Sample records for promising imaging method

  1. Nanostructures based on quantum dots for application in promising methods of single- and multiphoton imaging and diagnostics

    Nabiev, I. R.


    Molecules recognizing biomarkers of diseases (monoclonal antibodies (monoABs)) are often too large for biomedical applications, and the conditions that are used to bind them with nanolabels lead to disordered orientation of monoABs with respect to the nanoparticle surface. Extremely small nanoprobes, designed via oriented conjugation of quantum dots (QDs) with single-domain antibodies (sdABs) derived from the immunoglobulin of llama and produced in the E. coli culture, have a hydrodynamic diameter less than 12 nm and contain equally oriented sdAB molecules on the surface of each QD. These nanoprobes exhibit excellent specificity and sensitivity in quantitative determination of a small number of cells expressing biomarkers. In addition, the higher diffusion coefficient of sdABs makes it possible to perform immunohistochemical analysis in bulk tissue, inaccessible for conventional monoABs. The necessary conditions for implementing high-quality immunofluorescence diagnostics are a high specificity of labeling and clear differences between the fluorescence of nanoprobes and the autofluorescence of tissues. Multiphoton micros-copy with excitation in the near-IR spectral range, which is remote from the range of tissue autofluorescence excitation, makes it possible to solve this problem and image deep layers in biological tissues. The two-photon absorption cross sections of CdSe/ZnS QDs conjugated with sdABs exceed the corresponding values for organic fluorophores by several orders of magnitude. These nanoprobes provide clear discrimination between the regions of tumor and normal tissues with a ratio of the sdAB fluorescence to the tissue autofluorescence upon two-photon excitation exceeding that in the case of single-photon excitation by a factor of more than 40. The data obtained indicate that the sdAB-QD conjugates used as labels provide the same, or even better, quality as the "gold standard" of immunohistochemical diagnostics. The developed nanoprobes are expected to

  2. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T


    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  3. Promises


    AT dusk, I switched on my radio. What I heard was a special call-in program entitled "New Air of the City," on a local music channel; the two silver-tongued hosts were discussing the topic of promises. A young woman with a soft voice managed to get through first. She said that she had been in love for many years. She and her fiance often went to the banks of the Yangtze River in their spare time, lifting stones to look for small crabs, as tiny as fingernails. They liked to raise the crabs in a glass bowl. But one day, there were few stones by the river; they searched for a long time, but found nothing. An old man who was catching fish told them that it was difficult to find those crabs on the bank. Then he took several crabs out of his

  4. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    Pan Dipanjan [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail:; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA (United States)], E-mail:


    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  5. Image is more than a uniform: the promise of assurance.

    Wocial, Lucia D; Sego, Kelly; Rager, Carrie; Laubersheimer, Shellee; Everett, Linda Q


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of the phrase "image of the nurse" in the context of the desired brand experience of assurance. A brand is a promise that lives in the minds of consumers. Nurses play a key role in delivering on the brand promise of a hospital. Using focus groups, the authors applied a deductive approach to generate data. Discussion transcripts were analyzed by establishing codes and identifying themes. The most frequent comment from participants was that for nurses to communicate assurance, they must 1st be clean, well groomed, and understated in overall appearance. Nurse behaviors that reassure patients include being present with patients, helping patients know what to expect, and demonstrating a consistent team approach. Overall appearance and behaviors define the image of nurses and contribute significantly to the brand of assurance.

  6. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging


    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  7. Self-acquired patient images: the promises and the pitfalls.

    Damanpour, Shadi; Srivastava, Divya; Nijhawan, Rajiv I


    Self-acquired patient images, also known as selfies, are increasingly utilized in the practice of dermatology; however, research on their utility is somewhat limited. While the implementation of selfies has yet to be universally accepted, their role in triage appears to be especially useful. The potential for reducing office wait times, expediting referrals, and providing dermatologic services to patients with limited access to care is promising. In addition, as technology advances, the number of smartphone applications related to dermatology that are available to the general public has risen exponentially. With appropriate standardization, regulation, and confidentiality measures, these tools can be feasible adjuncts in clinical practice, dermatologic surgery, and teledermatology. Selfies likely will have a large role in dermatologic practice and delivery in the future.

  8. Universal Image Steganalytic Method

    V. Banoci


    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce a new universal steganalytic method in JPEG file format that is detecting well-known and also newly developed steganographic methods. The steganalytic model is trained by MHF-DZ steganographic algorithm previously designed by the same authors. The calibration technique with the Feature Based Steganalysis (FBS was employed in order to identify statistical changes caused by embedding a secret data into original image. The steganalyzer concept utilizes Support Vector Machine (SVM classification for training a model that is later used by the same steganalyzer in order to identify between a clean (cover and steganographic image. The aim of the paper was to analyze the variety in accuracy of detection results (ACR while detecting testing steganographic algorithms as F5, Outguess, Model Based Steganography without deblocking, JP Hide and Seek which represent the generally used steganographic tools. The comparison of four feature vectors with different lengths FBS (22, FBS (66 FBS(274 and FBS(285 shows promising results of proposed universal steganalytic method comparing to binary methods.

  9. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Karla L. Miller; Robin I. M. Dunbar; Barton, Robert A.


    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even...

  10. Heart imaging method

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.


    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  11. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc


    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  12. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis.

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G


    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  13. Survey of Existing and Promising New Methods of Surface Preparation


    labor-intensive methods of applying protective coating system at ambient temperatures during or after fabrication. 3.2.16 Explosives The detonation of...34. Ingenieria Naval, Vol. 44, pp. 5, 1976. 45. Conn, A. F., and Rudy, S. L., “Parameters for Ship Hull Cleaning Using Cavitating Water Jet Method

  14. Water jet: a promising method for cutting optical glass

    Salinas-Luna, Javier; Machorro, Roberto; Camacho, Javier; Luna, Esteban; Nunez, Juan


    We present an alternative method for cutting optical glass. It works with a high-pressure fluid, carring abrasive powder. This technique offers some advantages over conventional methods that use diamond abrasive covered wires or disks. We make a critical comparison between those two techniques, characterizing cuts with interferometric, polarimetric, and Ronchi testing. The main feature of the water-jet technique is that it allows surface of any shape, already polished, to be cut safely.

  15. Literature Review of Image Denoising Methods

    LIU Qian; YANG Xing-qiang; LI Yun-liang


    Image denoising is a fundamental and important task in image processing and computer vision fields. A lot of methods are proposed to reconstruct clean images from their noisy versions. These methods differ in both methodology and performance. On one hand, denoising methods can be classified into local and nonlocal methods. On the other hand, they can be marked as spatial and frequency domain methods. Sparse coding and low-rank are two popular techniques for denoising recently. This paper summarizes existing techniques and provides several promising directions for further studying in the future.




    Full Text Available The essay is dedicated to the development of better understanding of the main goals of employee performance evaluation as an indispensable component of managing employees in modern organizations. It is suggested that most employers traditionally use a great number of appraisal methods to assess their employee performance. Traditional methods base their findings on the personality qualities of an individual like creativity, responsibility and leadership. Unlike them, the modern methods widely used in different companies, laid more stress on the employee evaluation work results. Finally, it is concluded that employee performance evaluation is the most burning problem faced by employers in today’s fast-moving business environment. That is why it is very important to understand the main organization’s tasks to select the right employee evaluation.

  17. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  18. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain: Rationale and Design of the PROMISE Trial

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J.; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Cooper, Lawton


    Background Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. Methods The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of two initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either: 1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram); or 2) anatomic testing with >=64 slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core lab quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed for ≥1 year. The primary end-point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis and renal failure) or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results Over 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care and anesthesiology sites. Conclusion Multi-specialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. PROMISE will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomic testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost effectiveness and radiation exposure will be assessed. Clinical identifier NCT01174550 PMID:24890527

  19. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  20. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  1. Image registration method for medical image sequences

    Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, James S.


    Image registration of low contrast image sequences is provided. In one aspect, a desired region of an image is automatically segmented and only the desired region is registered. Active contours and adaptive thresholding of intensity or edge information may be used to segment the desired regions. A transform function is defined to register the segmented region, and sub-pixel information may be determined using one or more interpolation methods.


    Vitaly V. Bezzubik


    Full Text Available We have proposed and tested a novel method for digital image sharpening. The method is based on multi-scale image analysis, calculation of differential responses of image brightness in different spatial scales, and the subsequent calculation of a restoration function, which sharpens the image by simple subtraction of its brightness values from those of the original image. The method features spatial transposition of the restoration function elements, its normalization, and taking into account the sign of the brightness differential response gradient close to the object edges. The calculation algorithm for the proposed method makes use of integer arithmetic that significantly reduces the computation time. The paper shows that for the images containing small amount of the blur due to the residual aberrations of an imaging system, only the first two scales are needed for the calculation of the restoration function. Similar to the blind deconvolution, the method requires no a priori information about the nature and magnitude of the blur kernel, but it is computationally inexpensive and is much easier in practical implementation. The most promising applications of the method are machine vision and surveillance systems based on real-time intelligent pattern recognition and decision making.

  3. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo


    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  4. An Image Registration Method for Colposcopic Images

    Efrén Mezura-Montes


    sequence and a division of such image into small windows. A search process is then carried out to find the window with the highest affinity in each image of the sequence and replace it with the window in the reference image. The affinity value is based on polynomial approximation of the time series computed and the search is bounded by a search radius which defines the neighborhood of each window. The proposed approach is tested in ten 310-frame real cases in two experiments: the first one to determine the best values for the window size and the search radius and the second one to compare the best obtained results with respect to four registration methods found in the specialized literature. The obtained results show a robust and competitive performance of the proposed approach with a significant lower time with respect to the compared methods.

  5. The Promise of Drawing as Visual Method in Middle Grades Research

    Bishop, Penny A.


    Although drawing has been used as research tool for well over a century in the fields of psychology and anthropology, drawing remains overlooked and underutilized in educational research. This article examines the promise of visual methods, and of drawing in particular, in accessing middle schoolers' perceptions as a means of informing the middle…

  6. The Promise of Drawing as Visual Method in Middle Grades Research

    Bishop, Penny A.


    Although drawing has been used as research tool for well over a century in the fields of psychology and anthropology, drawing remains overlooked and underutilized in educational research. This article examines the promise of visual methods, and of drawing in particular, in accessing middle schoolers' perceptions as a means of informing the middle…

  7. Promises and challenges for the implementation of computational medical imaging (radiomics) in oncology.

    Limkin, E J; Sun, R; Dercle, L; Zacharaki, E I; Robert, C; Reuzé, S; Schernberg, A; Paragios, N; Deutsch, E; Ferté, C


    Medical image processing and analysis (also known as Radiomics) is a rapidly growing discipline that maps digital medical images into quantitative data, with the end goal of generating imaging biomarkers as decision support tools for clinical practice. The use of imaging data from routine clinical work-up has tremendous potential in improving cancer care by heightening understanding of tumor biology and aiding in the implementation of precision medicine. As a noninvasive method of assessing the tumor and its microenvironment in their entirety, radiomics allows the evaluation and monitoring of tumor characteristics such as temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One can observe a rapid increase in the number of computational medical imaging publications-milestones that have highlighted the utility of imaging biomarkers in oncology. Nevertheless, the use of radiomics as clinical biomarkers still necessitates amelioration and standardization in order to achieve routine clinical adoption. This Review addresses the critical issues to ensure the proper development of radiomics as a biomarker and facilitate its implementation in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  8. Numerical methods for image registration

    Modersitzki, Jan


    Based on the author's lecture notes and research, this well-illustrated and comprehensive text is one of the first to provide an introduction to image registration with particular emphasis on numerical methods in medical imaging. Ideal for researchers in industry and academia, it is also a suitable study guide for graduate mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers, medical physicists, and radiologists.Image registration is utilised whenever information obtained from different viewpoints needs to be combined or compared and unwanted distortion needs to be eliminated. For example, CCTV imag

  9. PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain: rationale and design of the PROMISE trial.

    Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Anstrom, Kevin; Dolor, Rowena J; Kosinski, Andrzej; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Mudrick, Daniel W; Patel, Manesh R; Picard, Michael H; Udelson, James E; Velazquez, Eric J; Cooper, Lawton


    Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common, potentially life-threatening diagnostic problems clinicians encounter. However, no large outcome-based randomized trials have been performed to guide the selection of diagnostic strategies for these patients. The PROMISE study is a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of 2 initial diagnostic strategies in patients with symptoms suspicious for CAD. Patients are randomized to either (1) functional testing (exercise electrocardiogram, stress nuclear imaging, or stress echocardiogram) or (2) anatomical testing with ≥64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography. Tests are interpreted locally in real time by subspecialty certified physicians, and all subsequent care decisions are made by the clinical care team. Sites are provided results of central core laboratory quality and completeness assessment. All subjects are followed up for ≥1 year. The primary end point is the time to occurrence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction, major procedural complications (stroke, major bleeding, anaphylaxis, and renal failure), or hospitalization for unstable angina. More than 10,000 symptomatic subjects were randomized in 3.2 years at 193 US and Canadian cardiology, radiology, primary care, urgent care, and anesthesiology sites. Multispecialty community practice enrollment into a large pragmatic trial of diagnostic testing strategies is both feasible and efficient. The PROMISE trial will compare the clinical effectiveness of an initial strategy of functional testing against an initial strategy of anatomical testing in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Quality of life, resource use, cost-effectiveness, and radiation exposure will be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modern methods of image reconstruction.

    Puetter, R. C.

    The author reviews the image restoration or reconstruction problem in its general setting. He first discusses linear methods for solving the problem of image deconvolution, i.e. the case in which the data are a convolution of a point-spread function and an underlying unblurred image. Next, non-linear methods are introduced in the context of Bayesian estimation, including maximum likelihood and maximum entropy methods. Then, the author discusses the role of language and information theory concepts for data compression and solving the inverse problem. The concept of algorithmic information content (AIC) is introduced and is shown to be crucial to achieving optimal data compression and optimized Bayesian priors for image reconstruction. The dependence of the AIC on the selection of language then suggests how efficient coordinate systems for the inverse problem may be selected. The author also introduced pixon-based image restoration and reconstruction methods. The relation between image AIC and the Bayesian incarnation of Occam's Razor is discussed, as well as the relation of multiresolution pixon languages and image fractal dimension. Also discussed is the relation of pixons to the role played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in statistical physics and how pixon-based image reconstruction provides a natural extension to the Akaike information criterion for maximum likelihood. The author presents practical applications of pixon-based Bayesian estimation to the restoration of astronomical images. He discusses the effects of noise, effects of finite sampling on resolution, and special problems associated with spatially correlated noise introduced by mosaicing. Comparisons to other methods demonstrate the significant improvements afforded by pixon-based methods and illustrate the science that such performance improvements allow.

  11. Twin-Foucault imaging method

    Harada, Ken


    A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  12. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.


    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  13. Improved Digital Image Correlation method

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira


    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a powerful technique which is used to correlate two image segments to determine the similarity between them. A correlation image is formed which gives a peak known as correlation peak. If the two image segments are identical the peak is known as auto-correlation peak otherwise it is known as cross correlation peak. The location of the peak in a correlation image gives the relative displacement between the two image segments. Use of DIC for in-plane displacement and deformation measurements in Electronic Speckle Photography (ESP) is well known. In ESP two speckle images are correlated using DIC and relative displacement is measured. We are presenting background review of ESP and disclosing a technique based on DIC for improved relative measurements which we regard as the improved DIC method. Simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed improved-DIC method is superior to the conventional DIC method in two aspects, in resolution and in the availability of reference position in displacement measurements.

  14. Watching tumours gasp and die with MRI: the promise of hyperpolarised 13C MR spectroscopic imaging.

    Brindle, K


    A better understanding of tumour biology has led to the development of "targeted therapies", in which a drug is designed to disrupt a specific biochemical pathway important for tumour cell survival or proliferation. The introduction of these drugs into the clinic has shown that patients can vary widely in their responses. Molecular imaging is likely to play an increasingly important role in predicting and detecting these responses and thus in guiding treatment in individual patients: so-called "personalised medicine". The aim of this review is to discuss how hyperpolarised (13)C MR spectroscopic imaging might be used for treatment response monitoring. This technique, which increases the sensitivity of detection of injected (13)C-labelled molecules by >10,000-fold, has allowed a new approach to metabolic imaging. The basic principles of the technique and its potential advantages over other imaging methods for detecting early evidence of treatment response will be discussed. Given that the technique is poised to translate to the clinic, I will also speculate on its likely applications.

  15. Fast regularized image interpolation method

    Hongchen Liu; Yong Feng; Linjing Li


    The regularized image interpolation method is widely used based on the vector interpolation model in which down-sampling matrix has very large dimension and needs large storage consumption and higher computation complexity. In this paper, a fast algorithm for image interpolation based on the tensor product of matrices is presented, which transforms the vector interpolation model to matrix form. The proposed algorithm can extremely reduce the storage requirement and time consumption. The simulation results verify their validity.

  16. The microwave-assisted ionic-liquid method: a promising methodology in nanomaterials.

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Zhu, Jie-Fang; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Run-Cang


    In recent years, the microwave-assisted ionic-liquid method has been accepted as a promising methodology for the preparation of nanomaterials and cellulose-based nanocomposites. Applications of this method in the preparation of cellulose-based nanocomposites comply with the major principles of green chemistry, that is, they use an environmentally friendly method in environmentally preferable solvents to make use of renewable materials. This minireview focuses on the recent development of the synthesis of nanomaterials and cellulose-based nanocomposites by means of the microwave-assisted ionic-liquid method. We first discuss the preparation of nanomaterials including noble metals, metal oxides, complex metal oxides, metal sulfides, and other nanomaterials by means of this method. Then we provide an overview of the synthesis of cellulose-based nanocomposites by using this method. The emphasis is on the synthesis, microstructure, and properties of nanostructured materials obtained through this methodology. Our recent research on nanomaterials and cellulose-based nanocomposites by this rapid method is summarized. In addition, the formation mechanisms involved in the microwave-assisted ionic-liquid synthesis of nanostructured materials are discussed briefly. Finally, the future perspectives of this methodology in the synthesis of nanostructured materials are proposed.

  17. Gap junctions enhancer combined with Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs, a promising antiarrhythmic method?

    Li, Lian-dong; Zhang, Cun-tai; Ruan, Lei; Ni, Ming-ke; Quan, Xiao-qing


    Arrhythmias is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and adverse effects such as proarrhythmias. Reentry mechanism plays an important role in persistence of arrhythmias. Reentry can only continue when reentry path-length is longer than cardiac wavelength which is equal to the product of conduction velocity (CV) and effective refractory period (ERP). Gap junctions uncoupling is associated with proarrhythmic CV slowing and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) increasing in many cardiac diseases. Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs prolong ERP with an augmented TDR which is the main mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects. Gap junctions enhancer can augment CV and diminish TDR. As a result, gap junctions enhancer combined with class III drugs may be a promising antiarrhythmic method.

  18. The Promise of Mixed-Methods for Advancing Latino Health Research

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson


    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the “translation” of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions. PMID:23996325

  19. The promise of mixed-methods for advancing latino health research.

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson


    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the "translation" of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions.

  20. Digital image processing mathematical and computational methods

    Blackledge, J M


    This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the 'physics' of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research

  1. Segmentation in dermatological hyperspectral images: dedicated methods

    Koprowski, Robert; Olczyk, Paweł


    Background Segmentation of hyperspectral medical images is one of many image segmentation methods which require profiling. This profiling involves either the adjustment of existing, known image segmentation methods or a proposal of new dedicated methods of hyperspectral image segmentation. Taking into consideration the size of analysed data, the time of analysis is of major importance. Therefore, the authors proposed three new dedicated methods of hyperspectral image segmentation with special...

  2. Lacunarity analysis: a promising method for the automated assessment of melanocytic naevi and melanoma.

    Gilmore, Stephen; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Muir, Jim; Soyer, H Peter


    The early diagnosis of melanoma is critical to achieving reduced mortality and increased survival. Although clinical examination is currently the method of choice for melanocytic lesion assessment, there is a growing interest among clinicians regarding the potential diagnostic utility of computerised image analysis. Recognising that there exist significant shortcomings in currently available algorithms, we are motivated to investigate the utility of lacunarity, a simple statistical measure previously used in geology and other fields for the analysis of fractal and multi-scaled images, in the automated assessment of melanocytic naevi and melanoma. Digitised dermoscopic images of 111 benign melanocytic naevi, 99 dysplastic naevi and 102 melanomas were obtained over the period 2003 to 2008, and subject to lacunarity analysis. We found the lacunarity algorithm could accurately distinguish melanoma from benign melanocytic naevi or non-melanoma without introducing many of the limitations associated with other previously reported diagnostic algorithms. Lacunarity analysis suggests an ordering of irregularity in melanocytic lesions, and we suggest the clinical application of this ordering may have utility in the naked-eye dermoscopic diagnosis of early melanoma.

  3. Lacunarity analysis: a promising method for the automated assessment of melanocytic naevi and melanoma.

    Stephen Gilmore

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of melanoma is critical to achieving reduced mortality and increased survival. Although clinical examination is currently the method of choice for melanocytic lesion assessment, there is a growing interest among clinicians regarding the potential diagnostic utility of computerised image analysis. Recognising that there exist significant shortcomings in currently available algorithms, we are motivated to investigate the utility of lacunarity, a simple statistical measure previously used in geology and other fields for the analysis of fractal and multi-scaled images, in the automated assessment of melanocytic naevi and melanoma. Digitised dermoscopic images of 111 benign melanocytic naevi, 99 dysplastic naevi and 102 melanomas were obtained over the period 2003 to 2008, and subject to lacunarity analysis. We found the lacunarity algorithm could accurately distinguish melanoma from benign melanocytic naevi or non-melanoma without introducing many of the limitations associated with other previously reported diagnostic algorithms. Lacunarity analysis suggests an ordering of irregularity in melanocytic lesions, and we suggest the clinical application of this ordering may have utility in the naked-eye dermoscopic diagnosis of early melanoma.

  4. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.


    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  5. Imaging FTIR emissivity measurement method

    Burdette, Edward M.; Nichols, C. Spencer; Lane, Sarah E.; Prussing, Keith F.; Cathcart, J. Michael


    Though many materials behave approximately as greybodies across the long-wave infrared (LWIR) waveband, certain important infrared (IR) scene modeling materials such as brick and galvanized steel exhibit more complex optical properties1. Accurately describing how non-greybody materials interact relies critically on the accurate incorporation of the emissive and reflective properties of the in-scene materials. Typically, measured values are obtained and used. When measured using a non-imaging spectrometer, a given material's spectral emissivity requires more than one collection episode, as both the sample under test and a standard must be measured separately. In the interval between episodes changes in environment degrade emissivity measurement accuracy. While repeating and averaging measurements of the standard and sample helps mitigate such effects, a simultaneous measurement of both can ensure identical environmental conditions during the measurement process, thus reducing inaccuracies and delivering a temporally accurate determination of background or `down-welling' radiation. We report on a method for minimizing temporal inaccuracies in sample emissivity measurements. Using a LWIR hyperspectral imager, a Telops Hyper-Cam2, an approach permitting hundreds of simultaneous, calibrated spectral radiance measurements of the sample under test as well as a diffuse gold standard is described. In addition, we describe the data reduction technique to exploit these measurements. Following development of the reported method, spectral reflectance data from 10 samples of various materials of interest were collected. These data are presented along with comments on how such data will enhance the fidelity of computer models of IR scenes.

  6. Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging

    Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Wahab, Abdul


    This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertai

  7. 99mTc-thymine scintigraphy may be a promising method in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Ribeiro, Monica Pires; Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de; Lopes, Flavia Paiva Proenca Lobo; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Departamento de Radiologia


    Objective: Mammography has been established as the gold standard for the detection of breast cancer, and imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy and positron emission tomography may be useful to improve its sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study with breast scintigraphy was to evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-thymine in mammary lesions. Methods: A total of 45 patients were included in this study. Thirty-three patients (73%) were subjected to surgery or percutaneous biopsy, providing histopathological data. The other 12 patients who remained under surveillance received clinical examinations and biannual mammography with a normal follow-up of at least three years, the data from which were used for comparison with the scintimammography results. Results: The majority of patients (64.4%) had clinically impalpable lesions with a mammogram diagnosis of microcalcifications, impalpable nodules, or focal asymmetry. Of the studied lesions, 87% were smaller or equal to 20 mm in diameter, and 22% had malignant histopathological findings. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-thymine had a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 85.7%, positive and negative predictive values of 58.3% and 90.9%, respectively, and an accuracy of 82.2%. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with those previously reported by other authors. The good specificity and high negative predictive value of this technique and the absence of uptake in the heart indicate that it may be a promising complementary method in clinical practice and that it may contribute to reducing unnecessary benign biopsies. (author)

  8. Fractal methods in image analysis and coding

    Neary, David


    In this thesis we present an overview of image processing techniques which use fractal methods in some way. We show how these fields relate to each other, and examine various aspects of fractal methods in each area. The three principal fields of image processing and analysis th a t we examine are texture classification, image segmentation and image coding. In the area of texture classification, we examine fractal dimension estimators, comparing these methods to other methods in use, a...

  9. PRECL: A new method for interferometry imaging from closure phase

    Ikeda, Shiro; Akiyama, Kazunori; Hada, Kazuhiro; Honma, Mareki


    For short-wavelength VLBI observations, it is difficult to measure the phase of the visibility function accurately. The closure phases are reliable measurements under this situation, though it is not sufficient to retrieve all of the phase information. We propose a new method, Phase Retrieval from Closure Phase (PRECL). PRECL estimates all the visibility phases only from the closure phases. Combining PRECL with a sparse modeling method we have already proposed, imaging process of VLBI does not rely on dirty image nor self-calibration. The proposed method is tested numerically and the results are promising.

  10. Cardiac MR image segmentation using CHNN and level set method

    王洪元; 周则明; 王平安; 夏德深


    Although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high spatial resolution image, the area gray level inhomogenization, weak boundary and artifact often can be found in MR images. So, the MR images segmentation using the gradient-based methods is poor in quality and efficiency. An algorithm, based on the competitive hopfield neural network (CHNN) and the curve propagation, is proposed for cardiac MR images segmentation in this paper. The algorithm is composed of two phases. In first phase, a CHNN is used to classify the image objects, and to make gray level homogenization and to recognize weak boundaries in objects. In second phase, based on the classified results, the level set velocity function is created and the object boundaries are extracted with the curve propagation algorithm of the narrow band-based level set. The test results are promising and encouraging.

  11. Whole Slide Imaging for Analytical Anatomic Pathology and Telepathology: Practical Applications Today, Promises, and Perils.

    Farris, Alton Brad; Cohen, Cynthia; Rogers, Thomas E; Smith, Geoffrey H


    Whole slide imaging (WSI) offers a convenient, tractable platform for measuring features of routine and special-stain histology or in immunohistochemistry staining by using digital image analysis (IA). We now routinely use IA for quantitative and qualitative analysis of theranostic markers such as human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2/neu), estrogen and progesterone receptors, and Ki-67. Quantitative IA requires extensive validation, however, and may not always be the best approach, with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being one example in which a semiautomated approach may be preferable for patient care. We find that IA has great utility for objective assessment of gastrointestinal tract dysplasia, microvessel density in hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis, renal fibrosis, and general quality analysis/quality control, although the applications of these to daily practice are still in development. Collaborations with bioinformatics specialists have explored novel applications to gliomas, including in silico approaches for mining histologic data and correlating with molecular and radiologic findings. We and many others are using WSI for rapid, remote-access slide reviews (telepathology), though technical factors currently limit its utility for routine, high-volume diagnostics. In our experience, the greatest current practical impact of WSI lies in facilitating long-term storage and retrieval of images while obviating the need to keep slides on site. Once the existing barriers of capital cost, validation, operator training, software design, and storage/back-up concerns are overcome, these technologies appear destined to be a cornerstone of precision medicine and personalized patient care, and to become a routine part of pathology practice.

  12. A Homomorphic Method for Sharing Secret Images

    Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Brouzet, Robert

    In this paper, we present a new method for sharing images between two parties exploiting homomorphic property of public key cryptosystem. With our method, we show that it is possible to multiply two encrypted images, to decrypt the resulted image and after to extract and reconstruct one of the two original images if the second original image is available. Indeed, extraction and reconstruction of original image at the receiving end is done with the help of carrier image. Experimental results and security analysis show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  13. Structural determination of protein-based polymer blends with a promising tool: combination of FTIR and STXM spectroscopic imaging.

    Ling, Shengjie; Qi, Zeming; Watts, Benjamin; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin


    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) spectroscopic imaging techniques are introduced to determine the structure of protein-based polymer blends, using the silk fibroin/polyethylene oxide (SF/PEO) blend as a model material. We demonstrate that FTIR and STXM imaging techniques provide complementary chemical sensitivities, resolution ranges and sample thickness requirements that can enable a greater understanding of SF/PEO blend films. From the FTIR images, we find that SF shows random coil and/or helical conformation in the SF-rich domains, and β-sheet conformation in the PEO-rich matrix. In the meantime, the SF content in SF-rich domains is 74 ± 4%, and 38 ± 6% in the PEO-rich matrix from the STXM images. These findings support and give further evidence to the conclusions of the previous studies on SF/PEO blends in the literature. Our results strongly suggest that FTIR and STXM imaging techniques are two promising complementary approaches for the study of phase behaviour and molecular conformation in protein-based polymer blend materials.

  14. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatry: present utility and future promise

    Renshaw, P.F.; Levin, J.M.; Kaufman, M.J.; Ross, M.H. [Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02178 (United States); Lewis, R.F.; Harris, G.J. [Neuroimaging Research Laboratory, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI) provides a noninvasive means to create high resolution maps of the regional distribution of cerebral blood volume (CBV). Most DSC MRI studies conducted to date have focused on the evaluation of patients with cerebral neoplasms, ischemia or infarction, and epilepsy. However, preliminary work suggests that DSC MRI may also provide clinically important information for the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, especially dementia and schizophrenia. Additionally, with appropriate modification, DSC MRI may be used to reliably evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on cerebral hemodynamics. As pharmacotherapy is an important component in the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders, the dynamic assessment of changes in cerebral perfusion associated with drug administration may ultimately lead to the development of ``brain function tests`` for a wide range of disorders. (orig.) With 4 figs., 50 refs.

  15. Lossless Digital Image Compression Method for Bitmap Images

    Meyyappan, Dr T; Nachiaban, N M Jeya; 10.5121/ijma.2011.3407


    In this research paper, the authors propose a new approach to digital image compression using crack coding This method starts with the original image and develop crack codes in a recursive manner, marking the pixels visited earlier and expanding the entropy in four directions. The proposed method is experimented with sample bitmap images and results are tabulated. The method is implemented in uni-processor machine using C language source code.

  16. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.


    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  17. Image enhancement method for fingerprint recognition system.

    Li, Shunshan; Wei, Min; Tang, Haiying; Zhuang, Tiange; Buonocore, Michael


    Image enhancement plays an important role in Fingerprint Recognition System. In this paper fingerprint image enhancement method, a refined Gabor filter, is presented. This enhancement method can connect the ridge breaks, ensures the maximal gray values located at the ridge center and has the ability to compensate for the nonlinear deformations. The result shows it can improve the performance of image enhancement.

  18. Cytolysin a expressing E. coli a promising candidate for imageable therapeutic probe

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Phan, Thuy Xuan; Hong, Yeoung Jin; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Using bacteria for cancer treatment has a long history. Discovery of optical reporter genes consisting of fluorescent and luminescent protein facilitates the monitor of bacteria in vivo, non-invasively and repeatedly. E. coli, the natural enteric bacteria possessing capacity of tumor-targeting ability, seems to be suitable candidate for cancer treatment. In this study, we established the strain light-emitting E. coli for diagnostic purpose and Cytolysin A (Cly A) expressing E. coli for therapeutic purpose. E. coli (MG1655, wild type strain) was transformed plasmid pUC19 carrying lux gene to create the light expressing bacteria and test the tumor targeting-capacity by injecting the bacteria into CT26-tumor bearing mice via tail vein. On the other hand, for therapeutic purpose, plasmid containing Cly A gene, which is encoded for a pore-forming protein toxin, was introduced into E. coli. The toxicity of Cly A was evaluated in vitro by inoculating the bacteria with various cultured cancer cell lines. On the other hand, to test the therapeutic effect, the bacteria were injected intratumorally and intravenously into s.c.CT26-bearing as well as CT26-lung metastasized Balb/c mice. In vivo imaging data showed that the E. coli strains selectively located in the tumor. The in vitro result showed that the number of death cells were significantly higher in the samples containing E. coli expressing Cly A (E. coli Cly A) compared with the samples containing wild type strain. The growth of tumors was repressed in mice injected with either E. coli Cly A (significantly) or wild type E. coli (mildly), while tumors in no treatment group still grew fast. Furthermore, the tumors inoculated with E. coli cly A were necrotized but not with wild type E. coli. In the CT26-lung metastasized mouse model, the life span of mice was elongated when inject E. coli and longer in the group injected with E. coli cly A. Cly A expressing E. coli can become an effective candidate for imageable

  19. An improved image reconstruction method for optical intensity correlation Imaging

    Gao, Xin; Feng, Lingjie; Li, Xiyu


    The intensity correlation imaging method is a novel kind of interference imaging and it has favorable prospects in deep space recognition. However, restricted by the low detecting signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it's usually very difficult to obtain high-quality image of deep space object like high-Earth-orbit (HEO) satellite with existing phase retrieval methods. In this paper, based on the priori intensity statistical distribution model of the object and characteristics of measurement noise distribution, an improved method of Prior Information Optimization (PIO) is proposed to reduce the ambiguous images and accelerate the phase retrieval procedure thus realizing fine image reconstruction. As the simulations and experiments show, compared to previous methods, our method could acquire higher-resolution images with less error in low SNR condition.

  20. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M


    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  1. An overview of medical image processing methods



    Jun 14, 2010 ... theoretical subjects about methods and algorithms used are explained. In the forth section, ... image processing techniques such as image segmentation, compression .... A convolution mask like -1 | 0 | 1 could be used in each.

  2. Selection of image acquisition methods

    Donnelly, Joseph J.


    A comprehensive picture archiving and communications system (PACS), such as the medical diagnostic imaging support (MDIS) system, consists of several interrelated sub systems. The image acquisition subsystem is the means by which images are introduced into the system and as such it is analogous to the ''eyes'' of the system. Images from digital modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are readily transferable to a PACS since they are acquired in a digital format. Conventional film based analog images are particularly challenging since at no point in their production or display do they exist in an electronic form suitable for transfer to the MDIS system. In recent years, commercial high resolution film digitizers and computed radiology (CR) devices have become available. These devices now provide us with the means to capture conventional radiographic images in a format suitable for transfer to a PACS. Through the careful selection of acquisition devices we can now design an image acquisition subsystem tailored to meet our clinical needs.

  3. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong


    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  4. Comparing image compression methods in biomedical applications

    Libor Hargas


    Full Text Available Compression methods suitable for image processing are described in this article in biomedical applications. The compression is often realized by reduction of irrelevance or redundancy. There are described lossless and lossy compression methods which can be use for compress of images in biomedical applications and comparison of these methods based on fidelity criteria.

  5. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L


    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  6. Multispectral image filtering method based on image fusion

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei


    This paper proposed a novel filter scheme by image fusion based on Nonsubsampled ContourletTransform(NSCT) for multispectral image. Firstly, an adaptive median filter is proposed which shows great advantage in speed and weak edge preserving. Secondly, the algorithm put bilateral filter and adaptive median filter on image respectively and gets two denoised images. Then perform NSCT multi-scale decomposition on the de-noised images and get detail sub-band and approximate sub-band. Thirdly, the detail sub-band and approximate sub-band are fused respectively. Finally, the object image is obtained by inverse NSCT. Simulation results show that the method has strong adaptability to deal with the textural images. And it can suppress noise effectively and preserve the image details. This algorithm has better filter performance than the Bilateral filter standard and median filter and theirs improved algorithms for different noise ratio.

  7. Review methods for image segmentation from computed tomography images

    Mamat, Nurwahidah; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Soh, Shaharuddin Cik [Faculty of Science Computer and Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia, 40450 Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmud, Rozi [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang Selangor (Malaysia)


    Image segmentation is a challenging process in order to get the accuracy of segmentation, automation and robustness especially in medical images. There exist many segmentation methods that can be implemented to medical images but not all methods are suitable. For the medical purposes, the aims of image segmentation are to study the anatomical structure, identify the region of interest, measure tissue volume to measure growth of tumor and help in treatment planning prior to radiation therapy. In this paper, we present a review method for segmentation purposes using Computed Tomography (CT) images. CT images has their own characteristics that affect the ability to visualize anatomic structures and pathologic features such as blurring of the image and visual noise. The details about the methods, the goodness and the problem incurred in the methods will be defined and explained. It is necessary to know the suitable segmentation method in order to get accurate segmentation. This paper can be a guide to researcher to choose the suitable segmentation method especially in segmenting the images from CT scan.

  8. An Image Retrieval Method Using DCT Features

    樊昀; 王润生


    In this paper a new image representation for compressed domain image re-trieval and an image retrieval system are presented. To represent images compactly and hi-erarchically, multiple features such as color and texture features directly extracted from DCTcoefficients are structurally organized using vector quantization. To train the codebook, a newMinimum Description Length vector quantization algorithm is used and it automatically decidesthe number of code words. To compare two images using the proposed representation, a newefficient similarity measure is designed. The new method is applied to an image database with1,005 pictures. The results demonstrate that the method is better than two typical histogrammethods and two DCT-based image retrieval methods.

  9. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D


    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  10. Improved High Dynamic Range Image Reproduction Method

    András Rövid


    Full Text Available High dynamic range (HDR of illumination may cause serious distortions andother problems in viewing and further processing of digital images. This paper describes anew algorithm for HDR image creation based on merging images taken with differentexposure time. There are many fields, in which HDR images can be used advantageously,with the help of them the accuracy, reliability and many other features of the certain imageprocessing methods can be improved.

  11. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Method for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Jin, Yu; Kong, Jian


    Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) on the auricular branch of the vagus nerve has been receiving attention due to its therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the mechanism of tVNS is not yet completely understood, studies have demonstrated the potential role of vagal afferent nerve stimulation in the regulation of mood and visceral state associated with social communication. In addition, a growing body of evidence shows that tVNS can activate the brain regions associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), trigger neuroimmune modulation and produce treatment effects for comorbid disorders of ASD such as epilepsy and depression. We thus hypothesize that tVNS may be a promising treatment for ASD, not only for comorbid epilepsy and depression, but also for the core symptoms of ASD. The goal of this manuscript is to summarize the findings and rationales for applying tVNS to treat ASD and propose potential parameters for tVNS treatment of ASD.

  12. Fuzzy Methods and Image Fusion in a Digital Image Processing

    Jaroslav Vlach


    Full Text Available Although the basics of image processing were laid more than 50 years ago, significant development occurred mainly in the last 25 years with the entrance of personal computers and today's problems are already very sophisticated and quick. This article is a contribution to the study of the use of fuzzy logic methods and image fusion for image processing using LabVIEW tools for quality management, in this case especially in the jewelry industry.  

  13. Analysis of protein carbonylation - pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Wojdyla, K.; Nedic, O.


    . Several methods for measuring protein carbonylation have been implemented in different laboratories around the world. However, to date no methods prevail as the most accurate, reliable, and robust. The present paper aims at giving an overview of the common methods used to determine protein carbonylation...

