports a central role of progranulin-dependent macrophage recruitment in host defense to sepsis, opening new opportunities to host-directed therapeutic strategy that manipulate host immune response in the treatment of sepsis.

  3. Regulatory dendritic cells in autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) with significant phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. DCs play crucial roles in initiating effective adaptive immune responses for elimination of invading pathogens and also in inducing immune tolerance toward harmless components to maintain immune homeostasis. The regulatory capacity of DCs depends on their immature state and distinct subsets, yet not restricted to the immature state and one specialized subset. The tolerogenicity of DC is controlled by a complex network of environmental signals and cellular intrinsic mechanisms. Regulatory DCs play an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance via the induction of T cell unresponsiveness or apoptosis, and generation of regulatory T cells. DCs play essential roles in driving autoimmunity via promoting the activation of effector T cells such as T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells, and/or suppressing the generation of regulatory T cells. Besides, a breakdown of DCs-mediated tolerance due to abnormal environmental signals or breakdown of intrinsic regulatory mechanisms is closely linked with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Novel immunotherapy taking advantage of the tolerogenic potential of regulatory DCs is being developed for treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will describe the current understanding on the generation of regulatory DC and the role of regulatory DCs in promoting tolerogenic immune responses and suppressing autoimmune responses. The emerging roles of DCs dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the potential application of regulatory DCs in the treatment of autoimmune diseases will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. APS, an adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 domains, has a negative regulatory role in B cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseki, Masanori; Kubo-Akashi, Chiyomi; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Takaki, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 domains (APS) is an intracellular adaptor protein that forms part of an adaptor family along with Lnk and SH2-B. APS transcripts are expressed in various tissues including brain, kidney, and muscle, as well as in splenic B cells but not in T cells. We investigated the functions of APS in B cell development and activation by generating APS-transgenic (APS-Tg) mice that overexpressed APS in lymphocytes. The number of B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity was reduced in APS-Tg mice, as were B-2 cells in the spleen. B cell development in the bone marrow was partially impaired at the transition stage from proliferating large pre-B to small pre-B cells. B cell proliferation induced by B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking but not by other B cell mitogens was also impaired in APS-Tg mice. APS co-localized with BCR complexes and filamentous actin in activated APS-Tg B cells. Thus, APS appears to play novel negative regulatory roles in BCR signaling, actin reorganization pathways, and control of compartment sizes of B-lineage cells

  5. Essential and Unexpected Role of YY1 to Promote Mesodermal Cardiac Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Serge; Karra, Ravi; Passer, Derek; Deutsch, Marcus-Andre; Krane, Markus; Feistritzer, Rebecca; Sturzu, Anthony; Domian, Ibrahim; Saga, Yumiko; Wu, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Rational Cardiogenesis is regulated by a complex interplay between transcription factors. However, little is known about how these interactions regulate the transition from mesodermal precursors to cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Objective To identify novel regulators of mesodermal cardiac lineage commitment. Methods and Results We performed a bioinformatic-based transcription factor binding site analysis on upstream promoter regions of genes that are enriched in embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived CPCs. From 32 candidate transcription factors screened, we found that YY1, a repressor of sarcomeric gene expression, is present in CPCs in vivo. Interestingly, we uncovered the ability of YY1 to transcriptionally activate Nkx2.5, a key marker of early cardiogenic commitment. YY1 regulates Nkx2.5 expression via a 2.1 kb cardiac-specific enhancer as demonstrated by in vitro luciferase-based assays and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing analysis. Furthermore, the ability of YY1 to activate Nkx2.5 expression depends on its cooperative interaction with Gata4 at a nearby chromatin. Cardiac mesoderm-specific loss-of-function of YY1 resulted in early embryonic lethality. This was corroborated in vitro by ESC-based assays where we show that the overexpression of YY1 enhanced the cardiogenic differentiation of ESCs into CPCs. Conclusion These results demonstrate an essential and unexpected role for YY1 to promote cardiogenesis as a transcriptional activator of Nkx2.5 and other CPC-enriched genes. PMID:23307821

  6. Critical role for thymic CD19+CD5+CD1dhiIL-10+ regulatory B cells in immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chen; Ma, Ning; Xiao, He; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zheng, Mingke; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxi

    2015-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that besides the spleen, LNs, peripheral blood, and thymus contain a regulatory IL-10-producing CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cell subset that may play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Indeed, this population was identified in the murine thymus, and furthermore, when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells, this population of B cells supported the maintenance of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro, in part, via the CD5-CD72 interaction. Mice homozygous for Cd19(Cre) (CD19(-/-)) express B cells with impaired signaling and humoral responses. Strikingly, CD19(-/-) mice produce fewer CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and a greater percentage of CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) T cells. Consistent with these results, transfer of thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells into CD19(-/-) mice resulted in significantly up-regulated numbers of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs with a concomitant reduction in CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) T cell populations in the thymus, spleen, and LNs but not in the BM of recipient mice. In addition, thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells significantly suppressed autoimmune responses in lupus-like mice via up-regulation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and IL-10-producing Bregs. This study suggests that thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi)IL-10(+) Bregs play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  7. Fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) promoter as a candidate for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an important cis-regulatory element, a promoter plays a key role in plant gene expression and regulation, and has been widely used in plant genetic engineering. The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) promoter was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis showed that the FAE1 promoter contains two Skn-1 ...

  8. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90α secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xiaomin; Luo, Yongzhang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90α secretion from endothelial cells. → Secreted Hsp90α localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. → Secreted Hsp90α promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90α (Hsp90α) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90α can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90α from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90α in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90α but not Hsp90β is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90α localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90α neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90α localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90α can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90α as a stimulator for wound repair.

  9. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaomin [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Yongzhang, E-mail: yluo@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  10. The role of midwife in health promotion and diseases diseases prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kawałek

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Collected data shows that leading prophylactic programs and health promotion applies in midwives’ every day work. Too little time to implement health promotion and education is a factor hindering the work of midwives.

  11. FOXP3: required but not sufficient. the role of GARP (LRRC32) as a safeguard of the regulatory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Kepper, M; Balling, R; Buer, J

    2010-08-01

    FOXP3 is essential for the development and function of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(hi) T (T(reg)) cells. However, recent evidence suggests that FOXP3 alone is not sufficient to completely explain the regulatory phenotype of these key players in autoimmunity and inflammation: after being activated, conventional human CD4(+) T cells transiently up-regulate FOXP3 without acquiring a regulatory function. Researchers have recently found that glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32) is a T(reg)-specific receptor that binds latent TGF-beta and dominantly controls FOXP3 and the regulatory phenotype via a positive feedback loop. This finding provides a missing link in our molecular understanding of FOXP3 in T(reg) cells. This viewpoint focuses on GARP as safeguard of FOXP3 and the regulatory phenotype.

  12. A 'health broker' role as a catalyst of change to promote health: an experiment in deprived Dutch neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E; Kwan, Albert; Stronks, Karien

    2011-03-01

    Urban social entrepreneurs have been suggested to play an essential part in the success of local health promotion initiatives. Up to now, roles like these have only been identified in retrospect. This prospective collaborative study explored the possibilities of institutionalizing a comparable role for a 'health broker' in four Dutch municipalities as an additional investment to promote health in deprived neighbourhoods. The theoretical notions of public and policy entrepreneurs as well as of boundary spanners were adopted as a reference framework. Documents produced by the collaborative project served as input for a qualitative analysis of the developments. We succeeded in implementing a 'health broker' role comparable to that of a bureaucratic public entrepreneur holding a formal non-leadership position. The role was empowered by sharing it among multiple professionals. Although positioned within one sector, the occupants of the new role felt more entitled to cross sectoral borders and to connect to local residents, compared to other within-sector functions. The 'health broker' role had the potential to operate as an 'anchoring point' for the municipal health sector (policy), public health services (practice) and/or the local residents (public). It was also possible to specify potential 'broking points', i.e. opportunities for health promotion agenda setting and opportunities to improve cross-sectoral collaboration, citizen participation and political and administrative support for health promotion efforts. The 'health broker' role we developed and implemented reflects the notion of systematic rather than individual entrepreneurship. Such a collective entrepreneurship may create additional opportunities to gradually strengthen local health promotion efforts.

  13. Interleukin 6 Present in Inflammatory Ascites from Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2-Expressing Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Chandralega Kampan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs.MethodsAscites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control. In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2+ Tregs and TNFR2− Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.ResultsHigh levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2+ Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2+ Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2+ Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ production by effector T cells, and was

  14. Active site-targeted covalent irreversible inhibitors of USP7 impair the functions of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells by promoting ubiquitination of Tip60.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment is associated with tumor immune evasion and poor patient outcome in the case of many solid tumors. Current therapeutic strategies for blocking Treg functions are not Treg-specific, and display only modest and transient efficacy. Recent studies revealed that ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7 is essential for Treg functions by stabilizing expression of Tip60 and Foxp3, which together are central to the development and maintenance of the Treg cell lineage. Pharmacological inhibition of USP7 is therefore a promising strategy for suppressing Treg functions and promoting anti-tumor immunity. Previously, we reported the P5091 series of small molecule USP7 inhibitors and demonstrated their direct anti-tumor activity in vivo using xenograft models. However, the precise mechanism of action of these compounds was not well defined. In this study, we report the development and characterization of P217564, a second-generation USP7 inhibitor with improved potency and selectivity. P217564 selectively targets the catalytic cleft of USP7 and modifies its active site cysteine (C223 by forming a covalent adduct. Irreversible inhibition of USP7 results in durable downstream biological responses in cells, including down-regulation of Tip60 and consequent impairment of Treg suppressive function. In addition, we demonstrate that both USP7 and various USP7 substrates are subjected to Lys48-mediated ubiquitin modification, consistent with increased proteasomal degradation of these proteins because of USP7 inhibition.

  15. Religious and Non-religious Activity Engagement as Assets in Promoting Social Ties Throughout University: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-08-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed.

  16. Essential role for retinoic acid in the promotion of CD4+ T cell effector responses via retinoic acid receptor alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.A.; Cannons, J.L.; Grainger, J.R.; Santos, L.M. Dos; Hand, T.W.; Naik, S.; Wohlfert, E.A.; Chou, D.B.; Oldenhove, G.; Robinson, M.; Grigg, M.E.; Kastenmayer, R.; Schwartzberg, P.L.; Belkaid, Y.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), have recently been implicated in the regulation of immune homeostasis via the peripheral induction of regulatory T cells. Here we show that RA is also required to elicit proinflammatory CD4+ helper T cell responses to infection and mucosal vaccination. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is the critical mediator of these effects. Strikingly, antagonism of RAR signaling and deficiency in RARα(Rara−/−) results in a cell autonomous CD4+ T cell activation defect. Altogether, these findings reveal a fundamental role for the RA/RARα axis in the development of both regulatory and inflammatory arms of adaptive immunity and establish nutritional status as a broad regulator of adaptive T cell responses. PMID:21419664

  17. [The role of workplace health promotion in the concept of corporate social responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszczyk, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    Workplace health promotion (WHP) is an idea that was conceived over 25 years ago. At its very core is the wellbeing of employees. The development and dissemination of this notion, as well as the implementation of its basic principles have always been challenged by various theories and practices derived from the field of human resources management. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of such new concepts promulgated within the European Union Based on the literature review, especially European Commission documents, articles retrieved in the EBSCO database, guidelines and guidebooks published by the CSR Forum, other NGOs active in the field, and the publications of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the author makes an attempt to compare these two ideas and discuss the coherence between their assumptions. The primary hypothesis was that WHP is an element of CSR. The comparison between CSR and WHP concepts confirm a hypothesis that the latter is an element of the former, which means that activities aimed at taking care of health and well-being of employees contribute to the creation of a socially responsible company. It indicates that the implementation of both ideas requires multidisciplinary and holistic approach. In addition, the role of social dialog and workers' participation in the company management are strongly emphasized.

  18. The role of teacher-child interaction in promoting peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova, Natalia S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system. Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study. The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys. The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children. Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.

  19. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

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    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  20. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont,, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries’ legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law – from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance. PMID:27429492

  1. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance.

  2. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  3. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  4. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  5. Determinants of the intention of elementary school nurses to adopt a redefined role in health promotion at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quest for greater efficiency in the provision of primary healthcare services and the implementation of a "health-promoting school" approach encourage the optimal redefinition of the role of school nurses. School nurses are viewed as professionals who might be significant actors in the promotion of youth health. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of the intention of elementary school nurses to adopt a new health-promotion role as a strategic option for the health-promoting school. Methods This study was based on an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB. A total of 251 respondents (response rate of 70% from 42 school health programs across the Province of Québec completed a mail survey regarding their intention to adopt the proposed health-promotion role. Multiple hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and intention. A discriminant analysis of the beliefs was performed to identify the main targets of action. Results A total of 73% of respondents expressed a positive intention to accept to play the proposed role. The main predictors were perceived behavioural control (β = 0.36, moral norm (β = 0.27, attitude (β = 0.24, and subjective norm (β = 0.21 (ps Conclusions Results suggest that leadership is a skill that should be addressed to increase the ability of school nurses to assume the proposed role. Findings also indicate that public health administrators need to ensure adequate nurse staffing in the schools in order to increase the proportion of nurses willing to play such a role and avoid burnout among these human resources.

