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Sample records for promising gene delivery

  1. A Promising Combo Gene Delivery System Developed from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Cationic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zubin; Song, Lina; Dong, Jinlai; Guo, Dawei; Du, Xiaolin; Cao, Biyin; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-05-01

    (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-IONPs) have been evaluated for various biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery. Cationic polymers (CPs) such as Lipofectamine and TurboFect are widely used for research in gene delivery, but their toxicity and low in vivo efficiency limited their further application. In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble APTES-IONPs and developed a combo gene delivery system based on APTES-IONPs and CPs. This system significantly increased gene-binding capacity, protected genes from degradation, and improved gene transfection efficiency for DNA and siRNA in both adherent and suspension cells. Because of its great biocompatibility, high gene-carrying ability, and very low cytotoxicity, this combo gene delivery system will be expected for a wide application, and it might provide a new method for gene therapy.

  2. A Promising Combo Gene Delivery System Developed from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Cationic Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zubin; Song Lina; Dong Jinlai; Guo Dawei; Du Xiaolin; Cao Biyin; Zhang Yu; Gu Ning; Mao Xinliang

    2013-01-01

    (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-IONPs) have been evaluated for various biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery. Cationic polymers (CPs) such as Lipofectamine and TurboFect are widely used for research in gene delivery, but their toxicity and low in vivo efficiency limited their further application. In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble APTES-IONPs and developed a combo gene delivery system based on APTES-IONPs and CPs. This system significantly increased gene-binding capacity, protected genes from degradation, and improved gene transfection efficiency for DNA and siRNA in both adherent and suspension cells. Because of its great biocompatibility, high gene-carrying ability, and very low cytotoxicity, this combo gene delivery system will be expected for a wide application, and it might provide a new method for gene therapy.

  3. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  4. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  5. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  6. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

    2010-07-01

    MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  7. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  8. The evolution of heart gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasala, Nalinda B.; Shin, Jin-Hong; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy holds promise for treating numerous heart diseases. A key premise for the success of cardiac gene therapy is the development of powerful gene transfer vehicles that can achieve highly efficient and persistent gene transfer specifically in the heart. Other features of an ideal vector include negligible toxicity, minimal immunogenicity and easy manufacturing. Rapid progress in the fields of molecular biology and virology has offered great opportunities to engineer various genetic materials for heart gene delivery. Several nonviral vectors (e.g. naked plasmids, plasmid lipid/polymer complexes and oligonucleotides) have been tested. Commonly used viral vectors include lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus. Among these, adeno-associated virus has shown many attractive features for pre-clinical experimentation in animal models of heart diseases. We review the history and evolution of these vectors for heart gene transfer. PMID:21837689

  9. Overview on zein protein: a promising pharmaceutical excipient in drug delivery systems and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan

    2018-01-01

    Natural pharmaceutical excipients have been applied extensively in the past decades owing to their safety and biocompatibility. Zein, a natural protein of plant origin offers great benefit over other synthetic polymers used in controlled drug and biomedical delivery systems. It was used in a variety of medical fields including pharmaceutical and biomedical drug targeting, vaccine, tissue engineering, and gene delivery. Being biodegradable and biocompatible, the current review focuses on the history and the medical application of zein as an attractive still promising biopolymer. Areas covered: The current review gives a broadscope on zein as a still promising protein excipient in different fields. Zein- based drug and biomedical delivery systems are discussed with special focus on current and potential application in controlled drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. Expert opinion: Zein as a protein of natural origin can still be considered a promising polymer in the field of drug delivery systems as well as in tissue engineering. Although different researchers spotted light on zein application in different industrial fields extensively, the feasibility of its use in the field of drug delivery replenished by investigators in recent years has not yet been fully approached.

  10. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Detonation nanodiamonds are promising nontoxic delivery system for urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Grdadolnik, Maja; Mitev, Dimitar; Iglič, Aleš; Veranič, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that are among the most promising nanoparticles available for biomedical applications so far. This is due to their biocompatibility, which could be contributed to their inert core and conformable surface nature. However, DNDs cytotoxicity for urothelial cells and the routes of their internalization remains an open question in the aspect of nanodiamond surface. We therefore analyzed four types of DNDs for cytotoxicity and internalization with normal urothelial cells and two types of cancer urothelial cell lines in vitro. Viability of any of the cell types we used was not compromised with any of four DNDs we evaluated after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubation in three different concentrations of DNDs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that all four types of DNDs were endocytosed into all three types of urothelial cells tested here. We observed DNDs in endosomes, as well as in multivesicular bodies and multilamellar bodies. These results propose using of DNDs as a delivery system for urological applications in human nanomedicine.

  12. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  13. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul; Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  14. Zeolites: promising candidates for drug delivery systems (DDSs)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaça, Natália; Amorim, Ricardo; Baltazar, Fátima; Fonseca, António Manuel; Neves, Isabel C.

    2012-01-01

    [Excerpt] The aim of controlled drug delivery systems (DDSs) is to administer the necessary amount of drug safely and effectively to specific sites in the human body and to regulate the temporal drug profile for maximum therapeutic benefits.[1] Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates solids with very regular microporous structures and they have been recently considered for medical use due to their biological properties and stability in biological environments.[1,2] The large variety in ...