  14. Research on image scrambling degree evaluation method

    Bai, Sen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jinyu; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Xiao


    This paper discussed the evaluation problem of image scrambling degree (ISD). Inspired by the evaluation method of image texture characteristics, three new metrics for assessing objectively the ISD were proposed. The first method utilized the performance of energy concentration of Walsh transformation (WT), which took into account the properties that a good ISD measurement method should be contented. The second method used angular second moment (ASM) of image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The third method combined the entropy of GLCM with image texture characteristic. Experimental results show that the proposed metrics are effective to assess the ISD, which correlates well with subjective assessment. Considering the computational complexity, the first evaluation method based on WT is remarkably superior to the method based on ASM and GLCM in terms of the time cost.

  15. Fuzzy promises

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas


    This article clarifies the commonplace assumption that brands make promises by developing definitions of brand promise delivery. Distinguishing between clear and fuzzy brand promises, we develop definitions of what it is for a brand to deliver on fuzzy functional, symbolic, and experiential...

  16. Fabrication of Mineralized Collagen from Bovine Waste Materials by Hydrothermal Method as Promised Biomaterials

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Macossay, Javier


    In the present study, we aimed to produce mineralized-collagen by hydrothermal process. A simple method not depending on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to isolate the mineralized-collagen fibers from bovine waste. The process of extraction involves the use of hydrothermal method...

  17. Swarm Optimization Methods in Microwave Imaging

    Andrea Randazzo


    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence denotes a class of new stochastic algorithms inspired by the collective social behavior of natural entities (e.g., birds, ants, etc.. Such approaches have been proven to be quite effective in several applicative fields, ranging from intelligent routing to image processing. In the last years, they have also been successfully applied in electromagnetics, especially for antenna synthesis, component design, and microwave imaging. In this paper, the application of swarm optimization methods to microwave imaging is discussed, and some recent imaging approaches based on such methods are critically reviewed.

  18. A promising method of liquid separation in orbital station's life support systems

    Kapitsa Anna, A.


    A combined method of liquid separation from a gas-liquid flow is presented based on an analysis of existing methods of separation and experience gained from the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station. This method combines the advantages of both water-holding materials and semi-permeable membranes. The paper describes an actual device as well as laboratory test results for materials and the separator. The separator described has successfully been in experimental operation on the ISS since the 1st of September 2009.

  19. A Promising New Method to Estimate Drug-Polymer Solubility at Room Temperature

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Gannon, Natasha; Porsch, Ilona


    The established methods to predict drug-polymer solubility at room temperature either rely on extrapolation over a long temperature range or are limited by the availability of a liquid analogue of the polymer. To overcome these issues, this work investigated a new methodology where the drug......-polymer solubility is estimated from the solubility of the drug in a solution of the polymer at room temperature using the shake-flask method. Thus, the new polymer in solution method does not rely on temperature extrapolations and only requires the polymer and a solvent, in which the polymer is soluble, that does...... not affect the molecular structure of the drug and polymer relative to that in the solid state. Consequently, as this method has the potential to provide fast and precise estimates of drug-polymer solubility at room temperature, we encourage the scientific community to further investigate this principle both...

  20. Parallel image registration method for snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Shuaishuai; Lin, Jie; Zhu, Feijia; Jin, Peng


    A fast and precise registration method for multi-image snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy is proposed. This method accomplishes registration of an image array using the positional relationship between homologous points in the subimages, which are obtained offline by preregistration. Through the preregistration process, the registration problem is converted to the problem of using a registration matrix to interpolate subimages. Therefore, the hardware interpolation of graphics processing unit (GPU) texture memory, which has speed advantages for its parallel computing, can be used to significantly enhance computational efficiency. Compared to a central processing unit, GPU performance showed ˜27 times acceleration in registration efficiency.

  1. Method for position emission mammography image reconstruction

    Smith, Mark Frederick


    An image reconstruction method comprising accepting coincidence datat from either a data file or in real time from a pair of detector heads, culling event data that is outside a desired energy range, optionally saving the desired data for each detector position or for each pair of detector pixels on the two detector heads, and then reconstructing the image either by backprojection image reconstruction or by iterative image reconstruction. In the backprojection image reconstruction mode, rays are traced between centers of lines of response (LOR's), counts are then either allocated by nearest pixel interpolation or allocated by an overlap method and then corrected for geometric effects and attenuation and the data file updated. If the iterative image reconstruction option is selected, one implementation is to compute a grid Siddon retracing, and to perform maximum likelihood expectation maiximization (MLEM) computed by either: a) tracing parallel rays between subpixels on opposite detector heads; or b) tracing rays between randomized endpoint locations on opposite detector heads.

  2. Digital image inpainting by example-based image synthesis method

    Nie Dongdong; Ma Lizhuang; Xiao Shuangjiu


    A simple and effective image inpainting method is proposed in this paper, which is proved to be suitable for different kinds of target regions with shapes from little scraps to large unseemly objects in a wide range of images. It is an important improvement upon the traditional image inpainting techniques.By introducing a new bijective-mapping term into the matching cost function, the artificial repetition problem in the final inpainting image is practically solved. In addition, by adopting an inpainting error map,not only the target pixels are refined gradually during the inpainting process but also the overlapped target patches are combined more seamlessly than previous method. Finally, the inpainting time is dramatically decreased by using a new acceleration method in the matching process.

  3. Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.

    Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.


    Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…

  4. Sport Sciences and the Promise of Phenomenology: Philosophy, Method, and Insight.

    Kerry, Daniel S.; Armour, Kathleen M.


    Examines how phenomenology might make a more significant contribution to knowledge and understanding within sport-related research. The paper discusses the philosophical roots of phenomenology; highlights the key contributions of and differences between Husserl and Heidegger; examines phenomenology as philosophy and phenomenology as method; and…

  5. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    Lee, Youngju


    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  6. Soil Scientific Research Methods Used in Archaeology – Promising Soil Biochemistry: a Mini-review

    Valerie Vranová


    Full Text Available This work seeks to review soil scientific methods that have been used and are still being used in archaeology. This review paper aims at emphasising the importance of soil science practice to archaeology thus adding a scientific analytical nature to the cultural nature of archaeology. Common methods (physical, chemical and biochemical used to analyse archaeological soils and artefacts is touched on and their strengths and shortcomings duly noted to become the base for future research. Furthermore, the authors made emphasis on distinctive excavating/sampling methods, biochemical analyses focused on distinctive features of plough-land and soil organic matter mineralization, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis (CEIP method by the presence of proteins testing, carbon analyses such as carbon-14 dating techniques, soil phosphorus studies and geochemical analyses of hematite Fe2O3 and cinnabaryte HgS contents. It is obvious that, the future of archaeology is in the soil because the soil harbours information of the past hence the synergy between soil and archaeological research has to be strengthened and archaeology made a prime agenda by soil scientists by expanding the analyses scope of total phosphorus extraction and giving attention to soil magnetism.

  7. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.


    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  8. A Practical Method for Image Rectification

    CHENZezhi; WUChengke; YANYaoping


    This paper gives a new method for image rectification. The method is based on an estimation of the epipolar constraints and homography matrix H, which de-scribes the relationship of the corresponding epipolar lines.The approach makes the resampling images extremely sim-ple by using Bresenham Algorithm to extract pixels alongthe corresponding epipolar line. For a large set of cameramotions, remapping to a plane has the drawback of cre-ating rectified images that are potentially infinitely largeand presents a loss of pixel information a long the epipolar lines. In contrast, our method guarantees that the recti-fied images are bounded for all possible camera motions and minimizes the loss of pixel information along epipo-lar lines. Excellent experimental results obtained with a binocular stereovision images are presented and detailed analysis is provided.


    Seyyedi, S. A.; R. Kh. Sadykhov


    Steganography is a method of hiding information in other information of different format (container). There are many steganography techniques with various types of container. In the Internet, digital images are the most popular and frequently used containers. We consider main image steganography techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. We also identify the requirements of a good steganography algorithm and compare various such algorithms.

  10. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Minn, Pierre


    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  11. Photodynamic Therapy As a Promising Method Used in the Treatment of Oral Diseases.

    Prażmo, Ewa J; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Łapiński, Mariusz; Mielczarek, Agnieszka


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of three elements: photosensitizer, light and oxygen. The photosensitizer has the property of selective accumulation in abnormal or infected tissues without causing any damage to the healthy cells. This innovative therapeutic method has already been successfully adapted in many fields of medicine, e.g. dermatology, gynecology, urology and cancer therapy. Dentistry is also beginning to incorporate photodisinfection for treatment of the oral cavity. The antibacterial and fungicidal properties of the photosensitizer have been used to achieve better results in root canal treatment, periodontal therapy and the eradication of candidiasis in prosthodontics. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness of photodynamic methods in the diagnosis and therapy of selected oral diseases. Scientific data and published papers regarding the antibacterial properties of PDT will be subjected to analysis. Photodynamic therapy will be discussed as an alternative treatment protocol in oncology, endodontics, periodontology and other fields of dentistry.


    Nie Xuan; Zhao Rongchun; Jiang Zetao


    The proposed algorithm relies on a group of new formulas for calculating tangent slope so as to address angle feature of edge curves of image. It can utilize tangent angle features to estimate automatically and fully the rotation parameters of geometric transform and enable rough matching of images with huge rotation difference. After angle compensation, it can search for matching point sets by correlation criterion, then calculate parameters of affine transform, enable higher-precision emendation of rotation and transferring. Finally, it fulfills precise matching for images with relax-tense iteration method. Compared with the registration approach based on wavelet direction-angle features, the matching algorithm with tangent feature of image edge is more robust and realizes precise registration of various images. Furthermore, it is also helpful in graphics matching.

  13. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich


    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

  14. An attribute-based image segmentation method

    M.C. de Andrade


    Full Text Available This work addresses a new image segmentation method founded on Digital Topology and Mathematical Morphology grounds. The ABA (attribute based absorptions transform can be viewed as a region-growing method by flooding simulation working at the scale of the main structures of the image. In this method, the gray level image is treated as a relief flooded from all its local minima, which are progressively detected and merged as the flooding takes place. Each local minimum is exclusively associated to one catchment basin (CB. The CBs merging process is guided by their geometric parameters as depth, area and/or volume. This solution enables the direct segmentation of the original image without the need of a preprocessing step or the explicit marker extraction step, often required by other flooding simulation methods. Some examples of image segmentation, employing the ABA transform, are illustrated for uranium oxide samples. It is shown that the ABA transform presents very good segmentation results even in presence of noisy images. Moreover, it's use is often easier and faster when compared to similar image segmentation methods.

  15. Alternating Krylov subspace image restoration methods

    Abad, J.O; Morigi, S; Reichel, L; Sgallari, F


    ... of the Krylov subspace used. However, our solution methods, suitably modified, also can be applied when no bound for the norm of η δ is known. We determine an approximation of the desired image u ˆ by so...

  16. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir


    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  17. Spatial capture-recapture: a promising method for analyzing data collected using artificial cover objects

    Sutherland, Chris; Munoz, David; Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan


    Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) is a relatively recent development in ecological statistics that provides a spatial context for estimating abundance and space use patterns, and improves inference about absolute population density. SCR has been applied to individual encounter data collected noninvasively using methods such as camera traps, hair snares, and scat surveys. Despite the widespread use of capture-based surveys to monitor amphibians and reptiles, there are few applications of SCR in the herpetological literature. We demonstrate the utility of the application of SCR for studies of reptiles and amphibians by analyzing capture–recapture data from Red-Backed Salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, collected using artificial cover boards. Using SCR to analyze spatial encounter histories of marked individuals, we found evidence that density differed little among four sites within the same forest (on average, 1.59 salamanders/m2) and that salamander detection probability peaked in early October (Julian day 278) reflecting expected surface activity patterns of the species. The spatial scale of detectability, a measure of space use, indicates that the home range size for this population of Red-Backed Salamanders in autumn was 16.89 m2. Surveying reptiles and amphibians using artificial cover boards regularly generates spatial encounter history data of known individuals, which can readily be analyzed using SCR methods, providing estimates of absolute density and inference about the spatial scale of habitat use.

  18. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining


    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one.

  19. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J


    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  20. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Kwan, Alistair


    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  1. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Kwan, Alistair


    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.

  2. Image-based surface reconstruction in geomorphometry - merits, limits and developments of a promising tool for geoscientists

    Eltner, A.; Kaiser, A.; Castillo, C.; Rock, G.; Neugirg, F.; Abellan, A.


    Photogrammetry and geosciences are closely linked since the late 19th century. Today, a wide range of commercial and open-source software enable non-experts users to obtain high-quality 3-D datasets of the environment, which was formerly reserved to remote sensing experts, geodesists or owners of cost-intensive metric airborne imaging systems. Complex tridimensional geomorphological features can be easily reconstructed from images captured with consumer grade cameras. Furthermore, rapid developments in UAV technology allow for high quality aerial surveying and orthophotography generation at a relatively low-cost. The increasing computing capacities during the last decade, together with the development of high-performance digital sensors and the important software innovations developed by other fields of research (e.g. computer vision and visual perception) has extended the rigorous processing of stereoscopic image data to a 3-D point cloud generation from a series of non-calibrated images. Structure from motion methods offer algorithms, e.g. robust feature detectors like the scale-invariant feature transform for 2-D imagery, which allow for efficient and automatic orientation of large image sets without further data acquisition information. Nevertheless, the importance of carrying out correct fieldwork strategies, using proper camera settings, ground control points and ground truth for understanding the different sources of errors still need to be adapted in the common scientific practice. This review manuscript intends not only to summarize the present state of published research on structure-from-motion photogrammetry applications in geomorphometry, but also to give an overview of terms and fields of application, to quantify already achieved accuracies and used scales using different strategies, to evaluate possible stagnations of current developments and to identify key future challenges. It is our belief that the identification of common errors, "bad practices

  3. New Imaging Spectrometric Method for Rotary Object

    方俊永; 赵达尊; 蒋月娟; 楚建军


    A new technique for imaging spectrometer for rotary object based on computed-tomography is proposed. A discrete model of this imaging spectrometric system is established, which is accordant to actual measurements and convenient for computation. In computer simulations with this method, projections of the object are detected by CCD while the object is rotating, and the original spectral images are numerically reconstructed from them by using the algorithm of computed-tomography. Simulation results indicate that the principle of the method is correct and it performs well for both broadband and narrow-band spectral objects.

  4. Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers

    Turko, B. T.; Yates, G. J.


    An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera employing a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image sensor is presented. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera prior to normal readout. The method includes a first dump cycle period for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register. This occurs while the decaying image on the phosphor being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period, occurring after the phosphor image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers. Image charge is then transferred from the photosites and to the vertical registers and readout in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear, and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers, and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites.

  5. Diagnosing developmental dyscalculia on the basis of reliable single case FMRI methods: promises and limitations.

    Philipp Johannes Dinkel

    representation in fronto-parietal cortex. We conclude that dyscalculic children show large individual differences in brain activation patterns. Nonetheless, the majority of dyscalculic children can be differentiated from controls employing brain activation patterns when appropriate methods are used.

  6. Diagnosing developmental dyscalculia on the basis of reliable single case FMRI methods: promises and limitations.

    Dinkel, Philipp Johannes; Willmes, Klaus; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin; Koten, Jan Willem


    fronto-parietal cortex. We conclude that dyscalculic children show large individual differences in brain activation patterns. Nonetheless, the majority of dyscalculic children can be differentiated from controls employing brain activation patterns when appropriate methods are used.

  7. Matrix Krylov subspace methods for image restoration

    khalide jbilou


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider some matrix Krylov subspace methods for solving ill-posed linear matrix equations and in those problems coming from the restoration of blurred and noisy images. Applying the well known Tikhonov regularization procedure leads to a Sylvester matrix equation depending the Tikhonov regularized parameter. We apply the matrix versions of the well known Krylov subspace methods, namely the Least Squared (LSQR and the conjugate gradient (CG methods to get approximate solutions representing the restored images. Some numerical tests are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. Image Retrieval Method for Multiscale Objects from Optical Colonoscopy Images

    Hirokazu Nosato


    Full Text Available Optical colonoscopy is the most common approach to diagnosing bowel diseases through direct colon and rectum inspections. Periodic optical colonoscopy examinations are particularly important for detecting cancers at early stages while still treatable. However, diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on both the experience and knowledge of the medical doctor. Moreover, it is extremely difficult, even for specialist doctors, to detect the early stages of cancer when obscured by inflammations of the colonic mucosa due to intractable inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Thus, to assist the UC diagnosis, it is necessary to develop a new technology that can retrieve similar cases of diagnostic target image from cases in the past that stored the diagnosed images with various symptoms of colonic mucosa. In order to assist diagnoses with optical colonoscopy, this paper proposes a retrieval method for colonoscopy images that can cope with multiscale objects. The proposed method can retrieve similar colonoscopy images despite varying visible sizes of the target objects. Through three experiments conducted with real clinical colonoscopy images, we demonstrate that the method is able to retrieve objects of any visible size and any location at a high level of accuracy.

  9. [A promising method of hygienic evaluation of air pollution inside the modules of the international space station by hydrazine derivatives].

    Mikos, K N; Mukhamedieva, L N; Pakhomova, A A; Ul'ianov, A V; Serdiuk, T M; Buriak, A K


    The increasing frequency of ISS egress operations resulted in ISS air pollution by an uncharacteristic group of toxic compounds, i. e. propellant residues and products of propellant incomplete burning. High reactivity and toxicity of these compounds necessitated the development of a method of sanitary-chemical evaluation of ISS air safety given penetration of the new pollutants. The method is fulfilled in two stages. First is air sampling and then--sample analysis in ground laboratory by chromatography-mass spectrometry. Air sampling, as well as sample handling and analysis procedures were refined with the use of artificial gas mixtures. The proposed method shows promise as an instrument for the hygienic evaluation of ISS air pollution by hydrazine derivatives.

  10. Evaluating image denoising methods in myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging

    Skiadopoulos, S.; Karatrantou, A.; Korfiatis, P.; Costaridou, L.; Vassilakos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.


    The statistical nature of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, due to the Poisson noise effect, results in the degradation of image quality, especially in the case of lesions of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A variety of well-established single-scale denoising methods applied on projection raw images have been incorporated in SPECT imaging applications, while multi-scale denoising methods with promising performance have been proposed. In this paper, a comparative evaluation study is performed between a multi-scale platelet denoising method and the well-established Butterworth filter applied as a pre- and post-processing step on images reconstructed without and/or with attenuation correction. Quantitative evaluation was carried out employing (i) a cardiac phantom containing two different size cold defects, utilized in two experiments conducted to simulate conditions without and with photon attenuation from myocardial surrounding tissue and (ii) a pilot-verified clinical dataset of 15 patients with ischemic defects. Image noise, defect contrast, SNR and defect contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) metrics were computed for both phantom and patient defects. In addition, an observer preference study was carried out for the clinical dataset, based on rankings from two nuclear medicine clinicians. Without photon attenuation conditions, denoising by platelet and Butterworth post-processing methods outperformed Butterworth pre-processing for large size defects, while for small size defects, as well as with photon attenuation conditions, all methods have demonstrated similar denoising performance. Under both attenuation conditions, the platelet method showed improved performance with respect to defect contrast, SNR and defect CNR in the case of images reconstructed without attenuation correction, however not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Quantitative as well as preference results obtained from clinical data showed similar performance of the

  11. Handbook of mathematical methods in imaging


    The Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging provides a comprehensive treatment of the mathematical techniques used in imaging science. The material is grouped into two central themes, namely, Inverse Problems (Algorithmic Reconstruction) and Signal and Image Processing. Each section within the themes covers applications (modeling), mathematics, numerical methods (using a case example) and open questions. Written by experts in the area, the presentation is mathematically rigorous. This expanded and revised second edition contains updates to existing chapters and 16 additional entries on important mathematical methods such as graph cuts, morphology, discrete geometry, PDEs, conformal methods, to name a few. The entries are cross-referenced for easy navigation through connected topics. Available in both print and electronic forms, the handbook is enhanced by more than 200 illustrations and an extended bibliography. It will benefit students, scientists and researchers in applied mathematics. Engineers and com...

  12. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.


    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  13. Color image segmentation using watershed and Nyström method based spectral clustering

    Bai, Xiaodong; Cao, Zhiguo; Yu, Zhenghong; Zhu, Hu


    Color image segmentation draws a lot of attention recently. In order to improve efficiency of spectral clustering in color image segmentation, a novel two-stage color image segmentation method is proposed. In the first stage, we use vector gradient approach to detect color image gradient information, and watershed transformation to get the pre-segmentation result. In the second stage, Nyström extension based spectral clustering is used to get the final result. To verify the proposed algorithm, it is applied to color images from the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. Experiments show our method can bring promising results and reduce the runtime significantly.

  14. Image Inpainting Methods Evaluation and Improvement

    Raluca Vreja


    Full Text Available With the upgrowing of digital processing of images and film archiving, the need for assisted or unsupervised restoration required the development of a series of methods and techniques. Among them, image inpainting is maybe the most impressive and useful. Based on partial derivative equations or texture synthesis, many other hybrid techniques have been proposed recently. The need for an analytical comparison, beside the visual one, urged us to perform the studies shown in the present paper. Starting with an overview of the domain, an evaluation of the five methods was performed using a common benchmark and measuring the PSNR. Conclusions regarding the performance of the investigated algorithms have been presented, categorizing them in function of the restored image structure. Based on these experiments, we have proposed an adaptation of Oliveira’s and Hadhoud’s algorithms, which are performing well on images with natural defects.

  15. Circular SAR Optimization Imaging Method of Buildings

    Wang Jian-feng


    Full Text Available The Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can obtain the entire scattering properties of targets because of its great ability of 360° observation. In this study, an optimal orientation of the CSAR imaging algorithm of buildings is proposed by applying a combination of coherent and incoherent processing techniques. FEKO software is used to construct the electromagnetic scattering modes and simulate the radar echo. The FEKO imaging results are compared with the isotropic scattering results. On comparison, the optimal azimuth coherent accumulation angle of CSAR imaging of buildings is obtained. Practically, the scattering directions of buildings are unknown; therefore, we divide the 360° echo of CSAR into many overlapped and few angle echoes corresponding to the sub-aperture and then perform an imaging procedure on each sub-aperture. Sub-aperture imaging results are applied to obtain the all-around image using incoherent fusion techniques. The polarimetry decomposition method is used to decompose the all-around image and further retrieve the edge information of buildings successfully. The proposed method is validated with P-band airborne CSAR data from Sichuan, China.


    S. A. Seyyedi


    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of hiding information in other information of different format (container. There are many steganography techniques with various types of container. In the Internet, digital images are the most popular and frequently used containers. We consider main image steganography techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. We also identify the requirements of a good steganography algorithm and compare various such algorithms.

  17. Region-based multisensor image fusion method


    Image fusion should consider the priori knowledge of the source images to be fused, such as the characteristics of the images and the goal of image fusion, that is to say, the knowledge about the input data and the application plays a crucial role. This paper is concerned on multiresolution (MR) image fusion. Considering the characteristics of the multisensor (SAR and FLIR etc) and the goal of fusion, which is to achieve one image in possession of the contours feature and the target region feature. It seems more meaningful to combine features rather than pixels. A multisensor image fusion scheme based on K-means cluster and steerable pyramid is presented. K-means cluster is used to segment out objects in FLIR images. The steerable pyramid is a multiresolution analysis method, which has a good property to extract contours information at different scales. Comparisons are made with the relevant existing techniques in the literature. The paper concludes with some examples to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.


    Saad Amer; Yi xian Yang


    In this paper, a method to fingerprint digital images is proposed, and different watermarked copies with different identification string are made. After determining the number of the customers and the length of the watermark string, this method chooses some values inside the digital image using a characteristic function, and adds watermarks to these values in a way that can protect the product against the attacks happened by comparing two fingerprinted copies.The watermarks are a string of binary numbers -1s and 1s. Every customer will be distinguished by a series of 1s and -1s generated by a pseudo-random generator. The owner of the image can determine the number of customers and the length of the string as well as this method will add another watermarking values to watermark string to protect the product.

  19. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses


    The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98). Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels

  20. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    David Musoke

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda.A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages.Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%, removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%, clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%, and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%. If trained, most participants (68.6% would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2% and cost (32.0%. Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53 and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98.Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication

  1. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu


    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  2. Image-reconstruction methods in positron tomography

    Townsend, David W; CERN. Geneva


    Physics and mathematics for medical imaging In the two decades since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology, medical imaging techniques have become widely established as essential tools in the diagnosis of disease. As a consequence of recent technological and mathematical advances, the non-invasive, three-dimensional imaging of internal organs such as the brain and the heart is now possible, not only for anatomical investigations using X-rays but also for studies which explore the functional status of the body using positron-emitting radioisotopes and nuclear magnetic resonance. Mathematical methods which enable three-dimentional distributions to be reconstructed from projection data acquired by radiation detectors suitably positioned around the patient will be described in detail. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simpleradiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo boichemistry. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function that are cur...

  3. A promising method to derive the temperature coefficients of material constants of SAW and BAW materials. first application to LGS.

    Nicolay, Pascal; Aubert, Thierry


    Langasite (LGS) is a promising material for SAW applications at high temperature. However, the temperature coefficients of LGS material constants are not accurate enough to perform reliable simulations, and therefore to make good use of available design tools, above 300°C. In the first part of the paper, we describe a new possible way to derive these coefficients in a wider temperature range. The method is based on Simulated Annealing, a well-known optimization algorithm. The algorithm converges toward a set of optimized temperature coefficients of the stiffness constants which are used to perform accurate simulations up to at least 800°C. In the second part, a deeper analysis of the algorithm outputs demonstrates some of its strengths but also some of its main limitations. Possible solutions are described to predict and then improve the accuracy of the optimized coefficient values. In particular, one solution making use of additional BAW target curves is tested. A promising solution to extend the optimization to the temperature coefficients of piezoelectric constants is also discussed.

  4. {sup 90}Y microspheres prepared by sol-gel method, promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies

    Łada, Wiesława, E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03-195 Warsaw, Dorodna 16 (Poland); Iller, Edward [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, 05-400 Otwock, Andrzej Sołtan 7 (Poland); Wawszczak, Danuta [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03-195 Warsaw, Dorodna 16 (Poland); Konior, Marcin, E-mail: [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, 05-400 Otwock, Andrzej Sołtan 7 (Poland); Dziel, Tomasz [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, 05-400 Otwock, Andrzej Sołtan 7 (Poland)


    A new technology for the production of radiopharmaceutical {sup 90}Y microspheres in the form of spherical yttrium oxide grains obtained by sol-gel method has been described. The authors present and discuss the results of investigations performed in the development of new production technology of yttrium microspheres and determination of their physic-chemical properties. The final product has the structure of spherical yttrium oxide grains with a diameter 25–100 μm, is stable and free from contaminants. Irradiation of 20 mg samples of grains with diameter of 20–50 μm in the thermal neutron flux of 1.7 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} at the core of MARIA research nuclear reactor allowed to obtain microspheres labelled with the {sup 90}Y isotope on the way of the nuclear reaction {sup 89}Y(n, γ){sup 90}Y. Specific activity of irradiated microspheres has been determined by application of absolute triple to double coincidence ratio method (TDCR) and has been evaluated at 190 MBq/mg Y. {sup 90}Y microspheres prepared by the proposed technique can be regarded as a promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies. - Highlights: • Sol-gel methods for preparation of spherical yttrium trioxide grains have been proposed. • Determination condition for irradiation {sup 89}Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains in nuclear reactor • Evaluation of specific activity of {sup 90}Y microspheres • Estimation of {sup 90}Y microspheres as promising medical material for radioembolization.


    B. Alsadik


    Full Text Available The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV, and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, 3D modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (triangulation and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state – of –the –art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the triangulation problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.

  6. a Modified Method for Image Triangulation Using Inclined Angles

    Alsadik, Bashar


    The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV), and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, 3D modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (triangulation) and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state - of -the -art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the triangulation problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.

  7. Development of imaging methods to assess adiposity and metabolism.

    Heymsfield, S B


    Body composition studies were first recorded around the time of the renaissance, and advances by the mid-twentieth century facilitated growth in the study of physiology, metabolism and pathological states. The field developed during this early period around the 'two-compartment' molecular level model that partitions body weight into fat and fat-free mass. Limited use was also made of X-rays as a means of estimating fat-layer thickness, but the revolutionary advance was brought about by the introduction of three-dimensional images provided by computed tomography (CT) in the mid 1970s, followed soon thereafter by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete in vivo reconstruction of all major anatomic body compartments and tissues became possible, thus providing major new research opportunities. This imaging revolution has continued to advance with further methodology refinements including functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and combined methods such as positron emission tomography+CT or MRI. The scientific advances made possible by these new and innovative methods continue to unfold today and hold enormous promise for the future of obesity research.

  8. Evaluation of image features and classification methods for Barrett's cancer detection using VLE imaging

    Klomp, Sander; van der Sommen, Fons; Swager, Anne-Fré; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; de With, Peter H. N.


    Volumetric Laser Endomicroscopy (VLE) is a promising technique for the detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus (BE). VLE generates hundreds of high resolution, grayscale, cross-sectional images of the esophagus. However, at present, classifying these images is a time consuming and cumbersome effort performed by an expert using a clinical prediction model. This paper explores the feasibility of using computer vision techniques to accurately predict the presence of dysplastic tissue in VLE BE images. Our contribution is threefold. First, a benchmarking is performed for widely applied machine learning techniques and feature extraction methods. Second, three new features based on the clinical detection model are proposed, having superior classification accuracy and speed, compared to earlier work. Third, we evaluate automated parameter tuning by applying simple grid search and feature selection methods. The results are evaluated on a clinically validated dataset of 30 dysplastic and 30 non-dysplastic VLE images. Optimal classification accuracy is obtained by applying a support vector machine and using our modified Haralick features and optimal image cropping, obtaining an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.95 compared to the clinical prediction model at 0.81. Optimal execution time is achieved using a proposed mean and median feature, which is extracted at least factor 2.5 faster than alternative features with comparable performance.

  9. Standoff Methods for the Detection of Threat Agents: A Review of Several Promising Laser-Based Techniques

    J. Bruce Johnson


    Full Text Available Detection of explosives, explosive precursors, or other threat agents presents a number of technological challenges for optical sensing methods. Certainly detecting trace levels of threat agents against a complex background is chief among these challenges; however, the related issues of multiple target distances (from standoff to proximity and sampling time scales (from passive mines to rapid rate of march convoy protection for different applications make it unlikely that a single technique will be ideal for all sensing situations. A number of methods for spanning the range of optical sensor technologies exist which, when integrated, could produce a fused sensor system possessing a high level of sensitivity to threat agents and a moderate standoff real-time capability appropriate for portal screening of personnel or vehicles. In this work, we focus on several promising, and potentially synergistic, laser-based methods for sensing threat agents. For each method, we have briefly outlined the technique and report on the current level of capability.

  10. Parallel imaging methods for phased array MRI


    Two parallel methods for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using radio frequency (RF) phased array surface coils, named spatial local Fourier encoding (SLFE) and spatial RF encoding (SRFE), are presented. The MR signals are acquired from separate channels across the coils, each of which covers a sub-FOV (field-of-view) in a parallel fashion, and the acquired data are combined to form an image of entire FOV. These two parallel encoding techniques can accelerate MR imaging greatly, yet associated artifact may appear, although the SLFE is an effective image reconstruction method which can reduce the localized artifact in some degrees. By the SRFE, RF coil array can be utilized for spatial encoding through a specialized coil design. The images are acquired in a snapshot with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) without the costly gradient system, resulting in great saving of cost. Both mutual induction and aliasing effect of adjacent coils are critical to the success of SRFE. The strategies of inverse source problem and wavelet transform (WT) can be employed to eliminate them. The results simulated by MATLAB are reported.

  11. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru


    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  12. Robust boundary detection of left ventricles on ultrasound images using ASM-level set method.

    Zhang, Yaonan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Hong; Teng, Yueyang; Kang, Yan


    Level set method has been widely used in medical image analysis, but it has difficulties when being used in the segmentation of left ventricular (LV) boundaries on echocardiography images because the boundaries are not very distinguish, and the signal-to-noise ratio of echocardiography images is not very high. In this paper, we introduce the Active Shape Model (ASM) into the traditional level set method to enforce shape constraints. It improves the accuracy of boundary detection and makes the evolution more efficient. The experiments conducted on the real cardiac ultrasound image sequences show a positive and promising result.

  13. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... estimator. In the simulation, the relative mean standard deviation of the velocity estimates over the vessel was 2.43% when using the FD method and the relative mean absolute bias was 1.84%. For the reference 8 oscillation pulse, the relative mean standard deviation over the vessel was 4...

  14. Speckle Suppression Method for SAR Image

    Jiming Guo


    Full Text Available In this study, a new speckle reduction method was proposed in terms of by Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD. In this method, the SAR image containing speckle noise was decomposed into a number of elementary components by using BEMD and then the extremal points are done the boundary equivalent extension after screening and the residual continue to be done the boundary equivalent extension until screening is completed, finally, the image was reconstructed, which reduced the speckle noise. Experimental results show that this method has good effect on suppressing speckle noise, compared to the average filter, median filter and gaussian filter and has advantages of sufficiently retaining edge and detail information while suppressing speckle noise.

  15. Parametric imaging: a promising approach for the evaluation of dynamic PET-18F-FDG studies - the DKFZ experience.

    Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Pan, Leyun; Strauss, Ludwig G


    Dynamic positron emission studies (dPET) with fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) were performed in oncologic patients. The primary aim was to evaluate the impact of parametric imaging and assess its feasibility with regard to diagnostics and treatment management. Parametric PET images based on different algorithms have been calculated. Regression-based images, influx images according to Patlak, two-tissue compartment images as well as non-compartmental approaches, based on the fractal dimension, principal component images, and similarity mapping have been used. Our results showed that the use of parametric images is helpful to visualize quantitative parameters of the tracer kinetics and adds a new dimension to the existing conventional PET or PET/computerized tomography (CT) images. Especially, non-compartment models are computationally fast and can be applied in daily routine to gain more detailed information about the distribution of a tracer over time and space. In conclusion, it is our opinion that parametric images will gain increasing importance and find their way into clinical routine due to the improvement of the technical equipment, like computer power, faster data acquisition by new generations of PET/CT scanners and more sophisticated software for data evaluation.

  16. Survey: interpolation methods in medical image processing.

    Lehmann, T M; Gönner, C; Spitzer, K


    Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e.g., discrete back projection for inverse Radon transform) and processing such as compression or resampling. Since the ideal interpolation function spatially is unlimited, several interpolation kernels of finite size have been introduced. This paper compares 1) truncated and windowed sinc; 2) nearest neighbor; 3) linear; 4) quadratic; 5) cubic B-spline; 6) cubic; g) Lagrange; and 7) Gaussian interpolation and approximation techniques with kernel sizes from 1 x 1 up to 8 x 8. The comparison is done by: 1) spatial and Fourier analyses; 2) computational complexity as well as runtime evaluations; and 3) qualitative and quantitative interpolation error determinations for particular interpolation tasks which were taken from common situations in medical image processing. For local and Fourier analyses, a standardized notation is introduced and fundamental properties of interpolators are derived. Successful methods should be direct current (DC)-constant and interpolators rather than DC-inconstant or approximators. Each method's parameters are tuned with respect to those properties. This results in three novel kernels, which are introduced in this paper and proven to be within the best choices for medical image interpolation: the 6 x 6 Blackman-Harris windowed sinc interpolator, and the C2-continuous cubic kernels with N = 6 and N = 8 supporting points. For quantitative error evaluations, a set of 50 direct digital X rays was used. They have been selected arbitrarily from clinical routine. In general, large kernel sizes were found to be superior to small interpolation masks. Except for truncated sinc interpolators, all kernels with N = 6 or larger sizes perform significantly better than N = 2 or N = 3 point methods (p cubic 6 x 6 interpolator with continuous second derivatives, as defined in (24), can be recommended for most common interpolation tasks. It appears to be the fastest

  17. Method of improving a digital image

    Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)


    A method of improving a digital image is provided. The image is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent positions on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I.sub.i (x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with ##EQU1## where S is the number of unique spectral bands included in said digital data, W.sub.n is a weighting factor and * denotes the convolution operator. Each surround function F.sub.n (x,y) is uniquely scaled to improve an aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is filtered with a common function and then presented to a display device. For color images, a novel color restoration step is added to give the image true-to-life color that closely matches human observation.

  18. Test images for the maximum entropy image restoration method

    Mackey, James E.


    One of the major activities of any experimentalist is data analysis and reduction. In solar physics, remote observations are made of the sun in a variety of wavelengths and circumstances. In no case is the data collected free from the influence of the design and operation of the data gathering instrument as well as the ever present problem of noise. The presence of significant noise invalidates the simple inversion procedure regardless of the range of known correlation functions. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) attempts to perform this inversion by making minimal assumptions about the data. To provide a means of testing the MEM and characterizing its sensitivity to noise, choice of point spread function, type of data, etc., one would like to have test images of known characteristics that can represent the type of data being analyzed. A means of reconstructing these images is presented.

  19. Multivariate semiparametric spatial methods for imaging data.

    Chen, Huaihou; Cao, Guanqun; Cohen, Ronald A


    Univariate semiparametric methods are often used in modeling nonlinear age trajectories for imaging data, which may result in efficiency loss and lower power for identifying important age-related effects that exist in the data. As observed in multiple neuroimaging studies, age trajectories show similar nonlinear patterns for the left and right corresponding regions and for the different parts of a big organ such as the corpus callosum. To incorporate the spatial similarity information without assuming spatial smoothness, we propose a multivariate semiparametric regression model with a spatial similarity penalty, which constrains the variation of the age trajectories among similar regions. The proposed method is applicable to both cross-sectional and longitudinal region-level imaging data. We show the asymptotic rates for the bias and covariance functions of the proposed estimator and its asymptotic normality. Our simulation studies demonstrate that by borrowing information from similar regions, the proposed spatial similarity method improves the efficiency remarkably. We apply the proposed method to two neuroimaging data examples. The results reveal that accounting for the spatial similarity leads to more accurate estimators and better functional clustering results for visualizing brain atrophy pattern.Functional clustering; Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Penalized B-splines; Region of interest (ROI); Spatial penalty.

  20. (90)Y microspheres prepared by sol-gel method, promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies.

    Łada, Wiesława; Iller, Edward; Wawszczak, Danuta; Konior, Marcin; Dziel, Tomasz


    A new technology for the production of radiopharmaceutical (90)Y microspheres in the form of spherical yttrium oxide grains obtained by sol-gel method has been described. The authors present and discuss the results of investigations performed in the development of new production technology of yttrium microspheres and determination of their physic-chemical properties. The final product has the structure of spherical yttrium oxide grains with a diameter 25-100μm, is stable and free from contaminants. Irradiation of 20mg samples of grains with diameter of 20-50μm in the thermal neutron flux of 1.7×10(14)cm(-2)s(-1) at the core of MARIA research nuclear reactor allowed to obtain microspheres labelled with the (90)Y isotope on the way of the nuclear reaction (89)Y(n, ɤ)(90)Y. Specific activity of irradiated microspheres has been determined by application of absolute triple to double coincidence ratio method (TDCR) and has been evaluated at 190MBq/mg Y. (90)Y microspheres prepared by the proposed technique can be regarded as a promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies.