  6. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  7. A dynamic dual role of IL-2 signaling in the two-step differentiation process of adaptive regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Khattar, Mithun; Schroder, Paul M; Miyahara, Yoshihiro; Wang, Guohua; He, Xiaoshung; Chen, Wenhao; Stepkowski, Stanislaw M

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of the extrathymic generation of adaptive, or inducible, CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTregs) remains incompletely defined. We show that exposure of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells to IL-2, but not other common γ-chain cytokines, resulted in Stat5 phosphorylation and induced Foxp3 expression in ∼10% of the cells. Thus, IL-2/Stat5 signaling may be critical for Foxp3 induction in peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) iTreg precursors. In this study, to further define the role of IL-2 in the formation of iTreg precursors as well as their subsequent Foxp3 expression, we designed a two-step iTreg differentiation model. During the initial "conditioning" step, CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) naive T cells were activated by TCR stimulation. Inhibition of IL-2 signaling via Jak3-Stat5 was required during this step to generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells containing iTreg precursors. During the subsequent Foxp3-induction step driven by cytokines, IL-2 was the most potent cytokine to induce Foxp3 expression in these iTreg precursors. This two-step method generated a large number of iTregs with relatively stable expression of Foxp3, which were able to prevent CD4(+)CD45RB(high) cell-mediated colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice. In consideration of this information, whereas initial inhibition of IL-2 signaling upon T cell priming generates iTreg precursors, subsequent activation of IL-2 signaling in these precursors induces the expression of Foxp3. These findings advance the understanding of iTreg differentiation and may facilitate the therapeutic use of iTregs in immune disorders.

  8. Raising trophy kids: The role of mothers' contingent self-esteem in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Wuyts, Dorien; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mageau, Geneviève A; Brenning, Katrijn

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of mothers' child-invested contingent self-esteem, that is, their tendency to hinge their self-worth on their child's achievements, in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, as perceived by adolescents. It was also examined whether maternal promotion of extrinsic goals would, in turn, relate to adolescents' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Participants were 184 mothers and their adolescent children (66% female). Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem predicted adolescent-perceived maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, even when taking into account the variance shared between the promotion of extrinsic goals and mothers' use of a controlling parenting style. Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem also moderated associations between mothers' personal pursuit of extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals, such that the association between mothers' own extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals was significant only among mothers high on child-invested contingent self-esteem. Maternal promotion of extrinsic goals was, in turn, related to adolescent SDO, suggesting that the dynamics examined in this study ultimately relate to adolescents' social and ideological development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of regulatory fit on evaluation and intentions to buy genetically modified foods: The mediating role of social identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Reinders, M.J.; Bartels, J.; Maassen, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines how communicated messages could be effective in affecting consumers' attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding genetically modified (GM) foods. Based on Regulatory Focus Theory, it was hypothesized that exposure to a communication message matching a consumer's

  10. An enhanced computational platform for investigating the roles of regulatory RNA and for identifying functional RNA motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Weng, Shun-Long; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional RNA molecules participate in numerous biological processes, ranging from gene regulation to protein synthesis. Analysis of functional RNA motifs and elements in RNA sequences can obtain useful information for deciphering RNA regulatory mechanisms. Our previous work, RegRNA, is widely used in the identification of regulatory motifs, and this work extends it by incorporating more comprehensive and updated data sources and analytical approaches into a new platform. Methods ...

  11. Morality and its relation to political ideology: the role of promotion and prevention concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, James F M; Higgins, E Tory

    2013-09-01

    Our research investigated whether promotion concerns with advancement and prevention concerns with security related to moral beliefs and political ideology. Study 1 found that chronic prevention and promotion focus had opposite relations to binding foundation endorsement (as measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), that is, positive for prevention and negative for promotion, and opposite relations to political ideology, that is, more conservative for prevention and more liberal for promotion, and the relation between focus and political ideology was partially mediated by binding foundation endorsement. Study 2 showed that promotion and prevention, even as situationally induced states, can contribute to differences in binding foundation endorsement, with prevention producing stronger endorsement (compared with a control) and promotion producing weaker endorsement.

  12. Enhancing Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Product Commercialization: The Role of Science in Regulatory Decision-Making for the TE/RM Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Timothy A; Johnson, Peter C; Tawil, Bill J; Van Dyke, Mark; Hellman, Kiki B

    2015-10-01

    TERMIS-AM Industry Committee (TERMIS-AM/IC), in collaboration with the TERMIS-Europe (EU)/IC, conducted a symposium involving the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toward building an understanding of the rational basis for regulatory decision-making and providing a framework for decisions made during the evaluation of safety and efficacy of TE/RM technologies. This symposium was held in August 2012 during the TERMIS-WC in Vienna, Austria. Emerging from this international initiative by the European Union and the United States, representatives from the respective agencies demonstrated that there are ongoing interagency efforts for developing common national practices toward harmonization of regulatory requirements for the TE/RM products. To extend a broad-based understanding of the role of science in regulatory decision-making, TERMIS-AM/IC, in cooperation with the FDA, organized a symposium at the 2014 TERMIS-AM Annual Meeting, which was held in Washington, DC. This event provided insights from leaders in the FDA and TERMIS on the current status of regulatory approaches for the approved TE/RM products, the use of science in making regulatory decisions, and TE/RM technologies that are in the development pipeline to address unmet medical needs. A far-ranging discussion with FDA representatives, industrialists, physicians, regenerative medicine biologists, and tissue engineers considered the gaps in today's scientific and regulatory understanding of TE/RM technologies. The identified gaps represent significant opportunities to advance TE/RM technologies toward commercialization.

  13. Mimicry of the regulatory role of urokinase in lamellipodia formation by introduction of a non-native interdomain disulfide bond in its receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Magnus; Jacobsen, Benedikte

    2011-01-01

    The high-affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) plays a regulatory role for both extravascular fibrinolysis and uPAR-mediated adhesion and migration on vitronectin-coated surfaces. We have recently proposed that the ......The high-affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) plays a regulatory role for both extravascular fibrinolysis and uPAR-mediated adhesion and migration on vitronectin-coated surfaces. We have recently proposed...... that the adhesive function of uPAR is allosterically regulated via a "tightening" of its three-domain structure elicited by uPA binding. To challenge this proposition, we redesigned the uPAR structure to limit its inherent conformational flexibility by covalently tethering domains DI and DIII via a non...... adhering to vitronectin. In this respect, the engineered constraint in uPAR(H47C-N259C) thus bypasses the regulatory role of uPA binding, resulting in a constitutively active uPAR. In conclusion, our data argue for a biological relevance of the interdomain dynamics of the glycolipid-anchored u...

  14. Teacher’s Role in the Promotion of Two Emotional Intelligence Competencies in Fifth-Grade Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Villanueva-Barbarán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative study aimed at analyzing the teacher’s role in promoting awareness and management of emotions in fifth-graders, as competencies of emotional intelligence. This resulted in a very significant study since, from the psychopedagogic perspective, it aims at breaking with the traditional role of teachers exclusively focused on transmitting knowledge, leaving aside the much-needed emotional support. Children demonstrated a poor vocabulary, as well as difficulty to identify some emotions and differentiate between them. This means a limitation for children to be aware of their own emotions and to control them.  As a conclusion, it is important to maximize the emotional capacities of students; it should be a primary task in the education centers, where teachers play a key role as a model and as a promoter of emotional intelligence.

  15. The role of universities in promoting social entrepreneurship in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurship can help to reduce socio-economic problems facing many countries including South Africa. Also it can be used as a strategic tool in building social cohesion in country. This paper aimed to examine the role of Universities in promoting social entrepreneurship in South Africa. The study also look assess the support that universities are providing to social entrepreneurship and to evaluate the extend of the support. The paper also analyses most strategies used by South African universities to help the development of social entrepreneurship. Mix approaches of qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed for data collection. The primary data was collected from six universities in South Africa where two comprehensive universities, two universities of Technologies from KwaZulu -Natal province and two comprehensive universities in Gauteng province were chosen for sample for this study. The sample consisted of 40 respondents made up of deans of faculties, heads of departments, and director of social entrepreneurship and head of social entrepreneurship department respectively according to structure of each university. Combination of structured qualitative and five –point Likert scale questionnaire were emailed to the respondents to complete. The results reveal that most of respondents are not involved in social entrepreneurship activities, or any entrepreneurship development programs. The findings also indicate that some respondents they had no clue about social entrepreneurship that their universities are involved in. the study was limited by exploratory nature. Therefore, generalization must be done with care. Further research should aim to target large sample and include other academic staff rather than focusing only on the deans and heads of departments.

  16. Role of Self-help Groups in Promoting Inclusion and Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kumaran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study examined the role of self help groups in addressing some of the problems faced by persons with disabilities such as social exclusion, discrimination, lack of awareness about their rights and privileges, and absence of livelihood programmes.Method: One hundred persons with disabilities were randomly drawn for the study from 50 self help groups in 2 districts that were covered under a popular poverty alleviation programme implemented by the state of Andhra Pradesh  in India.  An interview schedule was used to collect information.Results: Before joining the group, some of the persons with disabilities were mostly confined to their houses, and viewed as less productive and incapable of leading a ‘normal’ life. After joining the groups, they came out of their seclusion and started to work together for their collective welfare and development. They gained knowledge about their rights and privileges and started income generation activities with the help of loans made available to them.  They gained better acceptance within their families, but attitudes of their communities was slower to change. A feeling that “disability is not inability” seemed to have been internalized among the members of the groups.Conclusion: Self-help groups can be very effective in helping persons with disabilities to come out of their isolation and in promoting their participation and inclusion in societal mainstream.Key Words: Self-help group, persons with disabilitiesdoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.78

  17. General practitioners’ views on the role of pedometers in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular pedometer use can help initiate and maintain regular walking activity that can lead to a number of health-related benefits. The primary health care setting has been found to be an ideal venue in which to counsel low-active individuals for physical activity. AIM: To examine general practitioners’ (GPs views on the role of pedometers in health promotion. METHODS: Fifteen GPs working in urban, primary care practices in Auckland, New Zealand were individually interviewed. The interview schedule focused on physical activity counselling and the Green Prescription programme. For this sub-study, the focus was on questions relating to pedometer use. An inductive thematic approach was used to analyse the data. FINDINGS: Four main themes were identified. Pedometers were viewed as motivational devices that could be used to encourage low-active patients to become more active, as they provided feedback on step counts. A pedometer was also viewed as a self-management tool, whereby the individual could set daily step count goals, which in turn could help increase their physical activity engagement. GPs who currently wore a pedometer discussed the practicalities of being able to show a patient how to use a pedometer. Also discussed was how cost could restrict pedometer access for some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pedometers were viewed by GPs as being helpful devices that could help motivate and support low-active patients in becoming more active. Information regarding step counts was seen as important because it could make people aware how little physical activity they were engaging in.

  18. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  19. The role of promoters for Ni catalysts in low temperature (membrane) steam methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, D.A.J.M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the search for active and stable Ni-based catalysts for steam methane reforming in membrane reactors, the effect of three different promoters La, B and Rh was compared. Promoted and unpromoted Ni catalysts were characterized by TEM, TPR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average Ni particle

  20. Promoter Melting Plays Critical Role in Lymphocyte Activation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription in eukaryotic cells is a precisely timed ballet that consists of RNA polymerase II (pol II) recruitment to gene promoters, assembly of the multiprotein preinitiation complex, opening of the DNA, escape of pol II from the promoter, pol II pausing downstream, mRNA elongation, and, eventually, termination. The two main points of regulation are thought to be

  1. How Educational Ideas Catch On: The Promotion of Popular Education Innovations and the Role of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the wider education industry, a large quantity of ideas, practices and products are routinely promoted as useful innovations. These innovations span many forms such as software applications, open source courseware, online learning platforms and web 2.0 technologies. Coupled with this promotion, there is increasing interest and…

  2. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  3. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  4. The Role of Maranao Traditional Leaders and Local Political Leaders towards Collaboration in Promotion of Peace in Marawi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Milhaya Dianalan Langco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the role of traditional Maranao leaders and local political leaders towards collaboration in promotion of peace in Marawi City. The study used the descriptive – explanatory research design. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentage distribution were used in the presentation and analysis of data. Furthermore, this study explored the association among variables. Pearson R tests were conducted to determine if there were associations between the traits and characteristics of Maranao traditional leaders and their role in promotion of peace; association between the administrative capabilities of local political leaders and their role in promotion of peace; both as independent variables, and association between roles of traditional and political leaders and their level of collaboration in promotion of peace, as the dependent variables. Percentage was used to quantitatively describe and analyze the responses given by the respondents while weighted mean was used to determine the average value of the responses in each item of the given questionnaire. Results of the findings revealed that the Sulutan was the highest traditional leader involved in conflict resolution while the Datu was the second most influential traditional leaders involved in the same. Furthermore, these traditional Maranao leaders is still seen by the respondents as honest and dependable, morally upright, tenacious and responsible, able to identify and clarify the needs and desires of groups, as well as that of the community as their priority. Moreover, the local political leaders in Marawi City including those of the Province of Lanao del Sur, are being seen to be important along with the Maranao traditional leaders in terms of conflict resolution and promotion of peace in the aforementioned areas.