  1. Image processing methods to obtain symmetrical distribution from projection image.

    Asano, H; Takenaka, N; Fujii, T; Nakamatsu, E; Tagami, Y; Takeshima, K


    Flow visualization and measurement of cross-sectional liquid distribution is very effective to clarify the effects of obstacles in a conduit on heat transfer and flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this study, two methods to obtain cross-sectional distribution of void fraction are applied to vertical upward air-water two-phase flow. These methods need projection image only from one direction. Radial distributions of void fraction in a circular tube and a circular-tube annuli with a spacer were calculated by Abel transform based on the assumption of axial symmetry. On the other hand, cross-sectional distributions of void fraction in a circular tube with a wire coil whose conduit configuration rotates about the tube central axis periodically were measured by CT method based on the assumption that the relative distributions of liquid phase against the wire were kept along the flow direction.

  2. Image Magnification Method Using Joint Diffusion

    Zhong-Xuan Liu; Hong-Jian Wang; Si-Long Peng


    In this paper a new algorithm for image magnification is presented. Because linear magnification/interpolation techniques diminish the contrast and produce sawtooth effects, in recent years, many nonlinear interpolation methods, especially nonlinear diffusion based approaches, have been proposed to solve these problems. Two recently proposed techniques for interpolation by diffusion, forward and backward diffusion (FAB) and level-set reconstruction (LSR), cannot enhance the contrast and smooth edges simultaneously. In this article, a novel Partial Differential Equations (PDE) based approach is presented. The contributions of the paper include:firstly, a unified form of diffusion joining FAB and LSR is constructed to have all of their virtues; secondly, to eliminate artifacts of the joint diffusion, soft constraint takes the place of hard constraint presented by LSR;thirdly, the determination of joint coefficients, criterion for stopping time and color image processing are also discussed. The results demonstrate that the method is visually and quantitatively better than Bicubic, FAB and LSR.

  3. Image Deblurring with Krylov Subspace Methods

    Hansen, Per Christian


    Image deblurring, i.e., reconstruction of a sharper image from a blurred and noisy one, involves the solution of a large and very ill-conditioned system of linear equations, and regularization is needed in order to compute a stable solution. Krylov subspace methods are often ideally suited...... for this task: their iterative nature is a natural way to handle such large-scale problems, and the underlying Krylov subspace provides a convenient mechanism to regularized the problem by projecting it onto a low-dimensional "signal subspace" adapted to the particular problem. In this talk we consider...... the three Krylov subspace methods CGLS, MINRES, and GMRES. We describe their regularizing properties, and we discuss some computational aspects such as preconditioning and stopping criteria....

  4. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien


    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  5. Enhanced damage characterization using wavefield imaging methods

    Blackshire, James L.


    Wavefield imaging methods are becoming a popular tool for characterizing and studying elastic field interactions in a wide variety of material systems. By using a scanning laser vibrometry detection system, the transient displacement fields generated by an ultrasonic source can be visualized and studied in detail. As a tool for quantitative nondestructive evaluation, the visualization of elastic waves provides a unique opportunity for understanding the scattering of elastic waves from insipient damage, where the detection and characterization of damage features using ultrasound can be enhanced in many instances. In the present effort, the detection and direct imaging of fatigue cracks in metals, and delaminations in composites, is described. An examination of the transient displacement fields near the scattering sites show additional details related to the local damage morphology, which can be difficult to account for using traditional far-field NDE sensing methods. A combination of forward models and experimental wavefield imaging methods were used to explore enhancement opportunities for the full 3-dimensional characterization of surface-breaking cracks and delaminations.

  6. A review of multivariate methods in brain imaging data fusion

    Sui, Jing; Adali, Tülay; Li, Yi-Ou; Yang, Honghui; Calhoun, Vince D.


    On joint analysis of multi-task brain imaging data sets, a variety of multivariate methods have shown their strengths and been applied to achieve different purposes based on their respective assumptions. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on optimization assumptions of six data fusion models, including 1) four blind methods: joint independent component analysis (jICA), multimodal canonical correlation analysis (mCCA), CCA on blind source separation (sCCA) and partial least squares (PLS); 2) two semi-blind methods: parallel ICA and coefficient-constrained ICA (CC-ICA). We also propose a novel model for joint blind source separation (BSS) of two datasets using a combination of sCCA and jICA, i.e., 'CCA+ICA', which, compared with other joint BSS methods, can achieve higher decomposition accuracy as well as the correct automatic source link. Applications of the proposed model to real multitask fMRI data are compared to joint ICA and mCCA; CCA+ICA further shows its advantages in capturing both shared and distinct information, differentiating groups, and interpreting duration of illness in schizophrenia patients, hence promising applicability to a wide variety of medical imaging problems.

  7. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods in Soil Science

    Pohlmeier, A.; van Dusschoten, D.; Blümler, P.


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique to study water content, dynamics and transport in natural porous media. However, MRI systems and protocols have been developed mainly for medical purposes, i.e. for media with comparably high water contents and long relaxation times. In contrast, natural porous media like soils and rocks are characterized by much lower water contents, typically 0 benefit. Three strategies can be applied for the monitoring of water contents and dynamics in natural porous media: i) Dedicated high-field scanners (with vertical bore) allowing stronger gradients and faster switching so that shorter echo times can be realized. ii) Special measurement sequences using ultrashort rf- and gradient-pulses like single point imaging derivates (SPI, SPRITE)(1) and multi-echo methods, which monitor series of echoes and allow for extrapolation to zero time(2). Hence, the loss of signal during the first echo period may be compensated to determine the initial magnetization (= water content) as well as relaxation time maps simultaneously. iii) Finally low field( strategies will be given. References 1) Pohlmeier et al. Vadose Zone J. 7, 1010-1017 (2008) 2) Edzes et al., Magn. Res. Imag. 16, 185-196 (1998) 3) Raich H, and Blümler P, Concepts in Magn. Reson. B 23B, 16-25 (2004) 4) Pohlmeier et al. Magn. Res. Imag. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2008.06.007 (2008)

  9. Neural tree network method for image segmentation

    Samaddar, Sumitro; Mammone, Richard J.


    We present an extension of the neural tree network (NTN) architecture to let it solve multi- class classification problems with only binary fan-out. We then demonstrate it's effectiveness by applying it in a method for image segmentation. Each node of the NTN is a multi-layer perceptron and has one output for each segment class. These outputs are treated as probabilities to compute a confidence value for the segmentation of that pixel. Segmentation results with high confidence values are deemed to be correct and not processed further, while those with moderate and low confidence values are deemed to be outliers by this node and passed down the tree to children nodes. These tend to be pixels in boundary of different regions. We have used a realistic case study of segmenting the pole, coil and painted coil regions of light bulb filaments (LBF). The input to the network is a set of maximum, minimum and average of intensities in radial slices of a circular window around a pixel, taken from a front-lit and a back-lit image of an LBF. Training is done with a composite image drawn from images of many LBFs. The results are favorably compared with a traditional segmentation technique applied to the LBF test case.

  10. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.


    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  11. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen


    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  12. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.


    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 105 n cm-2s-1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand.

  13. Research on pavement crack recognition methods based on image processing

    Cai, Yingchun; Zhang, Yamin


    In order to overview and analysis briefly pavement crack recognition methods , then find the current existing problems in pavement crack image processing, the popular methods of crack image processing such as neural network method, morphology method, fuzzy logic method and traditional image processing .etc. are discussed, and some effective solutions to those problems are presented.

  14. Fabrication and characterization methods for growth of CZTS as a promising material for thin film solar cells

    Emrani, Amin

    form a uniform precursor is the use of a target consisting of Zn, Sn and Cu. Here we studied the practical issues of using an alloy targets (particularly Cu-Sn alloy target) to deposit CZT layers. Although high-vacuum techniques have already shown promising results, the complex equipment required for such the processes results in costly implementation to scale up. CZTS growth by solution-based methods could potentially provide a low-cost alternative method to fabricate CZTS solar cells in large scale. Here, we introduced and developed a new non-toxic solution-based method to deposit CZTS. Efficiencies of 1.3% have been achieved up to now.

  15. Material depth reconstruction method of multi-energy X-ray images using neural network.

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Kang, Sung-Won; Yi, Won-Jin


    With the advent of technology, multi-energy X-ray imaging is promising technique that can reduce the patient's dose and provide functional imaging. Two-dimensional photon-counting detector to provide multi-energy imaging is under development. In this work, we present a material decomposition method using multi-energy images. To acquire multi-energy images, Monte Carlo simulation was performed. The X-ray spectrum was modeled and ripple effect was considered. Using the dissimilar characteristics in energy-dependent X-ray attenuation of each material, multiple energy X-ray images were decomposed into material depth images. Feedforward neural network was used to fit multi-energy images to material depth images. In order to use the neural network, step wedge phantom images were used for training neuron. Finally, neural network decomposed multi-energy X-ray images into material depth image. To demonstrate the concept of this method, we applied it to simulated images of a 3D head phantom. The results show that neural network method performed effectively material depth reconstruction.

  16. Linearized image reconstruction method for ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography based on power density distribution

    Song, Xizi; Xu, Yanbin; Dong, Feng


    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising measurement technique with important industrial and clinical applications. However, with limited effective measurements, it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Recently, there has been an increasing research interest in hybrid imaging techniques, utilizing couplings of physical modalities, because these techniques obtain much more effective measurement information and promise high resolution. Ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography (UMEIT) is one of the newly developed hybrid imaging techniques, which combines electric and acoustic modalities. A linearized image reconstruction method based on power density is proposed for UMEIT. The interior data, power density distribution, is adopted to reconstruct the conductivity distribution with the proposed image reconstruction method. At the same time, relating the power density change to the change in conductivity, the Jacobian matrix is employed to make the nonlinear problem into a linear one. The analytic formulation of this Jacobian matrix is derived and its effectiveness is also verified. In addition, different excitation patterns are tested and analyzed, and opposite excitation provides the best performance with the proposed method. Also, multiple power density distributions are combined to implement image reconstruction. Finally, image reconstruction is implemented with the linear back-projection (LBP) algorithm. Compared with ERT, with the proposed image reconstruction method, UMEIT can produce reconstructed images with higher quality and better quantitative evaluation results.

  17. UV Raman imaging--a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites.

    Frosch, Torsten; Tarcea, Nicolae; Schmitt, Michael; Thiele, Hans; Langenhorst, Falko; Popp, Jürgen


    The great capabilities of UV Raman imaging have been demonstrated on the three Martian meteorites: Sayh al Uhaymir, Dar al Gani, and Zagami. Raman spectra without disturbing fluorescence and with high signal-to-noise-ratios and full of spectral features were derived. This result is of utmost importance for the development of powerful instruments for space missions. By point scanning the surfaces of the meteorite samples, it was possible for the first time to construct UV-Raman images out of the array of Raman spectra. Deep-UV Raman images are to the best of our knowledge presented for the first time. The images were used for a discussion of the chemical-mineralogical composition and texture of the meteorite surfaces. Comparative Raman studies applying visible and NIR Raman excitation wavelengths demonstrate a much better performance for UV Raman excitation. This comparative study of different Raman excitation wavelengths at the same sample spots was done by constructing a versatile, robust sample holder with a fixed micro-raster. The overall advantages of UV resonance Raman spectroscopy in terms of sensitivity and selectivity are demonstrated and discussed. Finally the application of this new technique for a UV Raman instrument for envisaged astrobiological focused space missions is suggested.

  18. Image quality assessment method based on nonlinear feature extraction in kernel space

    Yong DING‡; Nan LI; Yang ZHAO; Kai HUANG


    To match human perception, extracting perceptual features effectively plays an important role in image quality assessment. In contrast to most existing methods that use linear transformations or models to represent images, we employ a complex mathematical expression of high dimensionality to reveal the statistical characteristics of the images. Furthermore, by introducing kernel methods to transform the linear problem into a nonlinear one, a full-reference image quality assessment method is proposed based on high-dimensional nonlinear feature extraction. Experiments on the LIVE, TID2008, and CSIQ databases demonstrate that nonlinear features offer competitive performance for image inherent quality representation and the proposed method achieves a promising performance that is consistent with human subjective evaluation.

  19. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei


    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  20. Digital Watermarking Method Warranting the Lower Limit of Image Quality of Watermarked Images

    Iwata Motoi


    Full Text Available We propose a digital watermarking method warranting the lower limit of the image quality of watermarked images. The proposed method controls the degradation of a watermarked image by using a lower limit image. The lower limit image means the image of the worst quality that users can permit. The proposed method accepts any lower limit image and does not require it at extraction. Therefore lower limit images can be decided flexibly. In this paper, we introduce 2-dimensional human visual MTF model as an example of obtaining lower limit images. Also we use JPEG-compressed images of quality 75% and 50% as lower limit images. We investigate the performance of the proposed method by experiments. Moreover we compare the proposed method using three types of lower limit images with the existing method in view of the tradeoff between PSNR and the robustness against JPEG compression.

  1. An Effective Method of Image Retrieval using Image Mining Techniques

    Kannan, A; Anbazhagan, N; 10.5121/ijma.2010.2402


    The present research scholars are having keen interest in doing their research activities in the area of Data mining all over the world. Especially, [13]Mining Image data is the one of the essential features in this present scenario since image data plays vital role in every aspect of the system such as business for marketing, hospital for surgery, engineering for construction, Web for publication and so on. The other area in the Image mining system is the Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) which performs retrieval based on the similarity defined in terms of extracted features with more objectiveness. The drawback in CBIR is the features of the query image alone are considered. Hence, a new technique called Image retrieval based on optimum clusters is proposed for improving user interaction with image retrieval systems by fully exploiting the similarity information. The index is created by describing the images according to their color characteristics, with compact feature vectors, that represent typical co...

  2. Stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanoma imaging for dermatologists

    Lai, Zhenhua; Lian, Christine; Ma, Jie; Yu, Jingyi; Gu, Zetong; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.


    Previous research has shown that the stepwise multi-photon activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser, is a low cost and reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in a mouse hair and a formalin fixed mouse melanoma were compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy (MPFM) images and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) images, all of which were acquired at an excitation wavelength of 920 nm, to further prove the effectiveness of SMPAF in detecting melanin. SMPAF images add specificity for melanin detection to MPFM images and CRM images. Melanin SMPAF can be a promising technology to enable melanoma imaging for dermatologists.

  3. Organic amendments and their influences on plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes: a promising method for nematode management?

    Thoden, T.C.; Korthals, G.W.; Termorshuizen, A.J.


    The use of organic soil amendments, such as green manures, animal manures, composts or slurries, certainly has many advantageous aspects for soil quality and is suggested as a promising tool for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during a recent literature survey we also found num

  4. New Methods for Lossless Image Compression Using Arithmetic Coding.

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott


    Identifies four components of a good predictive lossless image compression method: (1) pixel sequence, (2) image modeling and prediction, (3) error modeling, and (4) error coding. Highlights include Laplace distribution and a comparison of the multilevel progressive method for image coding with the prediction by partial precision matching method.…

  5. An Effective Method of Image Retrieval using Image Mining Techniques

    Kannan, A.; Dr.V.Mohan; Dr.N.Anbazhagan


    The present research scholars are having keen interest in doing their research activities in the area of Data mining all over the world. Especially, [13]Mining Image data is the one of the essential features in this present scenario since image data plays vital role in every aspect of the system such as business for marketing, hospital for surgery, engineering for construction, Web for publication and so on. The other area in the Image mining system is the Content-Based Image Retrieval (CB...

  6. A comparative study on medical image segmentation methods

    Praylin Selva Blessy SELVARAJ ASSLEY; Helen Sulochana CHELLAKKON


    Image segmentation plays an important role in medical images. It has been a relevant research area in computer vision and image analysis. Many segmentation algorithms have been proposed for medical images. This paper makes a review on segmentation methods for medical images. In this survey, segmentation methods are divided into five categories: region based, boundary based, model based, hybrid based and atlas based. The five different categories with their principle ideas, advantages and disa...

  7. Histological image segmentation using fast mean shift clustering method

    Wu, Geming; Zhao, Xinyan; Luo, Shuqian; Shi, Hongli


    Background Colour image segmentation is fundamental and critical for quantitative histological image analysis. The complexity of the microstructure and the approach to make histological images results in variable staining and illumination variations. And ultra-high resolution of histological images makes it is hard for image segmentation methods to achieve high-quality segmentation results and low computation cost at the same time. Methods Mean Shift clustering approach is employed for histol...

  8. Crowdsourcing scoring of immunohistochemistry images: Evaluating Performance of the Crowd and an Automated Computational Method

    Irshad, Humayun; Oh, Eun-Yeong; Schmolze, Daniel; Quintana, Liza M.; Collins, Laura; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Beck, Andrew H.


    The assessment of protein expression in immunohistochemistry (IHC) images provides important diagnostic, prognostic and predictive information for guiding cancer diagnosis and therapy. Manual scoring of IHC images represents a logistical challenge, as the process is labor intensive and time consuming. Since the last decade, computational methods have been developed to enable the application of quantitative methods for the analysis and interpretation of protein expression in IHC images. These methods have not yet replaced manual scoring for the assessment of IHC in the majority of diagnostic laboratories and in many large-scale research studies. An alternative approach is crowdsourcing the quantification of IHC images to an undefined crowd. The aim of this study is to quantify IHC images for labeling of ER status with two different crowdsourcing approaches, image-labeling and nuclei-labeling, and compare their performance with automated methods. Crowdsourcing- derived scores obtained greater concordance with the pathologist interpretations for both image-labeling and nuclei-labeling tasks (83% and 87%), as compared to the pathologist concordance achieved by the automated method (81%) on 5,338 TMA images from 1,853 breast cancer patients. This analysis shows that crowdsourcing the scoring of protein expression in IHC images is a promising new approach for large scale cancer molecular pathology studies. PMID:28230179

  9. Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods

    NeuroData; Paninski, L


    Vogelstein JT, Paninski L. Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods. Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI) Program on Sequential Monte Carlo Methods, 2008

  10. Digital adaptive coronagraphy using SLMs: promising prospects of a novel approach, including high-contrast imaging of multiple stars systems

    Kühn, Jonas; Patapis, Polychronis


    We introduce a new technological framework for high-contrast coronagraphy, namely digital adaptive coronagraphy (DAC) using spatial light modulators (SLMs), taking advantage of recent advances in this technology. We present proof-of-principle experimental results in the visible, using a transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal SLM display to show that SLMs can be successfully implemented as focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs (4QPM, 8OPM,...), and that the technology is essentially in place to address realistic instrumental configurations. We explore a specific application where SLM-based adaptive coronagraphy might be particularly competitive, which is direct imaging of multiple stars systems, by simultaneously nulling multiple point sources in the field. Using a simple approach to compute a brightness-weighted synthetized coronagraphic phase map, we show that in the case of binaries the contrast gain over using a regular phase map can exceed 4 stellar magnitudes for a 1:1 binaries down to separation as close as 1 λ/D. Thanks to video-rate update frequency of the SLM, the technique is in principle compatible with sky rotation in the case of altitude-azimuth telescope mounts, and can address multiple target configurations with no actual mechanical or hardware change.

  11. A method for analyzing on-line video images of crystallization at high-solid concentrations

    Jian Wan; Cai Y.Ma; Xue Z.Wang


    Recent research has demonstrated that on-line video imaging is a very promising technique for monitoring crystallization processes. The bottleneck in applying the technique for real-time closed-loop control is considered as image analysis that needs to be robust, fast and able to handle varied image qualities due to temporal variations of operating conditions such as mixing and solid concentrations. Image analysis at high-solid concentrations turns out to be extremely challenging because crystals tend to overlap or attach to each other and the boundaries between the crystals are usually ambiguous. This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm that can effectively deal with images taken at high-solid concentrations. The method segments crystals attached to each other along the mostly related concave points on the contours of crystal blocks. The detailed procedure is introduced with application to crystallization of L-glutamic acid in a hot-stage reactor.

  12. Fusion Method for Remote Sensing Image Based on Fuzzy Integral

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of image fusion method based on fuzzy integral, integrated spectral information, and 2 single factor indexes of spatial resolution in order to greatly retain spectral information and spatial resolution information in fusion of multispectral and high-resolution remote sensing images. Firstly, wavelet decomposition is carried out to two images, respectively, to obtain wavelet decomposition coefficients of the two image and keep coefficient of low frequency of multispectral image, and then optimized fusion is carried out to high frequency part of the two images based on weighting coefficient to generate new fusion image. Finally, evaluation is carried out to the image after fusion with introduction of evaluation indexes of correlation coefficient, mean value of image, standard deviation, distortion degree, information entropy, and so forth. The test results show that this method integrated multispectral information and space high-resolution information in a better way, and it is an effective fusion method of remote sensing image.

  13. A Method of Coding and Decoding in Underwater Image Transmission



    A new method of coding and decoding in the system of underwater image transmission is introduced, including the rapid digital frequency synthesizer in multiple frequency shift keying,image data generator, image grayscale decoder with intelligent fuzzy algorithm, image restoration and display on microcomputer.

  14. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus


    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...



    Color histogram is now widely used in image retrieval. Color histogram-based image retrieval methods are simple and efficient but without considering the spatial distribution information of the color. To overcome the shortcoming of conventional color histogram-based image retrieval methods, an image retrieval method based on Radon Transform (RT) is proposed. In order to reduce the computational complexity,wavelet decomposition is used to compress image data. Firstly, images are decomposed by Mallat algorithm.The low-frequency components are then projected by RT to generate the spatial color feature. Finally the moment feature matrices which are saved along with original images are obtained. Experimental results show that the RT based retrieval is more accurate and efficient than traditional color histogram-based method in case that there are obvious objects in images. Further more, RT based retrieval runs significantly faster than the traditional color histogram methods.

  16. Promises, pitfalls, and basic guidelines for applying machine learning classifiers to psychiatric imaging data, with autism as an example

    Pegah Kassraian Fard


    Full Text Available Most psychiatric disorders are associated with subtle alterations in brain function and are subject to large inter-individual differences. Typically the diagnosis of these disorders requires time-consuming behavioral assessments administered by a multi-disciplinary team with extensive experience. Whilst the application of machine learning classification methods (ML classifiers to neuroimaging data has the potential to speed and simplify diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, the methods, assumptions, and analytical steps are not currently opaque and accessible to researchers and clinicians outside the field. In this paper, we describe potential classification pipelines for Autism Spectrum Disorder, as an example of a psychiatric disorder. The analyses are based on resting-state fMRI data derived from a multi-site data repository (ABIDE. We compare several popular ML classifiers such as support vector machines, neural networks and regression approaches, among others. In a tutorial style, written to be equally accessible for researchers and clinicians, we explain the rationale of each classification approach, clarify the underlying assumptions, and discuss possible pitfalls and challenges. We also provide the data as well as the MATLAB code we used to achieve our results. We show that out-of-the-box ML classifiers can yield classification accuracies of about 60-70%. Finally, we discuss how classification accuracy can be further improved, and we mention methodological developments that are needed to pave the way for the use of ML classifiers in clinical practice.

  17. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Noriaki Asada


    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  18. A CT Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Level Set Method

    QU Jing-yi; SHI Hao-shan


    Level Set methods are robust and efficient numerical tools for resolving curve evolution in image segmentation. This paper proposes a new image segmentation algorithm based on Mumford-Shah module. The method is used to CT images and the experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and veracity.

  19. Perceptual digital imaging methods and applications

    Lukac, Rastislav


    Visual perception is a complex process requiring interaction between the receptors in the eye that sense the stimulus and the neural system and the brain that are responsible for communicating and interpreting the sensed visual information. This process involves several physical, neural, and cognitive phenomena whose understanding is essential to design effective and computationally efficient imaging solutions. Building on advances in computer vision, image and video processing, neuroscience, and information engineering, perceptual digital imaging greatly enhances the capabilities of tradition

  20. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu


    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  1. A study for watermark methods appropriate to medical images.

    Cho, Y; Ahn, B; Kim, J S; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I


    The network system, including the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), is essential in hospital and medical imaging fields these days. Many medical images are accessed and processed on the web, as well as in PACS. Therefore, any possible accidents caused by the illegal modification of medical images must be prevented. Digital image watermark techniques have been proposed as a method to protect against illegal copying or modification of copyrighted material. Invisible signatures made by a digital image watermarking technique can be a solution to these problems. However, medical images have some different characteristics from normal digital images in that one must not corrupt the information contained in the original medical images. In this study, we suggest modified watermark methods appropriate for medical image processing and communication system that prevent clinically important data contained in original images from being corrupted.

  2. Tilt correction method of text image based on wavelet pyramid

    Yu, Mingyang; Zhu, Qiguo


    Text images captured by camera may be tilted and distorted, which is unfavorable for document character recognition. Therefore,a method of text image tilt correction based on wavelet pyramid is proposed in this paper. The first step is to convert the text image captured by cameras to binary images. After binarization, the images are layered by wavelet transform to achieve noise reduction, enhancement and compression of image. Afterwards,the image would bedetected for edge by Canny operator, and extracted for straight lines by Radon transform. In the final step, this method calculates the intersection of straight lines and gets the corrected text images according to the intersection points and perspective transformation. The experimental result shows this method can correct text images accurately.

  3. Harmonic Spatial Coherence Imaging: An Ultrasonic Imaging Method Based on Backscatter Coherence

    DAHL, JEREMY J.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.


    HSCI and SLSC imaging less sensitive to clutter because it has low spatial coherence. The method is based on the coherence of the second harmonic backscatter. Because the same signals that are used to construct harmonic B-mode images are also used to construct HSCI images, the benefits obtained with harmonic imaging are also applicable to HSCI. Harmonic imaging has been the primary tool for suppressing clutter in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, however second harmonic echoes are not necessaril...

  4. ISAR imaging using the instantaneous range instantaneous Doppler method

    Wazna, TM


    Full Text Available In Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging, the Range Instantaneous Doppler (RID) method is used to compensate for the nonuniform rotational motion of the target that degrades the Doppler resolution of the ISAR image. The Instantaneous Range...

  5. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming


    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  6. Multiphase Image Segmentation Using the Deformable Simplicial Complex Method

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    The deformable simplicial complex method is a generic method for tracking deformable interfaces. It provides explicit interface representation, topological adaptivity, and multiphase support. As such, the deformable simplicial complex method can readily be used for representing active contours...... in image segmentation based on deformable models. We show the benefits of using the deformable simplicial complex method for image segmentation by segmenting an image into a known number of segments characterized by distinct mean pixel intensities....

  7. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu


    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  8. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian


    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  9. Comparative analysis of different methods for image enhancement

    吴笑峰; 胡仕刚; 赵瑾; 李志明; 李劲; 唐志军; 席在芳


    Image enhancement technology plays a very important role to improve image quality in image processing. By enhancing some information and restraining other information selectively, it can improve image visual effect. The objective of this work is to implement the image enhancement to gray scale images using different techniques. After the fundamental methods of image enhancement processing are demonstrated, image enhancement algorithms based on space and frequency domains are systematically investigated and compared. The advantage and defect of the above-mentioned algorithms are analyzed. The algorithms of wavelet based image enhancement are also deduced and generalized. Wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) is a method for detecting the fractal dimension of a signal, it is well used for image enhancement. The image techniques are compared by using the mean (μ), standard deviation (s), mean square error (MSE) and PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). A group of experimental results demonstrate that the image enhancement algorithm based on wavelet transform is effective for image de-noising and enhancement. Wavelet transform modulus maxima method is one of the best methods for image enhancement.

  10. Labels discover physics: the development of new labelling methods as a promising research field for applied physics

    Sparavigna, Amelia


    Labels and tags are accompanying us in almost each moment of our life and everywhere we are going, in the form of electronic keys or money, or simply as labels on products we are buying in shops and markets. The label diffusion, rapidly increasing for logistic reasons in the actual global market, carries huge amount of information but it is demanding security and anti-fraud systems. The first crucial point, for the consumer and producer safety, is to ensure the authenticity of the labelled products with systems against counterfeiting and piracy. Recent anti-fraud techniques are based on a sophisticated use of physical effects, from holograms till magnetic resonance or tunnel transitions between atomic sublevels. In this paper we will discuss labels and anti-fraud technologies as a new and very promising research field for applied physics.

  11. Skeletonization methods for image and volume inpainting

    Sobiecki, Andre


    Image and shape restoration techniques are increasingly important in computer graphics. Many types of restoration techniques have been proposed in the 2D image-processing and according to our knowledge only one to volumetric data. Well-known examples of such techniques include digital inpainting,

  12. Statistical Smoothing Methods and Image Analysis


    83 - 111. Rosenfeld, A. and Kak, A.C. (1982). Digital Picture Processing. Academic Press,Qrlando. Serra, J. (1982). Image Analysis and Mat hematical ...hypothesis testing. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, MI-6, 313-319. Wicksell, S.D. (1925) The corpuscle problem. A mathematical study of a biometric problem

  13. Image segmentation with a finite element method

    Bourdin, Blaise


    The Mumford-Shah functional for image segmentation is an original approach of the image segmentation problem, based on a minimal energy criterion. Its minimization can be seen as a free discontinuity problem and is based on \\Gamma-convergence and bounded variation functions theories.Some new regu...

  14. Skeletonization methods for image and volume inpainting

    Sobiecki, Andre


    Image and shape restoration techniques are increasingly important in computer graphics. Many types of restoration techniques have been proposed in the 2D image-processing and according to our knowledge only one to volumetric data. Well-known examples of such techniques include digital inpainting, de

  15. A Method for Image Decontamination Based on Partial Differential Equation

    Hou Junping


    Full Text Available This paper will introduce the method to apply partial differential equations for the decontamination processing of images. It will establish continuous partial differential mathematical models for image information and use specific solving methods to conduct decontamination processing to images during the process of solving partial differential equations, such as image noise reduction, image denoising and image segmentation. This paper will study the uniqueness of solution for the partial differential equations and the monotonicity that functional constrain has on multipliers by making analysis of the ROF model in the partial differential mathematical model.

  16. A comparative study on medical image segmentation methods

    Praylin Selva Blessy SELVARAJ ASSLEY


    Full Text Available Image segmentation plays an important role in medical images. It has been a relevant research area in computer vision and image analysis. Many segmentation algorithms have been proposed for medical images. This paper makes a review on segmentation methods for medical images. In this survey, segmentation methods are divided into five categories: region based, boundary based, model based, hybrid based and atlas based. The five different categories with their principle ideas, advantages and disadvantages in segmenting different medical images are discussed.

  17. System and method for image mapping and visual attention

    Peters, II, Richard A. (Inventor)


    A method is described for mapping dense sensory data to a Sensory Ego Sphere (SES). Methods are also described for finding and ranking areas of interest in the images that form a complete visual scene on an SES. Further, attentional processing of image data is best done by performing attentional processing on individual full-size images from the image sequence, mapping each attentional location to the nearest node, and then summing all attentional locations at each node.

  18. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)


    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  19. Morphology-based fusion method of hyperspectral image

    Yue, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Ren, Tingting; Wang, Chensheng; Yu, Hui


    Hyperspectral image analysis method is widely used in all kinds of application including agriculture identification and forest investigation and atmospheric pollution monitoring. In order to accurately and steadily analyze hyperspectral image, considering the spectrum and spatial information which is provided by hyperspectral data together is necessary. The hyperspectral image has the characteristics of large amount of wave bands and information. Corresponding to the characteristics of hyperspectral image, a fast image fusion method that can fuse the hyperspectral image with high fidelity is studied and proposed in this paper. First of all, hyperspectral image is preprocessed before the morphological close operation. The close operation is used to extract wave band characteristic to reduce dimensionality of hyperspectral image. The spectral data is smoothed at the same time to avoid the discontinuity of the data by combination of spatial information and spectral information. On this basis, Mean-shift method is adopted to register key frames. Finally, the selected key frames by fused into one fusing image by the pyramid fusion method. The experiment results show that this method can fuse hyper spectral image in high quality. The fused image's attributes is better than the original spectral images comparing to the spectral images and reach the objective of fusion.

  20. Method for Ultrasonic Imaging and Device for Performing the Method

    Madaras, Eric I. (Inventor)


    A method for ultrasonic imaging of interior structures and flaws in a test specimen with a smooth or irregular contact surfaces, in which an ultrasonic transducer is coupled acoustically to the contact surface via a plurality of ultrasonic wave guides with equal delay times. The wave guides are thin and bendable, so they adapt to variations in the distance between the transducer and different parts of the contact surface by bending more or less. All parts of the irregular contact surface accordingly receive sound waves that are in phase, even when the contact surface is irregular, so a coherent sound wave is infused in the test specimen. The wave guides can be arranged in the form of an ultrasonic brush, with a flat head for coupling to a flat transducer, and free bristles that can be pressed against the test specimen. By bevelling the bristle ends at a suitable angle, shear mode waves can be infused into the test specimen from a longitudinal mode transducer.

  1. Medical Image Compression using Wavelet Decomposition for Prediction Method

    Ramesh, S M


    In this paper offers a simple and lossless compression method for compression of medical images. Method is based on wavelet decomposition of the medical images followed by the correlation analysis of coefficients. The correlation analyses are the basis of prediction equation for each sub band. Predictor variable selection is performed through coefficient graphic method to avoid multicollinearity problem and to achieve high prediction accuracy and compression rate. The method is applied on MRI and CT images. Results show that the proposed approach gives a high compression rate for MRI and CT images comparing with state of the art methods.

  2. Comparison of interpolating methods for image resampling.

    Parker, J; Kenyon, R V; Troxel, D E


    When resampling an image to a new set of coordinates (for example, when rotating an image), there is often a noticeable loss in image quality. To preserve image quality, the interpolating function used for the resampling should be an ideal low-pass filter. To determine which limited extent convolving functions would provide the best interpolation, five functions were compared: A) nearest neighbor, B) linear, C) cubic B-spline, D) high-resolution cubic spline with edge enhancement (a = -1), and E) high-resolution cubic spline (a = -0.5). The functions which extend over four picture elements (C, D, E) were shown to have a better frequency response than those which extend over one (A) or two (B) pixels. The nearest neighbor function shifted the image up to one-half a pixel. Linear and cubic B-spline interpolation tended to smooth the image. The best response was obtained with the high-resolution cubic spline functions. The location of the resampled points with respect to the initial coordinate system has a dramatic effect on the response of the sampled interpolating function the data are exactly reproduced when the points are aligned, and the response has the most smoothing when the resampled points are equidistant from the original coordinate points. Thus, at the expense of some increase in computing time, image quality can be improved by resampled using the high-resolution cubic spline function as compared to the nearest neighbor, linear, or cubic B-spline functions.

  3. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Koprowski, Robert


    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  4. A corrected method of distorted printed circuit board image

    Qiao Nao-Sheng; Ye Yu-Tang; Huang Yong-Lin


    This paper proposes a corrected method of distorted image based on adaptive control. First, the adaptive control relationship of pixel point positions between distorted image and its corrected image is given by using polynomial fitting,thus control point pairs between the distorted image and its corrected image are found. Secondly, the value of both image distortion centre and polynomial coefficient is obtained with least square method, thus the relationship of each control point pairs is deduced. In the course of distortion image processing, the gray value of the corrected image is changed into integer with bilinear interpolation. Finally, the experiments are performed to correct two distorted printed circuit board images. The results are perfect and the mean square errors of residual error are tiny.

  5. A new method for mobile phone image denoising

    Jin, Lianghai; Jin, Min; Li, Xiang; Xu, Xiangyang


    Images captured by mobile phone cameras via pipeline processing usually contain various kinds of noises, especially granular noise with different shapes and sizes in both luminance and chrominance channels. In chrominance channels, noise is closely related to image brightness. To improve image quality, this paper presents a new method to denoise such mobile phone images. The proposed scheme converts the noisy RGB image to luminance and chrominance images, which are then denoised by a common filtering framework. The common filtering framework processes a noisy pixel by first excluding the neighborhood pixels that significantly deviate from the (vector) median and then utilizing the other neighborhood pixels to restore the current pixel. In the framework, the strength of chrominance image denoising is controlled by image brightness. The experimental results show that the proposed method obviously outperforms some other representative denoising methods in terms of both objective measure and visual evaluation.

  6. Separation method of heavy-ion particle image from gamma-ray mixed images using an imaging plate

    Yamadera, A; Ohuchi, H; Nakamura, T; Fukumura, A


    We have developed a separation method of alpha-ray and gamma-ray images using the imaging plate (IP). The IP from which the first image was read out by an image reader was annealed at 50 deg. C for 2 h in a drying oven and the second image was read out by the image reader. It was found out that an annealing ratio, k, which is defined as a ratio of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) density at the first measurement to that at the second measurement, was different for alpha rays and gamma rays. By subtracting the second image multiplied by a factor of k from the first image, the alpha-ray image was separated from the alpha and gamma-ray mixed images. This method was applied to identify the images of helium, carbon and neon particles of high energies using the heavy-ion medical accelerator, HIMAC. (author)


    Chen Shouning; Zheng Baoyu; Li Jing


    Based on compressive sampling transmission model,we demonstrate here a method of quality evaluation for the reconstruction images,which is promising for the transmission of unstructured signal with reduced dimension.By this method,the auxiliary information of the recovery image quality is obtained as a feedback to control number of measurements from compressive sampling video stream.Therefore,the number of measurements can be easily derived at the condition of the absence of information sparsity,and the recovery image quality is effectively improved.Theoretical and experimental results show that this algorithm can estimate the quality of images effectively and is in well consistency with the traditional objective evaluation algorithm.

  8. Mathematical and statistical methods for multistatic imaging

    Ammari, Habib; Jing, Wenjia; Kang, Hyeonbae; Lim, Mikyoung; Sølna, Knut; Wang, Han


    This book covers recent mathematical, numerical, and statistical approaches for multistatic imaging of targets with waves at single or multiple frequencies. The waves can be acoustic, elastic or electromagnetic. They are generated by point sources on a transmitter array and measured on a receiver array. An important problem in multistatic imaging is to quantify and understand the trade-offs between data size, computational complexity, signal-to-noise ratio, and resolution. Another fundamental problem is to have a shape representation well suited to solving target imaging problems from multistatic data. In this book the trade-off between resolution and stability when the data are noisy is addressed. Efficient imaging algorithms are provided and their resolution and stability with respect to noise in the measurements analyzed. It also shows that high-order polarization tensors provide an accurate representation of the target. Moreover, a dictionary-matching technique based on new invariants for the generalized ...

  9. Experimental and Other Breast Imaging Methods

    ... optical imaging with other tests like MRI or 3D mammography to help diagnose breast cancer. Molecular breast ... radioactive particle to detect cancer cells. The PEM scanner is approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  10. Quantum dynamic imaging theoretical and numerical methods

    Ivanov, Misha


    Studying and using light or "photons" to image and then to control and transmit molecular information is among the most challenging and significant research fields to emerge in recent years. One of the fastest growing areas involves research in the temporal imaging of quantum phenomena, ranging from molecular dynamics in the femto (10-15s) time regime for atomic motion to the atto (10-18s) time scale of electron motion. In fact, the attosecond "revolution" is now recognized as one of the most important recent breakthroughs and innovations in the science of the 21st century. A major participant in the development of ultrafast femto and attosecond temporal imaging of molecular quantum phenomena has been theory and numerical simulation of the nonlinear, non-perturbative response of atoms and molecules to ultrashort laser pulses. Therefore, imaging quantum dynamics is a new frontier of science requiring advanced mathematical approaches for analyzing and solving spatial and temporal multidimensional partial differ...