  5. Global mapping of cell type-specific open chromatin by FAIRE-seq reveals the regulatory role of the NFI family in adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Waki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of regulatory elements within the genome is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern cell type-specific gene expression. We generated genome-wide maps of open chromatin sites in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (on day 0 and day 8 of differentiation and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements coupled with high-throughput sequencing (FAIRE-seq. FAIRE peaks at the promoter were associated with active transcription and histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Non-promoter FAIRE peaks were characterized by H3K4me1+/me3-, the signature of enhancers, and were largely located in distal regions. The non-promoter FAIRE peaks showed dynamic change during differentiation, while the promoter FAIRE peaks were relatively constant. Functionally, the adipocyte- and preadipocyte-specific non-promoter FAIRE peaks were, respectively, associated with genes up-regulated and down-regulated by differentiation. Genes highly up-regulated during differentiation were associated with multiple clustered adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks. Among the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks, 45.3% and 11.7% overlapped binding sites for, respectively, PPARγ and C/EBPα, the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. Computational motif analyses of the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks revealed enrichment of a binding motif for nuclear family I (NFI transcription factors. Indeed, ChIP assay showed that NFI occupy the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks and/or the PPARγ binding sites near PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 genes. Overexpression of NFIA in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in robust induction of these genes and lipid droplet formation without differentiation stimulus. Overexpression of dominant-negative NFIA or siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFIA or NFIB significantly suppressed both induction of genes and lipid accumulation during differentiation, suggesting a physiological function of these factors in the adipogenic program. Together, our

  6. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...... that promoter interference depends on the characteristics of overlapping promoters. The model predicts that promoter strength and interference can be regulated separately, which provides unique opportunities for regulation. Our experimental data suggest that in principle any DNA binding protein can be used......Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion...

  8. Cell-intrinsic role for NF-kappa B-inducing kinase in peripheral maintenance but not thymic development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Murray

    Full Text Available NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK, MAP3K14 is a key signaling molecule in non-canonical NF-κB activation, and NIK deficient mice have been instrumental in deciphering the immunologic role of this pathway. Global ablation of NIK prevents lymph node development, impairs thymic stromal development, and drastically reduces B cells. Despite altered thymic selection, T cell numbers are near normal in NIK deficient mice. The exception is CD4(+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, which are reduced in the thymus and periphery. Defects in thymic stroma are known to contribute to impaired Treg generation, but whether NIK also plays a cell intrinsic role in Tregs is unknown. Here, we compared intact mice with single and mixed BM chimeric mice to assess the intrinsic role of NIK in Treg generation and maintenance. We found that while NIK expression in stromal cells suffices for normal thymic Treg development, NIK is required cell-intrinsically to maintain peripheral Tregs. In addition, we unexpectedly discovered a cell-intrinsic role for NIK in memory phenotype conventional T cells that is masked in intact mice, but revealed in BM chimeras. These results demonstrate a novel role for NIK in peripheral regulatory and memory phenotype T cell homeostasis.

  9. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A D B; Silveira, H; Luciano, F B; Andrade, C; Costa, L B; Rostagno, M H

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP's role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets.

  10. Health-promoting behaviors through pregnancy, maternity leave, and return to work: effects of role spillover and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Williams, Alysha; Stewart, Donna E; Franche, Renée-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Women's health-promoting behavior changes and their correlates across the transition to motherhood and return to work are insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare women's health-promoting behaviors, particularly physical activity (PA), across these transitions. A prospective, observational design was employed to assess 243 female healthcare workers from 3 sites with regard to health-promoting behaviors, and their demographic (e.g., age, parity) and psychosocial (i.e., work-family role spillover) correlates. Forty-two participants were recruited while pregnant and re-assessed during maternity leave and upon return to work, and compared to 201 non-pregnant participants. No significant changes in health-promoting behaviors were observed from pregnancy through the postpartum. Pregnant participants reported better nutrition than comparison participants (p=.001), and were more likely to check their pulse when exercising (p=.004). During pregnancy, health-promoting behaviors were related to parental status, with first-time mothers engaging in more positive behaviors. Correlates of PA during maternity leave and return to work included family income and exercise history. Positive family-to-work spillover was significantly greater among pregnant women than among comparison participants (p<.001), and positive work-to-family spillover was related to greater PA upon return to work (p<.01). This study reveals little variability in health-promoting behaviors from the prenatal to the postpartum period. Both demographic and psychosocial factors have effects on health-promoting behaviors, and we must look to these correlates to promote increased PA.

  11. The role of implied motion in engaging audiences for health promotion: encouraging naps on a college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. PARTICIPANTS (N = 194) were recruited from a large southwestern university in October 2012. Utilizing an experimental design, participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an implied motion superhero spokes-character, a static superhero spokes-character, and a control group. The use of implied motion did not achieve the hypothesized effect on message elaboration, but superheroes are a promising persuasive tool for health promotion campaigns for college audiences. Implications for sleep health promotion campaigns and the role of implied motion in message design strategies are discussed, as well as future directions for research on the depiction of implied motion as it relates to theoretical development.

  12. The Low Cost Airline Consumer Price Sensitivity. An Investigation on The Mediating Role of Promotion and Trust in Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janfry Sihite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Open Sky Policy is one of ASEAN policy to open the airspace between the ASEAN member countries. Aviation services based companies including the Low Cost airlines will experience tight com-petition among ASEAN airline companies. This research aim to explore the effect of price on customer loyalty through the mediating role of promotion and trust in brand. The original sample collected from 100 Indonesian low-cost airline Citilink consumer that just arrived in Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, the bootstrapped techniques conducted for 500 sub-samples and further analyzed with structural equation modelling partial least square. The research findings support the low cost airline consumer price sensitivity, furthermore price affect the trust in brand more severe compared with the promotion. Price effect fully mediated through the trust in brand and promotion toward the consumer loyalty. Further research should consider the sensitivity of price to elaborate the decision making process for the low cost airline consumer.

  13. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Korfiati, Aigli; Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.; Likothanassis, Spiridon D.; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.; Mavroudi, Seferina P.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2013-06-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3\\'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Promoter Engineering Reveals the Importance of Heptameric Direct Repeats for DNA Binding by Streptomyces Antibiotic Regulatory Protein-Large ATP-Binding Regulator of the LuxR Family (SARP-LAL) Regulators in Streptomyces natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreales, Eva G; Vicente, Cláudia M; de Pedro, Antonio; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Aparicio, Jesús F

    2018-05-15

    The biosynthesis of small-size polyene macrolides is ultimately controlled by a couple of transcriptional regulators that act in a hierarchical way. A Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein-large ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family (SARP-LAL) regulator binds the promoter of a PAS-LuxR regulator-encoding gene and activates its transcription, and in turn, the gene product of the latter activates transcription from various promoters of the polyene gene cluster directly. The primary operator of PimR, the archetype of SARP-LAL regulators, contains three heptameric direct repeats separated by four-nucleotide spacers, but the regulator can also bind a secondary operator with only two direct repeats separated by a 3-nucleotide spacer, both located in the promoter region of its unique target gene, pimM A similar arrangement of operators has been identified for PimR counterparts encoded by gene clusters for different antifungal secondary metabolites, including not only polyene macrolides but peptidyl nucleosides, phoslactomycins, or cycloheximide. Here, we used promoter engineering and quantitative transcriptional analyses to determine the contributions of the different heptameric repeats to transcriptional activation and final polyene production. Optimized promoters have thus been developed. Deletion studies and electrophoretic mobility assays were used for the definition of DNA-binding boxes formed by 22-nucleotide sequences comprising two conserved heptameric direct repeats separated by four-nucleotide less conserved spacers. The cooperative binding of PimR SARP appears to be the mechanism involved in the binding of regulator monomers to operators, and at least two protein monomers are required for efficient binding. IMPORTANCE Here, we have shown that a modulation of the production of the antifungal pimaricin in Streptomyces natalensis can be accomplished via promoter engineering of the PAS-LuxR transcriptional activator pimM The expression of this gene is

  16. Characterization of the evolution of the pharmaceutical regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Nader; Ford, James L; Morecroft, Charles W; Lisboa, Paulo J; Taylor, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    mission of public health protection has remained a constant feature over the years; and (iii) since the 1970s other factors such as public health promotion, international harmonization, innovation, and agency modernization are playing more important role in regulatory agency thinking and actions.

  17. Declining role of governments in promoting healthy eating: time to rethink the role of the food industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    2005-01-01

    The increasing incidence of overweight and obesity calls for strategies to influence individuals’ lifestyle. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that such strategies should go further than to stress the responsibility of the individual and focus on wider socioeconomic and environmental factors. This is true also for the promotion of healthy eating, and as industry increases its awareness towards corporate social responsibility and societal issues, the actors of the private commercial f...

  18. Role of the pediatric nurse practitioner in promoting breastfeeding for late preterm infants in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azza H

    2010-01-01

    The preterm birth rate has been increasing steadily during the past two decades. Up to two thirds of this increase has been attributed to the increasing rate of late preterm births (34 to stamina; difficulty with latch, suck, and swallow; temperature instability; increased vulnerability to infection; hyperbilirubinemia, and more respiratory problems than the full-term infant. Late preterm infants usually are treated as full term and discharged within 48 hours of birth, so pediatric nurse practitioners in primary care settings play a critical role in promoting breastfeeding through early assessment and detection of breastfeeding difficulties and by providing anticipatory guidance related to breastfeeding and follow-up. The purpose of this article is to describe the developmental and physiologic immaturity of late preterm infants and to highlight the role of pediatric nurse practitioners in primary care settings in supporting and promoting breastfeeding for late preterm infants.

  19. Riding the Hype: The Role of State-Owned Enterprise Elite Actors in the Promotion of Jatropha in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy Simandjuntak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within a few years following its ambitious promotion in 2006, the development of jatropha in Indonesia came to a halt. Claimed as a potential solution to problems in energy and poverty, the introduction of jatropha in Indonesia’s energy policy had been triggered by the high oil prices in 2005. While studies by biofuel scholars have generally focused on what brought the end of the “miracle crop” hype by underlining various technical problems and the absence of market structure as the cause of its failure, few have examined jatropha as part of a policy-making trajectory, which began with, and was influenced by, the development narratives disseminated by individual actors. This article sheds light on the role of elite actors in the making of biofuel energy policy in Indonesia. Taking the case of the promotion of jatropha in 2005–2007, the article illustrates the role of the director of Indonesia’s leading sugar state-owned enterprise (SOE, Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI, whose decision in promoting jatropha became influential in forwarding its narratives into the national energy and development policy in 2006. In order to discover why a specific elite actor decided to promote jatropha, the article relies on data, including the SOE’s documents and interviews with key actor(s. The analysis is conducted using an actor-oriented approach, which underlines the discrepancy between the ideals and the operational practice of developmental goals.

  20. Hepatic protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B (Ppp1r3b) promotes hepatic glycogen synthesis and thereby regulates fasting energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Minal B; Shewale, Swapnil V; Sequeira, Raymond N; Millar, John S; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-06-23

    Maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis is critical to glycemic function. Genetic variants mapping to chromosome 8p23.1 in genome-wide association studies have been linked to glycemic traits in humans. The gene of known function closest to the mapped region, PPP1R3B (protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B), encodes a protein (G L ) that regulates glycogen metabolism in the liver. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that hepatic PPP1R3B is associated with glycemic traits. We generated mice with either liver-specific deletion ( Ppp1r3b Δ hep ) or liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b The Ppp1r3b deletion significantly reduced glycogen synthase protein abundance, and the remaining protein was predominantly phosphorylated and inactive. As a consequence, glucose incorporation into hepatic glycogen was significantly impaired, total hepatic glycogen content was substantially decreased, and mice lacking hepatic Ppp1r3b had lower fasting plasma glucose than controls. The concomitant loss of liver glycogen impaired whole-body glucose homeostasis and increased hepatic expression of glycolytic enzymes in Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice relative to controls in the postprandial state. Eight hours of fasting significantly increased the expression of two critical gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, above the levels in control livers. Conversely, the liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b enhanced hepatic glycogen storage above that of controls and, as a result, delayed the onset of fasting-induced hypoglycemia. Moreover, mice overexpressing hepatic Ppp1r3b upon long-term fasting (12-36 h) were protected from blood ketone-body accumulation, unlike control and Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice. These findings indicate a major role for Ppp1r3b in regulating hepatic glycogen stores and whole-body glucose/energy homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Physical Activity in the Transition to University: The Role of Past Behavior and Concurrent Self-Regulatory Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Alyson J.; Gierc, Madelaine S. H.; Locke, Sean R.; Brawley, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between past physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy (CSRE), and current physical activity during the transition to university. Participants: Study 1 included 110 first-year undergraduate students recruited during October/November of 2012. Study 2 involved 86…

  2. ‘Fit for charity’: the moderating role of private self-focus in the persuasiveness of regulatory fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Fennis, B.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Pruyn, A.T.H.

    2009-01-01

    The present research extends work on the ‘the value from fit’ principle by showing that regulatory fit effects on charitable behavior are stronger for consumers high in private self-focus. Based on previous research showing that individuals high in private self-focus are more affected by external

  3. Microbial Effects in Promoting the Smectite to Illite Reaction: Role of Organic Matter Intercalated in the Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    American Mineralogist, Volume 92. pages 1401-1410, 2007 Microbial effects in promoting the smectite to illite reaction: Role of organic matter...rich smectite (non- tronile, NAu-2). The illitization of these intercalated smectites as induced by microbial reduction of structural Fe" was...transmission electron microscopy did not detect any discrete illite, although illite/ smectite mixed layer or high charge smectite phases were observed. In

  4. The role of religious leaders in promoting acceptance of vaccination within a minority group: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Kerrar, S.; Velden, K. van der; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although childhood vaccination programs have been very successful, vaccination coverage in minority groups may be considerably lower than in the general population. In order to increase vaccination coverage in such minority groups involvement of faith-based organizations and religious leaders has been advocated. We assessed the role of religious leaders in promoting acceptance or refusal of vaccination within an orthodox Protestant minority group with low vaccination coverage in T...

  5. The role of chronic acanthosis and subacute inflammation in tumor promotion in CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, C

    1991-07-01

    An initiation-promotion bioassay using CD-1 mice was conducted to examine the role of chronic acanthosis and inflammation in tumor promotion by petroleum middle distillates (MD). Test groups were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Promotion with MD consisted of twice weekly treatments for 25 weeks with either 25 or 50 microliters, 50 microliters + daily treatment with 15 micrograms dexamethasone, 50 microliters + postapplication washings, or 100 microliters. Three mice from each group were euthanized at 21-day intervals (24 total per group). The skin from interim euthanized mice was examined histopathologically for tumors, acanthosis, and subacute inflammation. Tumor incidence at study termination was as follows: 25 microliters (45%), 50 microliters (43%), 50 microliters + dexamethasone (0%), 50 microliters + washing (70%), and 100 microliters (81%). A correlation of greater than 0.93 was observed at all intervals between tumor incidence and cumulative group mean degrees of acanthosis in interim euthanized mice. The correlation between subacute inflammation at early through midstudy interval weeks and tumor incidence at study termination was poor. These results support the hypothesis that induction of a lasting, albeit mild, hyperplasia is an essential, but not sufficient requirement for tumor promotion. Furthermore, subacute inflammation does not appear to be a significant factor in tumor promotion by petroleum MD.

  6. Role of AtCDC48 & the AtCDC48 Regulatory Protein Family, PUX, in Plant Cell Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarek, Sebastian, Y.

    2009-11-08

    The long-term objective of this work is to understand the molecular events and mechanisms involved in secretory membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis, which are crucial for normal plant growth and development. Our studies have suggested a vital role for the cytosolic chaperone Cdc48p/p97 during cytokinesis and cell expansion which are highly dependent upon secretory membrane trafficking. Localization studies have shown that the plant Cdc48p/p97, AtCDC48, and the Arabidopsis ortholog of the ER- and Golgi-associated SNARE, syntaxin 5, (referred to as SYP31) are targeted to the division plane during cytokinesis. In addition, AtCDC48 and SYP31 were shown to interact in vitro and in vivo. To characterize further the function of AtCDC48 and SYP31 we have utilized affinity chromatography and MALDI-MS to identify several plant-specific proteins that interact with SYP31 and/or modulate the activity of AtCDC48 including two UBX (i.e. ubiquitin-like) domain containing proteins, PUX1 and PUX2 (Proteins containing UBX domain). These proteins define a plant protein family consisting of 15 uncharacterized members that we postulate interact with AtCDC48. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that PUX2 is a novel membrane adapter for AtCDC48 that mediates AtCDC48/SYP31 interaction and is likely to control AtCDC48-dependent membrane fusion. In contrast, PUX1 negatively regulates AtCDC48 by inhibiting its ATPase activity and by promoting the disassembly of the active hexamer. These findings provide the first evidence that the assembly and disassembly of the CDC48/p97complex is actually a dynamic process. This new unexpected level of regulation for CDC48/p97 was demonstrated to be critical in vivo as pux1 loss-of-function mutants grow faster than wild-type plants. These studies suggest a role for AtCDC48 in plant cell cycle progression including cytokinesis and/or cell expansion. The proposed studies are designed to: 1) characterize further the localization and function of At

  7. Using Online Role-Play to Promote Collaborative Argument and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance; Beach, Richard; Boeser, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how students use online role-play to collaborate and change real school policy. Playing different characters in an online role-play, students explore controversial aspects of Internet filtering and adopt a plan to change their school's policy. Through engaging in collaborative argumentation during their role-play, students…

  8. The role of the registered nurse in the marketing of primary healthcare services, as part of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Meyer, S M

    2006-03-01

    Existing literature on the marketing of primary healthcare services was reviewed to determine the role of registered nurses in this regard. The systematic review included five searches and ensured wide coverage of the results of available primary research studies on the topic. The results were summarised and the role of registered nurses in the marketing of primary healthcare services was identified. Primary research sources on the topic included textbooks on marketing by experts in the field and relevant journal articles by authorities on healthcare marketing. The data were analysed and four main categories identified. To ensure the trustworthiness of the research, Lincoln and Guba's (1981: 215-216) criteria, as explained by Krefting (1991: 217), were applied. Because the population consisted of only literature, ethical considerations concerning human subjects were irrelevant. Results indicated that the basic commercial marketing principles (the so-called 4Ps--product, price, place, and promotion) could be adapted for the health sector. The conclusion was that registered nurses could contribute to the marketing of primary healthcare services by communicating with the community (promotion) and by ensuring effective service (product) delivery at the right price and place. Registered nurses could influence the community's perceptions of health care and facilitate behaviour changes, thereby promote health. The implementation of the findings and recommendations of this research could create a new awareness among registered nurses of their role in the marketing of primary healthcare services in South Africa and improve their skills in this regard.

  9. Exploring the Role of Twitter in Promoting Women's Health in the Arab World: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Altassan, Nahla; Almaiman, Sarah; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Women's health is a topic that has been largely overlooked within the Arab world. Nevertheless, the constant growth in the use of social media provides an opportunity to improve women's health in the Arab world. In this paper, we discuss our experiences and lessons learned with the development of a women's health promotional campaign in the Arabic language using Twitter, a popular social media platform in the Arab world. We analyzed the combined experiences of five researchers in the development of the Twitter account. Two separate meetings were held, one on March 10 and another on March 25, 2015 with the researchers to review their experiences and lessons learned in developing a Twitter health promotion platform for women's health in the Arab world. The shared experiences were thematically transcribed, coded, matched and grouped under six key themes identified as the main driving forces for the development of a successful health promotion Twitter account. We found that the success of the Twitter account was the result of: defining clear goals, being passionate about the health promotion campaign, being motivated and creative, being knowledgeable about the health promotion area, developing trust between Twitter accounts users and the healthcare provider, and being patient in communicating with Twitter account users. Future research needs to focus on a more detailed analysis of the twitter feeds shared between the users and the health practitioners which can enhance our understanding of the social media based public health educational interventions.

  10. Role of information and communication technology in promoting oral health at residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Bola; Durey, Angela; Slack-Smith, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can provide knowledge and clinical support to those working in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). This paper aims to: (1) review literature on ICT targeted at residents, staff and external providers in RACFs including general practitioners, dental and allied health professionals on improving residents' oral health; (2) identify barriers and enablers to using ICT in promoting oral health at RACFs; and (3) investigate evidence of effectiveness of these approaches in promoting oral health. Findings from this narrative literature review indicate that ICT is not widely used in RACFs, with barriers to usage identified as limited training for staff, difficulties accessing the Internet, limited computer literacy particularly in older staff, cost and competing work demands. Residents also faced barriers including impaired cognitive and psychosocial functioning, limited computer literacy and Internet use. Findings suggest that more education and training in ICT to upskill staff and residents is needed to effectively promote oral health through this medium.

  11. The role of schools in promoting inclusive communities in contexts of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreouli, Eleni; Howarth, Caroline; Sonn, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of evidence for links between ill-health and prejudice, in this article we discuss how to promote inclusive communities in contexts of diversity. A brief critical overview of dominant psychological approaches to prejudice reduction reveals the apolitical nature of these approaches, and thus, we argue for a more contextual and political model on how to promote inclusive communities. Drawing on examples of different school practices on cultural diversity from across England, we argue that we need to develop a perspective that connects local contexts of everyday practice, resistance and agency to the institutional and structural realities of prejudice.

  12. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Taylor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion (WHP initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. Methods The worksites (n = 218 of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Results Smaller businesses (<20 employees had less current health promotion activies (mean 1.0 compared to medium size businesses (20–200 employees – mean 2.4 and large businesses (200+ employees – mean 2.9. Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 % to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses. In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses. Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. Conclusion

  13. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Suntsova, N.; Kumar, S.; Guzman-Marin, R.; Alam, M. N.; Szymusiak, R.; McGinty, D.

    2009-01-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chron...

  14. Promoting the Role of Occupational Therapy in School-Based Collaboration: Outcome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based project provided a professional development opportunity for educators to enhance the awareness of school-based occupational therapy and promote a collaborative approach when supporting student participation in daily learning tasks. Through asynchronous web-based delivery, participants viewed five narrated PowerPoint…

  15. The Role of Music and Musicians in Promoting Social Stability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the prerequisites for promoting social stability in a country include, adequate security, socio-cultural and economic viability, political freedom, freedom of expression and association etc., On the other hand, a nation that lacks all these qualities is wrecked morally, socially, culturally and above all, most vulnerable to ...

  16. The Role of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Promoting Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Arzu; Eroz-Tuga, Betil

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teaching a language with the help of computers and the Internet has attracted the attention of many practitioners and researchers in the last 20 years, so the number of studies that investigate whether computers and the Internet promote language learning continues to increase. These studies have focused on exploring the beliefs…

  17. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose 4 ·xylose 3 (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose 4 ·xylose 3 ·galactose) and XG9n (glucose 4 ·xylose 3 ·galactose 2 ) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose 4 ·xylose 3 ·galactose·fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10 -4 molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of [ 3 H]xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products)

  18. Obesity Prevention among Latino Youth: School Counselors' Role in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Hayden, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the burgeoning obesity problem among Latino youth and concomitant health problems (Spiotta & Luma, 2008), school counselors have begun to recognize the need for culturally sensitive programming to promote healthy lifestyles. More theoretical, evidence-based programs are needed, however, to ensure Latino youth receive appropriate…

  19. The Role of Social Media in Promoting Women's Health Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world.

  20. The role of religious leaders in promoting healthy habits in religious institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H; Smith, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    The growing obesity epidemic in the West, in general, and the U.S.A., in particular, is resulting in deteriorating health, premature and avoidable onset of disease, and excessive health care costs. The religious community is not immune to these societal conditions. Changing health behavior in the community requires both input from individuals who possess knowledge and credibility and a receptive audience. One group of individuals who may be uniquely positioned to promote community change but have been virtually ignored in the applied health and consulting psychology literature is religious leaders. These individuals possess extraordinary credibility and influence in promoting healthy behaviors by virtue of their association with time-honored religious traditions and the status which this affords them-as well as their communication skills, powers of persuasion, a weekly (captive) audience, mastery over religious texts that espouse the virtues of healthy living, and the ability to anchor health-related actions and rituals in a person's values and spirituality. This article focuses on ways in which religious leaders might promote healthy habits among their congregants. By addressing matters of health, nutrition, and fitness from the pulpit and in congregational programs, as well as by visibly adopting the tenets of a healthier lifestyle, clergy can deliver an important message regarding the need for healthy living. Through such actions, religious leaders can be effective agents in promoting critical change in these areas.

  1. The Invasion and Metastasis Promotion Role of CD97 Small Isoform in Gastric Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daren; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ye, Longyun

    2012-01-01

    CD97 is over-expressed in the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas and is associated with its dedifferentiation and aggressiveness. Our previous results demonstrated that out of three CD97 isoforms tested, only the small one was able to promote increased invasiveness in vitro. Based on these data ...

  2. How to Promote Conservation Behaviours: The Combined Role of Environmental Education and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Raquel; Castro, Paula; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the influence of both environmental education (EE) and commitment interventions among teenagers for promoting energy and water conservation at home. Conservation behaviours were measured in two ways--directly and through questionnaires--prior to and after the interventions. Results indicate (1) EE participants may have saved more…

  3. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans.

  4. The role of potassium as a promoter in iron catalysts for ammonia synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, K.; Bosch, H.; van Ommen, J.G.; Gellings, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Five ammonia synthesis catalysts, mainly differing in potassium content, were prepared from a commercial doubly promoted iron catalyst. The activities of these catalysts were measured at 350–450 °C and 5–200 atm. The experimental reaction rates were fitted to the modified Temkin rate equation.