  11. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A


    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  12. Novel welding image processing method based on fractal theory

    陈强; 孙振国; 肖勇; 路井荣


    Computer vision has come into used in the fields of welding process control and automation. In order to improve precision and rapidity of welding image processing, a novel method based on fractal theory has been put forward in this paper. Compared with traditional methods, the image is preliminarily processed in the macroscopic regions then thoroughly analyzed in the microscopic regions in the new method. With which, an image is divided up to some regions according to the different fractal characters of image edge, and the fuzzy regions including image edges are detected out, then image edges are identified with Sobel operator and curved by LSM (Lease Square Method). Since the data to be processed have been decreased and the noise of image has been reduced, it has been testified through experiments that edges of weld seam or weld pool could be recognized correctly and quickly.

  13. A New Method for Human Microcirculation Image Enhancement

    CHEN Yuan; ZHAO Zhi-min; LIU Lei; LI Peng


    Microcirculation images often have uneven illumination and low contrast in the acquisition process, which affect the image reorganization and following process. This paper presents a new method for microcirculatory image illumination correction and con-trast enhancement based on the Contourlet transform. Initially, the image illumination model is extracted by Contourlet transform and then uneven illumination is corrected. Next, in order to restrain noise and enhance image contrast, the probability function asso-ciated with noise coefficient and edge coefficient is established and applied to all Contour-let coefficients. Then, a nonlinear enhancement function is applied to modified Contourlet coefficient to adaptively enhance image contrast. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained by inverse Contourlet transform. We compare this approach with other contrast enhance-ment methods, result showing that our method has a better effect than other enhancement methods, which might be helpful for clinical diagnostics of microcirculation.

  14. Survey: interpolation methods for whole slide image processing.

    Roszkowiak, L; Korzynska, A; Zak, J; Pijanowska, D; Swiderska-Chadaj, Z; Markiewicz, T


    Evaluating whole slide images of histological and cytological samples is used in pathology for diagnostics, grading and prognosis . It is often necessary to rescale whole slide images of a very large size. Image resizing is one of the most common applications of interpolation. We collect the advantages and drawbacks of nine interpolation methods, and as a result of our analysis, we try to select one interpolation method as the preferred solution. To compare the performance of interpolation methods, test images were scaled and then rescaled to the original size using the same algorithm. The modified image was compared to the original image in various aspects. The time needed for calculations and results of quantification performance on modified images were also compared. For evaluation purposes, we used four general test images and 12 specialized biological immunohistochemically stained tissue sample images. The purpose of this survey is to determine which method of interpolation is the best to resize whole slide images, so they can be further processed using quantification methods. As a result, the interpolation method has to be selected depending on the task involving whole slide images.

  15. A New Robust Image Matching Method Based on Distance Reciprocal

    赵春江; 施文康; 邓勇


    Object matching between two-dimensional images is an important problem in computer vision. The purpose of object matching is to decide the similarity between two objects. A new robust image matching method based on distance reciprocal was presented. The distance reciprocal is based on human visual perception. This method is simple and effective. Moreover, it is robust against noise. The experiments show that this method outperforms the Hausdorff distance, when the images with noise interfered need to be recognized.

  16. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Kragh, Thomas


    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  17. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Fatimah Mohammad


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT. Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  18. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Wanek, Justin; Zelkha, Ruth; Lim, Jennifer I; Chen, Judy; Shahidi, Mahnaz


    Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  19. Application of synchrotron source based DEI method in guinea pig cochleae imaging

    YIN Hongxia; LIU Bo; GAO Xin; GAO Xiulai; LUO Shuqian


    Hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), which is based on a synchrotron source and monochromator-analyzercrystal system, is an effective method for imaging X-ray phase shift. Utilizing an analyzer crystal with high angular sensitivity of micro-radian, DEI can measure the transmitted, refracted and scattered X-rays when projecting onto a sample. It dramatically improves the contrast and spatial resolution of the resultant images. At the topography station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilities (BSRF), we implemented DEI method in guinea pig cochleae imaging and acquired a series of DEI images. Based on these images, the apparent absorption and refraction images were calculated. The DEI images revealed the holistic spiral structures and inner details of guinea pig cochleae clearly, even including the structures at the cellular level, such as the static cilia of hairy cells and the limbus of Hansen cell. Due to the advanrages of high contrast, high spatial resolution and distinct edge-enhanced effect, DEI method promises extensive applications in biology,medicine and clinic in the near future.


    Lech Muszyński


    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites are complex, anisotropic, and heterogeneous materials. A key to increasing the share of the WPC materials in the market is developing stronger, highly engineered WPCs characterized by greater structural performance and increased durability. These are achieved by enhanced manufacturing processes, more efficient profile designs, and new formulations providing better interaction between the wood particles and the plastic matrix. Significant progress in this area is hard to imagine without better understanding of the composite performance and internal bond durability on the micro-mechanical level, and reliable modeling based on that understanding. The objective of this paper is to present a brief review of promising material characterization techniques based on advanced imaging technologies and inverse problem methodology, which seem particularly suitable for complex heterogeneous composites. Full-field imaging techniques and specifically X-ray computed tomography (CT combined with numerical modeling tools have a potential to advance the fundamental knowledge on the effect of manufacturing parameters on the micromechanics of such materials and their response to loads and environmental exposure.

  1. Efficient hybrid method for time reversal superresolution imaging

    Xiaohua Wang,Wei Gao,; Bingzhong Wang


    An efficient hybrid time reversal (TR) imaging method based on signal subspace and noise subspace is proposed for electromagnetic superresolution detecting and imaging. First, the locations of targets are estimated by the transmitting-mode decom-position of the TR operator (DORT) method employing the signal subspace. Then, the TR multiple signal classification (TR-MUSIC) method employing the noise subspace is used in the estimated target area to get the superresolution imaging of targets. Two examples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous background mediums are considered, respectively. The results show that the proposed hybrid method has advantages in CPU time and memory cost because of the combination of rough and fine imaging.


    T. Fuse


    Full Text Available 3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. Additionally, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. The creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images, however, takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficient strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. The image connectivity graph consists of nodes and edges. The nodes correspond to images to be used. The edges connected between nodes represent image relationships with costs as accuracies of orientation elements. For the efficiency, the image connectivity graph should be constructed with smaller number of edges. Once the image connectivity graph is built, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. In the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similar images are also extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. It implies potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement.

  3. Development of Image Selection Method Using Graph Cuts

    Fuse, T.; Harada, R.


    3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. Additionally, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. The creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images, however, takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficient strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. The image connectivity graph consists of nodes and edges. The nodes correspond to images to be used. The edges connected between nodes represent image relationships with costs as accuracies of orientation elements. For the efficiency, the image connectivity graph should be constructed with smaller number of edges. Once the image connectivity graph is built, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. In the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similar images are also extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. It implies potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement.

  4. Methods and systems for producing compounded ultrasound images


    Disclosed is a method for producing compounded ultrasound images by beamforming a first and a second low-resolution image using data from a first ultrasound emission, beamforming a third and a fourth low-resolution image using data from a second ultrasound emission, summing said first and said...

  5. An innovative lossless compression method for discrete-color images.

    Alzahir, Saif; Borici, Arber


    In this paper, we present an innovative method for lossless compression of discrete-color images, such as map images, graphics, GIS, as well as binary images. This method comprises two main components. The first is a fixed-size codebook encompassing 8×8 bit blocks of two-tone data along with their corresponding Huffman codes and their relative probabilities of occurrence. The probabilities were obtained from a very large set of discrete color images which are also used for arithmetic coding. The second component is the row-column reduction coding, which will encode those blocks that are not in the codebook. The proposed method has been successfully applied on two major image categories: 1) images with a predetermined number of discrete colors, such as digital maps, graphs, and GIS images and 2) binary images. The results show that our method compresses images from both categories (discrete color and binary images) with 90% in most case and higher than the JBIG-2 by 5%-20% for binary images, and by 2%-6.3% for discrete color images on average.

  6. A system and method for imaging body areas

    Goethals, F.P.C.


    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  7. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.


    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  8. Methods of filtering the graph images of the functions

    Олександр Григорович Бурса


    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of cleaning raster images of scanned graphs of functions from digital, chromatic and luminance distortions by using computer graphics techniques have been considered. The basic types of distortions characteristic of graph images of functions have been stated. To suppress the distortion several methods, providing for high-quality of the resulting images and saving their topological features, were suggested. The paper describes the techniques developed and improved by the authors: the method of cleaning the image of distortions by means of iterative contrasting, based on the step-by-step increase in image contrast in the graph by 1%; the method of small entities distortion restoring, based on the thinning of the known matrix of contrast increase filter (the allowable dimensions of the nucleus dilution radius convolution matrix, which provide for the retention of the graph lines have been established; integration technique of the noise reduction method by means of contrasting and distortion restoring method of small entities with known σ-filter. Each method in the complex has been theoretically substantiated. The developed methods involve treatment of graph images as the entire image (global processing and its fragments (local processing. The metrics assessing the quality of the resulting image with the global and local processing have been chosen, the substantiation of the choice as well as the formulas have been given. The proposed complex methods of cleaning the graphs images of functions from grayscale image distortions is adaptive to the form of an image carrier, the distortion level in the image and its distribution. The presented results of testing the developed complex of methods for a representative sample of images confirm its effectiveness

  9. Training Methods for Image Noise Level Estimation on Wavelet Components

    A. De Stefano


    Full Text Available The estimation of the standard deviation of noise contaminating an image is a fundamental step in wavelet-based noise reduction techniques. The method widely used is based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD. This model-based method assumes specific characteristics of the noise-contaminated image component. Three novel and alternative methods for estimating the noise standard deviation are proposed in this work and compared with the MAD method. Two of these methods rely on a preliminary training stage in order to extract parameters which are then used in the application stage. The sets used for training and testing, 13 and 5 images, respectively, are fully disjoint. The third method assumes specific statistical distributions for image and noise components. Results showed the prevalence of the training-based methods for the images and the range of noise levels considered.

  10. Distributed MIMO-ISAR Sub-image Fusion Method

    Gu Wenkun


    Full Text Available The fast fluctuation associated with maneuvering a target’s radar cross-section often affects the imaging performance stability of traditional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR. To address this problem, in this study, we propose an imaging method based on the fusion of sub-images of frequencydiversity-distributed multiple Input-Multiple Output-Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (MIMO-ISAR. First, we establish the analytic expression of a two-dimensional ISAR sub-image acquired by different channels of distributed MIMO-ISAR. Then, we derive the distance and azimuth distortion factors of the image acquired by the different channels. By compensating for the distortion of the ISAR image, we ultimately realize distributed MIMO-ISAR fusion imaging. Simulations verify the validity of this imaging method using distributed MIMO-ISAR.

  11. An improved Bayesian matting method based on image statistic characteristics

    Sun, Wei; Luo, Siwei; Wu, Lina


    Image matting is an important task in image and video editing and has been studied for more than 30 years. In this paper we propose an improved interactive matting method. Starting from a coarse user-guided trimap, we first perform a color estimation based on texture and color information and use the result to refine the original trimap. Then with the new trimap, we apply soft matting process which is improved Bayesian matting with smoothness constraints. Experimental results on natural image show that this method is useful, especially for the images have similar texture feature in the background or the images which is hard to give a precise trimap.


    W. Lu


    Full Text Available In order to improve the stability and rapidity of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images matching, an effective method was presented. Firstly, the adaptive smoothing filtering was employed for image denoising in image processing based on Wallis filtering to avoid the follow-up noise is amplified. Secondly, feature points were extracted by a simplified SIFT algorithm. Finally, the exact matching of the images was achieved with these points. Compared with the existing methods, it not only maintains the richness of features, but a-lso reduces the noise of the image. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better matching effect.

  13. Investigation of Optimal Integrated Circuit Raster Image Vectorization Method

    Leonas Jasevičius


    Full Text Available Visual analysis of integrated circuit layer requires raster image vectorization stage to extract layer topology data to CAD tools. In this paper vectorization problems of raster IC layer images are presented. Various line extraction from raster images algorithms and their properties are discussed. Optimal raster image vectorization method was developed which allows utilization of common vectorization algorithms to achieve the best possible extracted vector data match with perfect manual vectorization results. To develop the optimal method, vectorized data quality dependence on initial raster image skeleton filter selection was assessed.Article in Lithuanian

  14. a SAR Image Registration Method Based on Sift Algorithm

    Lu, W.; Yue, X.; Zhao, Y.; Han, C.


    In order to improve the stability and rapidity of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images matching, an effective method was presented. Firstly, the adaptive smoothing filtering was employed for image denoising in image processing based on Wallis filtering to avoid the follow-up noise is amplified. Secondly, feature points were extracted by a simplified SIFT algorithm. Finally, the exact matching of the images was achieved with these points. Compared with the existing methods, it not only maintains the richness of features, but a-lso reduces the noise of the image. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better matching effect.

  15. A novel image fusion method using WBCT and PCA

    Qiguang Miao; Baoshu Wang


    A novel image fusion algorithm based on wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT)and principal component analysis(PCA)is proposed.The PCA method is adopted for the low-frequency components.Using the proposed algorithm to choose the greater of the active measures,the region consistency test is performed for the high-frequency components.Experiments show that the proposed method works better in preserving the edge and texture information than wavelet transform method and Laplacian pyramid (LP)method do in image fusion.Four indicators for the fusion image are given to compare the proposed method with other methods.

  16. Quantum Imaging: New Methods and Applications


    Broadbent , Curtis 0.88 Armstrong, Gregory 0.45 Mohan, Mishant 0.50 Simon, David 0.50 Minaeva, Olga 0.00 Bonato, Cristian 0.00 Saleh, Mohammed 0.00...043810 (2008). 52. K.W.C. Chan, M.N. O’Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Color Ghost Imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033808 (2009). 53. J. Broadbent , P. Zerom, H... Broadbent , Petros Zerom, Heedeuk Shin, John C. Howell, and Robert W.Boyd, “Discriminating orthogonal single-photon images,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033802 (2009

  17. A method for fast automated microscope image stitching.

    Yang, Fan; Deng, Zhen-Sheng; Fan, Qiu-Hong


    Image stitching is an important technology to produce a panorama or larger image by combining several images with overlapped areas. In many biomedical researches, image stitching is highly desirable to acquire a panoramic image which represents large areas of certain structures or whole sections, while retaining microscopic resolution. In this study, we develop a fast normal light microscope image stitching algorithm based on feature extraction. At first, an algorithm of scale-space reconstruction of speeded-up robust features (SURF) was proposed to extract features from the images to be stitched with a short time and higher repeatability. Then, the histogram equalization (HE) method was employed to preprocess the images to enhance their contrast for extracting more features. Thirdly, the rough overlapping zones of the images preprocessed were calculated by phase correlation, and the improved SURF was used to extract the image features in the rough overlapping areas. Fourthly, the features were corresponded by matching algorithm and the transformation parameters were estimated, then the images were blended seamlessly. Finally, this procedure was applied to stitch normal light microscope images to verify its validity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the improved SURF algorithm is very robust to viewpoint, illumination, blur, rotation and zoom of the images and our method is able to stitch microscope images automatically with high precision and high speed. Also, the method proposed in this paper is applicable to registration and stitching of common images as well as stitching the microscope images in the field of virtual microscope for the purpose of observing, exchanging, saving, and establishing a database of microscope images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On two methods of statistical image analysis

    Missimer, J; Knorr, U; Maguire, RP; Herzog, H; Seitz, RJ; Tellman, L; Leenders, KL


    The computerized brain atlas (CBA) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) are two procedures for voxel-based statistical evaluation of PET activation studies. Each includes spatial standardization of image volumes, computation of a statistic, and evaluation of its significance. In addition, smooth

  19. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    Ozmen, N.


    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis c

  20. An Interactive Image Segmentation Method in Hand Gesture Recognition.

    Chen, Disi; Li, Gongfa; Sun, Ying; Kong, Jianyi; Jiang, Guozhang; Tang, Heng; Ju, Zhaojie; Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai


    In order to improve the recognition rate of hand gestures a new interactive image segmentation method for hand gesture recognition is presented, and popular methods, e.g., Graph cut, Random walker, Interactive image segmentation using geodesic star convexity, are studied in this article. The Gaussian Mixture Model was employed for image modelling and the iteration of Expectation Maximum algorithm learns the parameters of Gaussian Mixture Model. We apply a Gibbs random field to the image segmentation and minimize the Gibbs Energy using Min-cut theorem to find the optimal segmentation. The segmentation result of our method is tested on an image dataset and compared with other methods by estimating the region accuracy and boundary accuracy. Finally five kinds of hand gestures in different backgrounds are tested on our experimental platform, and the sparse representation algorithm is used, proving that the segmentation of hand gesture images helps to improve the recognition accuracy.

  1. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing


    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  2. Spectral methods for spatial resolution improvement of digital images

    郝鹏威; 徐冠华; 朱重光


    A general matrix formula is proposed for signal spectral aliasing of various or mutual resolution, the concept of spectral aliasing matrix is introduced, and some general spectral methods for spatial resolution improvement from multiframes of undersampled digital images are discussed. A simplified iterative method of parallel row-action projection for spectral de-aliasing is also given. The method can be applied to multiframe images with various spatial resolution,relative displacement, dissimilar point spread function, different image radiance, and additive random noise. Some experiments with a resolution test pattern and an image of vertical fin performed the convergence and the effectiveness of the algorithms.

  3. Evaluation of circulating cellular DCLK1 protein, as the most promising colorectal cancer stem cell marker, using immunoassay based methods.

    Mirzaei, Alireza; Madjd, Zahra; Kadijani, Azade Amini; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Verdi, Javad; Akbari, Abolfazl; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza


    DCLK1, as the most potential colorectal cancer stem cell (CSC) marker has been the core of many recent investigations. However, no study has been performed to evaluate the circulating cellular DCLK1 protein (CCDP) that might reflect the presences of colorectal CSC in circulation. We aimed to evaluate CCDP in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients applying immunoassay based methods including PLA, IPCR and ELISA in order to introduce the method of choice for clinical detection of CCDP. PBMCs were extracted from blood samples of 58 CRC patients along with 58 blood samples of tumor free controls. Total protein of PBMC was extracted and the CCDP level was evaluated. The results of three applied immunoassay tests were compared and the best approach for clinical application was introduced, accordingly. In addition, the correlation of CCD Plevel with clincopathologic findings of CRC patients was assessed. The results of three immuneassay methods confirmed each other. Based on our finding, ELISA could be the most judicious method for clinical evaluation of CCDP considering its simplicity for clinical implications. Our results also showed a significant higher amount of CCDP in peripheral blood of CRC patients compared to control group which was also correlated with patients' clinicopathologic finding such as stage, grade and neoadjuvant history. CCDP could be applied for monitoring purposes in CRC patients. However, its application needs to be more elucidated in future investigations implementing larger samples.

  4. Parameter estimation method for blurred cell images from fluorescence microscope

    He, Fuyun; Zhang, Zhisheng; Luo, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Shulin


    Microscopic cell image analysis is indispensable to cell biology. Images of cells can easily degrade due to optical diffraction or focus shift, as this results in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality, hence affecting the accuracy of cell analysis and identification. For a quantitative analysis of cell images, restoring blurred images to improve the SNR is the first step. A parameter estimation method for defocused microscopic cell images based on the power law properties of the power spectrum of cell images is proposed. The circular radon transform (CRT) is used to identify the zero-mode of the power spectrum. The parameter of the CRT curve is initially estimated by an improved differential evolution algorithm. Following this, the parameters are optimized through the gradient descent method. Using synthetic experiments, it was confirmed that the proposed method effectively increased the peak SNR (PSNR) of the recovered images with high accuracy. Furthermore, experimental results involving actual microscopic cell images verified that the superiority of the proposed parameter estimation method for blurred microscopic cell images other method in terms of qualitative visual sense as well as quantitative gradient and PSNR.

  5. Comparison of Two Distance Based Alignment Method in Medical Imaging


    very helpful to register large datasets of contours or surfaces, commonly encountered in medical imaging . They do not require special ordering or...COMPARISON OF TWO DISTANCE BASED ALIGNMENT METHOD IN MEDICAL IMAGING G. Bulan, C. Ozturk Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University...Two Distance Based Alignment Method in Medical Imaging Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number

  6. A New Method of CT MedicalImages Contrast Enhancement

    SUNFeng-rong; LIUWei; WANGChang-yu; MEILiang-mo


    A new method of contrast enhancement is proposed in the paper using multiscale edge representation of images, and is applied to the field of CT medical image processing. Comparing to the traditional Window technique, our method is adaptive and meets the demand of radiology clinics more better. The clinical experiment results show the practicality and the potential applied value of our methodin the field of CT medical images contrast enhancement.

  7. Application ofArbuscular Mycorrhizal Inocula Might Be A Promising Method in the Restoration of Severely Degraded Wetlands%Application of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inocula Might Be A Promising Method in the Restoration of Severely Degraded Wetlands

    De Gao


    The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inocula in severely degraded wetlands could ensure success in restoration.Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in plant individual' s survival and development in a low nutrient condition.Based on the importance that mycorrhizal fungi have to their host plants,mycorrhizal inocula have been produced and applied in terrestrial ecosystems in order to let the plants become mycorrhizal.However,mycorrhizal inocula have not been used in wetland restorations,despite increasing evidence that mycorrhizal fungi are commonly found in various wetland systems and have the ability to survive under anoxic conditions.Evidence also shows that mycorrhizal fungal inocula in the soil could have been destroyed in the degraded wetland or could be destroyed during traditional wetland restoration process.Therefore,AM inocula production is strongly recommended for wetland restoration.In this paper,I will argue that AM inocula production is required when introduced recovery is necessary,and aeroponic culture technique is a preferable method to produce AM inocula.Last,a renewed wetland restoration flow chart is summarized.

  8. Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method

    Tran, Vi-Hoa; Meikle, Steven Richard; Smith, Mark Frederick


    A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.

  9. Generalized Newton Method for Energy Formulation in Image Processing


    Blurred (b) - Newton with LH (c) - Standard Newton (d) - Newton with Ls Fig. 5.2. Deblurring of the clown image with different Newton-like methods...proposed method, the inner product can be adapted to the problem at hand. In the second example, Figure 5.2, the 330 × 291 clown image was additionally

  10. Data analysis for mass spectrometry imaging : methods and applications

    Abdelmoula, Walid Mohamed


    In this dissertation we developed a number of automatic methods for multi-modal data registration, mainly between mass spectrometry imaging, imaging microscopy, and the Allen Brain Atlas. We have shown the importance of these methods for performing large scale preclinical biomarker discovery

  11. An LSB Method Of Image Steganographic Techniques

    Lalit Kumar Jain


    Full Text Available The art of information hiding has received much attention in the recent years as security of information has become a big concern in this internet era. As sharing of sensitive information via a common communication channel has become inevitable. Steganography means hiding a secret message (the embedded message within a larger one (source cover in such a way that an observer cannot detect the presence of contents of the hidden message [1]. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular because of their frequency on the Internet [2]. This paper intends to give an overview of image Steganography, its uses and techniques. It also attempts to identify the requirements of a good Steganography algorithm and briefly reflects on which Steganography techniques are more suitable for which applications.

  12. The method of infrared image simulation based on the measured image

    Lou, Shuli; Liu, Liang; Ren, Jiancun


    The development of infrared imaging guidance technology has promoted the research of infrared imaging simulation technology and the key of infrared imaging simulation is the generation of IR image. The generation of IR image is worthful in military and economy. In order to solve the problem of credibility and economy of infrared scene generation, a method of infrared scene generation based on the measured image is proposed. Through researching on optical properties of ship-target and sea background, ship-target images with various gestures are extracted from recorded images based on digital image processing technology. The ship-target image is zoomed in and out to simulate the relative motion between the viewpoint and the target according to field of view and the distance between the target and the sensor. The gray scale of ship-target image is adjusted to simulate the radiation change of the ship-target according to the distance between the viewpoint and the target and the atmospheric transmission. Frames of recorded infrared images without target are interpolated to simulate high frame rate of missile. Processed ship-target images and sea-background infrared images are synthetized to obtain infrared scenes according to different viewpoints. Experiments proved that this method is flexible and applicable, and the fidelity and the reliability of synthesis infrared images can be guaranteed.

  13. Application of mathematical modelling methods for acoustic images reconstruction

    Bolotina, I.; Kazazaeva, A.; Kvasnikov, K.; Kazazaev, A.


    The article considers the reconstruction of images by Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT). The work compares additive and multiplicative methods for processing signals received from antenna array. We have proven that the multiplicative method gives a better resolution. The study includes the estimation of beam trajectories for antenna arrays using analytical and numerical methods. We have shown that the analytical estimation method allows decreasing the image reconstruction time in case of linear antenna array implementation.

  14. A Simple Image Encoding Method with Data Lossless Information Hiding

    Zhi-Hui Wang; Chin-Chen Chang; Ming-Chu Li; Tzu-Chuen Lu


    In this paper, we propose a simple reversible data hiding method in the spatial domain for block truncation coding (BTC) compressed grayscale images. The BTC method compresses a block of a grayscale image to a bitmap and a pair of quantization numbers. The proposed method first embeds secret bits into a block by changing the order of those two quantization numbers. The compression rate is not enlarged by this embedding scheme. To further improve the hiding capacity, the proposed method embeds...

  15. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis


    fluorescent nanoparticles . Generally, Noiseux et al. teach injecting multiple fluorescent nanoparticle dyes into the food sample, imaging the sample a...example, AIDS, malaria , cholera, lymphoma, and typhoid. The present disclosure can be used to capture and count microscopic cells for application as...Base plate 214 is sealed against cover 204 by the adhesive 210. Base plate 214 can have a thickness 216 of, for example, about 100 µm. At least a

  16. Twin-image elimination apparatus and method


    The twin-image elimination apparatus of the present invention comprises (a) a scanning light source for emitting a scanning light beam; (b) an interference device which converts the scanning light beam from the scanning light source into a spherical wave and a plane wave having temporal frequencies different from each other and combines the spherical and plane waves together; (c) a scanner for scanning an object with the combined light beam from the interference device; (d) a photodetector fo...

  17. Robust color image hiding method in DCT domain

    LI Qing-zhong; YU Chen; CHU Dong-sheng


    This paper presents a robust color image hiding method based on YCbCr color system in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain,which can hide a secret color image behind a public color cover image and is compatible with the international image compression standard of JPEG.To overcome the grave distortion problem in the restored secret image,this paper proposes a new embedding scheme consisting of reasonable partition of a pixel value and sign embedding.Moreover,based on human visual system (HVS) and fuzzy theory,this paper also presents a fuzzy classification method for DCT sub-blocks to realize the adaptive selection of embedding strength.The experimental results show that the maximum distortion error in pixel value for the extracted secret image is ±1.And the color cover image can provide good quality after embedding large amount of data.

  18. Reduced-reference image quality assessment using moment method

    Yang, Diwei; Shen, Yuantong; Shen, Yongluo; Li, Hongwei


    Reduced-reference image quality assessment (RR IQA) aims to evaluate the perceptual quality of a distorted image through partial information of the corresponding reference image. In this paper, a novel RR IQA metric is proposed by using the moment method. We claim that the first and second moments of wavelet coefficients of natural images can have approximate and regular change that are disturbed by different types of distortions, and that this disturbance can be relevant to human perceptions of quality. We measure the difference of these statistical parameters between reference and distorted image to predict the visual quality degradation. The introduced IQA metric is suitable for implementation and has relatively low computational complexity. The experimental results on Laboratory for Image and Video Engineering (LIVE) and Tampere Image Database (TID) image databases indicate that the proposed metric has a good predictive performance.

  19. A novel duplicate images detection method based on PLSA model

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yongji; Ding, Liping; Gu, Jian


    Web image search results usually contain duplicate copies. This paper considers the problem of detecting and clustering duplicate images contained in web image search results. Detecting and clustering the duplicate images together facilitates users' viewing. A novel method is presented in this paper to detect and cluster duplicate images by measuring similarity between their topics. More specifically, images are viewed as documents consisting of visual words formed by vector quantizing the affine invariant visual features. Then a statistical model widely used in text domain, the PLSA(Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model, is utilized to map images into a probabilistic latent semantic space. Because the main content remains unchanged despite small digital alteration, duplicate images will be close to each other in the derived semantic space. Based on this, a simple clustering process can successfully detect duplicate images and cluster them together. Comparing to those methods based on comparison between hash value of visual words, this method is more robust to the visual feature level alteration posed on the images. Experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  20. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel


    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  1. Underwater color image segmentation method via RGB channel fusion

    Xuan, Li; Mingjun, Zhang


    Aiming at the problem of low segmentation accuracy and high computation time by applying existing segmentation methods for underwater color images, this paper has proposed an underwater color image segmentation method via RGB color channel fusion. Based on thresholding segmentation methods to conduct fast segmentation, the proposed method relies on dynamic estimation of the optimal weights for RGB channel fusion to obtain the grayscale image with high foreground-background contrast and reaches high segmentation accuracy. To verify the segmentation accuracy of the proposed method, the authors have conducted various underwater comparative experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to illumination, and it is superior to existing methods in terms of both segmentation accuracy and computation time. Moreover, a segmentation technique is proposed for image sequences for real-time autonomous underwater vehicle operations.

  2. Study on direct measurement method of vorticity from particle images

    RUAN Xiaodong; FU Xin; YANG Huayong


    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods for vorticity measurement,a new direct measurement of vorticity (DMV) method extracting vorticity from particle images was proposed.Based on the theory of fluid flow,two matched particle patterns were extracted from particle images in the DMV method.The pattern vorticity was determined from the average angular displacement of rotation between the two matched particle patterns.The method was applied on standard particle images,and was compared with the second and third order central finite difference methods.Results show that the accuracy of DMV method is independent of the spatial resolution of the sampling,and the uncertainty errors in the velocity measurement are not propagated into the vorticity.The method is applicable for measuring vorticity of a stronger rotational flow.The time interval of image sampling should be shortened to increase the measurement ranges for higher shearing distortion flows.

  3. Adaptive Image Restoration and Segmentation Method Using Different Neighborhood Sizes

    Chengcheng Li


    Full Text Available The image restoration methods based on the Bayesian's framework and Markov random fields (MRF have been widely used in the image-processing field. The basic idea of all these methods is to use calculus of variation and mathematical statistics to average or estimate a pixel value by the values of its neighbors. After applying this averaging process to the whole image a number of times, the noisy pixels, which are abnormal values, are filtered out. Based on the Tea-trade model, which states that the closer the neighbor, more contribution it makes, almost all of these methods use only the nearest four neighbors for calculation. In our previous research [1, 2], we extended the research on CLRS (image restoration and segmentation by using competitive learning algorithm to enlarge the neighborhood size. The results showed that the longer neighborhood range could improve or worsen the restoration results. We also found that the autocorrelation coefficient was an important factor to determine the proper neighborhood size. We then further realized that the computational complexity increased dramatically along with the enlargement of the neighborhood size. This paper is to further the previous research and to discuss the tradeoff between the computational complexity and the restoration improvement by using longer neighborhood range. We used a couple of methods to construct the synthetic images with the exact correlation coefficients we want and to determine the corresponding neighborhood size. We constructed an image with a range of correlation coefficients by blending some synthetic images. Then an adaptive method to find the correlation coefficients of this image was constructed. We restored the image by applying different neighborhood CLRS algorithm to different parts of the image according to its correlation coefficient. Finally, we applied this adaptive method to some real-world images to get improved restoration results than by using single

  4. A promising green method in cyclization reaction.Oxidation of 3-methylcatechol in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline

    Davood Nematollahi; Bita Dadpou


    Electrochemical oxidation of 3-methylcatechol as a model compound has been studied in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline as a bi-dentate nucleophile in water/acetonitrile (70/30, v/v) solution using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results revealed that anodically generated 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-l,2-dione participates in inter and intramolecular Michael addition reactions with 1,10-phenanthroline and via an ECEC pathway converts to the corresponding heterocyclic compound. The present work has led to the development of a facile and one-pot method with high atom economy under ambient conditions and in an undivided cell using a carbon electrode.

  5. Image Classification Workflow Using Machine Learning Methods

    Christoffersen, M. S.; Roser, M.; Valadez-Vergara, R.; Fernández-Vega, J. A.; Pierce, S. A.; Arora, R.


    Recent increases in the availability and quality of remote sensing datasets have fueled an increasing number of scientifically significant discoveries based on land use classification and land use change analysis. However, much of the software made to work with remote sensing data products, specifically multispectral images, is commercial and often prohibitively expensive. The free to use solutions that are currently available come bundled up as small parts of much larger programs that are very susceptible to bugs and difficult to install and configure. What is needed is a compact, easy to use set of tools to perform land use analysis on multispectral images. To address this need, we have developed software using the Python programming language with the sole function of land use classification and land use change analysis. We chose Python to develop our software because it is relatively readable, has a large body of relevant third party libraries such as GDAL and Spectral Python, and is free to install and use on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh operating systems. In order to test our classification software, we performed a K-means unsupervised classification, Gaussian Maximum Likelihood supervised classification, and a Mahalanobis Distance based supervised classification. The images used for testing were three Landsat rasters of Austin, Texas with a spatial resolution of 60 meters for the years of 1984 and 1999, and 30 meters for the year 2015. The testing dataset was easily downloaded using the Earth Explorer application produced by the USGS. The software should be able to perform classification based on any set of multispectral rasters with little to no modification. Our software makes the ease of land use classification using commercial software available without an expensive license.

  6. A Fast Fractal Image Compression Coding Method


    Fast algorithms for reducing encoding complexity of fractal image coding have recently been an important research topic. Search of the best matched domain block is the most computation intensive part of the fractal encoding process. In this paper, a fast fractal approximation coding scheme implemented on a personal computer based on matching in range block's neighbours is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is very simple in implementation, fast in encoding time and high in compression ratio while PSNR is almost the same as compared with Barnsley's fractal block coding .

  7. Research on image matching method of big data image of three-dimensional reconstruction

    Zhang, Chunsen; Qiu, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shihuan; Wang, Xiqi; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Sidong


    Image matching is the main flow of a three-dimensional reconstruction. With the development of computer processing technology, seeking the image to be matched from the large date image sets which acquired from different image formats, different scales and different locations has put forward a new request for image matching. To establish the three dimensional reconstruction based on image matching from big data images, this paper put forward a new effective matching method based on visual bag of words model. The main technologies include building the bag of words model and image matching. First, extracting the SIFT feature points from images in the database, and clustering the feature points to generate the bag of words model. We established the inverted files based on the bag of words. The inverted files can represent all images corresponding to each visual word. We performed images matching depending on the images under the same word to improve the efficiency of images matching. Finally, we took the three-dimensional model with those images. Experimental results indicate that this method is able to improve the matching efficiency, and is suitable for the requirements of large data reconstruction.

  8. Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform

    庹红娅; 刘允才


    This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.

  9. Method of infrared image enhancement based on histogram

    WANG Liang; YAN Jie


    Aiming at the problem in infrared image enhancement, a new method is given based on histogram. Using the gray character- istics of target, the upper-bouod threshold is selected adaptively and the histogram is processed by the threshold. After choosing the gray transform function based on the gray level distribution of image, the gray transformation is done during histogram equalization. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained. Compared with histogram equalization (HE), histogram double equalization (HDE) and plateau histogram equalization (PE), the simulation results demonstrate that the image enhancement effect of this method has obvious superiority. At the same time, its operation speed is fast and real-time ability is excellent.

  10. A method of periodic pattern localization on document images

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Kliatskine, Vitali M.


    Periodic patterns often present on document images as holograms, watermarks or guilloche elements which are mostly used for fraud protection. Localization of such patterns lets an embedded OCR system to vary its settings depending on pattern presence in particular image regions and improves the precision of pattern removal to preserve as much useful data as possible. Many document images' noise detection and removal methods deal with unstructured noise or clutter on documents with simple background. In this paper we propose a method of periodic pattern localization on document images which uses discrete Fourier transform that works well on documents with complex background.

  11. Split Bregman's optimization method for image construction in compressive sensing

    Skinner, D.; Foo, S.; Meyer-Bäse, A.


    The theory of compressive sampling (CS) was reintroduced by Candes, Romberg and Tao, and D. Donoho in 2006. Using a priori knowledge that a signal is sparse, it has been mathematically proven that CS can defY Nyquist sampling theorem. Theoretically, reconstruction of a CS image relies on the minimization and optimization techniques to solve this complex almost NP-complete problem. There are many paths to consider when compressing and reconstructing an image but these methods have remained untested and unclear on natural images, such as underwater sonar images. The goal of this research is to perfectly reconstruct the original sonar image from a sparse signal while maintaining pertinent information, such as mine-like object, in Side-scan sonar (SSS) images. Goldstein and Osher have shown how to use an iterative method to reconstruct the original image through a method called Split Bregman's iteration. This method "decouples" the energies using portions of the energy from both the !1 and !2 norm. Once the energies are split, Bregman iteration is used to solve the unconstrained optimization problem by recursively solving the problems simultaneously. The faster these two steps or energies can be solved then the faster the overall method becomes. While the majority of CS research is still focused on the medical field, this paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of the Split Bregman's methods on sonar images.


    Nie Xuan; Zhao Rongchun; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Xiaoyan


    A new image warping method is proposed in this letter, which can warp a given image by some manual defined features. Based on the radial basis interpolation function algorithm, the proposed method can transform the original optimized problem into nonsingular linear problem by adding one-order term and affine differentiable condition. This linear system can get the steady unique solution by choosing suitable kernel function. Furthermore, the proposed method demonstrates how to set up the radial basis function in the target image so as to achieve supports to adopt the backward re-sampling technology accordingly which could gain the very slippery warping image. Theexperimental result shows that the proposed method can implement smooth and gradual image warping with multi-anchor points' accurate interpolation.

  13. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui


    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  14. Image Mosaic Method Based on SIFT Features of Line Segment

    Jun Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  15. A rigorous and simpler method of image charges

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.


    The method of image charges relies on the proven uniqueness of the solution of the Laplace differential equation for an electrostatic potential which satisfies some specified boundary conditions. Granted by that uniqueness, the method of images is rightly described as nothing but shrewdly guessing which and where image charges are to be placed to solve the given electrostatics problem. Here we present an alternative image charges method that is based not on guessing but on rigorous and simpler theoretical grounds, namely the constant potential inside any conductor and the application of powerful geometric symmetries. The aforementioned required uniqueness and, more importantly, guessing are therefore both altogether dispensed with. Our two new theoretical fundaments also allow the image charges method to be introduced in earlier physics courses for engineering and sciences students, instead of its present and usual introduction in electromagnetic theory courses that demand familiarity with the Laplace differential equation and its boundary conditions.


    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li


    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create...

  17. A Method of Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Shape Features

    LEI Xiaoqi


    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing image is an important and difficult task.Since remote sensing images include complicated information,the methods that extract roads by spectral,texture and linear features have certain limitations.Also,many methods need human-intervention to get the road seeds(semi-automatic extraction,which have the great human-dependence and low efficiency.The road-extraction method,which uses the image segmentation based on principle of local gray consistency and integration shape features,is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the image is segmented,and then the linear and curve roads are obtained by using several object shape features,so the method that just only extract linear roads are rectified.Secondly,the step of road extraction is carried out based on the region growth,the road seeds are automatic selected and the road network is extracted.Finally,the extracted roads are regulated by combining the edge information.In experiments,the images that including the better gray uniform of road and the worse illuminated of road surface were chosen,and the results prove that the method of this study is promising.

  18. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli


    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  19. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design.

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F


    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  20. A Novel Visual Cryptographic Method for Color Images

    Amarjot Singh


    Full Text Available Visual cryptography is considered to be a vital technique for hiding visual data from intruders. Because of its importance, it finds applications in various sectors such as E-voting system, financial documents and copyright protections etc. A number of methods have been proposed in past for encrypting color images such as color decomposition, contrast manipulation, polynomial method, using the difference in color intensity values in a color image etc. The major flaws with most of the earlier proposed methods is the complexity encountered during the implementation of the methods on a wide scale basis, the problem of random pixilation and insertion of noise in encrypted images. This paper presents a simple and highly resistant algorithm for visual cryptography to be performed on color images. The main advantage of the proposed cryptographic algorithm is the robustness and low computational cost with structure simplicity. The proposed algorithm outperformed the conventional methods when tested over sample images proven using key analysis, SSIM and histogram analysis tests. In addition, the proposed method overshadows the standard method in terms of the signal to noise ratio obtained for the encrypted image, which is much better than the SNR value obtained using the standard method. The paper also makes a worst case analysis for the SNR values for both the methods.

  1. Improved Wavelet-based Spatial Filter of Damage Imaging Method on Composite Structures

    WANG Yu; YUAN Shenfang; QIU Lei


    Piezoelectric sensor array-based spatial filter technology is a new promising method presented in research area of structural health monitoring(SHM)in the recent years.To apply this method to composite structures and give the actual position of damage,this paper proposes a spatial filter-based damage imaging method improved by complex Shannon wavelet transform.The basic principle of spatial filter is analyzed first.Then,this paper proposes a method of using complex Shannon wavelet transform to construct analytic signals of time domain signals of PZT sensors array.The analytic signals are synthesized depending on the principle of the spatial filter to give a damage imaging in the form of angle-time.A method of converting the damage imaging to the form of angle-distance is discussed.Finally,an aircraft composite oil tank is adopted to validate the damage imaging method.The validating results show that this method can recognize angle and distance of damage successfully.

  2. Liposomal solubilization of new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity: a screening method to identify maximum incorporation capacity

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan


    Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic...... drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used...

  3. [An adaptive threshloding segmentation method for urinary sediment image].

    Li, Yongming; Zeng, Xiaoping; Qin, Jian; Han, Liang


    In this paper is proposed a new method to solve the segmentation of the complicated defocusing urinary sediment image. The main points of the method are: (1) using wavelet transforms and morphology to erase the effect of defocusing and realize the first segmentation, (2) using adaptive threshold processing in accordance to the subimages after wavelet processing, and (3) using 'peel off' algorithm to deal with the overlapped cells' segmentations. The experimental results showed that this method was not affected by the defocusing, and it made good use of many kinds of characteristics of the images. So this new mehtod can get very precise segmentation; it is effective for defocusing urinary sediment image segmentation.

  4. Image Post-Processing Method for Visual Data Mining


    Visual data mining is one of important approach of data mining techniques. Most of them are based on computer graphic techniques but few of them exploit image-processing techniques. This paper proposes an image processing method, named RNAM (resemble neighborhood averaging method), to facilitate visual data mining, which is used to post-process the data mining result-image and help users to discover significant features and useful patterns effectively. The experiments show that the method is intuitive, easily-understanding and effectiveness. It provides a new approach for visual data mining.

  5. Mathematical methods in time series analysis and digital image processing

    Kurths, J; Maass, P; Timmer, J


    The aim of this volume is to bring together research directions in theoretical signal and imaging processing developed rather independently in electrical engineering, theoretical physics, mathematics and the computer sciences. In particular, mathematically justified algorithms and methods, the mathematical analysis of these algorithms, and methods as well as the investigation of connections between methods from time series analysis and image processing are reviewed. An interdisciplinary comparison of these methods, drawing upon common sets of test problems from medicine and geophysical/enviromental sciences, is also addressed. This volume coherently summarizes work carried out in the field of theoretical signal and image processing. It focuses on non-linear and non-parametric models for time series as well as on adaptive methods in image processing.

  6. Hiding Two Binary Images in Grayscale BMP Image via Five Modulus Method

    Firas A. Jassim


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to hide two binary BMP images in a single BMP grayscale image. The widespread technique in image steganography is to hide one image (stego image into another (cover image. The proposed novel method is to hide two binary images into one grayscale bitmap cover image. First of all, the proposed technique starts with transforming all grayscale cover image pixels into multiples of five using Five Modulus Method (FMM. Clearly, any modulus of five is either 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. The transformed FMM cover image could be treated as a good host for carrying data. Obviously, it is known that the pixel value for the binary image is either 0 or 1. Therefore, by concatenating the two binary images, the composite results are 00, 01, 10 and 11. In fact, these concatenated values could be mapped using simple mapping that assigns a positive integer value such as 1 for 00, 2 for 01, 3 for 10 and 4 for 11. Consequently, a new matrix will be constructed that contains a number varying from 1 to 4 only. Fortunately, the four integer values are the same as the previously mentioned reminders of division by 5, hence, adding these four integers to the transformed FMM cover image. On the recipient side, a reverse process will be implemented to extract the two binary images. In terms of PSNR values, the cover image and the two extracted stego images have acceptable PSNR values, which yields that the proposed method is very efficient in information hiding.

  7. Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications

    Wang, Lin


    Classical imaging optics has been developed over centuries in many areas, such as its paraxial imaging theory and practical design methods like multi-parametric optimization techniques. Although these imaging optical design methods can provide elegant solutions to many traditional optical problems, there are more and more new design problems, like solar concentrator, illumination system, ultra-compact camera, etc., that require maximum energy transfer efficiency, or ultra-compact optical stru...

  8. Super pixel density based clustering automatic image classification method

    Xu, Mingxing; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Tianxu


    The image classification is an important means of image segmentation and data mining, how to achieve rapid automated image classification has been the focus of research. In this paper, based on the super pixel density of cluster centers algorithm for automatic image classification and identify outlier. The use of the image pixel location coordinates and gray value computing density and distance, to achieve automatic image classification and outlier extraction. Due to the increased pixel dramatically increase the computational complexity, consider the method of ultra-pixel image preprocessing, divided into a small number of super-pixel sub-blocks after the density and distance calculations, while the design of a normalized density and distance discrimination law, to achieve automatic classification and clustering center selection, whereby the image automatically classify and identify outlier. After a lot of experiments, our method does not require human intervention, can automatically categorize images computing speed than the density clustering algorithm, the image can be effectively automated classification and outlier extraction.

  9. Image quality improvement for underground radar by block migration method

    Ho, Gwangsu; Kawanaka, Akira; Takagi, Mikio


    Techniques have been developed which have been imaging optically opaque regions using an electromagnetic wave radar in order to estimate the location of the objects in those regions. One important application of these techniques is the detection of buried pipes and cables. In the case of underground radar, its image quality often becomes low because the nature of the soil is not uniform and an electromagnetic wave is attenuated in soil. Hence, the method which improves the quality of the radar images is required. In this paper, we point out that the quality of underground images can be improved significantly by means of the block migration method. In this method LOT (Lapped Orthogonal Transform) was applied. LOT is a new block transform method in which basis functions overlap in adjacent blocks, and it has a fast computation algorithm. In addition to above, we propose a method of estimating dielectric constant in soil using the processed images. The result of applying the block migration method to the underground radar images are presented. It points out the good capability for the image quality improvement and the application of LOT can improve the influence by blocking and the processing time. Also the dielectric constant in each block can be estimated accurately.


    Jensen, Andreas Kryger; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard


    We investigate methods for improving the visual quality of in vivo images of blood vessels in the human forearm. Using a near-infrared light source and a dual CCD chip camera system capable of capturing images at visual and nearinfrared spectra, we evaluate three fusion methods in terms of their ...

  11. CMOS low data rate imaging method based on compressed sensing

    Xiao, Long-long; Liu, Kun; Han, Da-peng


    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enables the integration of image sensing and image compression processing, making improvements on overall system performance possible. We present a CMOS low data rate imaging approach by implementing compressed sensing (CS). On the basis of the CS framework, the image sensor projects the image onto a separable two-dimensional (2D) basis set and measures the corresponding coefficients obtained. First, the electrical current output from the pixels in a column are combined, with weights specified by voltage, in accordance with Kirchhoff's law. The second computation is performed in an analog vector-matrix multiplier (VMM). Each element of the VMM considers the total value of each column as the input and multiplies it by a unique coefficient. Both weights and coefficients are reprogrammable through analog floating-gate (FG) transistors. The image can be recovered from a percentage of these measurements using an optimization algorithm. The percentage, which can be altered flexibly by programming on the hardware circuit, determines the image compression ratio. These novel designs facilitate image compression during the image-capture phase before storage, and have the potential to reduce power consumption. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a large image compression ratio and ensures imaging quality.

  12. Method, apparatus and software for analyzing perfusion images

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel


    The invention relates to a method for analyzing perfusion images, in particular MR pertbsion images, of a human or animal organ including the steps of: (a) defining at least one contour of the organ, and (b) establishing at least one perfusion parameter of a region of interest of said organ within a

  13. Method, apparatus and software for analyzing perfusion images

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel


    The invention relates to a method for analyzing perfusion images, in particular MR pertbsion images, of a human or animal organ including the steps of: (a) defining at least one contour of the organ, and (b) establishing at least one perfusion parameter of a region of interest of said organ within a

  14. Method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints

    Fernandez, Salvador M.


    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints. A fluorescent dye brought in intimate proximity with the lipid residues of a latent fingerprint is caused to fluoresce on exposure to light energy. The resulting fluorescing image may be recorded photographically.

  15. A Novel Image Fusion Method Based on FRFT-NSCT

    Peiguang Wang


    fused image is obtained by performing the inverse NSCT and inverse FRFT on the combined coefficients. Three modes images and three fusion rules are demonstrated in the proposed algorithm test. The simulation results show that the proposed fusion approach is better than the methods based on NSCT at the same parameters.

  16. Click reaction: An applicable radiolabeling method for molecular imaging

    Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Chul [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    In recent years, the click reaction has found rapidly growing applications in the field of radiochemistry, ranging from a practical labeling method to molecular imaging of biomacromolecules. This present review details the development of highly reliable, powerful and selective click chemistry reactions for the rapid synthesis of new radiotracers for molecular imaging.

  17. Click Reaction: An Applicable Radiolabeling Method for Molecular Imaging.

    Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Chul


    In recent years, the click reaction has found rapidly growing applications in the field of radiochemistry, ranging from a practical labeling method to molecular imaging of biomacromolecules. This present review details the development of highly reliable, powerful and selective click chemistry reactions for the rapid synthesis of new radiotracers for molecular imaging.

  18. A Novel Steganography Method for Hiding BW Images into Gray Bitmap Images via k-Modulus Method

    Firas A. Jassim


    Full Text Available This paper is to create a pragmatic steganographic implementation to hide black and white image which is known as stego image inside another gray bitmap image that known as cover image. First of all, the proposed technique uses k-Modulus Method (K-MM to convert all pixels within the cover image into multiples of positive integer named k. Since the black and white images can be represented using binary representation, i.e. 0 or 1. Then, in this article, the suitable value for the positive integer k is two. Therefore, each pixel inside the cover image is divisible by two and this produces a reminder which is either 0 or 1. Subsequently, the black and white representation of the stego image could be hidden inside the cover image. The ocular differences between the cover image before and after adding the stego image are insignificant. The experimental results show that the PSNR values for the cover image are very high with very small Mean Square Error.

  19. A Precise-Mask-Based Method for Enhanced Image Inpainting

    Wanxu Zhang


    Full Text Available Mask of damage region is the pretreatment step of the image inpainting, which plays a key role in the ultimate effect. However, state-of-the-art methods have attached significance to the inpainting model, and the mask of damage region is usually selected manually or by the conventional threshold-based method. Since manual method is time-consuming and the threshold-based method does not have the same precision for different images, we herein report a new method for automatically constructing the precise mask by the joint filtering of guided filtering and L0 smoothing. It can accurately locate the boundary of damaged region in order to effectively segment the damage region and then greatly improves the ultimate effect of image inpainting. The experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art methods in the step of constructing inpainting mask, especially for the damaged region with inconspicuous boundary.

  20. Multiphase Image Segmentation Using the Deformable Simplicial Complex Method

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    The deformable simplicial complex method is a generic method for tracking deformable interfaces. It provides explicit interface representation, topological adaptivity, and multiphase support. As such, the deformable simplicial complex method can readily be used for representing active contours in...... in image segmentation based on deformable models. We show the benefits of using the deformable simplicial complex method for image segmentation by segmenting an image into a known number of segments characterized by distinct mean pixel intensities.......The deformable simplicial complex method is a generic method for tracking deformable interfaces. It provides explicit interface representation, topological adaptivity, and multiphase support. As such, the deformable simplicial complex method can readily be used for representing active contours...

  1. A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.


    In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.

  2. DCS-SVM: a novel semi-automated method for human brain MR image segmentation.

    Ahmadvand, Ali; Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Hajiali, Mohammadtaghi


    In this paper, a novel method is proposed which appropriately segments magnetic resonance (MR) brain images into three main tissues. This paper proposes an extension of our previous work in which we suggested a combination of multiple classifiers (CMC)-based methods named dynamic classifier selection-dynamic local training local Tanimoto index (DCS-DLTLTI) for MR brain image segmentation into three main cerebral tissues. This idea is used here and a novel method is developed that tries to use more complex and accurate classifiers like support vector machine (SVM) in the ensemble. This work is challenging because the CMC-based methods are time consuming, especially on huge datasets like three-dimensional (3D) brain MR images. Moreover, SVM is a powerful method that is used for modeling datasets with complex feature space, but it also has huge computational cost for big datasets, especially those with strong interclass variability problems and with more than two classes such as 3D brain images; therefore, we cannot use SVM in DCS-DLTLTI. Therefore, we propose a novel approach named "DCS-SVM" to use SVM in DCS-DLTLTI to improve the accuracy of segmentation results. The proposed method is applied on well-known datasets of the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR) and promising results are obtained.

  3. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø


    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  4. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    Mingdong Li; Siyu Lai; Juan Wang


    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can ...

  5. Beam imaging sensor and method for using same

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.


    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature. In another embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other things, a discontinuous partially circumferential slit. Also disclosed is a method for using the various beams sensor embodiments of the present invention.

  6. Segmentation of Bacteria Image Based on Level Set Method

    WANG Hua; CHEN Chun-xiao; HU Yong-hong; YANG Wen-ge


    In biology ferment engineering, accurate statistics of the quantity of bacte-ria is one of the most important subjects. In this paper, the quantity of bacteria which was observed traditionally manuauy can be detected automatically. Image acquisition and pro-cessing system is designed to accomplish image preprocessing, image segmentation and statistics of the quantity of bacteria. Segmentation of bacteria images is successfully real-ized by means of a region-based level set method and then the quantity of bacteria is com-puted precisely, which plays an important role in optimizing the growth conditions of bac-teria.

  7. Dual-force ISOMAP: a new relevance feedback method for medical image retrieval.

    Hualei Shen

    Full Text Available With great potential for assisting radiological image interpretation and decision making, content-based image retrieval in the medical domain has become a hot topic in recent years. Many methods to enhance the performance of content-based medical image retrieval have been proposed, among which the relevance feedback (RF scheme is one of the most promising. Given user feedback information, RF algorithms interactively learn a user's preferences to bridge the "semantic gap" between low-level computerized visual features and high-level human semantic perception and thus improve retrieval performance. However, most existing RF algorithms perform in the original high-dimensional feature space and ignore the manifold structure of the low-level visual features of images. In this paper, we propose a new method, termed dual-force ISOMAP (DFISOMAP, for content-based medical image retrieval. Under the assumption that medical images lie on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space, DFISOMAP operates in the following three stages. First, the geometric structure of positive examples in the learned low-dimensional embedding is preserved according to the isometric feature mapping (ISOMAP criterion. To precisely model the geometric structure, a reconstruction error constraint is also added. Second, the average distance between positive and negative examples is maximized to separate them; this margin maximization acts as a force that pushes negative examples far away from positive examples. Finally, the similarity propagation technique is utilized to provide negative examples with another force that will pull them back into the negative sample set. We evaluate the proposed method on a subset of the IRMA medical image dataset with a RF-based medical image retrieval framework. Experimental results show that DFISOMAP outperforms popular approaches for content-based medical image retrieval in terms of accuracy and stability.

  8. Single Molecule Imaging in Living Cell with Optical Method


    Significance, difficult, international developing actuality and our completed works for single molecules imaging in living cell with optical method are described respectively. Additionally we give out some suggestions for the technology development further.

  9. Discrete gradient methods for solving variational image regularisation models

    Grimm, V.; McLachlan, Robert I.; McLaren, David I.; Quispel, G. R. W.; Schönlieb, C.-B.


    Discrete gradient methods are well-known methods of geometric numerical integration, which preserve the dissipation of gradient systems. In this paper we show that this property of discrete gradient methods can be interesting in the context of variational models for image processing, that is where the processed image is computed as a minimiser of an energy functional. Numerical schemes for computing minimisers of such energies are desired to inherit the dissipative property of the gradient system associated to the energy and consequently guarantee a monotonic decrease of the energy along iterations, avoiding situations in which more computational work might lead to less optimal solutions. Under appropriate smoothness assumptions on the energy functional we prove that discrete gradient methods guarantee a monotonic decrease of the energy towards stationary states, and we promote their use in image processing by exhibiting experiments with convex and non-convex variational models for image deblurring, denoising, and inpainting.

  10. Landweber Iterative Methods for Angle-limited Image Reconstruction

    Gang-rong Qu; Ming Jiang


    We introduce a general itcrative scheme for angle-limited image reconstruction based on Landwe-ber's method. We derive a representation formula for this scheme and consequently establish its convergence conditions. Our results suggest certain relaxation strategies for an accelerated convergcnce for angle-limited im-age reconstruction in L2-norm comparing with alternative projection methods. The convolution-backprojection algorithm is given for this iterative process.

  11. Color Image Segmentation Method Based on Improved Spectral Clustering Algorithm

    Dong Qin


    Contraposing to the features of image data with high sparsity of and the problems on determination of clustering numbers, we try to put forward an color image segmentation algorithm, combined with semi-supervised machine learning technology and spectral graph theory. By the research of related theories and methods of spectral clustering algorithms, we introduce information entropy conception to design a method which can automatically optimize the scale parameter value. So it avoids the unstab...

  12. Liver 4DMRI: A retrospective image-based sorting method

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133 (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano 20133, Italy and Department of Health Sciences, Università di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)


    Purpose: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is an emerging technique in radiotherapy treatment planning for organ motion quantification. In this paper, the authors present a novel 4DMRI retrospective image-based sorting method, providing reduced motion artifacts than using a standard monodimensional external respiratory surrogate. Methods: Serial interleaved 2D multislice MRI data were acquired from 24 liver cases (6 volunteers + 18 patients) to test the proposed 4DMRI sorting. Image similarity based on mutual information was applied to automatically identify a stable reference phase and sort the image sequence retrospectively, without the use of additional image or surrogate data to describe breathing motion. Results: The image-based 4DMRI provided a smoother liver profile than that obtained from standard resorting based on an external surrogate. Reduced motion artifacts were observed in image-based 4DMRI datasets with a fitting error of the liver profile measuring 1.2 ± 0.9 mm (median ± interquartile range) vs 2.1 ± 1.7 mm of the standard method. Conclusions: The authors present a novel methodology to derive a patient-specific 4DMRI model to describe organ motion due to breathing, with improved image quality in 4D reconstruction.

  13. A MNCIE method for registration of ultrasound images

    JIN Jing; WANG Qiang; SHEN Yi


    A new approach to the problem of registration of ultrasound images is presented, using a concept of Nonlinear Correlation Information Entropy (NCIE) as the matching criterion. The proposed method applies NCIE to measure the correlation degree between the image intensities of corresponding voxel in the floating and reference images. Registration is achieved by adjustment of the relative position until NCIE between the images is maximized. However, unlike mutual information (MI), NCIE varies in the closed interval [0, 1 ], and around the extremum it varies sharply, which makes it possible that thresholds of NCIE can be used to boost the search for the registration transformation. Using this feature of NCIE, we combine the downhill simplex searching algorithm to register the ultrasound images. The simulations are conducted to testify the effectiveness and rapidity of the proposed registration method, in which the ultrasound floating images are aligned to the reference images with required registration accuracy. Moreover, the NCIE based method can overcome local minima problem by setting thresholds and can take care of the differences in contrast between the floating and reference images.

  14. Analysis and Comparison of Objective Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    P. S. Babkin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is research and modification of the reference objective methods for image quality assessment. The ultimate goal is to obtain a modification of formal assessments that more closely corresponds to the subjective expert estimates (MOS.In considering the formal reference objective methods for image quality assessment we used the results of other authors, which offer results and comparative analyzes of the most effective algorithms. Based on these investigations we have chosen two of the most successful algorithm for which was made a further analysis in the MATLAB 7.8 R 2009 a (PQS and MSSSIM. The publication focuses on the features of the algorithms, which have great importance in practical implementation, but are insufficiently covered in the publications by other authors.In the implemented modification of the algorithm PQS boundary detector Kirsch was replaced by the boundary detector Canny. Further experiments were carried out according to the method of the ITU-R VT.500-13 (01/2012 using monochrome images treated with different types of filters (should be emphasized that an objective assessment of image quality PQS is applicable only to monochrome images. Images were obtained with a thermal imaging surveillance system. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of this modification.In the specialized literature in the field of formal to evaluation methods pictures, this type of modification was not mentioned.The method described in the publication can be applied to various practical implementations of digital image processing.Advisability and effectiveness of using the modified method of PQS to assess the structural differences between the images are shown in the article and this will be used in solving the problems of identification and automatic control.

  15. History Document Image Background Noise and Removal Methods



    Full Text Available It is common for archive libraries to provide public access to historical and ancient document image collections. It is common for such document images to require specialized processing in order to remove background noise and become more legible. Document images may be contaminated with noise during transmission, scanning or conversion to digital form. We can categorize noises by identifying their features and can search for similar patterns in a document image to choose appropriate methods for their removal. In this paper, we propose a hybrid binarization approach for improving the quality of old documents using a combination of global and local thresholding. This article also reviews noises that might appear in scanned document images and discusses some noise removal methods.

  16. Generalized Row-Action Methods for Tomographic Imaging

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansen, Per Christian


    initial convergence which is desirable in applications where a low-accuracy solution is acceptable. In this paper, we propose relaxed variants of a class of incremental proximal gradient methods, and these variants generalize many existing row-action methods for tomographic imaging. Moreover, they allow......Row-action methods play an important role in tomographic image reconstruction. Many such methods can be viewed as incremental gradient methods for minimizing a sum of a large number of convex functions, and despite their relatively poor global rate of convergence, these methods often exhibit fast...... us to derive new incremental algorithms for tomographic imaging that incorporate different types of prior information via regularization. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach with some numerical examples....

  17. A fast and accurate method for echocardiography strain rate imaging

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima; Hajebi, Nima; Nambakhsh, Mohammad Saleh


    Recently Strain and strain rate imaging have proved their superiority with respect to classical motion estimation methods in myocardial evaluation as a novel technique for quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Here in this paper, we propose a novel strain rate imaging algorithm using a new optical flow technique which is more rapid and accurate than the previous correlation-based methods. The new method presumes a spatiotemporal constancy of intensity and Magnitude of the image. Moreover the method makes use of the spline moment in a multiresolution approach. Moreover cardiac central point is obtained using a combination of center of mass and endocardial tracking. It is proved that the proposed method helps overcome the intensity variations of ultrasound texture while preserving the ability of motion estimation technique for different motions and orientations. Evaluation is performed on simulated, phantom (a contractile rubber balloon) and real sequences and proves that this technique is more accurate and faster than the previous methods.

  18. A Method of Image Symmetry Detection Based on Phase Information

    WU Jun; YANG Zhaoxuan; FENG Dengchao


    Traditional methods for detecting symmetry in image suffer greatly from the contrast of image and noise, and they all require some preprocessing. This paper presents a new method of image symmetry detection. This method detects symmetry with phase information utilizing logGabor wavelets, because phase information is stable and significant, while symmetric points produce patterns easy to be recognised and confirmable in local phase. Phase method does not require any preprocessing, and its result is accurate or invariant to contrast, rotation and illumination conditions. This method can detect mirror symmetry, rotating symmetry and curve symmetry at one time. Results of experiment show that, compared with pivotal element algorithm based on intensity information, phase method is more accurate and robust.

  19. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick


    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  20. The pre-image problem in kernel methods.

    Kwok, James Tin-yau; Tsang, Ivor Wai-hung


    In this paper, we address the problem of finding the pre-image of a feature vector in the feature space induced by a kernel. This is of central importance in some kernel applications, such as on using kernel principal component analysis (PCA) for image denoising. Unlike the traditional method which relies on nonlinear optimization, our proposed method directly finds the location of the pre-image based on distance constraints in the feature space. It is noniterative, involves only linear algebra and does not suffer from numerical instability or local minimum problems. Evaluations on performing kernel PCA and kernel clustering on the USPS data set show much improved performance.

  1. Living Brain Optical Imaging: Technology, Methods and Applications

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Bernardelli, Chad; Maslov, Konstantin I.


    Within the last few decades, optical imaging methods have yielded revolutionary results when applied to all parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to analyze research possibilities and limitations of several novel imaging techniques and show some of the most interesting achievements obtained by these methods. Here we covered intrinsic optical imaging, voltage-sensitive dye, photoacoustic, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy and some other techniques. All of them are mainly applicable for experimental neuroscience but some of them also suitable for the clinical studies.

  2. Soft-tissues Image Processing: Comparison of Traditional Segmentation Methods with 2D active Contour Methods

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtova, E.; Bartusek, K.


    The paper deals with modern methods of image processing, especially image segmentation, classification and evaluation of parameters. It focuses primarily on processing medical images of soft tissues obtained by magnetic resonance tomography (MR). It is easy to describe edges of the sought objects using segmented images. The edges found can be useful for further processing of monitored object such as calculating the perimeter, surface and volume evaluation or even three-dimensional shape reconstruction. The proposed solutions can be used for the classification of healthy/unhealthy tissues in MR or other imaging. Application examples of the proposed segmentation methods are shown. Research in the area of image segmentation focuses on methods based on solving partial differential equations. This is a modern method for image processing, often called the active contour method. It is of great advantage in the segmentation of real images degraded by noise with fuzzy edges and transitions between objects. In the paper, results of the segmentation of medical images by the active contour method are compared with results of the segmentation by other existing methods. Experimental applications which demonstrate the very good properties of the active contour method are given.

  3. Digital image quality measurements by objective and subjective methods from series of parametrically degraded images

    Tachó, Aura; Mitjà, Carles; Martínez, Bea; Escofet, Jaume; Ralló, Miquel


    Many digital image applications like digitization of cultural heritage for preservation purposes operate with compressed files in one or more image observing steps. For this kind of applications JPEG compression is one of the most widely used. Compression level, final file size and quality loss are parameters that must be managed optimally. Although this loss can be monitored by means of objective image quality measurements, the real challenge is to know how it can be related with the perceived image quality by observers. A pictorial image has been degraded by two different procedures. The first, applying different levels of low pass filtering by convolving the image with progressively broad Gauss kernels. The second, saving the original file to a series of JPEG compression levels. In both cases, the objective image quality measurement is done by analysis of the image power spectrum. In order to obtain a measure of the perceived image quality, both series of degraded images are displayed on a computer screen organized in random pairs. The observers are compelled to choose the best image of each pair. Finally, a ranking is established applying Thurstone scaling method. Results obtained by both measurements are compared between them and with other objective measurement method as the Slanted Edge Test.

  4. Gradient-based image recovery methods from incomplete Fourier measurements.

    Patel, Vishal M; Maleh, Ray; Gilbert, Anna C; Chellappa, Rama


    A major problem in imaging applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and synthetic aperture radar is the task of trying to reconstruct an image with the smallest possible set of Fourier samples, every single one of which has a potential time and/or power cost. The theory of compressive sensing (CS) points to ways of exploiting inherent sparsity in such images in order to achieve accurate recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling schemes. Traditional CS approaches to this problem consist of solving total-variation (TV) minimization programs with Fourier measurement constraints or other variations thereof. This paper takes a different approach. Since the horizontal and vertical differences of a medical image are each more sparse or compressible than the corresponding TV image, CS methods will be more successful in recovering these differences individually. We develop an algorithm called GradientRec that uses a CS algorithm to recover the horizontal and vertical gradients and then estimates the original image from these gradients. We present two methods of solving the latter inverse problem, i.e., one based on least-square optimization and the other based on a generalized Poisson solver. After a thorough derivation of our complete algorithm, we present the results of various experiments that compare the effectiveness of the proposed method against other leading methods.

  5. Harmonic spatial coherence imaging: an ultrasonic imaging method based on backscatter coherence.

    Dahl, Jeremy; Jakovljevic, Marko; Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E


    We introduce a harmonic version of the short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging technique, called harmonic spatial coherence imaging (HSCI). The method is based on the coherence of the second-harmonic backscatter. Because the same signals that are used to construct harmonic B-mode images are also used to construct HSCI images, the benefits obtained with harmonic imaging are also obtained with HSCI. Harmonic imaging has been the primary tool for suppressing clutter in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, however secondharmonic echoes are not necessarily immune to the effects of clutter. HSCI and SLSC imaging are less sensitive to clutter because clutter has low spatial coherence. HSCI shows favorable imaging characteristics such as improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), improved speckle SNR, and better delineation of borders and other structures compared with fundamental and harmonic B-mode imaging. CNRs of up to 1.9 were obtained from in vivo imaging of human cardiac tissue with HSCI, compared with 0.6, 0.9, and 1.5 in fundamental B-mode, harmonic B-mode, and SLSC imaging, respectively. In vivo experiments in human liver tissue demonstrated SNRs of up to 3.4 for HSCI compared with 1.9 for harmonic B-mode. Nonlinear simulations of a heart chamber model were consistent with the in vivo experiments.

  6. Optimal method for exoplanet detection by angular differential imaging.

    Mugnier, Laurent M; Cornia, Alberto; Sauvage, Jean-François; Rousset, Gérard; Fusco, Thierry; Védrenne, Nicolas


    We propose a novel method for the efficient direct detection of exoplanets from the ground using angular differential imaging. The method combines images appropriately, then uses the combined images jointly in a maximum-likelihood framework to estimate the position and intensity of potential planets orbiting the observed star. It takes into account the mixture of photon and detector noises and a positivity constraint on the planet's intensity. A reasonable detection criterion is also proposed based on the computation of the noise propagation from the images to the estimated intensity of the potential planet. The implementation of this method is tested on simulated data that take into account static aberrations before and after the coronagraph, residual turbulence after adaptive optics correction, and noise.

  7. A Secret Image Sharing Method Using Integer Wavelet Transform

    Li Ching-Chung


    Full Text Available A new image sharing method, based on the reversible integer-to-integer (ITI wavelet transform and Shamir's threshold scheme is presented, that provides highly compact shadows for real-time progressive transmission. This method, working in the wavelet domain, processes the transform coefficients in each subband, divides each of the resulting combination coefficients into shadows, and allows recovery of the complete secret image by using any or more shadows . We take advantages of properties of the wavelet transform multiresolution representation, such as coefficient magnitude decay and excellent energy compaction, to design combination procedures for the transform coefficients and processing sequences in wavelet subbands such that small shadows for real-time progressive transmission are obtained. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method yields small shadow images and has the capabilities of real-time progressive transmission and perfect reconstruction of secret images.

  8. Method of Infrared Image Enhancement Based on Stationary Wavelet Transform

    QI Fei; LI Yan-jun; ZHANG Ke


    Aiming at the problem, i.e. infrared images own the characters of bad contrast ratio and fuzzy edges, a method to enhance the contrast of infrared image is given, which is based on stationary wavelet transform. After making stationary wavelet transform to an infrared image, denoising is done by the proposed method of double-threshold shrinkage in detail coefficient matrixes that have high noisy intensity. For the approximation coefficient matrix with low noisy intensity, enhancement is done by the proposed method based on histogram. The enhanced image can be got by wavelet coefficient reconstruction. Furthermore, an evaluation criterion of enhancement performance is introduced. The results show that this algorithm ensures target enhancement and restrains additive Gauss white noise effectively. At the same time, its amount of calculation is small and operation speed is fast.

  9. Fast Registration Method for Point Clouds Using the Image Information

    WANG Ruiyan


    Full Text Available On the existing laser scanners, there usually is a coaxial camera, which could capture images in the scanning site. For the laser scanners with a coaxial camera, we propose a fast registration method using the image information. Unlike the traditional registration methods that computing the rotation and translation simultaneously, our method calculates them individually. The rotation transformation between the point clouds is obtained by the knowledge of the vision geometry and the image information, while their translation is acquired by our improved ICP algorithm. In the improved ICP algorithm, only the translation vector is updated iteratively, whose input is the point clouds that removing the rotation transformation. Experimental results show that the rotation matrix obtained by the images has a high accuracy. In addition, compared with the traditional ICP algorithm, our algorithm converges faster and is easier to fall into the global optimum.

  10. Shape determination of unidimensional objects: the virtual image correlation method

    Auradou H.


    Full Text Available The proposed method, named Virtual Image Correlation, allows one to identify an analytical expression of the shape of a curvilinear object from its image. It uses a virtual beam, whose curvature field is expressed as a truncated mathematical series. The virtual beam width only needs to be close to the physical one; its gray level (in the transverse direction is bell-shaped. The method consists in finding the coefficients of the series for which the correlation between physical and virtual beams is the best. The accuracy and the robustness of the method is shown by the mean of two examples. The first details a Young’s modulus identification from a cantilever beam image. The second is relative to a thermal plume image, that have a weak contrast and a lot of noise.

  11. Shape determination of unidimensional objects: the virtual image correlation method

    Francois, M.; Semin, B.; Auradou, H.; Vatteville, J.


    The proposed method, named Virtual Image Correlation, allows one to identify an analytical expression of the shape of a curvilinear object from its image. It uses a virtual beam, whose curvature field is expressed as a truncated mathematical series. The virtual beam width only needs to be close to the physical one; its gray level (in the transverse direction) is bell-shaped. The method consists in finding the coefficients of the series for which the correlation between physical and virtual beams is the best. The accuracy and the robustness of the method is shown by the mean of two examples. The first details a Young’s modulus identification from a cantilever beam image. The second is relative to a thermal plume image, that have a weak contrast and a lot of noise.

  12. A level set method for image segmentation in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities with application to MRI.

    Li, Chunming; Huang, Rui; Ding, Zhaohua; Gatenby, J Chris; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Gore, John C


    Intensity inhomogeneity often occurs in real-world images, which presents a considerable challenge in image segmentation. The most widely used image segmentation algorithms are region-based and typically rely on the homogeneity of the image intensities in the regions of interest, which often fail to provide accurate segmentation results due to the intensity inhomogeneity. This paper proposes a novel region-based method for image segmentation, which is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneities in the segmentation. First, based on the model of images with intensity inhomogeneities, we derive a local intensity clustering property of the image intensities, and define a local clustering criterion function for the image intensities in a neighborhood of each point. This local clustering criterion function is then integrated with respect to the neighborhood center to give a global criterion of image segmentation. In a level set formulation, this criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, by minimizing this energy, our method is able to simultaneously segment the image and estimate the bias field, and the estimated bias field can be used for intensity inhomogeneity correction (or bias correction). Our method has been validated on synthetic images and real images of various modalities, with desirable performance in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities. Experiments show that our method is more robust to initialization, faster and more accurate than the well-known piecewise smooth model. As an application, our method has been used for segmentation and bias correction of magnetic resonance (MR) images with promising results.

  13. A Simple Fusion Method for Image Time Series Based on the Estimation of Image Temporal Validity

    Mar Bisquert


    Full Text Available High-spatial-resolution satellites usually have the constraint of a low temporal frequency, which leads to long periods without information in cloudy areas. Furthermore, low-spatial-resolution satellites have higher revisit cycles. Combining information from high- and low- spatial-resolution satellites is thought a key factor for studies that require dense time series of high-resolution images, e.g., crop monitoring. There are several fusion methods in the bibliography, but they are time-consuming and complicated to implement. Moreover, the local evaluation of the fused images is rarely analyzed. In this paper, we present a simple and fast fusion method based on a weighted average of two input images (H and L, which are weighted by their temporal validity to the image to be fused. The method was applied to two years (2009–2010 of Landsat and MODIS (MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer images that were acquired over a cropped area in Brazil. The fusion method was evaluated at global and local scales. The results show that the fused images reproduced reliable crop temporal profiles and correctly delineated the boundaries between two neighboring fields. The greatest advantages of the proposed method are the execution time and ease of use, which allow us to obtain a fused image in less than five minutes.

  14. Study of Denoising Method of Images- A Review

    Ravi Mohan Sairam


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to undertake the study of Denoising Methods. Different noise densities have been removed by using filters Wavelet based Methods. Fourier transform method is localized in frequency domain where the Wavelet transform method is localized in both frequency and spatial domain but both the above methods are not data adaptive .Independent Component Analysis (ICA is a higher order statistical tool for the analysis of multidimensional data with inherent data adaptiveness property. In This paper we try to presents a review of some significant work in the area of image denoising and finds the one is better for image denoising. Here, some popular approaches are classified into different groups .after that we conclude for best technique for Image Denoising

  15. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in array signal processing which achieve accurate signal reconstruction from limited observations resulting in high-resolution imaging. The focus is on underwater acoustic applications and sonar signal processing both in active (transmit and receive...... in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering......) and passive (only receive) mode. The study addresses the limitations of existing methods and shows that, in many cases, the proposed methods overcome these limitations and outperform traditional methods for acoustic imaging. The project comprises two parts; The first part deals with computational methods...

  16. Research on interpolation methods in medical image processing.

    Pan, Mei-Sen; Yang, Xiao-Li; Tang, Jing-Tian


    Image interpolation is widely used for the field of medical image processing. In this paper, interpolation methods are divided into three groups: filter interpolation, ordinary interpolation and general partial volume interpolation. Some commonly-used filter methods for image interpolation are pioneered, but the interpolation effects need to be further improved. When analyzing and discussing ordinary interpolation, many asymmetrical kernel interpolation methods are proposed. Compared with symmetrical kernel ones, the former are have some advantages. After analyzing the partial volume and generalized partial volume estimation interpolations, the new concept and constraint conditions of the general partial volume interpolation are defined, and several new partial volume interpolation functions are derived. By performing the experiments of image scaling, rotation and self-registration, the interpolation methods mentioned in this paper are compared in the entropy, peak signal-to-noise ratio, cross entropy, normalized cross-correlation coefficient and running time. Among the filter interpolation methods, the median and B-spline filter interpolations have a relatively better interpolating performance. Among the ordinary interpolation methods, on the whole, the symmetrical cubic kernel interpolations demonstrate a strong advantage, especially the symmetrical cubic B-spline interpolation. However, we have to mention that they are very time-consuming and have lower time efficiency. As for the general partial volume interpolation methods, from the total error of image self-registration, the symmetrical interpolations provide certain superiority; but considering the processing efficiency, the asymmetrical interpolations are better.

  17. Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.

  18. A simple method for panretinal imaging with the slit lamp.

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias


    Slit lamp biomicroscopy of the retina with a convex lens is a key procedure in clinical practice. The methods presented enable ophthalmologists to adequately image large and peripheral parts of the fundus using a video-slit lamp and freely available stitching software. A routine examination of the fundus with a slit lamp and a +90 D lens is recorded on a video film. Later, sufficiently sharp still images are identified on the video sequence. These still images are imported into a freely available image-processing program (Hugin, for stitching mosaics together digitally) and corresponding points are marked on adjacent still images with some overlap. Using the digital stitching program Hugin panoramic overviews of the retina can be built which can extend to the equator. This allows to image diseases involving the whole retina or its periphery by performing a structured fundus examination with a video-slit lamp. Similar images with a video-slit lamp based on a fundus examination through a hand-held non-contact lens have not been demonstrated before. The methods presented enable those ophthalmologists without high-end imaging equipment to monitor pathological fundus findings. The suggested procedure might even be interesting for retinological departments if peripheral findings are to be documented which might be difficult with fundus cameras.