  5. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Pilkington, R; Montgomerie, A; Feist, H

    2016-04-21

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. The worksites (n = 218) of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Smaller businesses (businesses (20-200 employees - mean 2.4) and large businesses (200+ employees - mean 2.9). Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 %) to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses) although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses). In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses). Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. This study found that smaller workplaces had many barriers, beliefs and challenges regarding WHP. Often small businesses find health promotion activities a

  6. Deciphering the Role of Sulfonated Unit in Heparin-Mimicking Polymer to Promote Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiehua; Yuan, Yuqi; Lyu, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Qi; Wang, Hongwei; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), hold great potential for inducing the neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the disadvantages of natural heparin/HS, such as difficulty in isolating them with a sufficient amount, highly heterogeneous structure, and the risk of immune responses, have limited their further therapeutic applications. Thus, there is a great demand for stable, controllable, and well-defined synthetic alternatives of heparin/HS with more effective biological functions. In this study, based upon a previously proposed unit-recombination strategy, several heparin-mimicking polymers were synthesized by integrating glucosamine-like 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose monomers (MAG) with three sulfonated units in different structural forms, and their effects on cell proliferation, the pluripotency, and the differentiation of ESCs were carefully studied. The results showed that all the copolymers had good cytocompatibility and displayed much better bioactivity in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs as compared to natural heparin; copolymers with different sulfonated units exhibited different levels of promoting ability; among them, copolymer with 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (SPA) as a sulfonated unit was the most potent in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs; the promoting effect is dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of P(MAG-co-SPA), with the highest levels occurring at the intermediate molecular weight and concentration. These results clearly demonstrated that the sulfonated unit in the copolymers played an important role in determining the promoting effect on ESCs' neural differentiation; SPA was identified as the most potent sulfonated unit for copolymer with the strongest promoting ability. The possible reason for sulfonated unit structure as a vital factor influencing the ability of the copolymers

  7. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh Ndure

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis (DTP and/or measles vaccine (MV. We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  8. Roles and contributions of pharmacists in regulatory affairs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for public health emergency preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tina R; Kim, Hye-Joo; Yu, Yon

    To provide a general description of the roles and contributions of three pharmacists from the Regulatory Affairs program (RA) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who are involved in emergency preparedness and response activities, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) public health emergency. Atlanta, GA. RA consists of a staff of nine members, three of whom are pharmacists. The mission of RA is to support CDC's preparedness and emergency response activities and to ensure regulatory compliance for critical medical countermeasures against potential threats from natural, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear events. RA was well involved in the response to the H1N1 outbreak through numerous activities, such as submitting multiple Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) requests to the Food and Drug Administration, including those for medical countermeasures to be deployed from the Strategic National Stockpile, and developing the CDC EUA website (www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/eua). RA will continue to support current and future preparedness and emergency response activities by ensuring that the appropriate regulatory mechanisms are in place for the deployment of critical medical countermeasures from the Strategic National Stockpile against threats to public health.

  9. The marketing of alcohol to college students: the role of low prices and special promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meichun; Wechsler, Henry; Greenberg, Patty; Lee, Hang

    2003-10-01

    Heavy episodic or binge drinking has been recognized as a major problem on American college campuses affecting the health, safety, and education of students. The present study examines the alcohol environment surrounding college campuses and assesses the impact on students' drinking. This environment includes alcohol promotions, price specials, and advertising at drinking establishments that serve beer for on-premise consumption as well as retail outlets that sell beer for off-premise consumption. The study used student self-report data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (CAS) and direct observational assessments by trained observers who visited alcohol establishments in communities where the participating colleges were located. The analytic sample included more than 10,000 students as well as 830 on-premise and 1684 off-premise establishments at 118 colleges. Alcohol specials, promotions, and advertisements were prevalent in the alcohol outlets around college campuses. Almost three quarters of on-premise establishments offered specials on weekends, and almost one half of the on-premise establishments and more than 60% of off-premise establishments provided at least one type of beer promotion. The availability of large volumes of alcohol (24- and 30-can cases of beer, kegs, party balls), low sale prices, and frequent promotions and advertisements at both on- and off-premise establishments were associated with higher binge drinking rates on the college campuses. In addition, an overall measure of on- and off-premise establishments was positively associated with the total number of drinks consumed. The regulation of marketing practices such as sale prices, promotions, and advertisements may be important strategies to reduce binge drinking and its accompanying problems.

  10. An Assessment of the Role of Hong Kong Schools in Promoting Civic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wai Chun Cherry; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2017-01-01

    Hong Kong underwent tremendous changes after the transfer of its sovereignty to China in 1997. This study attempts to explore the changing role of schools in preparing students for future democratic citizenship in the post-colonial era. Different researchers have postulated that schools play a crucial role in the political socialization process in…

  11. Taking Teacher Education to Task: Exploring the Role of Faculty Education in Promoting Values and Moral Education of Task-Based Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gabriel C. Delariarte

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available - This study aimed to determine the taking teacher education to task: exploring the role of teacher education in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching in the college of education of West Visayas State University Calinog-Campus for the school year 2012-2013. Descriptive research method was utilized in the study. The findings revealed that the respondents perceived highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; the entire group of respondents has perceived highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; both male and female respondent have perceived a highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching; all age brackets have perceived a highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching except 19 to 20 brackets that perceived very highly observable Teachers’ role in promoting values and moral education of taskbased language teaching. Finally, there is no significant difference in the perceived teacher’s role in promoting values and moral education of task-based language teaching when classified as to sex and age.

  12. Does decentralisation enhance a school's role of promoting social cohesion? Bosnian school leaders' perceptions of school governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Taro

    2014-05-01

    This study seeks to understand whether and how decentralised school governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enhances the schools' role of promoting social cohesion. This includes increasing "horizontal" trust among different ethnic groups and "vertical" trust between civilians and public institutes. The study examined secondary school leaders' perceptions regarding school board influence on social cohesion policies and practices, their interactions with school board members, and their accountability to the school-based governing body. The results show that school leaders and school boards, supposedly representing the interests of local stakeholders, did not appear to be actively engaged in the deliberate process of promoting social cohesion. While school directors tended to view themselves as being independent from the school boards, ethnically diverse school boards provided important support to proactive school leaders for their inter-group activities. Given that the central level is not providing initiatives to promote social cohesion and that BiH citizens appear to generally support social cohesion, decentralised school governance has the potential to improve social trust from the bottom up. To promote participatory school governance, the study recommends that BiH school leaders should be provided with opportunities to re-examine and redefine their professional accountability and to assist local stakeholders to improve their involvement in school governance.

  13. Regulatory networks, legal federalism, and multi-level regulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Wolfgang; Wendel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Transnational regulatory networks play important roles in multi-level regulatory regimes, as e.g, the European Union. In this paper we analyze the role of regulatory networks from the perspective of the economic theory of legal federalism. Often sophisticated intermediate institutional solutions between pure centralisation and pure decentralisation can help to solve complex tradeoff problems between the benefits and problems of centralised and decentralised solutions. Drawing upon the insight...

  14. Daratumumab depletes CD38sup>+> immune-regulatory cells, promotes T-cell expansion, and skews T-cell repertoire in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcik, Jakub; Casneuf, Tineke; Nijhof, Inger S

    2016-01-01

    target non-plasma cells that express CD38, which prompted evaluation of daratumumab's effects on CD38-positive immune subpopulations. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma from two daratumumab monotherapy studies were analyzed before and during therapy......Daratumumab targets CD38-expressing myeloma cells through a variety of immune-mediated mechanisms (complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis) and direct apoptosis with cross-linking. These mechanisms may also...... and at relapse. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), previously shown to express CD38, were evaluated for immunosuppressive activity and daratumumab sensitivity in the myeloma setting. A novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD38 was identified...

  15. Coordination chemistry insights into the role of alkali metal promoters in dinitrogen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Gannon P; Holland, Patrick L

    2017-05-15

    The Haber-Bosch process is a major contributor to fixed nitrogen that supports the world's nutritional needs and is one of the largest-scale industrial processes known. It has also served as a testing ground for chemists' understanding of surface chemistry. Thus, it is significant that the most thoroughly developed catalysts for N 2 reduction use potassium as an electronic promoter. In this review, we discuss the literature on alkali metal cations as promoters for N 2 reduction, in the context of the growing knowledge about cooperative interactions between N 2 , transition metals, and alkali metals in coordination compounds. Because the structures and properties are easier to characterize in these compounds, they give useful information on alkali metal interactions with N 2 . Here, we review a variety of interactions, with emphasis on recent work on iron complexes by the authors. Finally, we draw conclusions about the nature of these interactions and areas for future research.

  16. The role of Aboriginal community attachment in promoting lifestyle changes after hepatitis C diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Brener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed whether greater attachment to an Aboriginal community buffers against the negative effects of stigma and promotes positive health outcomes. Aboriginal Australians ( n  = 203 living with hepatitis C completed a survey assessing community attachment, stigma, resilience, quality of life, treatment intent, hepatitis C knowledge and positive lifestyle changes. A stronger sense of community attachment was associated with greater resilience, increased quality of life, less hepatitis C–related stigma and with increased lifestyle changes after diagnosis. Hence, community attachment can buffer against the negative health effects of stigma and may promote the resources to engage in positive behaviour changes, ultimately increasing long-term health outcomes.

  17. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a means of promoting regulatory goals. The fundamental principles and structures governing... review. In this time of fundamental transformation, that process—and the principles governing regulation... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has reviewed Federal regulations. The purposes of such...

  18. Testing the role of comparative advantage and learning in wage and promotion dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hunnes, Arngrim

    2008-01-01

    Can job assignment based on comparative advantage and learning about workers’ ability explain wage and promotion dynamics within firms? In order to answer this question the Gibbons and Waldman (1999b) model is estimated in a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) framework using a unique data set on white-collar workers in Norway for the years 1987-1997. The estimation is carried out on two different occupational groups: technical and administrative white-collar workers. The selection of workers...

  19. Consumer experience and the role of promotion on the mobile device market

    OpenAIRE

    Bakator Mihalj 0000-0001-8540-2460; Borić Slađana

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the influence of promotion and product quality on customers’ satisfaction was analyzed. The research was conducted via a survey. The goal of the paper was to define and analyze the correlation between variables such as advertising, product quality, brand loyalty and customer satisfaction. The data was statistically processed with a t-test in order to present the data as statistically significantly different. The t-test included the Pearson Correlation, which in all four auxilia...

  20. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. W.; Pilkington, R.; Montgomerie, A.; Feist, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide ...

  1. Role of regional policies in promoting networking and innovation activity of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Mukkala; Jari Ritsilä

    2004-01-01

    The success of firms and regions is increasingly defined by their innovation and learning capabilities. It has been emphasized in several studies that a local operational environment may have a positive impact on innovation activity of firms. From policy point of view, the relationship between firms and their local environment is an important research topic. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there is a demand for regional policy makers in promoting innovative and networking acti...

  2. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  3. A specific role of iron in promoting meristematic cell division during adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilo, Alexander; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Melzer, Michael; Rutten, Twan; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-10

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins. Fe-localization studies revealed an enhanced allocation of Fe to the nuclei of meristematic cells in AR initials. NH4+ supply promoted AR formation to a lesser extent, most likely by favoring the availability of Fe. We conclude that Fe acts locally by promoting cell division in the meristematic cells of AR primordia. These results highlight a specific biological function of Fe in AR development and point to an unexploited importance of Fe for the vegetative propagation of plants from cuttings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  5. The Role of S P2, SP3 AND SP4 in The Transcriptional Regulation of The Promoter of Nuclear Encoded Mitochondrial Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.; Salem, Gh.

    2012-01-01

    The GC-box is an important transcriptional regulatory element present in the promoters of many mammalian genes, and is found in most, if not all, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) promoters. In the present study we examine the effects of three Spl family members (Sp2, Sp3, and Sp4) on the adenine nucleotide translocase 2, cytochrome cl, Fl-ATPase β-subunit, and the mitochondria transcription factor (mtTFA) promoters in Drosophila SL2 cell line. Sp3, like Spl, strongly activates transcription all four promoters. SP4 stimulates, moderately, but Sp2 had no effect. In addition, Sp3 can, like Spl, inhibit transcription from the proximal promoter of the ANT2 gene through binding to the Cbox GC element. By contrast, Sp4 and Sp2 do not repress promoter activity. Furthermore, since Sp4 and Sp2 bind to the Cbox repression element on the ANT2 promoter, but do not repress transcription, inhibition of transcription cannot be explained by steric hindrance of pre-initiation complex assembly. These data suggest that different Spl family members differentially affect transcription from the OXPHOS promoters.