  19. Study on the Medical Image Distributed Dynamic Processing Method

    张全海; 施鹏飞


    To meet the challenge of implementing rapidly advanced, time-consuming medical image processing algorithms,it is necessary to develop a medical image processing technology to process a 2D or 3D medical image dynamically on the web. But in a premier system, only static image processing can be provided with the limitation of web technology. The development of Java and CORBA (common object request broker architecture) overcomes the shortcoming of the web static application and makes the dynamic processing of medical images on the web available. To develop an open solution of distributed computing, we integrate the Java, and web with the CORBA and present a web-based medical image dynamic processing methed, which adopts Java technology as the language to program application and components of the web and utilies the CORBA architecture to cope with heterogeneous property of a complex distributed system. The method also provides a platform-independent, transparent processing architecture to implement the advanced image routines and enable users to access large dataset and resources according to the requirements of medical applications. The experiment in this paper shows that the medical image dynamic processing method implemented on the web by using Java and the CORBA is feasible.

  20. Segmentation of stochastic images with a stochastic random walker method.

    Pätz, Torben; Preusser, Tobias


    We present an extension of the random walker segmentation to images with uncertain gray values. Such gray-value uncertainty may result from noise or other imaging artifacts or more general from measurement errors in the image acquisition process. The purpose is to quantify the influence of the gray-value uncertainty onto the result when using random walker segmentation. In random walker segmentation, a weighted graph is built from the image, where the edge weights depend on the image gradient between the pixels. For given seed regions, the probability is evaluated for a random walk on this graph starting at a pixel to end in one of the seed regions. Here, we extend this method to images with uncertain gray values. To this end, we consider the pixel values to be random variables (RVs), thus introducing the notion of stochastic images. We end up with stochastic weights for the graph in random walker segmentation and a stochastic partial differential equation (PDE) that has to be solved. We discretize the RVs and the stochastic PDE by the method of generalized polynomial chaos, combining the recent developments in numerical methods for the discretization of stochastic PDEs and an interactive segmentation algorithm. The resulting algorithm allows for the detection of regions where the segmentation result is highly influenced by the uncertain pixel values. Thus, it gives a reliability estimate for the resulting segmentation, and it furthermore allows determining the probability density function of the segmented object volume.

  1. A fully automatic image-to-world registration method for image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates

    Li, Senhu; Sarment, David


    Image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates has made a big impact on minimally invasive surgery. Compact and mobile CT imaging device combining with current commercial available image guided navigation system is a legitimate and cost-efficient solution for a typical operating room setup. However, the process of manual fiducial-based registration between image and physical spaces (image-to-world) is troublesome for surgeons during the procedure, which results in much procedure interruptions and is the main source of registration errors. In this study, we developed a novel method to eliminate the manual registration process. Instead of using probe to manually localize the fiducials during the surgery, a tracking plate with known fiducial positions relative to the reference coordinates is designed and fabricated through 3D printing technique. The workflow and feasibility of this method has been studied through a phantom experiment.

  2. A Method of Removing Reflected Highlight on Images Based on Polarimetric Imaging

    Fanchao Yang


    Full Text Available A method of removing reflected highlight is proposed on polarimetric imaging. Polarization images (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° and the reflection angle are required in this reflected light removal algorithm. This method is based on the physical model of reflection and refraction, and no additional image processing algorithm is necessary in this algorithm. Compared to traditional polarization method with single polarizer, restricted observation angle of Brewster is not demanded and multiple reflection areas of different polarization orientations can be removed simultaneously. Experimental results, respectively, demonstrate the features of this reflected light removal algorithm, and it can be considered very suitable in polarization remote sensing.

  3. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Nguyen, H.; Joung, J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.


    demonstrated imaging of 3D space, which is the most general and fundamental task in the field of radiological environment imaging. The experiments show quite promising results. In addition, the method is able to provide quantitative information about each distribution, including isotope identification, activity concentration, and the size and shape of radiation sources. Our future studies include employing other detector modules and collimators and developing systems for other applications, such as container truck and conveyor inspections.

  4. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    Zhang, Lue; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen


    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure.

  5. Reconstruction of CT images by the Bayes- back projection method

    Haruyama, M; Takase, M; Tobita, H


    In the course of research on quantitative assay of non-destructive measurement of radioactive waste, the have developed a unique program based on the Bayesian theory for reconstruction of transmission computed tomography (TCT) image. The reconstruction of cross-section images in the CT technology usually employs the Filtered Back Projection method. The new imaging reconstruction program reported here is based on the Bayesian Back Projection method, and it has a function of iterative improvement images by every step of measurement. Namely, this method has the capability of prompt display of a cross-section image corresponding to each angled projection data from every measurement. Hence, it is possible to observe an improved cross-section view by reflecting each projection data in almost real time. From the basic theory of Baysian Back Projection method, it can be not only applied to CT types of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation. This reported deals with a reconstruction program of cross-section images in the CT of ...

  6. A Quick and Affine Invariance Matching Method for Oblique Images

    XIAO Xiongwu


    Full Text Available This paper proposed a quick, affine invariance matching method for oblique images. It calculated the initial affine matrix by making full use of the two estimated camera axis orientation parameters of an oblique image, then recovered the oblique image to a rectified image by doing the inverse affine transform, and left over by the SIFT method. We used the nearest neighbor distance ratio(NNDR, normalized cross correlation(NCC measure constraints and consistency check to get the coarse matches, then used RANSAC method to calculate the fundamental matrix and the homography matrix. And we got the matches that they were interior points when calculating the homography matrix, then calculated the average value of the matches' principal direction differences. During the matching process, we got the initial matching features by the nearest neighbor(NN matching strategy, then used the epipolar constrains, homography constrains, NCC measure constrains and consistency check of the initial matches' principal direction differences with the calculated average value of the interior matches' principal direction differences to eliminate false matches. Experiments conducted on three pairs of typical oblique images demonstrate that our method takes about the same time as SIFT to match a pair of oblique images with a plenty of corresponding points distributed evenly and an extremely low mismatching rate.

  7. 新型钙离子指示剂GCaMP的发展与应用%GCaMPs: promising tools for in vivo calcium imaging

    董斐斐; 安丽娜; 王国坤; 秦永文


    新型钙离子指示剂GCaMPs是以单个荧光蛋白为基础构建而成,可以定位到特定的细胞亚型或细胞器,对细胞或细胞器内钙离子敏感,荧光强度与钙离子浓度成正比,可用以观察钙离子介导的信号传递过程,研究机体发育、疾病、药物作用等过程中细胞内钙信号的产生、传递和时空特点,近年来被广泛应用于生理学、细胞生物学和临床研究等领域,具有独特的优势和广阔的前景.本文通过对GCaMPs的原理、发展和应用进行综述,旨在为生命科学工作者介绍一种新的钙离子检测工具,以利于更好地探索生理和病理状态下细胞的行为和功能,揭示其内在的病理生理机制.%GCaMPs are new genetically encoded calcium indicators based on a single fluorescent protein molecule with high calcium affinity.The fluorescence intensity of GCaMPs is proportional to intracellular calcium concentration.GCaMPs can be easily targeted and expressed in specific cells and cellular compartments,so as to make it possible for observing calciummediated signal transduction.GCaMPs can provide long-term in vivo imaging of calcium signals during development,disease,and drug therapy,making them promising tools for physiological,cytobiological and clinical studies.This paper summarized the principle,progression and application of GCaMPs,hoping to introduce a new calcium detection tool for further exploring the behavior and functions of ceils under physiological and pathological states.

  8. Dynamic PET Image reconstruction for parametric imaging using the HYPR kernel method

    Spencer, Benjamin; Qi, Jinyi; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Wang, Guobao


    Dynamic PET image reconstruction is a challenging problem because of the ill-conditioned nature of PET and the lowcounting statistics resulted from short time-frames in dynamic imaging. The kernel method for image reconstruction has been developed to improve image reconstruction of low-count PET data by incorporating prior information derived from high-count composite data. In contrast to most of the existing regularization-based methods, the kernel method embeds image prior information in the forward projection model and does not require an explicit regularization term in the reconstruction formula. Inspired by the existing highly constrained back-projection (HYPR) algorithm for dynamic PET image denoising, we propose in this work a new type of kernel that is simpler to implement and further improves the kernel-based dynamic PET image reconstruction. Our evaluation study using a physical phantom scan with synthetic FDG tracer kinetics has demonstrated that the new HYPR kernel-based reconstruction can achieve a better region-of-interest (ROI) bias versus standard deviation trade-off for dynamic PET parametric imaging than the post-reconstruction HYPR denoising method and the previously used nonlocal-means kernel.

  9. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke


    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  10. Image Watermarking Method Using Integer-to-Integer Wavelet Transforms

    陈韬; 王京春


    Digital watermarking is an efficient method for copyright protection for text, image, audio, and video data. This paper presents a new image watermarking method based on integer-to-integer wavelet transforms. The watermark is embedded in the significant wavelet coefficients by a simple exclusive OR operation. The method avoids complicated computations and high computer memory requirements that are the main drawbacks of common frequency domain based watermarking algorithms. Simulation results show that the embedded watermark is perceptually invisible and robust to various operations, such as low quality joint picture expert group (JPEG) compression, random and Gaussian noises, and smoothing (mean filtering).

  11. Magnetic rotation imaging method to measure the geomagnetic field


    A new imaging method for measuring the geomagnetic field based on the magnetic rotation effect is put forward. With the help of polarization property of the sunlight reflected from the ground and the magnetic rotation of the atmosphere, the geomagnetic field can be measured by an optical system installed on a satellite. According to its principle, the three-dimensional image of the geomagnetic field can be obtained. The measuring speed of this method is very high, and there is no blind spot and distortion. In this paper, the principle of this method is presented, and some key problems are discussed.

  12. New learning subspace method for image feature extraction

    CAO Jian-hai; LI Long; LU Chang-hou


    A new method of Windows Minimum/Maximum Module Learning Subspace Algorithm(WMMLSA) for image feature extraction is presented. The WMMLSM is insensitive to the order of the training samples and can regulate effectively the radical vectors of an image feature subspace through selecting the study samples for subspace iterative learning algorithm,so it can improve the robustness and generalization capacity of a pattern subspace and enhance the recognition rate of a classifier. At the same time,a pattern subspace is built by the PCA method. The classifier based on WMMLSM is successfully applied to recognize the pressed characters on the gray-scale images. The results indicate that the correct recognition rate on WMMLSM is higher than that on Average Learning Subspace Method,and that the training speed and the classification speed are both improved. The new method is more applicable and efficient.

  13. Lapped Block Image Analysis via the Method of Legendre Moments

    El Fadili Hakim


    Full Text Available Research investigating the use of Legendre moments for pattern recognition has been performed in recent years. This field of research remains quite open. This paper proposes a new technique based on block-based reconstruction method (BBRM using Legendre moments compared with the global reconstruction method (GRM. For alleviating the blocking artifact involved in the processing, we propose a new approach using lapped block-based reconstruction method (LBBRM. For the problem of selecting the optimal number of moment used to represent a given image, we propose the maximum entropy principle (MEP method. The main motivation of the proposed approaches is to allow fast and efficient reconstruction algorithm, with improvement of the reconstructed images quality. A binary handwritten musical character and multi-gray-level Lena image are used to demonstrate the performance of our algorithm.

  14. An Improved Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on MET Method

    Z. A. Abo-Eleneen


    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a basic component of many computer vision systems and pattern recognition. Thresholding is a simple but effective method to separate objects from the background. A commonly used method, Kittler and Illingworth's minimum error thresholding (MET, improves the image segmentation effect obviously. Its simpler and easier to implement. However, it fails in the presence of skew and heavy-tailed class-conditional distributions or if the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. The Fisher information (FI measure is an important concept in statistical estimation theory and information theory. Employing the FI measure, an improved threshold image segmentation algorithm FI-based extension of MET is developed. Comparing with the MET method, the improved method in general can achieve more robust performance when the data for either class is skew and heavy-tailed.

  15. Metal artifact reduction method using metal streaks image subtraction

    Pua, Rizza D.; Cho, Seung Ryong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Many studies have been dedicated for metal artifact reduction (MAR); however, the methods are successful to varying degrees depending on situations. Sinogram in-painting, filtering, iterative method are some of the major categories of MAR. Each has its own merits and weaknesses. A combination of these methods or hybrid methods have also been developed to make use of the different benefits of two techniques and minimize the unfavorable results. Our method focuses on the in-paitning approach and a hybrid MAR described by Xia et al. Although in-painting scheme is an effective technique in reducing the primary metal artifacts, a major drawback is the reintroduction of new artifacts that can be caused by an inaccurate interpolation process. Furthermore, combining the segmented metal image to the corrected nonmetal image in the final step of a conventional inpainting approach causes an issue of incorrect metal pixel values. Our proposed method begins with a sinogram in-painting approach and ends with an image-based metal artifact reduction scheme. This work provides a simple, yet effective solution for reducing metal artifacts and acquiring the original metal pixel information. The proposed method demonstrated its effectiveness in a simulation setting. The proposed method showed image quality that is comparable to the standard MAR; however, quantitatively more accurate than the standard MAR.

  16. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging


    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned...

  17. Classification of Polarimetric SAR Image Based on the Subspace Method

    Xu, J.; Li, Z.; Tian, B.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, P.


    Land cover classification is one of the most significant applications in remote sensing. Compared to optical sensing technologies, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can penetrate through clouds and have all-weather capabilities. Therefore, land cover classification for SAR image is important in remote sensing. The subspace method is a novel method for the SAR data, which reduces data dimensionality by incorporating feature extraction into the classification process. This paper uses the averaged learning subspace method (ALSM) method that can be applied to the fully polarimetric SAR image for classification. The ALSM algorithm integrates three-component decomposition, eigenvalue/eigenvector decomposition and textural features derived from the gray-level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM). The study site, locates in the Dingxing county, in Hebei Province, China. We compare the subspace method with the traditional supervised Wishart classification. By conducting experiments on the fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 image, we conclude the proposed method yield higher classification accuracy. Therefore, the ALSM classification method is a feasible and alternative method for SAR image.

  18. Combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method

    Koutsouris, Georgios I; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    A combined model for room acoustic predictions is developed, aiming to treat both diffuse and specular reflections in a unified way. Two established methods are incorporated: acoustical radiosity, accounting for the diffuse part, and the image source method, accounting for the specular part...

  19. An effective method on pornographic images realtime recognition

    Wang, Baosong; Lv, Xueqiang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chengrui


    In this paper, skin detection, texture filtering and face detection are used to extract feature on an image library, training them with the decision tree arithmetic to create some rules as a decision tree classifier to distinguish an unknown image. Experiment based on more than twenty thousand images, the precision rate can get 76.21% when testing on 13025 pornographic images and elapsed time is less than 0.2s. This experiment shows it has a good popularity. Among the steps mentioned above, proposing a new skin detection model which called irregular polygon region skin detection model based on YCbCr color space. This skin detection model can lower the false detection rate on skin detection. A new method called sequence region labeling on binary connected area can calculate features on connected area, it is faster and needs less memory than other recursive methods.

  20. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang


    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  1. A New Method for Determining Geometry of Planetary Images

    Guio, P


    This paper presents a novel semi-automatic image processing technique to estimate accurately, and objectively, the disc parameters of a planetary body on an astronomical image. The method relies on the detection of the limb and/or the terminator of the planetary body with the VOronoi Image SEgmentation (VOISE) algorithm (Guio and Achilleos, 2009). The resulting map of the segmentation is then used to identify the visible boundary of the planetary disc. The segments comprising this boundary are then used to perform a "best" fit to an algebraic expression for the limb and/or terminator of the body. We find that we are able to locate the centre of the planetary disc with an accuracy of a few tens of one pixel. The method thus represents a useful processing stage for auroral "imaging" based studies.

  2. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian


    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease.

  3. Single Transducer Ultrasonic Imaging Method that Eliminates the Effect of Plate Thickness Variation in the Image

    Roth, Don J.


    This article describes a single transducer ultrasonic imaging method that eliminates the effect of plate thickness variation in the image. The method thus isolates ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure. The use of this method can result in significant cost savings because the ultrasonic image can be interpreted correctly without the need for machining to achieve precise thickness uniformity during nondestructive evaluations of material development. The method is based on measurement of ultrasonic velocity. Images obtained using the thickness-independent methodology are compared with conventional velocity and c-scan echo peak amplitude images for monolithic ceramic (silicon nitride), metal matrix composite and polymer matrix composite materials. It was found that the thickness-independent ultrasonic images reveal and quantify correctly areas of global microstructural (pore and fiber volume fraction) variation due to the elimination of thickness effects. The thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method described in this article is currently being commercialized under a cooperative agreement between NASA Lewis Research Center and Sonix, Inc.

  4. Method of Fire Image Identification Based on Optimization Theory


    In view of some distinctive characteristics of the early-stage flame image, a corresponding method of characteristic extraction is presented. Also introduced is the application of the improved BP algorithm based on the optimization theory to identifying fire image characteristics. First the optimization of BP neural network adopting Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with the property of quadratic convergence is discussed, and then a new system of fire image identification is devised. Plenty of experiments and field tests have proved that this system can detect the early-stage fire flame quickly and reliably.




    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS images are affected by different types of noises like Gaussian noise, speckle noise and impulse noise. These noises are introduced into the RS images during acquisition or transmission process. The main challenge in impulse noise removal is to suppress the noise as well as to preserve the details (edges. Removal ofthe impulse noise is done by two stages: detection of noisy pixel and replacement of that pixel. Detecting and Removing or reducing impulse noise is a very active research area in image processing. In this paper three different existing detection methods are discussed with the intension of developing a new one.

  6. Imaging through flesh tissue using fs electronic holographic gating method

    侯比学; 陈国夫; 郝志琦; 丰善; 王淑岩; 王屹山; 王国志


    The experimental results of imaging through flesh tissue using fs electronic holographic gating method is reported. In the experiment, Ti: sapphire mode-locked laser is used as light source, of which the repetition rate is 100 MHz, central wavelength 800 mn, duration of pulse 20 fs, output power 80 mW. Tissue is a 7 mm thick chicken slice, and the imaged object is a metal wire with diameter of 0.5 mm. A general CCD is used to record holograms and a clear image of metal wire is obtained. Several relevant problems are discussed.

  7. Moment-Based Method to Estimate Image Affine Transform

    FENG Guo-rui; JIANG Ling-ge


    The estimation of affine transform is a crucial problem in the image recognition field. This paper resorted to some invariant properties under translation, rotation and scaling, and proposed a simple method to estimate the affine transform kernel of the two-dimensional gray image. Maps, applying to the original, produce some correlative points that can accurately reflect the affine transform feature of the image. Furthermore, unknown variables existing in the kernel of the transform are calculated. The whole scheme only refers to one-order moment,therefore, it has very good stability.

  8. Research Dynamics of the Classification Methods of Remote Sensing Images

    Yan; ZHANG; Baoguo; WU; Dong; WANG


    As the key technology of extracting remote sensing information,the classification of remote sensing images has always been the research focus in the field of remote sensing. The paper introduces the classification process and system of remote sensing images. According to the recent research status of domestic and international remote sensing classification methods,the new study dynamics of remote sensing classification,such as artificial neural networks,support vector machine,active learning and ensemble multi-classifiers,were introduced,providing references for the automatic and intelligent development of remote sensing images classification.

  9. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J


    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.

  10. Immunohistochemical and calcium imaging methods in wholemount rat retina.

    Sargoy, Allison; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Pérez De Sevilla Müller, Luis


    In this paper we describe the tools, reagents, and the practical steps that are needed for: 1) successful preparation of wholemount retinas for immunohistochemistry and, 2) calcium imaging for the study of voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) mediated calcium signaling in retinal ganglion cells. The calcium imaging method we describe circumvents issues concerning non-specific loading of displaced amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer.

  11. Immunohistochemical and Calcium Imaging Methods in Wholemount Rat Retina

    SARGOY, ALLISON; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; De Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez


    In this paper we describe the tools, reagents, and the practical steps that are needed for: 1) successful preparation of wholemount retinas for immunohistochemistry and, 2) calcium imaging for the study of voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) mediated calcium signaling in retinal ganglion cells. The calcium imaging method we describe circumvents issues concerning non-specific loading of displaced amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer.

  12. Apparatus and method for velocity estimation in synthetic aperture imaging


    The invention relates to an apparatus for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created after every pulse emission. In receive mode parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data......). The update signals are used in the velocity estimation processor (8) to correlate the individual measurements to obtain the displacement between high-resolution images and thereby determine the velocity....

  13. Interpretation of the method of images in estimating superconducting levitation

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail:; Garcia-Prada, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)


    Among different papers devoted to superconducting levitation of a permanent magnet over a superconductor using the method of images, there is a discrepancy of a factor of two when estimating the lift force. This is not a minor matter but an interesting fundamental question that contributes to understanding the physical phenomena of 'imaging' on a superconductor surface. We solve it, make clear the physical behavior underlying it, and suggest the reinterpretation of some previous experiments.

  14. Interpretation of the method of images in estimating superconducting levitation

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Garcia-Prada, Juan Carlos


    Among different papers devoted to superconducting levitation of a permanent magnet over a superconductor using the method of images, there is a discrepancy of a factor of two when estimating the lift force. This is not a minor matter but an interesting fundamental question that contributes to understanding the physical phenomena of "imaging" on a superconductor surface. We solve it, make clear the physical behavior underlying it, and suggest the reinterpretation of some previous experiments.

  15. A Single Image Dehazing Method Using Average Saturation Prior

    Zhenfei Gu


    Full Text Available Outdoor images captured in bad weather are prone to yield poor visibility, which is a fatal problem for most computer vision applications. The majority of existing dehazing methods rely on an atmospheric scattering model and therefore share a common limitation; that is, the model is only valid when the atmosphere is homogeneous. In this paper, we propose an improved atmospheric scattering model to overcome this inherent limitation. By adopting the proposed model, a corresponding dehazing method is also presented. In this method, we first create a haze density distribution map of a hazy image, which enables us to segment the hazy image into scenes according to the haze density similarity. Then, in order to improve the atmospheric light estimation accuracy, we define an effective weight assignment function to locate a candidate scene based on the scene segmentation results and therefore avoid most potential errors. Next, we propose a simple but powerful prior named the average saturation prior (ASP, which is a statistic of extensive high-definition outdoor images. Using this prior combined with the improved atmospheric scattering model, we can directly estimate the scene atmospheric scattering coefficient and restore the scene albedo. The experimental results verify that our model is physically valid, and the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art single image dehazing methods in terms of both robustness and effectiveness.

  16. Robust image registration using adaptive coherent point drift method

    Yang, Lijuan; Tian, Zheng; Zhao, Wei; Wen, Jinhuan; Yan, Weidong


    Coherent point drift (CPD) method is a powerful registration tool under the framework of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). However, the global spatial structure of point sets is considered only without other forms of additional attribute information. The equivalent simplification of mixing parameters and the manual setting of the weight parameter in GMM make the CPD method less robust to outlier and have less flexibility. An adaptive CPD method is proposed to automatically determine the mixing parameters by embedding the local attribute information of features into the construction of GMM. In addition, the weight parameter is treated as an unknown parameter and automatically determined in the expectation-maximization algorithm. In image registration applications, the block-divided salient image disk extraction method is designed to detect sparse salient image features and local self-similarity is used as attribute information to describe the local neighborhood structure of each feature. The experimental results on optical images and remote sensing images show that the proposed method can significantly improve the matching performance.

  17. An adaptive image denoising method based on local parameters optimization

    Hari Om; Mantosh Biswas


    In image denoising algorithms, the noise is handled by either modifying term-by-term, i.e., individual pixels or block-by-block, i.e., group of pixels, using suitable shrinkage factor and threshold function. The shrinkage factor is generally a function of threshold and some other characteristics of the neighbouring pixels of the pixel to be thresholded (denoised). The threshold is determined in terms of the noise variance present in the image and its size. The VisuShrink, SureShrink, and NeighShrink methods are important denoising methods that provide good results. The first two, i.e., VisuShrink and SureShrink methods follow term-by-term approach, i.e., modify the individual pixel and the third one, i.e., NeighShrink and its variants: ModiNeighShrink, IIDMWD, and IAWDMBMC, follow block-by-block approach, i.e., modify the pixels in groups, in order to remove the noise. The VisuShrink, SureShrink, and NeighShrink methods however do not give very good visual quality because they remove too many coefficients due to their high threshold values. In this paper, we propose an image denoising method that uses the local parameters of the neighbouring coefficients of the pixel to be denoised in the noisy image. In our method, we propose two new shrinkage factors and the threshold at each decomposition level, which lead to better visual quality. We also establish the relationship between both the shrinkage factors. We compare the performance of our method with that of the VisuShrink and NeighShrink including various variants. Simulation results show that our proposed method has high peak signal-to-noise ratio and good visual quality of the image as compared to the traditional methods:Weiner filter, VisuShrink, SureShrink, NeighBlock, NeighShrink, ModiNeighShrink, LAWML, IIDMWT, and IAWDMBNC methods.

  18. Hybrid Method for 3D Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images

    ZHANGXiang; ZHANGDazhi; TIANJinwen; LIUJian


    Segmentation of some complex images, especially in magnetic resonance brain images, is often difficult to perform satisfactory results using only single approach of image segmentation. An approach towards the integration of several techniques seems to be the best solution. In this paper a new hybrid method for 3-dimension segmentation of the whole brain is introduced, based on fuzzy region growing, edge detection and mathematical morphology, The gray-level threshold, controlling the process of region growing, is determined by fuzzy technique. The image gradient feature is obtained by the 3-dimension sobel operator considering a 3×3×3 data block with the voxel to be evaluated at the center, while the gradient magnitude threshold is defined by the gradient magnitude histogram of brain magnetic resonance volume. By the combined methods of edge detection and region growing, the white matter volume of human brain is segmented perfectly. By the post-processing using mathematical morphological techniques, the whole brain region is obtained. In order to investigate the validity of the hybrid method, two comparative experiments, the region growing method using only gray-level feature and the thresholding method by combining gray-level and gradient features, are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method provides much better results than the traditional method using a single technique in the 3-dimension segmentation of human brain magnetic resonance data sets.

  19. Method for the reduction of image content redundancy in large image databases

    Tobin, Kenneth William; Karnowski, Thomas P.


    A method of increasing information content for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems includes the steps of providing a CBIR database, the database having an index for a plurality of stored digital images using a plurality of feature vectors, the feature vectors corresponding to distinct descriptive characteristics of the images. A visual similarity parameter value is calculated based on a degree of visual similarity between features vectors of an incoming image being considered for entry into the database and feature vectors associated with a most similar of the stored images. Based on said visual similarity parameter value it is determined whether to store or how long to store the feature vectors associated with the incoming image in the database.

  20. On the pinned field image binarization for signature generation in image ownership verification method

    Chang Hsuan


    Full Text Available Abstract The issue of pinned field image binarization for signature generation in the ownership verification of the protected image is investigated. The pinned field explores the texture information of the protected image and can be employed to enhance the watermark robustness. In the proposed method, four optimization schemes are utilized to determine the threshold values for transforming the pinned field into a binary feature image, which is then utilized to generate an effective signature image. Experimental results show that the utilization of optimization schemes can significantly improve the signature robustness from the previous method (Lee and Chang, Opt. Eng. 49 (9, 097005, 2010. While considering both the watermark retrieval rate and the computation speed, the genetic algorithm is strongly recommended. In addition, compared with Chang and Lin's scheme (J. Syst. Softw. 81 (7, 1118-1129, 2008, the proposed scheme also has better performance.

  1. Fast method of constructing image correlations to build a free network based on image multivocabulary trees

    Zhan, Zongqian; Wang, Xin; Wei, Minglu


    In image-based three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, one topic of growing importance is how to quickly obtain a 3-D model from a large number of images. The retrieval of the correct and relevant images for the model poses a considerable technological challenge. The "image vocabulary tree" has been proposed as a method to search for similar images. However, a significant drawback of this approach is identified in its low time efficiency and barely satisfactory classification result. The method proposed is inspired by, and improves upon, some recent methods. Specifically, vocabulary quality is considered and multivocabulary trees are designed to improve the classification result. A marked improvement was, indeed, observed in our evaluation of the proposed method. To improve time efficiency, graphics processing unit (GPU) computer unified device architecture parallel computation is applied in the multivocabulary trees. The results of the experiments showed that the GPU was three to four times more efficient than the enumeration matching and CPU methods when the number of images is large. This paper presents a reliable reference method for the rapid construction of a free network to be used for the computing of 3-D information.

  2. Underwater Image Processing: State of the Art of Restoration and Image Enhancement Methods

    Silvia Corchs


    Full Text Available The underwater image processing area has received considerable attention within the last decades, showing important achievements. In this paper we review some of the most recent methods that have been specifically developed for the underwater environment. These techniques are capable of extending the range of underwater imaging, improving image contrast and resolution. After considering the basic physics of the light propagation in the water medium, we focus on the different algorithms available in the literature. The conditions for which each of them have been originally developed are highlighted as well as the quality assessment methods used to evaluate their performance.

  3. A hybrid method for pancreas extraction from CT image based on level set methods.

    Jiang, Huiyan; Tan, Hanqing; Fujita, Hiroshi


    This paper proposes a novel semiautomatic method to extract the pancreas from abdominal CT images. Traditional level set and region growing methods that request locating initial contour near the final boundary of object have problem of leakage to nearby tissues of pancreas region. The proposed method consists of a customized fast-marching level set method which generates an optimal initial pancreas region to solve the problem that the level set method is sensitive to the initial contour location and a modified distance regularized level set method which extracts accurate pancreas. The novelty in our method is the proper selection and combination of level set methods, furthermore an energy-decrement algorithm and an energy-tune algorithm are proposed to reduce the negative impact of bonding force caused by connected tissue whose intensity is similar with pancreas. As a result, our method overcomes the shortages of oversegmentation at weak boundary and can accurately extract pancreas from CT images. The proposed method is compared to other five state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods based on a CT image dataset which contains abdominal images from 10 patients. The evaluated results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods by achieving higher accuracy and making less false segmentation in pancreas extraction.

  4. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao


    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  5. Hyperspectral imaging-based wound analysis using mixture-tuned matched filtering classification method

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Coman, Toma; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Bercaru, Nicolae; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos


    Hyperspectral imaging is a technology that is beginning to occupy an important place in medical research with good prospects in future clinical applications. We evaluated the role of hyperspectral imaging in association with a mixture-tuned matched filtering method in the characterization of open wounds. The methodology and the processing steps of the hyperspectral image that have been performed in order to obtain the most useful information about the wound are described in detail. Correlations between the hyperspectral image and clinical examination are described, leading to a pattern that permits relative evaluation of the square area of the wound and its different components in comparison with the surrounding normal skin. Our results showed that the described method can identify different types of tissues that are present in the wounded area and can objectively measure their respective abundance, which proves its value in wound characterization. In conclusion, the method that was described in this preliminary case presentation shows promising results, but needs further evaluation in order to become a reliable and useful tool.

  6. A study on using texture analysis methods for identifying lobar fissure regions in isotropic CT images.

    Wei, Q; Hu, Y


    The major hurdle for segmenting lung lobes in computed tomographic (CT) images is to identify fissure regions, which encase lobar fissures. Accurate identification of these regions is difficult due to the variable shape and appearance of the fissures, along with the low contrast and high noise associated with CT images. This paper studies the effectiveness of two texture analysis methods - the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) - in identifying fissure regions from isotropic CT image stacks. To classify GLCM and GLRLM texture features, we applied a feed-forward back-propagation neural network and achieved the best classification accuracy utilizing 16 quantized levels for computing the GLCM and GLRLM texture features and 64 neurons in the input/hidden layers of the neural network. Tested on isotropic CT image stacks of 24 patients with the pathologic lungs, we obtained accuracies of 86% and 87% for identifying fissure regions using the GLCM and GLRLM methods, respectively. These accuracies compare favorably with surgeons/radiologists' accuracy of 80% for identifying fissure regions in clinical settings. This shows promising potential for segmenting lung lobes using the GLCM and GLRLM methods.

  7. A High-Content Larval Zebrafish Brain Imaging Method for Small Molecule Drug Discovery

    Liu, Harrison; Chen, Steven; Huang, Kevin; Kim, Jeffrey; Mo, Han; Iovine, Raffael; Gendre, Julie; Pascal, Pauline; Li, Qiang; Sun, Yaping; Dong, Zhiqiang; Arkin, Michelle; Guo, Su


    Drug discovery in whole-organisms such as zebrafish is a promising approach for identifying biologically-relevant lead compounds. However, high content imaging of zebrafish at cellular resolution is challenging due to the difficulty in orienting larvae en masse such that the cell type of interest is in clear view. We report the development of the multi-pose imaging method, which uses 96-well round bottom plates combined with a standard liquid handler to repose the larvae within each well multiple times, such that an image in a specific orientation can be acquired. We have validated this method in a chemo-genetic zebrafish model of dopaminergic neuron degeneration. For this purpose, we have developed an analysis pipeline that identifies the larval brain in each image and then quantifies neuronal health in CellProfiler. Our method achieves a SSMD* score of 6.96 (robust Z’-factor of 0.56) and is suitable for screening libraries up to 105 compounds in size. PMID:27732643

  8. Automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques.

    Pande, Paritosh; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A; Boppart, Stephen A


    Numerical correction of optical aberrations provides an inexpensive and simpler alternative to the traditionally used hardware-based adaptive optics techniques. In this Letter, we present an automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques. In the proposed method, the process of aberration correction is modeled as a filtering operation on the aberrant image using a phase filter in the Fourier domain. The phase filter is expressed as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials with unknown coefficients, which are estimated through an iterative optimization scheme based on maximizing an image sharpness metric. The method is validated on both simulated data and experimental data obtained from a tissue phantom, an ex vivo tissue sample, and an in vivo photoreceptor layer of the human retina.

  9. Images of accretion discs. 1. The eclipse mapping method

    Horne, K.


    A method of mapping the surface brightness distributions of accretion discs in eclipsing cataclysmic binaries is described and tested with synthetic eclipse data. Accurate synthetic light curves are computed by numerical simulation of the accretion disc eclipse, and images of the disc are reconstructed by maximum entropy methods. The conventional definition of entropy leads to a distorted image of the disc. A modified form of entropy, sensitive to the aximuthal structure of the image but not to its radial profile, suppresses azimuthal structure but correctly recovers the radial structure of the accretion disc. This eclipse mapping method permits powerful tests of accretion disc theory by deriving the spatial structure of discs from observational data with a minimum of model-dependent assumptions.

  10. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)


    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.

  11. SAR Data Fusion Imaging Method Oriented to Target Feature Extraction

    Yang Wei


    Full Text Available To deal with the difficulty for target outlines extracting precisely due to neglect of target scattering characteristic variation during the processing of high-resolution space-borne SAR data, a novel fusion imaging method is proposed oriented to target feature extraction. Firstly, several important aspects that affect target feature extraction and SAR image quality are analyzed, including curved orbit, stop-and-go approximation, atmospheric delay, and high-order residual phase error. Furthermore, the corresponding compensation methods are addressed as well. Based on the analysis, the mathematical model of SAR echo combined with target space-time spectrum is established for explaining the space-time-frequency change rule of target scattering characteristic. Moreover, a fusion imaging strategy and method under high-resolution and ultra-large observation angle range conditions are put forward to improve SAR quality by fusion processing in range-doppler and image domain. Finally, simulations based on typical military targets are used to verify the effectiveness of the fusion imaging method.

  12. Sparse diffraction imaging method using an adaptive reweighting homotopy algorithm

    Yu, Caixia; Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yanfei; Qiu, Zhen


    Seismic diffractions carry valuable information from subsurface small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and other features associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, seismic imaging methods mainly use reflection theory for constructing imaging models, which means a smooth constraint on imaging conditions. In fact, diffractors occupy a small account of distributions in an imaging model and possess discontinuous characteristics. In mathematics, this kind of phenomena can be described by the sparse optimization theory. Therefore, we propose a diffraction imaging method based on a sparsity-constraint model for studying diffractors. A reweighted L 2-norm and L 1-norm minimization model is investigated, where the L 2 term requests a least-square error between modeled diffractions and observed diffractions and the L 1 term imposes sparsity on the solution. In order to efficiently solve this model, we use an adaptive reweighting homotopy algorithm that updates the solutions by tracking a path along inexpensive homotopy steps. Numerical examples and field data application demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show its significance for detecting small-scale discontinuities in a seismic section. The proposed method has an advantage in improving the focusing ability of diffractions and reducing the migration artifacts.

  13. Ultrasonic wavefield imaging: Research tool or emerging NDE method?

    Michaels, Jennifer E.


    Ultrasonic wavefield imaging refers to acquiring full waveform data over a region of interest for waves generated by a stationary source. Although various implementations of wavefield imaging have existed for many years, the widespread availability of laser Doppler vibrometers that can acquire signals in the high kHz and low MHz range has resulted in a rapid expansion of fundamental research utilizing full wavefield data. In addition, inspection methods based upon wavefield imaging have been proposed for standalone nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with most of these methods coming from the structural health monitoring (SHM) community and based upon guided waves. If transducers are already embedded in or mounted on the structure as part of an SHM system, then a wavefield-based inspection can potentially take place with very little required disassembly. A frequently-proposed paradigm for wavefield NDE is its application as a follow-up inspection method using embedded SHM transducers as guided wave sources if the in situ SHM system generates an alarm. Discussed here is the broad role of wavefield imaging as it relates to ultrasonic NDE, both as a research tool and as an emerging NDE method. Examples of current research are presented based upon both guided and bulk wavefield imaging in metals and composites, drawing primarily from the author's work. Progress towards wavefield NDE is discussed in the context of defect detection and characterization capabilities, scan times, data quality, and required data analysis. Recent research efforts are summarized that can potentially enable wavefield NDE.

  14. RGB imaging volumes alignment method for color holographic displays

    Zaperty, Weronika; Kozacki, Tomasz; Gierwiało, Radosław; Kujawińska, Małgorzata


    Recent advances in holographic displays include increased interest in multiplexing techniques, which allow for extension of viewing angle, hologram resolution increase, or color imaging. In each of these situations, the image is obtained by a composition of a several light wavefronts and therefore some wavefront misalignment occurs. In this work we present a calibration method, that allows for correction of these misalignments by a suitable numerical manipulation of holographic data. For this purpose, we have developed an automated procedure that is based on a measurement of positions of reconstructed synthetic hologram of a target object with focus at two different reconstruction distances. In view of relatively long reconstruction distances in holographic displays, we focus on angular deviations of light beams, which result in a noticeable mutual lateral shift and inclination of the component images in space. A method proposed in this work is implemented in a color holographic display unit (single Spatial Light Modulator - SLM) utilizing Space- Division Method (SDM). In this technique, also referred as Aperture Field Division (AFD) method, a significant wavefront inclination is introduced by a color filter glass mosaic plate (mask) placed in front of the SLM. It is verified that an accuracy of the calibration method, obtained for reconstruction distance 700mm, is 34.5 μm and 0.02°, for the lateral shift and for the angular compensation, respectively. In the final experiment the presented method is verified through real-world object color image reconstruction.