  6. Generation of a novel regulatory NK cell subset from peripheral blood CD34+ progenitors promoted by membrane-bound IL-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NK cells have been long time considered as cytotoxic lymphocytes competent in killing virus-infected cells and tumors. However, NK cells may also play essential immuno-regulatory functions. In this context, the real existence of a defined NK subset with negative regulatory properties has been hypothesized but never clearly demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we show the in vitro generation from human peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitors (PB-HP, of a novel subset of non-cytolytic NK cells displaying a mature phenotype and remarkable immuno-regulatory functions (NK-ireg. The main functional hallmark of these NK-ireg cells is represented by the surface expression/release of HLA-G, a major immunosuppressive molecule. In addition, NK-ireg cells secrete two powerful immuno-regulatory factors: IL-10 and IL-21. Through these factors, NK-ireg cells act as effectors of the down-regulation of the immune response: reconverting mature myeloid DC (mDC into immature/tolerogenic DC, blocking cytolytic functions on conventional NK cells and inducing HLA-G membrane expression on PB-derived monocytes. The generation of "NK-ireg" cells is obtained, by default, in culture conditions favouring cell-to-cell contacts, and it is strictly dependent on reciprocal trans-presentation of membrane-bound IL-15 forms constitutively and selectively expressed by human CD34(+ PB-HP. Finally, a small subset of NKp46(+ HLA-G(+ IL-10(+ is detected within freshly isolated decidual NK cells, suggesting that these cells could represent an in vivo counterpart of the NK-ireg cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, NK-ireg cells represent a novel truly differentiated non-cytolytic NK subset with a self-sustainable phenotype (CD56(+ CD16(+ NKp30(+ NKp44(+ NKp46(+ CD94(+ CD69(+ CCR7(+ generated from specific pSTAT6(+ GATA3(+ precursors. NK-ireg cells could be employed to develop new immuno-suppressive strategies in autoimmune diseases, transplant

  7. The role of the registered nurse in the marketing of primary healthcare services, as part of health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rail

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing literature on the marketing of primary healthcare services was reviewed to determine the role of registered nurses in this regard. The systematic review included “— five searches and ensured wide coverage of the results of available primary research studies on the topic. The results were summarised and the role of registered nurses in the marketing of primary healthcare services was identified. Primary research sources on the topic included textbooks on marketing by experts in the field and relevant journal articles by authorities on healthcare marketing. The data were analysed and four main categories identified. To ensure the trustworthiness of the research, Lincoln and Guba’s (1981:215-216 criteria, as explained by Krefting (1991:217, were applied. Because the population consisted of only literature, ethical considerations concerning human subjects were irrelevant. Results indicated that the basic commercial marketing principles (the so-called 4Ps - product, price, place, and promotion could be adapted for the health sector. The conclusion was that registered nurses could contribute to the marketing of primary healthcare services by communicating with the community (promotion and by ensuring effective service (product delivery at the right price and place. Registered nurses could influence the community’s perceptions of health care and facilitate behaviour changes, thereby promote health. The implementation of the findings and recommendations of this research could create a new awareness among registered nurses of their role in the marketing of primary healthcare services in South Africa and improve their skills in this regard.

  8. Nurses' role in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns in the concept of Family-Centered Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Jakšová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following review is to analyze the role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care. Design: The type of study – review. Methods: Both licensed and free-access electronic databases were used to search relevant studies from Czech and foreign sources for the period 2000–2015: CINAHL EBSCOhost, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline. The selection criteria for the studies to be analyzed were as follows: both quantitative and qualitative studies taking into account parents aged 19–44 with premature newborns from 24–36 weeks of gestation. Experimental studies and imprecisely defined studies were eliminated. Only 21 of the 49 research studies considered met the selection criteria. This review involves seven of the studies: three quantitative studies – one randomized study, two cross-sectional studies, and four case studies. Results: Based on analysis of the studies, it appears that Family-Centered Care should be considered an essential means of support for parents of premature newborns. The role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and their premature newborns was highly appreciated in the areas of therapeutic communication, efficient work organization and choice of appropriate interventions. Conclusion: Studies focusing on the application of the principles of Family-Centered Care stress its advantages for parents, premature newborns, and medical staff. The conclusion of most of the studies is that nurses play a unique role in eliminating the degree of trauma experienced by parents, and in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care.

  9. The Role of Ethics and Auditing in Restoring Public Trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Ethics and Auditing in Restoring Public Trust in Corporate Reporting. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Inadequate audits, poor corporate governance, lax standards and insufficient regulatory oversight were ...

  10. The role of governments in promoting a realistic public understanding of the potentialities of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1983-01-01

    Adverse public attitudes towards nuclear power have been and continue to be a significant obstacle in the way of nuclear power growth. The three main ways in which governments could help to promote public understanding of nuclear power are 1) by carrying out effectively their traditional tasks of deciding priorities, funding research, encouraging information exchange with other countries and regulating nuclear activities; 2) by providing basic information about the need for nuclear power and its economic importance and providing appropriate opportunities for changes in policies and 3) by showing leadership particularly when no clear course is apparent. (U.K.)

  11. Viewpoint – The Role of the German Development Cooperation in Promoting Sustainable Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Seeger

    2010-06-01

    Germany’s engagement in the promotion of participatory processes on dam-related issues is building on the WCD and follow-up processes, as outlined in this article. On the global level, BMZ, represented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, is currently part of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF. On the national level, one example of support is the contribution to and interaction with the Ghana Dam Dialogue, which is facilitated through two local partners: the International Water Management Institute (IWMI and the Volta Basin Development Foundation (VBDF.

  12. Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason M; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-02-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an 'angiocrine' mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents.

  13. The Role of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF1) in Overcoming Antiestrogen Resistance in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Shajahan, A.N.; Clarke, R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is common among breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER+) tumors and limits the success of this therapeutic strategy. While the mechanisms that regulate endocrine responsiveness and cell fate are not fully understood, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is strongly implicated as a key regulatory node in the underlying signaling network. IRF1 is a tumor suppressor that mediates cell fate by facilitating apoptosis and can do so with or without functional p53. Expression of IRF1 is down regulated in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells, protecting these cells from IRF1-induced inhibition of proliferation and/or induction of cell death. Nonetheless, when IRF1 expression is induced following IFN treatment, antiestrogen sensitivity is restored by a process that includes the inhibition of pro survival BCL2 family members and caspase activation. These data suggest that a combination of endocrine therapy and compounds that effectively induce IRF1 expression may be useful for the treatment of many ER+ breast cancers. By understanding IRF1 signaling in the context of endocrine responsiveness, we may be able to develop novel therapeutic strategies and better predict how patients will respond to endocrine therapy

  14. How Stereotype Threat Affects Healthy Older Adults' Performance on Clinical Assessments of Cognitive Decline: The Key Role of Regulatory Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Stereotype threat can impair older adults' performance on clinical assessments for cognitive decline. We examined why this occurs. Based upon the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, we predicted that the effects of stereotype threat should depend upon the assessments' reward structure. Stereotype threat should be associated with poor performance when the assessment emphasizes gaining correct answers, but not when it emphasizes avoiding mistakes. Healthy older adults completed a series of mental status examinations. Half of the participants completed these examinations under stereotype threat about their cognitive abilities. Monetary incentives were also manipulated. For half of the participants correct responding led to gains. For the remaining participants incorrect responding/forgetting led to losses. Consistent with the regulatory focus account, stereotype threat was associated with poor performance when the mental status examinations had a gains-based structure, but not when they had a losses-based structure. Older adults respond to stereotype threat by becoming vigilant to avoid the losses that will make them their worst. Researchers and clinicians can capitalize on this motivational change to combat stereotype threat's negative effects. By using a loss-avoidance frame, stereotype threat's negative effects can be attenuated or even eliminated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. How Stereotype Threat Affects Healthy Older Adults’ Performance on Clinical Assessments of Cognitive Decline: The Key Role of Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Stereotype threat can impair older adults’ performance on clinical assessments for cognitive decline. We examined why this occurs. Based upon the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, we predicted that the effects of stereotype threat should depend upon the assessments’ reward structure. Stereotype threat should be associated with poor performance when the assessment emphasizes gaining correct answers, but not when it emphasizes avoiding mistakes. Method. Healthy older adults completed a series of mental status examinations. Half of the participants completed these examinations under stereotype threat about their cognitive abilities. Monetary incentives were also manipulated. For half of the participants correct responding led to gains. For the remaining participants incorrect responding/forgetting led to losses. Results. Consistent with the regulatory focus account, stereotype threat was associated with poor performance when the mental status examinations had a gains-based structure, but not when they had a losses-based structure. Discussion. Older adults respond to stereotype threat by becoming vigilant to avoid the losses that will make them their worst. Researchers and clinicians can capitalize on this motivational change to combat stereotype threat’s negative effects. By using a loss-avoidance frame, stereotype threat’s negative effects can be attenuated or even eliminated. PMID:25752896

  16. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Role and Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Incidental Waste Determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, A.H.; Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. Under the NDAA, NRC performs consultative technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations and monitors DOE's disposal actions for such waste, but the NRC does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The NDAA provides the criteria that must be met to determine that waste is not HLW. The criteria require that the waste does not need to be disposed of in a geologic repository, that highly radioactive radionuclides be removed to the maximum extent practical, and that the performance objectives of 10 CFR 61, Subpart C, be met. The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. This paper describes NRC's approach to implementing its responsibilities under the NDAA, as well as similar activities being performed for sites not covered by the NDAA. (authors)

  17. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half of ...... homozygous inactivation of APC allowing for alternative genetic models as basis for adenoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 June 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.201....... in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from...... mutation carriers in Family 1 for second hits in the entire gene without any findings, however, loss of the residual expression of the deleterious allele was observed. Three major conclusions of significant importance in relation to the function of APC can be drawn from this study; (i) germline...

  19. Mediating Role of Career Commitment in the Relationship of Promotional Opportunities, Rewards and Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tisman Pasha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the mediating role of career commitment between career development practices and career success of employee in insurance sector of Pakistan. Survey method was adopted to collect the data form 374 employees working in insurance sector systematic sampling. PLS-SEM technique was used using Smart PLS 2.0 to analyze the data. Findings of the study suggests that employees’ career development practices have positive relationship with career commitment and career success. Career commitment also have a positive relation with career success. Finally, career commitment mediates the positive role between career development practices and career of insurance sector employees. The effect of career development practices on career commitment and effect of career development practices on career success has been checked in past studies but the mediating role of career commitment particularly for the employees of insurance sector has not been checked before.

  20. Health Promotion and School Health: the Health Visiting Role in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venetia Notara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. Schools intend to help pupils acquire the knowledge and develop the skills theyneed to participate fully in adult life. School is regarded as constituting a very important arena for health education among children and young people and furthermore, it is seen as an important context for health promotion, mainly because it reaches a large proportion of the population for many years. A large body of evidence strongly support the fact that education and health are two concepts purely interdependent in many ways and children cannot make the most of educational opportunities if their health is impaired. One of the core elements of Health Visiting profession should be safeguarding children by conducting school visits and implement screening tests, health education programmes and school health programmes in general. Some of the best opportunities for positively influencing the health of young people and preventing the initiation of the health risk behaviors are found in the school setting.Conclusions: A whole school approach and community development work can be particularly effective in building the health capacity of communities.

  1. Promoting adaptive flood risk management: the role and potential of flood recovery mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priest Sally J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high potential for recovery mechanisms to be used to incentivise the uptake of flood mitigation and loss reduction measures, undertake adaptation and promote community resilience. Indeed, creating a resilient response to flooding requires flood risk management approaches to be aligned and it needs to be ensured that recovery mechanisms to not provide disincentives for individuals and business to take proactive action to reduce risk. However, the degree to which it is desirable and effective for insurers and governments providing compensation to promote resilience and risk reduction depends upon how the cover or compensation is organised and the premiums which are charged. A review of international flood recovery mechanisms has been undertaken to identify firstly the types of schemes that exist and their characteristics. Analysis of existing instruments highlights that there are various potential approaches to encourage or require the uptake of flood mitigation and also discourage the construction of new development in high flood risk. However despite the presence of these instruments, those organising recovery mechanisms could be doing much more to incentivise increased resilience.

  2. Preparation of composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge and its role in promoting wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Bi, Shichao; Yan, Dong; Zhou, Zhongzheng; Sun, Guohui; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

    2018-03-15

    In this work, a composite sponge was produced by physically mixing hydroxybutyl chitosan with chitosan to form a porous spongy material through vacuum freeze-drying. Hydrophilic and macroporous composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge was developed via the incorporation of chitosan into hydroxybutyl chitosan. The composite sponge showed higher porosity (about 85%), greater water absorption (about 25 times), better softness and lower blood-clotting index (BCI) than those of chitosan sponge and hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge. The composite sponge with good hydrophilic could absorb the moisture in the blood to increase blood concentration and viscosity, and become a semi-swelling viscous colloid to clog the capillaries. Cytocompatibility tests with L929 cells and HUVEC cells demonstrated that composite sponge were no cytotoxicity, and could promote the growth of fibroblasts. It made up for the shortcomings of hydroxybutyl chitosan with unfavorable antibacterial effect to achieve a higher level of antibacterial (>99.99% reduction). Eventually, the vivo evaluations in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that epithelial cells attached to the composite sponge and penetrated into the interior, in addition to this, it was also proved that the composite sponge (HC-1) had a better ability to promote wound healing and helped for faster formation of skin glands and re-epithelialization. The obtained data encourage the use of this composite sponge for wound dressings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON PUBLIC DIPLOMACY`S ROLE IN PROMOTING COUNTRY BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Ruxandra Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the issue of the country brand from a new perspective, aiming to identify and analyse the ways in which public diplomacy can support the branding process. An important part of this study presents a comparative analysis on public diplomacy activities undertaken in order to support the brand of economically developed countries and some countries from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the elements that define each country's public diplomacy. The most important contribution of the current paper represent the identification of 8 fundamental aspects (the allocation of financial resources, defining factors for the goals of the foreign policy and public diplomacy, the features that are promoted, the involvement of stakeholders in the image branding / promotion, the use of new technologies, the study on the perceptions of foreigners, social and environmental issues, the transfer of responsibilities against which we can assess the relationship between the country brand strategy and public diplomacy, as well as their manifestation in several countries. Thus obtaining resources of possible good practices for developing Romanian's country brand.

  4. Dissection of cis-regulatory element architecture of the rice oleosin gene promoters to assess abscisic acid responsiveness in suspension-cultured rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sol; Lee, Soo-Bin; Han, Chae-Seong; Lim, Mi-Na; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yoon, In Sun; Hwang, Yong-Sic

    2017-08-01

    Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells. A series of successive deletions and site-directed mutations identified five regions critical for the hormonal induction of its promoter activity. A search for cis-acting elements in these regions deposited in a public database revealed that they contain various promoter elements previously reported to be involved in the ABA response of various genes. A gain-of-function experiment indicated that multiple copies of all five regions were sufficient to provide the minimal promoter with a distinct ABA responsiveness. Comparative sequence analysis of the short, but still ABA-responsive, promoters of OsOle genes revealed no common modular architecture shared by them, indicating that various distinct promoter elements and independent trans-acting factors are involved in the ABA responsiveness of rice oleosin multigenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Promotional and Non-Stereotypical Policing Roles: Are Women Opting Out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.

  6. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Huixian [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Shi, Zhenqi [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Qiao, Ping [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Norman Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); McCoy, Erin M. [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Mao, Ping [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Xu, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Shunqing, E-mail: shqwang_cn@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  7. Invisible but Essential: The Role of Professional Networks in Promoting Faculty Agency in Career Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of professional networks are largely invisible to the people embedded in them (O'Reilly 1991), yet professional networks may provide key benefits for faculty careers. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore the role of professional networks in faculty agency in career advancement, specifically focusing on the overall…

  8. The Role of Lecturers and University Administrators in Promoting New E-Learning Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mncube, Lancelord Siphamandla; Dube, Luyanda; Ngulube, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the role of lecturers in encouraging and supporting students likely to be predisposed to challenges related to incomprehension, incapacity and isolation embedded in the virtual learning environment. This article used a constructivist lens to gain through interviews an understanding into the intuition, thoughts, ideals,…

  9. Role of local governments in promoting renewable energy businesses: a contribution to the green urban economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although policy-makers and entrepreneurs across the world are increasingly talking about the green economy, much of this debate still centers on the state of the global economy at the nation-state level. The role of renewable energy sourcing remains limited, while dependence on fossil fuels remains

  10. The role of the teacher in promoting dialogue and polylogue during inquiry activities in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, M.; van Oers, B.

    2015-01-01

    In inquiry, dialogue between persons present in the classroom can be enriched with polylogue with knowledgeable others outside of the classroom. This study aimed to find out what role dialogue and polylogue play in encouraging philosophical inquiry in three other forms of inquiry in primary

  11. Leading Change: The Art Administrator's Role in Promoting Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veon, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    What role can district visual art administrators play in articulating an educationally valuable conception of creativity and in establishing a culture that targets creativity as an educational goal? How can art administrators help teachers implement creativity goals? How can they communicate creativity's importance to principals, parents, and…

  12. The Role of Online Games in Promoting Young Adults' Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistokleous, Sotiris; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we present an argument for the need to support young adult's civic engagement and we explore the role of online games in supporting such engagement. In doing so, in the first section of the paper, we offer a definition for civic education and citizenship alongside a discussion for the pedagogical frameworks that better support…

  13. How to Promote Innovative Behavior at Work? The Role of Justice and Support within Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linn D.

    2012-01-01

    To provide a more developed research model of innovation in organizations, we reconsidered current thinking about the effects of organizational justice on innovative behavior at work. We investigated the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS) between the two constructs. As hypothesized, empirical results showed that justice…

  14. Analysis of MVP and VPARP promoters indicates a role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of MVP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Nil; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H

    2004-04-16

    Multi-drug-resistant cancer cells frequently express elevated levels of ribonucleoprotein complexes termed vaults. The increased expression of vault proteins and their mRNAs has led to the suggestion that vaults may play a direct role in preventing drug toxicity. To further understand vault component up-regulation, the three proteins that comprise the vault, the major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP), and telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP1), were examined with respect to gene amplification and drug-induced chromatin remodeling. Gene amplification was not responsible for increased vault component levels in multi-drug-resistant cancer cell lines. The TATA-less murine MVP and human VPARP promoters were identified and functionally characterized. There was no significant activation of either the MVP or VPARP promoters in drug-resistant cell lines in comparison to their parental, drug-sensitive counterparts. Treatment of various cell lines with sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), led to an increase in vault component protein levels. Furthermore, treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a more specific inhibitor of HDAC, caused an increase in MVP protein, mRNA, and promoter activity. These results suggest that up-regulation of MVP in multi-drug resistance (MDR) may involve chromatin remodeling.

  15. The Low Cost Airline Consumer Price Sensitivity. An Investigation on The Mediating Role of Promotion and Trust in Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janfry Sihite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Open Sky Policy is one of ASEAN policy to open the airspace between the ASEAN member countries. Aviation services based companies including the Low Cost airlines will experience tight com-petition among ASEAN airline companies. This research aim to explore the effect of price on customer loyalty through the mediating role of promotion and trust in brand. The original sample collected from 100 Indonesian low-cost airline Citilink consumer that just arrived in Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, the bootstrapped techniques conducted for 500 sub-samples and further analyzed with structural equation modelling partial least square. The research findings support the low cost airline consumer price sensitivity, furthermore price affect the trust in brand more severe compared with the promotion. Price effect fully mediated through the trust in brand and promotion toward the consumer loyalty. Further research should consider the sensitivity of price to elaborate the decision making process for the low cost air-line consumer.

  16. pcaGoPromoter--an R package for biological and regulatory interpretation of principal components in genome-wide gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing data obtained from genome-wide gene expression experiments is challenging due to the quantity of variables, the need for multivariate analyses, and the demands of managing large amounts of data. Here we present the R package pcaGoPromoter, which facilitates the interpretation of genome.......g., cell cycle progression and the predicted involvement of expected transcription factors, including E2F. In addition, unexpected results, e.g., cholesterol synthesis in serum-depleted cells and NF-¿B activation in inhibitor treated cells, were noted. In summary, the pcaGoPromoter R package provides...

  17. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozimek, Phillip; Baer, Fiona; Förster, Jens

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys ( N 1 = 242, N 2 = 289) assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confirm the predicted mediation model. Our findings suggest that Facebook can be used as a means to an end in a way of self-regulatory processes, like satisfying of materialistic goals. The findings are the first evidence for our Social Online Self-regulation Theory (SOS-T), which contains numerous predictions that can be tested in the future.

  18. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Ozimek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys (N1 = 242, N2 = 289 assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confirm the predicted mediation model. Our findings suggest that Facebook can be used as a means to an end in a way of self-regulatory processes, like satisfying of materialistic goals. The findings are the first evidence for our Social Online Self-regulation Theory (SOS-T, which contains numerous predictions that can be tested in the future. Keywords: Psychology, Information science

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF THE ROLE OF VISUAL IDENTITY IN THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper wishes to emphasize the necessity and importance of the communicational capital of a business, in the midst of fierce competition and bombarding of all clients with a great deal of data through classical methods of advertising. The overcrowding of media channels with information about different products, the excessive advertising through classical methods (e.g. TV, radio, media has led to a negative attitude of potential clients towards such items. Hence, a boomerang effect has occured as a result of the above-mentioned excess of advertising products and services. Furthermore, marketing specialists have come to the conclusion that the single promoting of a product through TV, radio, media will not make the consummer choose a certain product / service or a brand. But the integrated concept of communication will.

  20. The role of life skills promotion in substance abuse prevention: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schröder, Elke; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2008-08-01

    Research has shown that life skills programs are the most effective single activity in school-based substance abuse prevention. However, little is known about the processes through which they are effective. This study examines whether an evidence-based prevention program targeting general competence is effective through the promotion of knowledge about life skills and enhanced related behaviors. Based on a sample of 442 fifth graders participating in a quasi-experimental prevention study, as expected, mediation analyses revealed that increased knowledge about life skills paralleled an increase in students' distant attitudes toward alcohol and nicotine use. Unexpectedly, behaviors manifesting enhanced life skills were found not only among program participants who remained experimental/non-smokers or stopped smoking but also among smokers. In general, findings suggest that favorable prevention outcomes may be influenced through building knowledge about general life skills. The notion of uniform mechanisms of effectiveness in prevention programs is discussed.

  1. Leaders’ Behaviors Matter: The Role of Delegation in Promoting Employees’ Feedback-Seeking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Qian, Jing; Wang, Bin; Jin, Zhuyun; Wang, Jiachen; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Feedback helps employees to evaluate and improve their performance, but there have been relatively few empirical investigations into how leaders can encourage employees to seek feedback. To fill this gap we examined the relationship among delegation, psychological empowerment, and feedback-seeking behavior. We hypothesized that delegation promotes feedback-seeking behavior by psychologically empowering subordinates. In addition, power distance moderates the relationship between delegation and feedback-seeking behavior. Analysis of data from a sample of 248 full-time employees of a hotel group in northern China indicated that delegation predicts subordinates’ feedback seeking for individuals with moderate and high power distance orientation, but not for those with low power distance orientation. The mediation hypothesis was also supported. PMID:28638357

  2. The role of curriculum dose for the promotion of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Rasmussen, Mette; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-component interventions combining educational and environmental strategies have proved effective in increasing children and adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake. However such interventions are complex and difficult to implement and several studies report poor implementation. ...... of school-based curricular interventions with regards to the optimal number of curricular activities required to promote behavioural change in subgroups with low fruit and vegetable intake at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11666034 .......BACKGROUND: Multi-component interventions combining educational and environmental strategies have proved effective in increasing children and adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake. However such interventions are complex and difficult to implement and several studies report poor implementation...... and vegetable intake in a school-based multi-component intervention, 2) if gender and socioeconomic position modify this association. METHODS: We carried out secondary analysis of data from intervention schools in the cluster-randomized Boost study targeting 13-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake. Teacher...

  3. l-Theanine as a Functional Food Additive: Its Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with the content of the non-proteinogenic amino acid theanine, which is found within the tea leaves. The aim of this review article is to outline the current methods for synthesis, extraction and purification of theanine, as well as to examine its potential benefits related to human health. These include improvements in cognitive and immune function, cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular risk and its potential usefulness as a functional food product.

  4. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Palestine in Addressing Inequality and Promoting Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Hilal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO's new emphasis on vocational education and training as transformative, and concerns in particular with equity and sustainable human development, has been strongly influenced by a recent literature on VET and human development that has a particular focus on the most marginalised, especially young women, and is concerned with how their aspirations, agency and achievement of wellbeing can be promoted in the face of wide-ranging structural obstacles. This article seeks to further develop that account through an even stronger emphasis on VET in the context of extreme poverty, inequality and marginalisation as faced in Palestine. VET in Palestine serves many of the poorest and most disenfranchised in Palestinian society in a context of profound structural obstacles to wellbeing achievement. Our analysis show a very positive story of how VET has helped highly disadvantaged young Palestinians, particularly young women, to make progress on their human development.

  5. AECL R and D's role in promoting nuclear research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhankar, R.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear renaissance has created new opportunities for new technology development and has also brought along the challenge of meeting the growing demand of trained personnel in the nuclear science and engineering. Towards meeting this challenge, AECL R and D organization is actively promoting and supporting the creation of nuclear research capabilities at the universities and also effectively leveraging the R and D at the universities. It has also put in place several new initiatives to attract and develop the talented young people for careers in nuclear science and engineering. This paper describes various interactions and collaborations with the universities that supports the nuclear R and D at the universities and develop highly qualified personnel for the future nuclear R and D needs. (author)

  6. Leaders’ Behaviors Matter: The Role of Delegation in Promoting Employees’ Feedback-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Feedback helps employees to evaluate and improve their performance, but there have been relatively few empirical investigations into how leaders can encourage employees to seek feedback. To fill this gap we examined the relationship among delegation, psychological empowerment, and feedback-seeking behavior. We hypothesized that delegation promotes feedback-seeking behavior by psychologically empowering subordinates. In addition, power distance moderates the relationship between delegation and feedback-seeking behavior. Analysis of data from a sample of 248 full-time employees of a hotel group in northern China indicated that delegation predicts subordinates’ feedback seeking for individuals with moderate and high power distance orientation, but not for those with low power distance orientation. The mediation hypothesis was also supported.