  15. Images Encryption Method using Steganographic LSB Method, AES and RSA algorithm

    Moumen, Abdelkader; Sissaoui, Hocine


    Vulnerability of communication of digital images is an extremely important issue nowadays, particularly when the images are communicated through insecure channels. To improve communication security, many cryptosystems have been presented in the image encryption literature. This paper proposes a novel image encryption technique based on an algorithm that is faster than current methods. The proposed algorithm eliminates the step in which the secrete key is shared during the encryption process. It is formulated based on the symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and steganography theories. The image is encrypted using a symmetric algorithm, then, the secret key is encrypted by means of an asymmetrical algorithm and it is hidden in the ciphered image using a least significant bits steganographic scheme. The analysis results show that while enjoying the faster computation, our method performs close to optimal in terms of accuracy.

  16. Ortho Image and DTM Generation with Intelligent Methods

    Bagheri, H.; Sadeghian, S.


    Nowadays the artificial intelligent algorithms has considered in GIS and remote sensing. Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network are two intelligent methods that are used for optimizing of image processing programs such as edge extraction and etc. these algorithms are very useful for solving of complex program. In this paper, the ability and application of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network in geospatial production process like geometric modelling of satellite images for ortho photo generation and height interpolation in raster Digital Terrain Model production process is discussed. In first, the geometric potential of Ikonos-2 and Worldview-2 with rational functions, 2D & 3D polynomials were tested. Also comprehensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the viability of the genetic algorithm for optimization of rational function, 2D & 3D polynomials. Considering the quality of Ground Control Points, the accuracy (RMSE) with genetic algorithm and 3D polynomials method for Ikonos-2 Geo image was 0.508 pixel sizes and the accuracy (RMSE) with GA algorithm and rational function method for Worldview-2 image was 0.930 pixel sizes. For more another optimization artificial intelligent methods, neural networks were used. With the use of perceptron network in Worldview-2 image, a result of 0.84 pixel sizes with 4 neurons in middle layer was gained. The final conclusion was that with artificial intelligent algorithms it is possible to optimize the existing models and have better results than usual ones. Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse


    Jiang Lai; Huang Cailing; Liao Huilian; Ji Zhen


    In this letter, a new Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG)-based image compression method using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Vector Quantization (VQ) is proposed. A gray-level image is firstly decomposed into blocks, then each block is subsequently encoded by a 2D DCT coding scheme. The dimension of vectors as the input of a generalized VQ scheme is reduced. The time of encoding by a generalized VQ is reduced with the introduction of DCT process. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Shape determination of unidimensional objects: the virtual image correlation method

    Auradou H.; Vatteville J.; Semin B.; Francois M.


    The proposed method, named Virtual Image Correlation, allows one to identify an analytical expression of the shape of a curvilinear object from its image. It uses a virtual beam, whose curvature field is expressed as a truncated mathematical series. The virtual beam width only needs to be close to the physical one; its gray level (in the transverse direction) is bell-shaped. The method consists in finding the coefficients of the series for which the correlation between physical and virtual ...

  19. Studying depression using imaging and machine learning methods.

    Patel, Meenal J; Khalaf, Alexander; Aizenstein, Howard J


    Depression is a complex clinical entity that can pose challenges for clinicians regarding both accurate diagnosis and effective timely treatment. These challenges have prompted the development of multiple machine learning methods to help improve the management of this disease. These methods utilize anatomical and physiological data acquired from neuroimaging to create models that can identify depressed patients vs. non-depressed patients and predict treatment outcomes. This article (1) presents a background on depression, imaging, and machine learning methodologies; (2) reviews methodologies of past studies that have used imaging and machine learning to study depression; and (3) suggests directions for future depression-related studies.

  20. Improved image fusion method based on NSCT and accelerated NMF.

    Wang, Juan; Lai, Siyu; Li, Mingdong


    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM) rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  1. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    Mingdong Li


    Full Text Available In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  2. A New Method for Medical Image Clustering Using Genetic Algorithm

    Akbar Shahrzad Khashandarag


    Full Text Available Segmentation is applied in medical images when the brightness of the images becomes weaker so that making different in recognizing the tissues borders. Thus, the exact segmentation of medical images is an essential process in recognizing and curing an illness. Thus, it is obvious that the purpose of clustering in medical images is the recognition of damaged areas in tissues. Different techniques have been introduced for clustering in different fields such as engineering, medicine, data mining and so on. However, there is no standard technique of clustering to present ideal results for all of the imaging applications. In this paper, a new method combining genetic algorithm and k-means algorithm is presented for clustering medical images. In this combined technique, variable string length genetic algorithm (VGA is used for the determination of the optimal cluster centers. The proposed algorithm has been compared with the k-means clustering algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is the accuracy in selecting the optimal cluster centers compared with the above mentioned technique.

  3. Optimal image-fusion method based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform

    Dou, Jianfang; Li, Jianxun


    The optimization of image fusion is researched. Based on the properties of nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT), shift invariance, multiscale and multidirectional expansion, the fusion parameters of the multiscale decompostion scheme is optimized. In order to meet the requirement of feedback optimization, a new image fusion quality metric of image quality index normalized edge association (IQI-NEA) is built. A polynomial model is adopted to establish the relationship between the IQI_NEA metric and several decomposition levels. The optimal fusion includes four steps. First, the source images are decomposed in NSCT domain for several given levels. Second, principal component analysis is adopted to fuse the low frequency coefficients and the maximum fusion rule is utilized to fuse the high frequency coefficients to obtain the fused coefficients and the fused result is reconstructed from the obtained fused coefficients. Third, calculate the fusion quality metric IQI_NEA for the source images and fused images. Finally, the optimal fused image and optimal level are obtained through extremum properties of polynomials function. The visual and statistical results show that the proposed method has optimized the fusion performance compared to the existing fusion schemes, in terms of the visual effects and quantitative fusion evaluation indexes.

  4. Towards MIB-1 and p53 detection in glioma magnetic resonance image: a novel computational image analysis method

    Liu, Chenbin; Zhang, Haishi; Pan, Ying; Huang, Fengping; Xia, Shunren


    Glioma is the primary tumor in the central nervous system, and poses one of the greatest challenges in clinical treatment. MIB-1 and p53 are the most useful biomarkers for gliomas and could help neurosurgeons establish a therapeutic schedule. However, these biomarkers are commonly detected with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which wastes time and energy and is often influenced by subjective factors. To reduce the subjective factors and improve the efficiency in the judgment of IHC, a novel magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis method is proposed in the present study to detect the expression status of MIB-1 and p53 in IHC. The proposed method includes two kinds of MRI acquisition (FLAIR and T1 FLAIR images), regions of interest (ROIs) selection, texture features (i.e. the gray level gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM), Minkowski functions (MFs), etc) extraction in ROIs, and classification with a support vector machine in a leave-one-out cross validation strategy. By classifying the ROIs, the performance of the method was evaluated by accuracy, area under ROC curve (AUC), etc. A high accuracy (0.7640 ± 0.0225) and AUC (0.7873 ± 0.0377) for MIB-I detection were achieved. In terms of the texture features, 0.7621 ± 0.0199, 0.7666 ± 0.0365 and 0.7426 ± 0.0451 AUC can be obtained using only GLCM, RLM or GLGCM for MIB-1 detection, respectively. In all, the experimental results demonstrated that MR image texture features are associated with the expression status of MIB-1 and p53. The proposed method has the potential to realize high accuracy and robust detection for MIB-I expression status, which makes it promising for clinical glioma diagnosis and prognosis.

  5. [Segmentation Method for Liver Organ Based on Image Sequence Context].

    Zhang, Meiyun; Fang, Bin; Wang, Yi; Zhong, Nanchang


    In view of the problems of more artificial interventions and segmentation defects in existing two-dimensional segmentation methods and abnormal liver segmentation errors in three-dimensional segmentation methods, this paper presents a semi-automatic liver organ segmentation method based on the image sequence context. The method takes advantage of the existing similarity between the image sequence contexts of the prior knowledge of liver organs, and combines region growing and level set method to carry out semi-automatic segmentation of livers, along with the aid of a small amount of manual intervention to deal with liver mutation situations. The experiment results showed that the liver segmentation algorithm presented in this paper had a high precision, and a good segmentation effect on livers which have greater variability, and can meet clinical application demands quite well.

  6. Fast Second Degree Total Variation Method for Image Compressive Sensing.

    Liu, Pengfei; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Jun


    This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for image compressive sensing reconstruction using a second degree total variation (HDTV2) regularization. Firstly, a preferably equivalent formulation of the HDTV2 functional is derived, which can be formulated as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of second degree image derivatives under the spectral decomposition framework. Secondly, using the equivalent formulation of HDTV2, we introduce an efficient forward-backward splitting (FBS) scheme to solve the HDTV2-based image reconstruction model. Furthermore, from the averaged non-expansive operator point of view, we make a detailed analysis on the convergence of the proposed FBS algorithm. Experiments on medical images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms several fast algorithms of the TV and HDTV2 reconstruction models in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index (SSIM) and convergence speed.

  7. An image segmentation based method for iris feature extraction

    XU Guang-zhu; ZHANG Zai-feng; MA Yi-de


    In this article, the local anomalistic blocks such ascrypts, furrows, and so on in the iris are initially used directly asiris features. A novel image segmentation method based onintersecting cortical model (ICM) neural network was introducedto segment these anomalistic blocks. First, the normalized irisimage was put into ICM neural network after enhancement.Second, the iris features were segmented out perfectly and wereoutput in binary image type by the ICM neural network. Finally,the fourth output pulse image produced by ICM neural networkwas chosen as the iris code for the convenience of real timeprocessing. To estimate the performance of the presentedmethod, an iris recognition platform was produced and theHamming Distance between two iris codes was computed tomeasure the dissimilarity between them. The experimentalresults in CASIA vl.0 and Bath iris image databases show thatthe proposed iris feature extraction algorithm has promisingpotential in iris recognition.

  8. Methods for quantifying tongue shape and complexity using ultrasound imaging.

    Dawson, Katherine M; Tiede, Mark K; Whalen, D H


    Quantification of tongue shape is potentially useful for indexing articulatory strategies arising from intervention, therapy and development. Tongue shape complexity is a parameter that can be used to reflect regional functional independence of the tongue musculature. This paper considers three different shape quantification methods - based on Procrustes analysis, curvature inflections and Fourier coefficients - and uses a linear discriminant analysis to test how well each method is able to classify tongue shapes from different phonemes. Test data are taken from six native speakers of American English producing 15 phoneme types. Results classify tongue shapes accurately when combined across quantification methods. These methods hold promise for extending the use of ultrasound in clinical assessments of speech deficits.

  9. A proposed assessment method for image of regional educational institutions

    Kataeva Natalya


    Full Text Available Market of educational services in the current Russian economic conditions is a complex of a huge variety of educational institutions. Market of educational services is already experiencing a significant influence of the demographic situation in Russia. This means that higher education institutions are forced to fight in a tough competition for high school students. Increased competition in the educational market forces universities to find new methods of non-price competition in attraction of potential students and throughout own educational and economic activities. Commercialization of education places universities in a single plane with commercial companies who study a positive perception of the image and reputation as a competitive advantage, which is quite acceptable for use in strategic and current activities of higher education institutions to ensure the competitiveness of educational services and educational institution in whole. Nevertheless, due to lack of evidence-based proposals in this area there is a need for scientific research in terms of justification of organizational and methodological aspects of image use as a factor in the competitiveness of the higher education institution. Theoretically and practically there are different methods and ways of evaluating the company’s image. The article provides a comparative assessment of the existing valuation methods of corporate image and the author’s method of estimating the image of higher education institutions based on the key influencing factors. The method has been tested on the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy (Russia. The results also indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the institution, highlights ways of improving, and adjusts the efforts for image improvement.

  10. An Effective Method for Borehole Imaging of Buried Tunnels

    Loreto Di Donato


    Full Text Available Detection and imaging of buried tunnels is a challenging problem which is relevant to both geophysical surveys and security monitoring. To comply with the need of exploring large portions of the underground, electromagnetic measurements carried out under a borehole configuration are usually exploited. Since this requires to drill holes in the soil wherein the transmitting and receiving antennas have to be positioned, low complexity of the involved apparatus is important. On the other hand, to effectively image the surveyed area, there is the need for adopting efficient and reliable imaging methods. To address these issues, in this paper we investigate the feasibility of the linear sampling method (LSM, as this inverse scattering method is capable to provide almost real-time results even when 3D images of very large domains are built, while not requiring approximations of the underlying physics. In particular, the results of the reported numerical analysis show that the LSM is capable of performing the required imaging task while using a quite simple measurement configuration consisting of two boreholes and a few number of multiview-multistatic acquisitions.

  11. Linear perspective shape-from-shading method with two images

    Lei Yang; Ning Zhang; Yanyun Ren; Huosheng Hu


    Shape-from-shading (SFS) is one of the important ap-proaches of 3-D surface reconstruction in computer vision. Since reflectance map equation in SFS is a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) with two unknown variables, SFS with one ima-ge is il-posed in mathematical sense. A linear perspective SFS method with two images is proposed to deal with the problem. We assume that two images with different light source directions are captured firstly. Orthogonal projection is not as accurate as per-spective one to simulate imaging processes. Two reflectance map equations are established based on the Lambertian model under perspective projection, and the equations are further transformed into one linear PDE. Then the iterative semi-Lagrangian algorithm is used to approximate the solution. Final y, 3-D height values of pixel points in imaging planes are solved by the numerical inter-polation method. Experimental results of both hemisphere and complex surfaces show that the proposed method can reconstruct surfaces accurately.

  12. Terahertz in-line digital holographic multiplane imaging method

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yunxin


    Terahertz waves of which frequency spans from 0.1 to 10 THz bridge the gap between the infrared spectrum and microwaves. Owing to the special features of terahertz wave, such as penetrability and non-ionizing, terahertz imaging technique is a very significant and important method for inspections and detections. Digital holography can reconstruct the amplitude and phase distributions of a sample without scanning and it already has many successful applications in the area of visible and infrared light. The terahertz in-line digital holographic multi-plane imaging system which is presented in this paper is the combination of a continuous-wave terahertz source and the in-line scheme of digital holography. In order to observe a three dimensional (3D) shape sample only a portion of which appears in good focus, the autofocusing algorithm is brought to the data process. The synthetic aperture method is also applied to provide the high resolution imaging effect in the terahertz waveband. Both intrinsic twin images and defocused objective images confuse the quality of the image in an individual reconstructed plane. In order to solve this issue, phase retrieval iteration algorithm is used for the reconstruction. In addition, the reconstructed amplitude image in each plane multiplies the mask of which the threshold depends on the values of the autofocusing curve. A sample with simple artificial structure is observed which verifies that the present method is an authentic tool to acquire the multi-plane information of a target in terahertz waves. It can expect a wide application in terahertz defect detecting, terahertz medical inspection and other important areas in the future.

  13. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L


    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    Marquet, Pierre


    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  15. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Conger, James L [San Ramon, CA; Henderson, John R [Castro Valley, CA


    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  16. A Novel Multiresolution Fuzzy Segmentation Method on MR Image

    ZHANG HongMei(张红梅); BIAN ZhengZhong(卞正中); YUAN ZeJian(袁泽剑); YE Min(叶敏); JI Feng(冀峰)


    Multiresolution-based magnetic resonance (MR) image segmentation has attractedattention for its ability to capture rich information across scales compared with the conventionalsegmentation methods. In this paper, a new scale-space-based segmentation model is presented,where both the intra-scale and inter-scale properties are considered and formulated as two fuzzyenergy functions. Meanwhile, a control parameter is introduced to adjust the contribution of thesimilarity character across scales and the clustering character within the scale. By minimizing thecombined inter/intra energy function, the multiresolution fuzzy segmentation algorithm is derived.Then the coarse to fine leading segmentation is performed automatically and iteratively on a set ofmultiresolution images. The validity of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by the test imageand pathological MR images. Experiments show that by this approach the segmentation results,especially in the tumor area delineation, are more precise than those of the conventional fuzzy segmentation methods.

  17. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Lewis, T.J.; Ferguson, J.J.


    A method and system enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  18. Radiation Dose Reduction Methods For Use With Fluoroscopic Imaging, Computers And Implications For Image Quality

    Edmonds, E. W.; Hynes, D. M.; Rowlands, J. A.; Toth, B. D.; Porter, A. J.


    The use of a beam splitting device for medical gastro-intestinal fluoroscopy has demonstrated that clinical images obtained with a 100mm photofluorographic camera, and a 1024 X 1024 digital matrix with pulsed progressive readout acquisition techniques, are identical. In addition, it has been found that clinical images can be obtained with digital systems at dose levels lower than those possible with film. The use of pulsed fluoroscopy with intermittent storage of the fluoroscopic image has also been demonstrated to reduce the fluoroscopy part of the examination to very low dose levels, particularly when low repetition rates of about 2 frames per second (fps) are used. The use of digital methods reduces the amount of radiation required and also the heat generated by the x-ray tube. Images can therefore be produced using a very small focal spot on the x-ray tube, which can produce further improvement in the resolution of the clinical images.

  19. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  20. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan


    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  1. About Classification Methods Based on Tensor Modelling for Hyperspectral Images

    Salah Bourennane


    Full Text Available Denoising and Dimensionality Reduction (DR are key issue to improve the classifiers efficiency for Hyper spectral images (HSI. The multi-way Wiener filtering recently developed is used, Principal and independent component analysis (PCA; ICA and projection pursuit(PP approaches to DR have been investigated. These matrix algebra methods are applied on vectorized images. Thereof, the spatial rearrangement is lost. To jointly take advantage of the spatial and spectral information, HSI has been recently represented as tensor. Offering multiple ways to decompose data orthogonally, we introduced filtering and DR methods based on multilinear algebra tools. The DR is performed on spectral way using PCA, or PP joint to an orthogonal projection onto a lower subspace dimension of the spatial ways. Weshow the classification improvement using the introduced methods in function to existing methods. This experiment is exemplified using real-world HYDICE data. Multi-way filtering, Dimensionality reduction, matrix and multilinear algebra tools, tensor processing.

  2. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu


    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  3. Image segmentation and particles classification using texture analysis method

    Mayar Aly Atteya

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ingredients of oily fish include a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important elements in various metabolic processes of humans, and have also been used to prevent diseases. However, in an attempt to reduce cost, recent developments are starting a replace the ingredients of fish oil with products of microalgae, that also produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. To do so, it is important to closely monitor morphological changes in algae cells and monitor their age in order to achieve the best results. This paper aims to describe an advanced vision-based system to automatically detect, classify, and track the organic cells using a recently developed SOPAT-System (Smart On-line Particle Analysis Technology, a photo-optical image acquisition device combined with innovative image analysis software. Methods The proposed method includes image de-noising, binarization and Enhancement, as well as object recognition, localization and classification based on the analysis of particles’ size and texture. Results The methods allowed for correctly computing cell’s size for each particle separately. By computing an area histogram for the input images (1h, 18h, and 42h, the variation could be observed showing a clear increase in cell. Conclusion The proposed method allows for algae particles to be correctly identified with accuracies up to 99% and classified correctly with accuracies up to 100%.

  4. Early diagnostic method for sepsis based on neutrophil MR imaging

    Shanhua Han


    Conclusion: Mouse and human neutrophils could be more effectively labelled by Mannan-coated SPION in vitro than Feridex. Sepsis analog neutrophils labelled by Mannan-coated SPIONs could be efficiently detected on MR images, which may serve as an early diagnostic method for sepsis.

  5. Method for stitching microbial images using a neural network

    Semenishchev, E. A.; Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Tolstova, I. V.


    Currently an analog microscope has a wide distribution in the following fields: medicine, animal husbandry, monitoring technological objects, oceanography, agriculture and others. Automatic method is preferred because it will greatly reduce the work involved. Stepper motors are used to move the microscope slide and allow to adjust the focus in semi-automatic or automatic mode view with transfer images of microbiological objects from the eyepiece of the microscope to the computer screen. Scene analysis allows to locate regions with pronounced abnormalities for focusing specialist attention. This paper considers the method for stitching microbial images, obtained of semi-automatic microscope. The method allows to keep the boundaries of objects located in the area of capturing optical systems. Objects searching are based on the analysis of the data located in the area of the camera view. We propose to use a neural network for the boundaries searching. The stitching image boundary is held of the analysis borders of the objects. To auto focus, we use the criterion of the minimum thickness of the line boundaries of object. Analysis produced the object located in the focal axis of the camera. We use method of recovery of objects borders and projective transform for the boundary of objects which are based on shifted relative to the focal axis. Several examples considered in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed approach on several test images.

  6. Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images

    Low, Robert J.


    This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…

  7. Online monitoring of gas-solid two-phase flow using projected CG method in ECT image reconstruction

    Qi wang; Chengyi Yang; Huaxiang Wang; Ziqiang Cui; Zhentao Gao


    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a promising technique for multi-phase flow measurement due to its high speed,low cost and non-intrusive sensing.Image reconstruction for ECT is an inverse problem of finding the permittivity distribution of an object by measuring the electrical capacitances between sets of electrodes placed around its periphery.The conjugate gradient (CG) method is a popular image reconstruction method for ECT,in spite of its low convergence rate.In this paper,an advanced version of the CG method,the projected CG method,is used for image reconstruction of an ECT system.The solution space is projected into the Krylov subspace and the inverse problem is solved by the CG method in a low-dimensional specific subspace.Both static and dynamic experiments were carried out for gas-solid two-phase flows.The flow regimes are identified using the reconstructed images obtained with the projected CG method.The results obtained indicate that the projected CG method improves the quality of reconstructed images and dramatically reduces computation time,as compared to the traditional sensitivity,Landweber,and CG methods.Furthermore,the projected CG method was also used to estimate the important parameters of the pneumatic conveying process,such as the volume concentration,flow velocity and mass flow rate of the solid phase.Therefore,the projected CG method is considered suitable for online gas-solid two-phase flow measurement.

  8. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.


    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  9. Perfusion Reduction at Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MR Imaging: A Promising Intraprocedural Biomarker to Predict Transplant-Free Survival during Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Wang, Dingxin; Gaba, Ron C.; Jin, Brian; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Riaz, Ahsun; Memon, Khairuddin; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Kulik, Laura M.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Larson, Andrew C.; Salem, Riad


    Purpose To investigate the predictive value of transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–measured tumor perfusion changes during transarterial chemoembolization on transplant-free survival (TFS) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty-one consecutive adult patients with surgically unresectable single or multifocal measurable HCC and adequate laboratory parameters who underwent chemoembolization in a combined MR imaging–interventional radiology suite between February 2006 and June 2010 were studied. Tumor perfusion changes during chemoembolization were measured by using TRIP MR imaging with area under the time–signal intensity curve calculation. The end point of the study was TFS. The authors assessed the correlation between the percentage perfusion reduction in the tumor during chemoembolization and TFS by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty patients (mean age, 61 years; 39 men aged 42–87 years [mean age, 61 years] and 11 women aged 49–83 years [mean age, 62 years]) were eligible for the analysis. Patients with 35%–85% intraprocedural tumor area under the time–signal intensity curve reduction (n = 32) showed significantly improved median TFS compared with patients with an area under the time–signal intensity curve reduction outside this range (n = 18) (16.6 months [95% confidence interval: 11.2, 22.0 months] vs 9.3 months [95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.0 months], respectively; P = .046; hazard ratio: 0.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 1.00). The cumulative TFS rates in the 35%–85% and less than 35% or more than 85% perfusion reduction groups at 1, 2, and 5 years after chemoembolization were 66.4%, 42.2%, and 28.2% versus 33.8%, 16.9%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion The study shows evidence of

  10. An improved bit shuffling pixels-based image scrambling method

    ZHAO Hong; WANG Hong-xia; WANG Jin


    @@ Compared with the Arnold transform, the image scrambling method based on bit shuffling pixels is much more secure, and has higher efficiency and speed.However, the key space of this bit shuffling pixels based method is too small to resist exhaustive search attack.Therefore, an improved method based on chaos is proposed in this paper.The security of the improved scheme is enhanced by increasing the number of the keys.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and has higher security.

  11. A sidelobe suppression method with experiment for underwater acoustic imaging


    In this paper,a sidelobe suppression method using nonuniformly spaced array with aperture apodization processing is proposed for underwater acoustic imaging in near field,which is studied both in theory and experiment.The focused beamforming based on spherical wave propagation theory is used in the method.Firstly,the nonuniform array with low sidelobe is designed for suppressing the sidelobe of one-way beam pattern by spacing perturbation.Then, applying the aperture apodization technique to underwater ac...

  12. Hyperspectral image-based methods for spectral diversity

    Sotomayor, Alejandro; Medina, Ollantay; Chinea, J. D.; Manian, Vidya


    Hyperspectral images are an important tool to assess ecosystem biodiversity. To obtain more precise analysis of biodiversity indicators that agree with indicators obtained using field data, analysis of spectral diversity calculated from images have to be validated with field based diversity estimates. The plant species richness is one of the most important indicators of biodiversity. This indicator can be measured in hyperspectral images considering the Spectral Variation Hypothesis (SVH) which states that the spectral heterogeneity is related to spatial heterogeneity and thus to species richness. The goal of this research is to capture spectral heterogeneity from hyperspectral images for a terrestrial neo tropical forest site using Vector Quantization (VQ) method and then use the result for prediction of plant species richness. The results are compared with that of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC). The validation of the process index is done calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the Shannon entropy from actual field data and the Shannon entropy computed in the images. One of the advantages of developing more accurate analysis tools would be the extension of the analysis to larger zones. Multispectral image with a lower spatial resolution has been evaluated as a prospective tool for spectral diversity.

  13. A Progressive Image Compression Method Based on EZW Algorithm

    Du, Ke; Lu, Jianming; Yahagi, Takashi

    A simple method based on the EZW algorithm is presented for improving image compression performance. Recent success in wavelet image coding is mainly attributed to recognition of the importance of data organization and representation. There have been several very competitive wavelet coders developed, namely, Shapiro's EZW(Embedded Zerotree Wavelets)(1), Said and Pearlman's SPIHT(Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees)(2), and Bing-Bing Chai's SLCCA(Significance-Linked Connected Component Analysis for Wavelet Image Coding)(3). The EZW algorithm is based on five key concepts: (1) a DWT(Discrete Wavelet Transform) or hierarchical subband decomposition, (2) prediction of the absence of significant information across scales by exploiting self-similarity inherent in images, (3) entropy-coded successive-approximation quantization, (4) universal lossless data compression which is achieved via adaptive arithmetic coding. and (5) DWT coefficients' degeneration from high scale subbands to low scale subbands. In this paper, we have improved the self-similarity statistical characteristic in concept (5) and present a progressive image compression method.

  14. Computed Optical Interferometric Imaging: Methods, Achievements, and Challenges.

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A


    Three-dimensional high-resolution optical imaging systems are generally restricted by the trade-off between resolution and depth-of-field as well as imperfections in the imaging system or sample. Computed optical interferometric imaging is able to overcome these longstanding limitations using methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) which manipulate the complex interferometric data. These techniques correct for limited depth-of-field and optical aberrations without the need for additional hardware. This paper aims to outline these computational methods, making them readily available to the research community. Achievements of the techniques will be highlighted, along with past and present challenges in implementing the techniques. Challenges such as phase instability and determination of the appropriate aberration correction have been largely overcome so that imaging of living tissues using ISAM and CAO is now possible. Computed imaging in optics is becoming a mature technology poised to make a significant impact in medicine and biology.

  15. Cost calculator methods for estimating casework time in child welfare services: A promising approach for use in implementation of evidence-based practices and other service innovations.

    Holmes, Lisa; Landsverk, John; Ward, Harriet; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Saldana, Lisa; Wulczyn, Fred; Chamberlain, Patricia


    Estimating costs in child welfare services is critical as new service models are incorporated into routine practice. This paper describes a unit costing estimation system developed in England (cost calculator) together with a pilot test of its utility in the United States where unit costs are routinely available for health services but not for child welfare services. The cost calculator approach uses a unified conceptual model that focuses on eight core child welfare processes. Comparison of these core processes in England and in four counties in the United States suggests that the underlying child welfare processes generated from England were perceived as very similar by child welfare staff in California county systems with some exceptions in the review and legal processes. Overall, the adaptation of the cost calculator for use in the United States child welfare systems appears promising. The paper also compares the cost calculator approach to the workload approach widely used in the United States and concludes that there are distinct differences between the two approaches with some possible advantages to the use of the cost calculator approach, especially in the use of this method for estimating child welfare costs in relation to the incorporation of evidence-based interventions into routine practice.

  16. A new method to evaluate imaging quality of CCD cameras

    LI Wen-juan; DU Hai-hui; DAI Jing-min; CHEN Ying-hang


    In order to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras fully and rapidly,the minimum resolvable contrast (MRC) is presented in this paper and the system of measuring MRC is constructed as well,in which two integrating spheres are proposed to illuminate two sides of the target respectively.The variable contrast can be obtained by regulating the luminance of integrating spheres. Experimental results indicate that the error of measuring luminance is within ±0.3 cd/m2,MRC rises with the increase of the spatial frequency.The experimental results show that the method proposed is an effective approach to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras.

  17. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Smith, R. Clayton


    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  18. Spatial-spectral method for classification of hyperspectral images.

    Bian, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Tianxu; Yan, Luxin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Fang, Houzhang; Liu, Hai


    Spatial-spectral approach with spatially adaptive classification of hyperspectral images is proposed. The rotation-invariant spatial texture information for each object is exploited and incorporated into the classifier by using the modified local Gabor binary pattern to distinguish different types of classes of interest. The proposed method can effectively suppress anisotropic texture in spatially separate classes as well as improve the discrimination among classes. Moreover, it becomes more robust with the within-class variation. Experimental results on the classification of three real hyperspectral remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN


    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  20. Graphical Methods for Quantifying Macromolecules through Bright Field Imaging

    Chang, Hang; DeFilippis, Rosa Anna; Tlsty, Thea D.; Parvin, Bahram


    Bright ?eld imaging of biological samples stained with antibodies and/or special stains provides a rapid protocol for visualizing various macromolecules. However, this method of sample staining and imaging is rarely employed for direct quantitative analysis due to variations in sample fixations, ambiguities introduced by color composition, and the limited dynamic range of imaging instruments. We demonstrate that, through the decomposition of color signals, staining can be scored on a cell-by-cell basis. We have applied our method to Flbroblasts grown from histologically normal breast tissue biopsies obtained from two distinct populations. Initially, nuclear regions are segmented through conversion of color images into gray scale, and detection of dark elliptic features. Subsequently, the strength of staining is quanti?ed by a color decomposition model that is optimized by a graph cut algorithm. In rare cases where nuclear signal is significantly altered as a result of samplepreparation, nuclear segmentation can be validated and corrected. Finally, segmented stained patterns are associated with each nuclear region following region-based tessellation. Compared to classical non-negative matrix factorization, proposed method (i) improves color decomposition, (ii) has a better noise immunity, (iii) is more invariant to initial conditions, and (iv) has a superior computing performance

  1. Efficient DPCA SAR imaging with fast iterative spectrum reconstruction method

    FANG Jian; ZENG JinShan; XU ZongBen; ZHAO Yao


    The displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technique is an effective strategy to achieve wide-swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with high azimuth resolution.However,traditionally,it requires strict limitation of the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to avoid non-uniform sampling.Otherwise,any deviation could bring serious ambiguity if the data are directly processed using a matched filter.To break this limitation,a recently proposed spectrum reconstruction method is capable of recovering the true spectrum from the nonuniform samples. However,the performance is sensitive to the selection of the PRF.Sparse regularization based imaging may provide a way to overcome this sensitivity. The existing time-domain method,however,requires a large-scale observation matrix to be built,which brings a high computational cost.In this paper,we propose a frequency domain method,called the iterative spectrum reconstruction method,through integration of the sparse regularization technique with spectrum analysis of the DPCA signal.By approximately expressing the observation in the frequency domain,which is realized via a series of decoupled linear operations,the method performs SAR imaging which is then not directly based on the observation matrix,which reduces the computational cost from O(N2) to O(NlogN) (where N is the number of range cells),and is therefore more efficient than the time domain method. The sparse regularization scheme,realized via a fast thresholding iteration,has been adopted in this method,which brings the robustness of the imaging process to the PRF selection.We provide a series of simulations and ground based experiments to demonstrate the high efficiency and robustness of the method.The simulations show that the new method is almost as fast as the traditional mono-channel algorithm,and works well almost independently of the PRF selection.Consequently,the suggested method can be accepted as a practical and efficient wide-swath SAR imaging technique.

  2. Automated Nanofiber Diameter Measurement in SEM Images Using a Robust Image Analysis Method

    Ertan Öznergiz


    Full Text Available Due to the high surface area, porosity, and rigidity, applications of nanofibers and nanosurfaces have developed in recent years. Nanofibers and nanosurfaces are typically produced by electrospinning method. In the production process, determination of average fiber diameter is crucial for quality assessment. Average fiber diameter is determined by manually measuring the diameters of randomly selected fibers on scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. However, as the number of the images increases, manual fiber diameter determination becomes a tedious and time consuming task as well as being sensitive to human errors. Therefore, an automated fiber diameter measurement system is desired. In the literature, this task is achieved by using image analysis algorithms. Typically, these methods first isolate each fiber in the image and measure the diameter of each isolated fiber. Fiber isolation is an error-prone process. In this study, automated calculation of nanofiber diameter is achieved without fiber isolation using image processing and analysis algorithms. Performance of the proposed method was tested on real data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by comparing automatically and manually measured nanofiber diameter values.

  3. An efficient photogrammetric stereo matching method for high-resolution images

    Li, Yingsong; Zheng, Shunyi; Wang, Xiaonan; Ma, Hao


    Stereo matching of high-resolution images is a great challenge in photogrammetry. The main difficulty is the enormous processing workload that involves substantial computing time and memory consumption. In recent years, the semi-global matching (SGM) method has been a promising approach for solving stereo problems in different data sets. However, the time complexity and memory demand of SGM are proportional to the scale of the images involved, which leads to very high consumption when dealing with large images. To solve it, this paper presents an efficient hierarchical matching strategy based on the SGM algorithm using single instruction multiple data instructions and structured parallelism in the central processing unit. The proposed method can significantly reduce the computational time and memory required for large scale stereo matching. The three-dimensional (3D) surface is reconstructed by triangulating and fusing redundant reconstruction information from multi-view matching results. Finally, three high-resolution aerial date sets are used to evaluate our improvement. Furthermore, precise airborne laser scanner data of one data set is used to measure the accuracy of our reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our method remarkably outperforms in terms of time and memory savings while maintaining the density and precision of the 3D cloud points derived.

  4. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping


    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  5. Meshfree local radial basis function collocation method with image nodes

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Minjae


    We numerically solve two-dimensional heat diffusion problems by using a simple variant of the meshfree local radial-basis function (RBF) collocation method. The main idea is to include an additional set of sample nodes outside the problem domain, similarly to the method of images in electrostatics, to perform collocation on the domain boundaries. We can thereby take into account the temperature profile as well as its gradients specified by boundary conditions at the same time, which holds true even for a node where two or more boundaries meet with different boundary conditions. We argue that the image method is computationally efficient when combined with the local RBF collocation method, whereas the addition of image nodes becomes very costly in case of the global collocation. We apply our modified method to a benchmark test of a boundary value problem, and find that this simple modification reduces the maximum error from the analytic solution significantly. The reduction is small for an initial value problem with simpler boundary conditions. We observe increased numerical instability, which has to be compensated for by a sufficient number of sample nodes and/or more careful parameter choices for time integration.

  6. Image Stacking Method Application for Low Earth Orbit Faint Objects

    Tagawa, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Kitazawa, Y.; Hanada, T.


    Space situational awareness is one of the most important actions for safe and sustainable space development and its utilization. Tracking and maintaining debris catalog are the basis of the actions. Current minimum size of objects in the catalog that routinely tracked and updated is approximately 10 cm in the Low Earth Orbit region. This paper proposes collaborative observation of space-based sensors and ground facilities to improve tracking capability in low Earth orbit. This observation geometry based on role-sharing idea. A space-based sensor has advantage in sensitivity and observation opportunity however, it has disadvantages in periodic observation which is essential for catalog maintenance. On the other hand, a ground facility is inferior to space-based sensors in sensitivity however; observation network composed of facilities has an advantage in periodic observation. Whole observation geometry is defined as follows; 1) space-based sensors conduct initial orbit estimation for a target 2) ground facility network tracks the target based on estimated orbit 3) the network observes the target periodically and updates its orbit information. The second phase of whole geometry is based on image stacking method developed by the Japan aerospace exploration agency and this method is verified for objects in geostationary orbit. This method enables to detect object smaller than a nominal size limitation by stacking faint light spot along archived time-series frames. The principle of this method is prediction and searching target's motion on the images. It is almost impossible to apply the method to objects in Low Earth Orbit without proper orbit information because Low Earth Orbit objects have varied orbital characteristics. This paper discusses whether or not initial orbit estimation results given by space-based sensors have enough accuracy to apply image stacking method to Low Earth Orbit objects. Ground-based observation procedure is assumed as being composed of

  7. Promises in Different Cultures

    Holly Shi


    This paper reports a pilot study, which examines culture differences in a social function of language, i.e.,the function of promise making using Searle′s constitutive rules. It is to argue that different cultures may have the same type of speech-act such as promise, which, however, represents different cultural concepts. Evidence supporting the argument was drawn from a comparison of performance of Americans and Orientals concerning their respective concepts of promise making.

  8. A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement

    Pan, Bing; Li, Kai


    Fast and high-accuracy deformation analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) has been increasingly important and highly demanded in recent years. In literature, the DIC method using the Newton-Rapshon (NR) algorithm has been considered as a gold standard for accurate sub-pixel displacement tracking, as it is insensitive to the relative deformation and rotation of the target subset and thus provides highest sub-pixel registration accuracy and widest applicability. A significant drawback of conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method, however, is its extremely huge computational expense. In this paper, a fast DIC method is proposed deformation measurement by effectively eliminating the repeating redundant calculations involved in the conventional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. Specifically, a reliability-guided displacement scanning strategy is employed to avoid time-consuming integer-pixel displacement searching for each calculation point, and a pre-computed global interpolation coefficient look-up table is utilized to entirely eliminate repetitive interpolation calculation at sub-pixel locations. With these two approaches, the proposed fast DIC method substantially increases the calculation efficiency of the traditional NR-algorithm-based DIC method. The performance of proposed fast DIC method is carefully tested on real experimental images using various calculation parameters. Results reveal that the computational speed of the present fast DIC is about 120-200 times faster than that of the traditional method, without any loss of its measurement accuracy

  9. Haemodynamic imaging of thoracic stent-grafts by computational fluid dynamics (CFD): presentation of a patient-specific method combining magnetic resonance imaging and numerical simulations

    Midulla, Marco; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [University Hospital of Lille, Cardiovascular Radiology, Lille (France); Moreno, Ramiro; Rousseau, Herve [Rangueil University Hospital, Radiology, Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, INSERM/UMR 1048 Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Toulouse (France); Baali, Adil; Negre-Salvayre, Anne [University of Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, INSERM/UMR 1048 Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Toulouse (France); Chau, Ming [ASA, Advanced Solutions Accelerator, University of Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Montpellier (France); Nicoud, Franck [University Montpellier II - CNRS UMR 5149 I3M, CC 051, Montpellier (France); Haulon, Stephan [University Hospital of Lille, Vascular Surgery, Lille (France)


    In the last decade, there was been increasing interest in finding imaging techniques able to provide a functional vascular imaging of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this paper is to present an imaging method combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain a patient-specific haemodynamic analysis of patients treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). MRI was used to obtain boundary conditions. MR angiography (MRA) was followed by cardiac-gated cine sequences which covered the whole thoracic aorta. Phase contrast imaging provided the inlet and outlet profiles. A CFD mesh generator was used to model the arterial morphology, and wall movements were imposed according to the cine imaging. CFD runs were processed using the finite volume (FV) method assuming blood as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid. Twenty patients (14 men; mean age 62.2 years) with different aortic lesions were evaluated. Four-dimensional mapping of velocity and wall shear stress were obtained, depicting different patterns of flow (laminar, turbulent, stenosis-like) and local alterations of parietal stress in-stent and along the native aorta. A computational method using a combined approach with MRI appears feasible and seems promising to provide detailed functional analysis of thoracic aorta after stent-graft implantation. (orig.)