  7. Consumer experience and the role of promotion on the mobile device market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakator Mihalj 0000-0001-8540-2460

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of promotion and product quality on customers’ satisfaction was analyzed. The research was conducted via a survey. The goal of the paper was to define and analyze the correlation between variables such as advertising, product quality, brand loyalty and customer satisfaction. The data was statistically processed with a t-test in order to present the data as statistically significantly different. The t-test included the Pearson Correlation, which in all four auxiliary hypotheses was positive. The research provided an insight and strengthened the theory of advertising influence on consumer behavior as well as the concept of brand loyalty and product quality. Further results are presented in the paper.

  8. THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND ITS ROLE IN PROMOTING AND DEFENDING HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Europe advocates freedom of expression and of the media, freedom of assembly, equality, and the protection of minorities. It has launched campaigns on issues such as child protection, online hate speech, and the rights of the Roma, Europe's largest minority. The Council of Europe helps member states fight corruption and terrorism and undertake necessary judicial reforms. Its group of constitutional experts, known as the Venice Commission, offers legal advice to countries throughout the world. The Council of Europe promotes human rights through international conventions, such as the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence and the Convention on Cybercrime. It monitors member states' progress in these areas and makes recommendations through independent expert monitoring bodies. All Council of Europe member states have abolished the death penalty.

  9. The Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Metal Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaoyu; Glick, Bernard R

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants. Several recent examples of phytoremediation of metals facilitated by PGPB are reviewed. Although many encouraging results have been reported in the past years, there have also been numerous challenges encountered in phytoremediation in the field. To implement PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of metals in the natural environment, there is also a need to critically assess the ecological effects of PGPB, especially for those nonnative bacteria. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. Review of the role of NICE in promoting the adoption of innovative cardiac technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Peter H; Pomfrett, Chris; Marlow, Mirella

    2018-05-17

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP) promotes the adoption of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic technologies into National Health Service (NHS) clinical practice through the publication of guidance and briefing documents. Since the inception of the programme in 2009, there have been 7 medical technologiesguidance, 3 diagnostics guidance and 23 medtechinnovation briefing documents published that are relevant to the heart and circulation. Medical technologies guidance is published by NICE for selected single technologies if they offer plausible additional benefits to patients and the healthcare system. Diagnostic guidance is published for diagnostic technologies if they have the potential to improve health outcomes, but if their introduction may be associated with an increase in overall cost to the NHS. Medtechinnovation briefings provide evidence-based advice to those considering the implementation of new medical devices or diagnostic technologies. This review provides reference to all of the guidance and briefing medical technology documents that NICE has published that are relevant to the heart and circulation and reflect on their diverse recommendations. The interaction of MTEP with other NICE programmes is integral to its effectiveness and the means by which consistency is ensured across the different NICE programmes is described. The importance of the input of clinical experts from the cardiovascular professional community and the engagement by NICE with cardiovascular professional societies is highlighted as being fundamental to ensuring the quality of guidance outputs as well as to promoting their implementation and adoption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The Role of Macrophages in Acute and Chronic Wound Healing and Interventions to Promote Pro-wound Healing Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyszczyk, Paulina; Schloss, Rene; Palmer, Andre; Berthiaume, François

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages play key roles in all phases of adult wound healing, which are inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. As wounds heal, the local macrophage population transitions from predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes) to anti-inflammatory (M2-like phenotypes). Non-healing chronic wounds, such as pressure, arterial, venous, and diabetic ulcers indefinitely remain in inflammation—the first stage of wound healing. Thus, local macrophages retain pro-inflammatory characteristics. This review discusses the physiology of monocytes and macrophages in acute wound healing and the different phenotypes described in the literature for both in vitro and in vivo models. We also discuss aberrations that occur in macrophage populations in chronic wounds, and attempts to restore macrophage function by therapeutic approaches. These include endogenous M1 attenuation, exogenous M2 supplementation and endogenous macrophage modulation/M2 promotion via mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, biomaterials, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and oxygen therapy. We recognize the challenges and controversies that exist in this field, such as standardization of macrophage phenotype nomenclature, definition of their distinct roles and understanding which phenotype is optimal in order to promote healing in chronic wounds. PMID:29765329

  12. Current advances in polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on the promotional role of under-rib convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K.S. [Industrial Technology Cooperation Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G.; Park, K.; Kim, H.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, INJE University, 607 Eobang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Literature data on the promotional role of under-rib convection for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) fueled by hydrogen and methanol are structured and analyzed, thus providing a guide to improving fuel cell performance through the optimization of flow field interaction. Data are presented for both physical and electrochemical performance showing reactant mass transport, electrochemical reaction, water behavior, and power density enhanced by under-rib convection. Performance improvement studies ranging from single cell to stack are presented for measuring the performance of real operating conditions and large-scale setups. The flow field optimization techniques by under-rib convection are derived from the collected data over a wide range of experiments and modeling studies with a variety of components including both single cell and stack arrangements. Numerical models for PEFCs are presented with an emphasis on mass transfer and electrochemical reaction inside the fuel cell. The models are primarily used here as a tool in the parametric analysis of significant design features and to permit the design of the experiment. Enhanced flow field design that utilizes the promotional role of under-rib convection can contribute to commercializing PEFCs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The Role of Macrophages in Acute and Chronic Wound Healing and Interventions to Promote Pro-wound Healing Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Krzyszczyk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play key roles in all phases of adult wound healing, which are inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. As wounds heal, the local macrophage population transitions from predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes to anti-inflammatory (M2-like phenotypes. Non-healing chronic wounds, such as pressure, arterial, venous, and diabetic ulcers indefinitely remain in inflammation—the first stage of wound healing. Thus, local macrophages retain pro-inflammatory characteristics. This review discusses the physiology of monocytes and macrophages in acute wound healing and the different phenotypes described in the literature for both in vitro and in vivo models. We also discuss aberrations that occur in macrophage populations in chronic wounds, and attempts to restore macrophage function by therapeutic approaches. These include endogenous M1 attenuation, exogenous M2 supplementation and endogenous macrophage modulation/M2 promotion via mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, biomaterials, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression, and oxygen therapy. We recognize the challenges and controversies that exist in this field, such as standardization of macrophage phenotype nomenclature, definition of their distinct roles and understanding which phenotype is optimal in order to promote healing in chronic wounds.

  14. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  15. Building Nuclear Safety and Security Culture Within Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, K.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a higher level of nuclear safety and security, it needs to develop the safety and security culture not only in the facility but also in the regulatory body. The regulatory body, especially needs to develop the safety and security culture within the organization, because it has a function to promote and oversee the culture in the facilities. In this sense, the regulatory body should become a role model. Development of the nuclear safety and security culture should be started by properly understanding its concept and awakening the awareness of individual and organization on the importance of nuclear safety and security. For effectiveness of the culture development in the regulatory body, the following steps are suggested to be taken: setting up of the regulatory requirements, self-assessment, independent assessment review, communication with the licensee, oversight of management system implementation, and integration with regulatory activities. The paper discusses those steps in the framework of development of nuclear safety and security culture in the regulatory body, as well as some important elements in building of the culture in the nuclear facilities. (author)

  16. The Role of the State and the Economy in the promotion of heat pumps on the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognon, F.

    2008-07-01

    The laws defining the tasks of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) do not allow it to dictate measures, but to collaborate on the basis of voluntary actions. In the heat pump sector, the SwissEnergy action programme binds together 1 state, 26 cantons, 3000 communes, 50 manufacturers, 3500 installers, 1200 electricity companies and environmental agencies. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, the SFOE took the lead by creating the Swiss heat pump promotion group (GSP) in 1993. The idea was to bundle the market's forces to actively market and promote heat pumps for heating purposes. Under the umbrella of the Energy2000 (1990-2000) and the SwissEnergy (2001-2010) promotion programmes, the disparate heat pump sector was brought together and consolidated into being a key player on the heating market. The role of the SFOE and the GSP has changed with time. At the beginning, the SFOE decided what was to be done and the GSP did the job on a mandatory base. The SFOE was responsible for achieving the goals. The GSP gradually grew, so that since 2001 it has been able to determine the action plans itself. The SFOE sets the goals and the GSP is responsible for fulfilling them. The SFOE assures the coordination and the efficient use of resources. Its domain manager is responsible for the coordination of the whole chain from research and development to market, including quality management for all of the activities and the products as well. In this way, the government laid the foundations for the sector to become a success. This model can be applied to other domains or to other countries if some of the assessments and conditions described in the article are met. (author)

  17. The Role of the State and the Economy in the promotion of heat pumps on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognon, F.

    2008-01-01

    The laws defining the tasks of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) do not allow it to dictate measures, but to collaborate on the basis of voluntary actions. In the heat pump sector, the SwissEnergy action programme binds together 1 state, 26 cantons, 3000 communes, 50 manufacturers, 3500 installers, 1200 electricity companies and environmental agencies. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, the SFOE took the lead by creating the Swiss heat pump promotion group (GSP) in 1993. The idea was to bundle the market's forces to actively market and promote heat pumps for heating purposes. Under the umbrella of the Energy2000 (1990-2000) and the SwissEnergy (2001-2010) promotion programmes, the disparate heat pump sector was brought together and consolidated into being a key player on the heating market. The role of the SFOE and the GSP has changed with time. At the beginning, the SFOE decided what was to be done and the GSP did the job on a mandatory base. The SFOE was responsible for achieving the goals. The GSP gradually grew, so that since 2001 it has been able to determine the action plans itself. The SFOE sets the goals and the GSP is responsible for fulfilling them. The SFOE assures the coordination and the efficient use of resources. Its domain manager is responsible for the coordination of the whole chain from research and development to market, including quality management for all of the activities and the products as well. In this way, the government laid the foundations for the sector to become a success. This model can be applied to other domains or to other countries if some of the assessments and conditions described in the article are met. (author)

  18. [Health promotion and prevention in the economic crisis: the role of the health sector. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Villegas-Portero, Román; Gosalbes Soler, Victoria; Martínez-Pecino, Flora

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews trends in lifestyle factors and identifies priorities in the fields of prevention and health promotion in the current economic recession. Several information sources were used, including a survey of 30 public health and primary care experts. Between 2006 and 2012, no significant changes in lifestyle factors were detected except for a decrease in habitual alcohol drinking. There was a slight decrease in the use of illegal drugs and a significant increase in the use of psychoactive drugs. Most experts believe that decision-making about new mass screening programs and changes in vaccination schedules needs to be improved by including opportunity cost analysis and increasing the transparency and independence of the professionals involved. Preventive health services are contributing to medicalization, but experts' opinions are divided on the need for some preventive activities. Priorities in preventive services are mental health and HIV infection in vulnerable populations. Most experts trust in the potential of health promotion to mitigate the health effects of the economic crisis. Priority groups are children, unemployed people and other vulnerable groups. Priority interventions are community health activities (working in partnership with local governments and other sectors), advocacy, and mental health promotion. Effective tools for health promotion that are currently underused are legislation and mass media. There is a need to clarify the role of the healthcare sector in intersectorial activities, as well as to acknowledge that social determinants of health depend on other sectors. Experts also warn of the consequences of austerity and of policies that negatively impact on living conditions. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Lay perspectives on lay health worker roles, boundaries and participation within three UK community-based health promotion projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, J; Kinsella, K; Meah, A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines lay interpretations of lay health worker roles within three UK community-based health promotion projects. It argues that understanding lay health worker roles requires critical analysis of the complex interrelationships between professionals, lay workers and the communities receiving a programme. Findings are presented that are drawn from a qualitative study of lay engagement in public health programme delivery where a key objective was to examine the perspectives of community members with the experience of receiving services delivered by lay health workers. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 46 programme recipients from three case study projects; a breastfeeding peer support service, a walking for health scheme and a neighbourhood health project. The results show how participants interpreted the function and responsibilities of lay health workers and how those roles provided personalized support and facilitated engagement in group activities. Further insights into community participation processes are provided revealing the potential for active engagement in both formal and informal roles. The paper concludes that social relationships are core to understanding lay health worker programmes and therefore analysis needs to take account of the capacity for community members to move within a spectrum of participation defined by increasing responsibility for others.

  20. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AS A CHANGE PROMOTER WITHIN EUROPEAN POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudia ARUSTEI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the non-governmental organization (NGO in implementing specific activities and priorities of European policies increases continuously because of the new environment requirements. Through a qualitative research, our study aims to highlight the catalysts and the main constraints in operationalizing the European policies involving the civil sector. Our approach is integrative and nontheless sequential and it is based on a multi-player model with the identification of the role and types of actions specific to each party involved. A temporal comparative analysis is also made by highlighting the evolution in time of the strategic pillars, the constraints and problems specific to the NGOs. The conclusions of our study are going towards pro-active measures: a fair placement considering the role of NGOs within implementing European policies considering the fact that they can offer consistent support and can undertake innovative actions that generate benefits for the society, community and the organization itself.