  10. A multilateral filtering method applied to airplane runway image

    Yu, Zhang; Run-quan, Wang


    By considering the features of the airport runway image filtering, an improved bilateral filtering method was proposed which can remove noise with edge preserving. Firstly the steerable filtering decomposition is used to calculate the sub-band parameters of 4 orients, and the texture feature matrix is then obtained from the sub-band local median energy. The texture similar, the spatial closer and the color similar functions are used to filter the image.The effect of the weighting function parameters is qualitatively analyzed also. In contrast with the standard bilateral filter and the simulation results for the real airport runway image show that the multilateral filtering is more effective than the standard bilateral filtering.

  11. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  12. Research on ghost imaging method based on wavelet transform

    Li, Mengying; He, Ruiqing; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Zhang, Wenwen


    We present an algorithm of extracting the wavelet coefficients of object based on ghost imaging (GI) system. Through modification of the projected random patterns by using a series of templates, wavelet transform GI (WTGI) can directly measure the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients without needing the original image. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally perform the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients detection with an arrow and a letter A based on GI and WTGI. Comparing with the traditional method, the use of the algorithm proposed in this paper can significantly improve the quality of the image of wavelet coefficients in both cases. The special advantages of GI will make the wavelet coefficient detection based on WTGI very valuable in real applications.

  13. Generalized dual-plane digital holographic imaging method

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie


    A generalized dual-plane technique for digital holographic imaging is proposed. Two holograms are recorded at two slightly displaced planes. The complex amplitude of the plane reference wave is obtained according to the measured intensity of the reference beam and the spectrum of hologram. The holograms are modified with the known information of the reference wave. Then, the modified holograms are reconstructed by the dual-plane algorithm. The zero-order and the twin images are removed in the reconstructed image. The simulation and experiments demonstrate that this method is valid for both on-axis and off-axis digital holography and high resolution reconstruction is achieved even with a very small offset angle of the reference beam.

  14. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    G.A. Yousif


    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  15. Methods, compositions and kits for imaging cells and tissues using nanoparticles and spatial frequency heterodyne imaging

    Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Wands, Jack R.; Rand, Danielle; Derdak, Zoltan; Ortiz, Vivian


    Methods, compositions, systems, devices and kits are provided herein for preparing and using a nanoparticle composition and spatial frequency heterodyne imaging for visualizing cells or tissues. In various embodiments, the nanoparticle composition includes at least one of: a nanoparticle, a polymer layer, and a binding agent, such that the polymer layer coats the nanoparticle and is for example a polyethylene glycol, a polyelectrolyte, an anionic polymer, or a cationic polymer, and such that the binding agent that specifically binds the cells or the tissue. Methods, compositions, systems, devices and kits are provided for identifying potential therapeutic agents in a model using the nanoparticle composition and spatial frequency heterodyne imaging.

  16. A simple method of image analysis to estimate CAM vascularization by APERIO ImageScope software.

    Marinaccio, Christian; Ribatti, Domenico


    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is a well-established method to test the angiogenic stimulation or inhibition induced by molecules and cells administered onto the CAM. The quantification of blood vessels in the CAM assay relies on a semi-manual image analysis approach which can be time consuming when considering large experimental groups. Therefore we present here a simple and fast volumetric method to inspect differences in vascularization between experimental conditions related to the stimulation and inhibition of CAM angiogenesis based on the Positive Pixel Count algorithm embedded in the APERIO ImageScope software.

  17. Novel MTF measurement method for medical image viewers using a bar pattern image

    Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hiroshi; Sawada, Takeshi


    A novel MTF(modulation transfer function) measurement method using a bar pattern image for medical image viewers such as DICOM viewer was developed. A bar-pattern image produced by a personal computer was displayed on a cathode-ray-tube (CRT) display and was imaged with a high resolution single-lens reflex digital camera equipped with a close-up lens. The discrete burred square-waveform data acquired from the imaged bar patterns were interpolated using the waveform reproduction technique with Fourier analysis in order to obtain interpolated wave curves. All of the measured pixel values in this process were converted into luminance data. The MTF was calculated from the amplitude values of the extracted basic frequency components in the square-waveform, in which an aliasing error was excluded. Actual measurements were performed with two models of medical image viewer equipped with monochrome displays. Horizontal and vertical MTFs at the central position of display area were measured up to Nyquist frequency. Resultant MTFs clearly indicated the difference in resolution for two viewers, as well as visual evaluation did. The standard deviations of MTF values of 5 measurements at Nyquist frequency were 0.004 and 0.01 for horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Employment of a commercial single-lens reflex digital camera enabled easy and correct focusing and simple data handling. In conclusion, our method may be useful in the medical field due to good reproducibility and easy operativity.


    D. S. Korshunov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach for image quality improvement of the space objects in the visible range of electromagnetic wave spectrum. The proposed method is based on the joint taking into account of both the motion velocity of the space supervisory apparatus and a space object observed in the near-earth space when the time of photo-detector exposure is chosen. The timing of exposure is carried out by light-signal characteristics, which determines the optimal value of the charge package formed in the charge-coupled device being irradiated. Thus, the parameters of onboard observation equipment can be selected, which provides space images suitable for interpretation. The linear resolving capacity is used as quality indicator for space images, giving a complete picture for the image contrast and geometric properties of the object on the photo. Observation scenario modeling of the space object, done by sputnik-inspector, has shown the possibility of increasing the linear resolution up to10% - 20% or up to 40% - 50% depending on the non-complanarity angle at the movement along orbits. The proposed approach to the increase of photographs quality provides getting sharp and highcontrast images of space objects by the optical-electronic equipment of the space-based remote sensing. The usage of these images makes it possible to detect in time the space technology failures, which are the result of its exploitation in the nearearth space. The proposed method can be also applied at the stage of space systems design for optical-electronic surveillance in computer models used for facilities assessment of the shooting equipment information tract.

  19. Quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging methods for pharmaceutical research.

    Mantle, M D


    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in pharmaceutical research is now well established and the current literature covers a multitude of different pharmaceutically relevant research areas. This review focuses on the use of quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques and how they have been exploited to extract information that is of direct relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. The article is divided into two main areas. The first half outlines the theoretical aspects of magnetic resonance and deals with basic magnetic resonance theory, the effects of nuclear spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and molecular diffusion upon image quantitation, and discusses the applications of rapid magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition to the theory, the review aims to provide some practical guidelines for the pharmaceutical researcher with an interest in MRI as to which MRI pulse sequences/protocols should be used and when. The second half of the article reviews the recent advances and developments that have appeared in the literature concerning the use of quantitative micro-imaging methods to pharmaceutically relevant research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Single Image Haze Removal Method for Inland River

    Qiu Liu


    Full Text Available Due to environmental pollution, the climate is worsening. The fog days up to 60% of the year in inland certain segments, which it has seriously affected the marine electronic cruise normal operation and navigation safety. According to the inland video image becomes gray and lack of visibility in foggy weather conditions, and in order to remove the haze to get a clear image color and contour, this paper presents a method based on Jones Extension Matrix and the Dark Channel Prior. First, we obtain the light intensity in the atmosphere and the estimated concentration of the haze by using Dark Channel Prior, and via using the Jones Extension Matrix and the parameters of Stokes' Law to eliminate part of the scattered light. At last, we have completed the function of image dehazing by brightness adjustment factor based on N pixels in the field of step brightness and improve the brightness based on Retinex Principle for the recovered image. Experimental results show this algorithm improves scenery visual effect in condition of haze. It is provided a clear video image for the marine electronic cruise in the foggy day.

  1. Moving object detection by using GPS assisted image registration method

    Barış Gökçe


    Full Text Available In this study, a Global Positioning System (GPS assistance based system has been developed for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV to detect moving objects along their route using a computer vision system. Before the real time application of the UGV, image models were created that represents a default background in specified horizontal positions of the specified coordinates on the route. This model is a type of feature matrix which is much smaller than the pure image matrices. The model matrices were recorded in the system database and a database relation was created between the model and its coordinate. The feature matrices of the images captured when the moment UGV arrived to the determined coordinates are compared with the models belong to present coordinate. As a result of the evaluation image frames are aligned with 2D image registration methods. The silhouettes of the objects are obtained by subtracting aligned frames. Thus, using this developed approach, there is no need for costly solutions to compensate for the noise generated by the moving camera. It was observed from the experiments that the system was able to detect the objects with 90% accuracy and it was able to run with 8% CPU loading and 0.057 s processing time per frame.

  2. A new method for image segmentation based on Fuzzy C-means algorithm on pixonal images formed by bilateral filtering

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Sharifzadeh, Sara


    In this paper, a new pixon-based method is presented for image segmentation. In the proposed algorithm, bilateral filtering is used as a kernel function to form a pixonal image. Using this filter reduces the noise and smoothes the image slightly. By using this pixon-based method, the image over s...... the hierarchical clustering method (Fuzzy C-means algorithm). The experimental results show that the proposed pixon-based approach has a reduced computational load and a better accuracy compared to the other existing pixon-based image segmentation techniques.......In this paper, a new pixon-based method is presented for image segmentation. In the proposed algorithm, bilateral filtering is used as a kernel function to form a pixonal image. Using this filter reduces the noise and smoothes the image slightly. By using this pixon-based method, the image over...

  3. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶


    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition. In this paper, we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images. For flower retrieval, we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets, Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD) and Angle Code Histogram (ACH), to characterize the shape features of a flower contour. Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions. Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest (ROI) based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard (1991) and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  4. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶


    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition.In this paper,we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images.For flower retrieval,we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets,Centroid-Contour Distance(CCD)and Angle Code Histogram(ACH),to characterize the shape features of a flower contour.Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions.Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest(ROD based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard(1991)and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  5. Temperature imaging with speed of ultrasonic transmission tomography for medical treatment control:A physical model-based method

    储哲琦; 袁杰; 王学鼎; 刘晓峻


    Hyperthermia is a promising method to enhance chemo and radiation therapy of breast cancer. In the process of hyperthermia, temperature monitoring is of great importance to assure the effectiveness of treatment. The transmission speed of ultrasound in biomedical tissue changes with temperature. However, when mapping the speed of sound directly to temperature in each pixel as desired for using all speeds of ultrasound data, temperature bipolar edge enhancement artifacts occur near the boundary of two tissues with different speeds of ultrasound. After the analysis of the reasons for causing these artifacts, an optimized method is introduced to rebuild the temperature field image by using the continuity constraint as the judgment criterion. The significant smoothness of the rebuilding image in the transitional area shows that our proposed method can build a more precise temperature image for controlling the medical thermal treatment.

  6. A method for dynamic subtraction MR imaging of the liver

    Setti Ernesto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtraction of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance (DCE-MR volumes can result in images that depict and accurately characterize a variety of liver lesions. However, the diagnostic utility of subtraction images depends on the extent of co-registration between non-enhanced and enhanced volumes. Movement of liver structures during acquisition must be corrected prior to subtraction. Currently available methods are computer intensive. We report a new method for the dynamic subtraction of MR liver images that does not require excessive computer time. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients (median age 45 years; range 37–67 were evaluated by VIBE T1-weighted sequences (TR 5.2 ms, TE 2.6 ms, flip angle 20°, slice thickness 1.5 mm acquired before and 45s after contrast injection. Acquisition parameters were optimized for best portal system enhancement. Pre and post-contrast liver volumes were realigned using our 3D registration method which combines: (a rigid 3D translation using maximization of normalized mutual information (NMI, and (b fast 2D non-rigid registration which employs a complex discrete wavelet transform algorithm to maximize pixel phase correlation and perform multiresolution analysis. Registration performance was assessed quantitatively by NMI. Results The new registration procedure was able to realign liver structures in all 19 patients. NMI increased by about 8% after rigid registration (native vs. rigid registration 0.073 ± 0.031 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, n.s., paired t-test and by a further 23% (0.096 ± 0.035 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, p t-test after non-rigid realignment. The overall average NMI increase was 31%. Conclusion This new method for realigning dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR volumes of liver leads to subtraction images that enhance diagnostic possibilities for liver lesions.

  7. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel


    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  8. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.


    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  9. [Novel method of noise power spectrum measurement for computed tomography images with adaptive iterative reconstruction method].

    Nishimaru, Eiji; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Terakawa, Shoichi; Yokomachi, Kazushi; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Ishifuro, Minoru


    Adaptive iterative reconstruction techniques (IRs) can decrease image noise in computed tomography (CT) and are expected to contribute to reduction of the radiation dose. To evaluate the performance of IRs, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) is widely used. However, when an IR provides an NPS value drop at all spatial frequency (which is similar to NPS changes by dose increase), the conventional method cannot evaluate the correct noise property because the conventional method does not correspond to the volume data natures of CT images. The purpose of our study was to develop a new method for NPS measurements that can be adapted to IRs. Our method utilized thick multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images. The thick images are generally made by averaging CT volume data in a direction perpendicular to a MPR plane (e.g. z-direction for axial MPR plane). By using this averaging technique as a cutter for 3D-NPS, we can obtain adequate 2D-extracted NPS (eNPS) from 3D NPS. We applied this method to IR images generated with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR-3D, Toshiba) to investigate the validity of our method. A water phantom with 24 cm-diameters was scanned at 120 kV and 200 mAs with a 320-row CT (Acquilion One, Toshiba). From the results of study, the adequate thickness of MPR images for eNPS was more than 25.0 mm. Our new NPS measurement method utilizing thick MPR images was accurate and effective for evaluating noise reduction effects of IRs.

  10. Imaging Method Based on Time Reversal Channel Compensation

    Bing Li


    Full Text Available The conventional time reversal imaging (TRI method builds imaging function by using the maximal value of signal amplitude. In this circumstance, some remote targets are missed (near-far problem or low resolution is obtained in lossy and/or dispersive media, and too many transceivers are employed to locate targets, which increases the complexity and cost of system. To solve these problems, a novel TRI algorithm is presented in this paper. In order to achieve a high resolution, the signal amplitude corresponding to focal time observed at target position is used to reconstruct the target image. For disposing near-far problem and suppressing spurious images, combining with cross-correlation property and amplitude compensation, channel compensation function (CCF is introduced. Moreover, the complexity and cost of system are reduced by employing only five transceivers to detect four targets whose number is close to that of transceivers. For the sake of demonstrating the practicability of the proposed analytical framework, the numerical experiments are actualized in both nondispersive-lossless (NDL media and dispersive-conductive (DPC media. Results show that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of conventional TRI algorithm even under few echo signals.

  11. A New Promising Technique of 3D Isovoxel Imaging Using 3T MRI in the Wrist: Comparison with 3T MR Arthrography

    Lee, Guen Young; Kim, Baek Hyun; Park, Jong Woong [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of 3D isovoxel MR imaging using 3T MRI in the wrist joint, as compared with 3T MR arthrography. A total of 33 patients underwent both MR arthrography and 3D isovoxel imaging of the wrist joints using 3T MR, including 11 patients with arthroscopic confirmation. 3D isovoxel MR imaging was performed using an intermediateweighted fast spin echo coronal scan with a 0.4-mm slice thickness and the axial images were reconstructed with a 1-mm slice thickness. One radiologist evaluated for the presence of scapholunate or lunotriquetral ligament tear and she determined the grade of the triangular fibrocartilage complex tear and chondromalacia with its location. We compared the two examinations using kappa values. The rates of detecting wrist injury were similar for both exams with substantial to almost perfect inter-examination agreement (kappa value = 0.864 for scapholunate ligament tear, 0.835 for lunotriquetral ligament tear, 0.799 for TFCC tear and 0.940 for chondromalacia). For the eleven cases that underwent arthroscopy, their results of 3D isovoxel MRI were also similar to that of MR arthrography. 3D isovoxel MR imaging is useful for the evaluation of the wrist joint

  12. Image mining and Automatic Feature extraction from Remotely Sensed Image (RSI using Cubical Distance Methods



    Full Text Available Information processing and decision support system using image mining techniques is in advance drive with huge availability of remote sensing image (RSI. RSI describes inherent properties of objects by recording their natural reflectance in the electro-magnetic spectral (ems region. Information on such objects could be gathered by their color properties or their spectral values in various ems range in the form of pixels. Present paper explains a method of such information extraction using cubical distance method and subsequent results. Thismethod is one among the simpler in its approach and considers grouping of pixels on the basis of equal distance from a specified point in the image or selected pixel having definite attribute values (DN in different spectral layers of the RSI. The color distance and the occurrence pixel distance play a vital role in determining similarobjects as clusters aid in extracting features in the RSI domain.

  13. Methods for segmenting curved needles in ultrasound images.

    Okazawa, Stephen H; Ebrahimi, Richelle; Chuang, Jason; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E


    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertions are widely used techniques in current clinical practice. Some of these procedures have a high degree of difficulty because of poor observability of the needle in the ultrasound image. There have been recent efforts to improve guidance by computer assisted needle detection. These software techniques are often limited by not representing needle curvature. We present two methods to detect the needle in 2D ultrasound that specifically address needle curvature. Firstly, we demonstrate a real-time needle segmentation algorithm based on the Hough transform which detects the needle and represents its curved shape. Secondly, we demonstrate how a new coordinate transformation can transform detection of a curved needle to a linear fit. These methods are demonstrated on ultrasound and photographic images.

  14. A method of complex background estimation in astronomical images

    Popowicz, Adam


    In this paper, we present a novel approach to the estimation of strongly varying backgrounds in astronomical images by means of small objects removal and subsequent missing pixels interpolation. The method is based on the analysis of a pixel local neighborhood and utilizes the morphological distance transform. In contrast to popular background estimation techniques, our algorithm allows for accurate extraction of complex structures, like galaxies or nebulae. Moreover, it does not require multiple tuning parameters, since it relies on physical properties of CCD image sensors - the gain and the read-out noise characteristics. The comparison with other widely used background estimators revealed higher accuracy of the proposed technique. The superiority of the novel method is especially significant for the most challenging fluctuating backgrounds. The size of filtered out objects is tunable, therefore the algorithm may eliminate a wide range of foreground structures, including the dark current impulses, cosmic ra...

  15. Computer vision analysis of image motion by variational methods

    Mitiche, Amar


    This book presents a unified view of image motion analysis under the variational framework. Variational methods, rooted in physics and mechanics, but appearing in many other domains, such as statistics, control, and computer vision, address a problem from an optimization standpoint, i.e., they formulate it as the optimization of an objective function or functional. The methods of image motion analysis described in this book use the calculus of variations to minimize (or maximize) an objective functional which transcribes all of the constraints that characterize the desired motion variables. The book addresses the four core subjects of motion analysis: Motion estimation, detection, tracking, and three-dimensional interpretation. Each topic is covered in a dedicated chapter. The presentation is prefaced by an introductory chapter which discusses the purpose of motion analysis. Further, a chapter is included which gives the basic tools and formulae related to curvature, Euler Lagrange equations, unconstrained de...

  16. Holographic Dual to Conical Defects III: Improved Image Method

    Aref'eva, I Ya; Tikhanovskaya, M D


    The geodesics prescription in holographic approach in Lorentzian signature is valid only for geodesics which connect spacelike-separated points at the boundary, since there is no timelike geodesics which reach the boundary. There is also no straightforward analytic Euclidean continuation for a general background, such as e. g. moving particle in AdS. We propose an improved geodesic image method for two-point Lorentzian correlators which is valid for arbitrary time intervals in case of the bulk spacetime deformed by point particles. We illustrate that our prescription is consistent with the case when the analytic continuation exists and with the quasigeodesics prescription used in previous work. We also discuss some other applications of the improved image method, such as holographic entanglement entropy and multiple particles in AdS3.

  17. A simple, fast and cost-effective method of synthesis of cupric oxide nanoparticle with promising antibacterial potency: Unraveling the biological and chemical modes of action.

    Chakraborty, Ruchira; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Manju, Unnikrishnan; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Basu, Tarakdas


    Gradual attainment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics led us to develop a robust method of synthesis of stable, colloidal cupric oxide nanoparticle of physiological pH with potential antibacterial action. Cu(II) oxide NP was synthesized by reduction-oxidation of CuCl2, using polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizer. Characteristics and antibacterial activity of the particles were investigated by techniques like UV-Vis spectrophotometry, DLS, AFM, TEM, EDS, FTIR, AAS, agar plating, FACS, gel electrophoresis and XPS. The NPs were about 50 nm in size and cubic in shape with two surface plasmon peaks at 266 and 370 nm and had semi-conducting behavior with a band gap of 3.40 and 3.96 eV. About 80% of precursor CuCl2 was converted to NP. The minimum inhibitory and the minimum bactericidal concentrations of CuO-NP were respectively 120 and 160 μg/mL for Escherichia coli and 180 and 195 μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus in Luria-Bertani medium. In growth media, the NPs got modified by media organics with displacement of the stabilizer PVA molecules. This modified NP (around 240 nm) killed cells by generating ROS, which finally caused membrane lipid per-oxidation and chromosomal DNA degradation in NP-treated cells. Reports indicate that we are among the few who had prepared CuO-NP in colloidal form. The antibacterial potency of our particle in growth media was much promising than other reports. Our findings demonstrated that 'particle-specific' effect, not 'ion-specific' one, was responsible for the NP action. The NP may be used as a sterilizing agent in various bioprocesses and as substituent of antibiotics, after thorough toxicological study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Matrix Pencil Algorithm Based Multiband Iterative Fusion Imaging Method

    Zou, Yong Qiang; Gao, Xun Zhang; Li, Xiang; Liu, Yong Xiang


    Multiband signal fusion technique is a practicable and efficient way to improve the range resolution of ISAR image. The classical fusion method estimates the poles of each subband signal by the root-MUSIC method, and some good results were get in several experiments. However, this method is fragile in noise for the proper poles could not easy to get in low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to eliminate the influence of noise, this paper propose a matrix pencil algorithm based method to estimate the multiband signal poles. And to deal with mutual incoherent between subband signals, the incoherent parameters (ICP) are predicted through the relation of corresponding poles of each subband. Then, an iterative algorithm which aimed to minimize the 2-norm of signal difference is introduced to reduce signal fusion error. Applications to simulate dada verify that the proposed method get better fusion results at low SNR.

  19. Flow imaging method of electromagnetic measurement in well logging


    Multiphase flow in an oil well is a dynamic phenomenon of inhomogeneous medium,which should be studied in a nonlinear way. This paper presents an electromagnetic measurement method based on the electrical property differences between oil,gas and water to scan,inverse and show the distribution and condition of multiphase flow. Both numerical simulation and physical experiments have proved that clear images could be obtained by this way.

  20. Dictionary construction in sparse methods for image restoration

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Sparsity-based methods have achieved very good performance in a wide variety of image restoration problems, including denoising, inpainting, super-resolution, and source separation. These methods are based on the assumption that the image to be reconstructed may be represented as a superposition of a few known components, and the appropriate linear combination of components is estimated by solving an optimization such as Basis Pursuit De-Noising (BPDN). Considering that the K-SVD constructs a dictionary which has been optimised for mean performance over a training set, it is not too surprising that better performance can be achieved by selecting a custom dictionary for each individual block to be reconstructed. The nearest neighbor dictionary construction can be understood geometrically as a method for estimating the local projection into the manifold of image blocks, whereas the K-SVD dictionary makes more sense within a source-coding framework (it is presented as a generalization of the k-means algorithm for constructing a VQ codebook), is therefore, it could be argued, less appropriate in principle, for reconstruction problems. One can, of course, motivate the use of the K-SVD in reconstruction application on practical grounds, avoiding the computational expense of constructing a different dictionary for each block to be denoised. Since the performance of the nearest neighbor dictionary decreases when the dictionary becomes sufficiently large, this method is also superior to the approach of utilizing the entire training set as a dictionary (and this can also be understood within the image block manifold model). In practical terms, the tradeoff is between the computational cost of a nearest neighbor search (which can be achieved very efficiently), or of increased cost at the sparse optimization.

  1. Statistical Methods for Quantitatively Detecting Fungal Disease from Fruits’ Images

    Jagadeesh D. Pujari; Yakkundimath, Rajesh Siddaramayya; Byadgi, Abdulmunaf Syedhusain


    In this paper we have proposed statistical methods for detecting fungal disease and classifying based on disease severity levels.  Most fruits diseases are caused by bacteria, fungi, virus, etc of which fungi are responsible for a large number of diseases in fruits. In this study images of fruits, affected by different fungal symptoms are collected and categorized based on disease severity. Statistical features like block wise, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level runlength matr...

  2. Refinement of thermal imager minimum resolvable temperature difference calculating method

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Mykytenko, V. I.


    Calculating methods, which accurately predict minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), are of significant interest for many years. The article deals with improvement the accuracy of determining the thermal imaging system MRTD by elaboration the visual perception model. We suggest MRTD calculating algorithm, which is based on a reliable approximation of the human visual system modulation transfer function (MTF) proposed by N. Nill. There was obtained a new expression for the bandwidth evaluation, which is independent of angular size of the Foucault bar target.

  3. Development of a Method for Tissue Elasticity Imaging Using Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Takeuchi, Tomoki; Murase, Kenya


    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for tissue elasticity imaging using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, we developed a cyclic pressure device that used air to remotely transmit the power to generate cyclic deformation in an object. The pressure induced by the cyclic pressure device was measured by MRI-compatible force sensors. Second, we developed a software to calculate Young's modulus from tagged MRI data using the harmonic phase (HARP) method and the finite element method (FEM). We also developed a software to extract tag-cross points from tagged MRI data. Finally, we evaluated the usefulness of our method using three homogeneous silicone gel phantoms with different degrees of stiffness in comparison with Young's moduli measured by a material testing machine. The coefficient of variation of the pressure data measured by MRI-compatible force sensors was within 5 %, indicating that the reproducibility of the pressure generated by our cyclic pressure device was good. The Young's ...

  4. Review of automatic segmentation methods of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Francis, Simon; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L; Collins, D Louis


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often used to characterize and quantify multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in the brain and spinal cord. The number and volume of lesions have been used to evaluate MS disease burden, to track the progression of the disease and to evaluate the effect of new pharmaceuticals in clinical trials. Accurate identification of MS lesions in MR images is extremely difficult due to variability in lesion location, size and shape in addition to anatomical variability between subjects. Since manual segmentation requires expert knowledge, is time consuming and is subject to intra- and inter-expert variability, many methods have been proposed to automatically segment lesions. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the state of the art in automated multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation. From 1240 hits found initially with PubMed and Google scholar, our selection criteria identified 80 papers that described an automatic lesion segmentation procedure applied to MS. Only 47 of these included quantitative validation with at least one realistic image. In this paper, we describe the complexity of lesion segmentation, classify the automatic MS lesion segmentation methods found, and review the validation methods applied in each of the papers reviewed. Although many segmentation solutions have been proposed, including some with promising results using MRI data obtained on small groups of patients, no single method is widely employed due to performance issues related to the high variability of MS lesion appearance and differences in image acquisition. The challenge remains to provide segmentation techniques that work in all cases regardless of the type of MS, duration of the disease, or MRI protocol, and this within a comprehensive, standardized validation framework. MS lesion segmentation remains an open problem.

  5. A PDE based Method for Speckle Reduction of Log-compressed Ultrasound Image

    Jie Huang


    Full Text Available Speckle noise is widely existence in coherent imaging systems, such as synthetic aperture radar, sonar, ultrasound and laser imaging, and is commonly described as signal correlated. In this paper, we focus on speckle reduction problem in real ultrasound image. Unlike traditional anisotropic diffusion methods usually taking image gradient as a diffusion index, in this paper, we present a new texture based anisotropic diffusion method for speckle reduction in real ultrasound image. The results comparing our new method with other well known methods on both synthetic images and real ultrasound images are reported to show the superiority of our method in keeping important features of real ultrasound images.

  6. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    Novak, Roman


    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  7. Method for imaging quantum dots during exposure to gamma radiation

    Immucci, Andrea N.; Chamson-Reig, Astrid; Yu, Kui; Wilkinson, Diana; Li, Chunsheng; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.


    Quantum dots have been used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. A key advantage of these particles is that their optical properties depend predictably on size, which enables tuning of the emission wavelength. Recently, it was found that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots lose their ability to photoluminescence after exposure to gamma radiation (J. Phys. Chem. C., 113: 2580-2585 (2009). A method for readout of the loss of quantum dot photoluminescence during exposure to radiation could enable a multitude of real-time dosimetry applications. Here, we report on a method to image photoluminescence from quantum dots from a distance and under ambient lighting conditions. The approach was to construct and test a time-gated imaging system that incorporated pulsed illumination. The system was constructed from a pulsed green laser (Nd:YAG, 20 pulses/s, 5 ns pulse duration, ~5 mJ/pulse), a time-gated camera (LaVision Picostar, 2 ns gate width), and optical components to enable coaxial illumination and imaging. Using the system to image samples of equivalent concentration to the previous end-point work, quantum dot photoluminescence was measureable under ambient room lighting at a distance of 25 cm from the sample with a signal to background of 7.5:1. Continuous exposure of samples to pulsed laser produced no measureable loss of photoluminescence over a time period of one hour. With improvements to the light collection optics the range of the system is expected to increase to several metres, which will enable imaging of samples during exposure to a gamma radiation source.

  8. Multifractional Fourier Transform Method and Its Applications to Image Encryption

    RANQiwen; WANGQi; MAJing; TANLiying


    The multiplicity of the fractional Fourier transform(FRFT),which is intrinsic in any fractional operator,has been claimed by several authors,but never across-the-board developed.Particularly,the weight-type FRFT(WFRFT) has not been investigated.Starting with defining the multifractional Fourier transform (MFRFT),we gained the generalization permutation matrix group (GPMG)representation and multiplicity of the MFRFT,and the relationships among the MFRFT the standard WFRFT and the standard CFRFT.Finally,as a application,a novel image encryption method hased on the MFRFT is propounded.Similation results show that this method is safe,practicable and impactful.

  9. Microscopic method in processed animal proteins identification in feed: applications of image analysis

    Savoini G


    Full Text Available Processed animal proteins (PAP detection and identification in feedstuffs can be difficult in distinguishing among land animals, i.e. poultry and mammals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of image analysis in PAP identification. For this purpose four reference samples containing poultry meals and four reference samples containing mammalian meat and bone meals were used. Each sample was analyzed using the microscopic method (98/88/EC. Bone fragments are characterized by similar morphological features (colours, shape, lacunae shape, lacunae distribution, etc. that make it diff i c u l t to distinguish between poultry and mammals. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software a total of 30 bone fragment lacunae images at X400 were obtained. For each image 29 geometric parameters related to the lacunae and 3 geometric parameters related to the canaliculae of lacunae, were measured using the image analysis software obtaining 960 observations. Of the 32 descriptors used two, the area of the lacunae and their perimeter, were able to explain 96.15% of the total variability of the data, even though their contribution was different (83.97% vs. 12.18%, respectively. Through these two descriptors it was possible to distinguish between mammalian and poultry lacunae, except in two cases (6.6%, in which poultry lacunae were wrongly classified as mammalian. This latter can be related with higher variability in the lacunae area recorded for mammals compared to poultry. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that image analysis represents a promising potential tool in PAP identification, that may provide accurate and reliable results in feedstuffs characterisation, analysis and control.

  10. Method and tool for generating and managing image quality allocations through the design and development process

    Sparks, Andrew W.; Olson, Craig; Theisen, Michael J.; Addiego, Chris J.; Hutchins, Tiffany G.; Goodman, Timothy D.


    Performance models for infrared imaging systems require image quality parameters; optical design engineers need image quality design goals; systems engineers develop image quality allocations to test imaging systems against. It is a challenge to maintain consistency and traceability amongst the various expressions of image quality. We present a method and parametric tool for generating and managing expressions of image quality during the system modeling, requirements specification, design, and testing phases of an imaging system design and development project.

  11. A Quantitative Method for Microtubule Analysis in Fluorescence Images.

    Lan, Xiaodong; Li, Lingfei; Hu, Jiongyu; Zhang, Qiong; Dang, Yongming; Huang, Yuesheng


    Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.

  12. Analysis of Fiber deposition using Automatic Image Processing Method

    Belka, M.; Lizal, F.; Jedelsky, J.; Jicha, M.


    Fibers are permanent threat for a human health. They have an ability to penetrate deeper in the human lung, deposit there and cause health hazards, e.glung cancer. An experiment was carried out to gain more data about deposition of fibers. Monodisperse glass fibers were delivered into a realistic model of human airways with an inspiratory flow rate of 30 l/min. Replica included human airways from oral cavity up to seventh generation of branching. Deposited fibers were rinsed from the model and placed on nitrocellulose filters after the delivery. A new novel method was established for deposition data acquisition. The method is based on a principle of image analysis. The images were captured by high definition camera attached to a phase contrast microscope. Results of new method were compared with standard PCM method, which follows methodology NIOSH 7400, and a good match was found. The new method was found applicable for evaluation of fibers and deposition fraction and deposition efficiency were calculated afterwards.

  13. Analysis of Fiber deposition using Automatic Image Processing Method

    Jicha M.


    Full Text Available Fibers are permanent threat for a human health. They have an ability to penetrate deeper in the human lung, deposit there and cause health hazards, e.glung cancer. An experiment was carried out to gain more data about deposition of fibers. Monodisperse glass fibers were delivered into a realistic model of human airways with an inspiratory flow rate of 30 l/min. Replica included human airways from oral cavity up to seventh generation of branching. Deposited fibers were rinsed from the model and placed on nitrocellulose filters after the delivery. A new novel method was established for deposition data acquisition. The method is based on a principle of image analysis. The images were captured by high definition camera attached to a phase contrast microscope. Results of new method were compared with standard PCM method, which follows methodology NIOSH 7400, and a good match was found. The new method was found applicable for evaluation of fibers and deposition fraction and deposition efficiency were calculated afterwards.

  14. Novel method for ANA quantitation using IIF imaging system.

    Peng, Xiaodong; Tang, Jiangtao; Wu, Yongkang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Jing


    A variety of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases. The detection of abnormal ANA titers is a critical criterion for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard method to determine the presence of ANA and therefore provides information about the localization of autoantigens that are useful for diagnosis. However, its utility was limited in prognosing and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. On the other hand, ELISA for the detection of ANA can quantitate ANA but could not provide further information about the localization of the autoantigens. It would be ideal to integrate both of the quantitative and qualitative methods. To address this issue, this study was conducted to quantitatively detect ANAs by using IIF imaging analysis system. Serum samples from patients with ANA positive (including speckled, homogeneous, nuclear mixture and cytoplasmic mixture patterns) and negative were detected for ANA titers by the classical IIF and analyzed by an image system, the image of each sample was acquired by the digital imaging system and the green fluorescence intensity was quantified by the Image-Pro plus software. A good correlation was found in between two methods and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of various ANA patterns were 0.942 (speckled), 0.942 (homogeneous), 0.923 (nuclear mixture) and 0.760 (cytoplasmic mixture), respectively. The fluorescence density was linearly correlated with the log of ANA titers in various ANA patterns (R(2)>0.95). Moreover, the novel ANA quantitation method showed good reproducibility (F=0.091, p>0.05) with mean±SD and CV% of positive, and negative quality controls were equal to 126.4±9.6 and 7.6%, 10.4±1.25 and 12

  15. Advanced numerical methods for image denoising and segmentation

    Liu, Xiaoyang


    Image denoising is one of the most major steps in current image processing. It is a pre-processing step which aims to remove certain unknown, random noise from an image and obtain an image free of noise for further image processing, such as image segmentation. Image segmentation, as another branch of image processing, plays a significant role in connecting low-level image processing and high-level image processing. Its goal is to segment an image into different parts and extract meaningful in...

  16. Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging

    Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.


    We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.

  17. Comparison between Digital Image Processing and Spectrophotometric Measurements Methods

    Bogdan Adnan HAIFA


    Full Text Available Background: Spectrophotometer is a very common instrument in various scientific fields and gives accurate information about light absorbance and transmittance through materials using monochromatic light source. Though, devices used in spectrophotometry can be quite expensive, using components with high technical specifications and the procedure itself is time consuming. Regular digital image acquisition instruments like scanners and cameras on the other hand uses very cheap electronic components to record the information on 3 wide band channels (Red, Green, Blue. Purpose: This paper studies the possibility of correlating the measurements from the spectrophotometer with raw data from digital image acquisition instruments. Materials and Methods: Because the results will be used in protein electrophoresis, we prepared o set of plates with blood serum in different dilutions, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. The absorbance of the resulting plates has been measured using a spectrophotometer and after that, the plates were scanned with a regular office scanner. The digital image was converted in different color spaces (gray scale, RGB, HSV, HSL, CIEXYZ and CIELAB using custom developed software in C++. We statistically measured the correlation coefficient of different parameters from the color space with the absorption measured with the spectrophotometer. Results and Discussion: The findings of this work show that a consumer digital scanner can be used as a fast and inexpensive alternative to spectrophotometers. This offers the possibility of using scanned images of protein electrophoresis to make quantitative estimations regarding the proteinogram.

  18. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Oscar DĂŠniz


    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  19. Color management systems: methods and technologies for increased image quality

    Caretti, Maria


    All the steps in the imaging chain -- from handling the originals in the prepress to outputting them on any device - - have to be well calibrated and adjusted to each other, in order to reproduce color images in a desktop environment as accurate as possible according to the original. Today most of the steps in the prepress production are digital and therefore it is realistic to believe that the color reproduction can be well controlled. This is true thanks to the last years development of fast, cost effective scanners, digital sources and digital proofing devices not the least. It is likely to believe that well defined tools and methods to control this imaging flow will lead to large cost and time savings as well as increased overall image quality. Until now, there has been a lack of good, reliable, easy-to- use systems (e.g. hardware, software, documentation, training and support) in an extent that has made them accessible to the large group of users of graphic arts production systems. This paper provides an overview of the existing solutions to manage colors in a digital pre-press environment. Their benefits and limitations are discussed as well as how they affect the production workflow and organization. The difference between a color controlled environment and one that is not is explained.

  20. Image Enhancement Using Linear Programming Method for High Dynamic Range Image

    S. Yamini


    Full Text Available Now a days in Telecommunication areas the contrast gain is considered as a major constraints. For the enhancement purpose, the technique called Histogram Equalization is involved, but due to over enhancement and not such gain is been obtained. So that for the OCTM is been proposed, where the constraints of HE is been rectified. OCTM gives better efficiency and it is been solved by Linear programming. In this paper the enhancement of HDR Image using linear Programming is done. According to it HDR Image is constructed using the multiple exposures and its contrast is enhanced using the OCTM method using Linear Programming.