  15. Mucoadhesive microspheres: a promising tool in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sanjay B; Sawant, Krutika K

    2008-10-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers have recently gained interest among pharmaceutical scientists as a means of improving drug delivery by promoting the residence time and contact time of the dosage form with the mucous membranes. Mucoadhesion is the process whereby synthetic and natural polymers adhere to mucosal surfaces in the body. If these materials are then incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations, drug absorption by mucosal cells may be enhanced or the drug will be released at the site for an extended period of time. Microspheres, in general, have the potential to be used for targeted and controlled release drug delivery; however, coupling of mucoadhesive properties to microspheres has additional advantages like, a much more intimate contact with the mucus layer, efficient absorption and enhanced bioavailability of the drugs due to a high surface to volume ratio. The present review describes the potential applications of mucoadhesive microspheres as a novel carrier system to improve drug delivery by various routes of administration like buccal, oral, nasal, ocular, vaginal and rectal, either for systemic or for local effects. The mucoadhesive polymers, methods of preparation of microspheres and their in vitro and in vivo evaluation are also described.

  16. Gene therapy, early promises, subsequent problems, and recent breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi Soofiyani, Saeideh; Baradaran, Behzad; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Kazemi, Tohid; Mohammadnejad, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in medicine. The concept of gene delivery to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed around half a century, but scientist's ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology made this purpose to reality. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. While gene therapy initially conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn errors, cancers) refractory to conventional treatment, to date gene therapy is considered for many non-life-threatening conditions including those adversely influence on a patient's quality of life. Gene therapy has made significant progress, including tangible success, although much slower than was initially predicted. Although, gene therapies still at a fairly primitive stage, it is firmly science based. There is justifiable hope that with enhanced pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will be a standard part of clinical practice within 20 years.

  17. Gene Therapy, Early Promises, Subsequent Problems, and Recent Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Razi Soofiyani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in medicine. The concept of gene delivery to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed around half a century, but scientist’s ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology made this purpose to reality. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. While gene therapy initially conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn errors, cancers refractory to conventional treatment, to date gene therapy is considered for many non–life-threatening conditions including those adversely influence on a patient’s quality of life. Gene therapy has made significant progress, including tangible success, although much slower than was initially predicted. Although, gene therapies still at a fairly primitive stage, it is firmly science based. There is justifiable hope that with enhanced pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will be a standard part of clinical practice within 20 years.

  18. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-05-15

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering.

  19. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  20. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allen F; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and the complexity of genetic disorders. We also discuss the requirements for sequence-based therapy to be accomplished for different types of inherited diseases, as well as the methods available for gene manipulation. The challenges that have limited the applications of gene therapy are reviewed, as are ethical concerns. Finally, we discuss the promise of gene therapy to address inherited and acquired disorders of the inner ear. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Lipid Phases Eye View to Lipofection. Cationic Phosphatidylcholine Derivatives as Efficient DNA Carriers for Gene Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Rumiana Koynova

    2008-01-01

    Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising non-viral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection) is its unsatisfactory efficie...

  2. Conceptual and technical aspects of transfection and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Lars; Scholz, Anke; Lipp, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Genetically modified animals are state of the art in biomedical research as gene therapy is a promising perspective in the attempt to cure hereditary diseases. Both approaches have in common that modified or corrected genetic information must be transferred into cells in general or into particular cell types of an organism. Here we give an overview of established and emerging methods of transfection and gene delivery and provide conceptual and technical advantages and drawbacks of their particular use. Additionally, based on a flow chart, we compiled a rough guideline to choose a gene transfer method for a particular field of application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced drug and gene delivery systems based on functional biodegradable polycarbonates and copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, R.; Deng, C.; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers are one of the most promising systems for targeted and controlled drug and gene delivery. They have shown several unique advantages such as excellent biocompatibility, prolonged circulation time, passive tumor targeting via the enhanced permeability and retention

  4. Buccal bioadhesive drug delivery--a promising option for orally less efficient drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Yajaman; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2006-08-10

    Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Over the last few decades' pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Among the various transmucosal sites available, mucosa of the buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. Further, these dosage forms are self-administrable, cheap and have superior patient compliance. Developing a dosage form with the optimum pharmacokinetics is a promising area for continued research as it is enormously important and intellectually challenging. With the right dosage form design, local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to

  5. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation) on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo), including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers. PMID:25202710

  6. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Lan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo, including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers.

  7. Gene editing as a promising approach for respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yichun; Liu, Yang; Su, Zhenlei; Ma, Yana; Ren, Chonghua; Zhao, Runzhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations. Clinically, a single pulmonary disease can exhibit more than one phenotype or coexist with multiple organ disorders. To correct abnormal function or repair injured respiratory tissues, one of the most promising techniques is to correct mutated genes by gene editing, as some gene mutations have been clearly demonstrated to be associated with genetic or heterogeneous respiratory diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems are three innovative gene editing technologies developed recently. In this short review, we have summarised the structure and operating principles of the ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems and their preclinical and clinical applications in respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Modified montmorillonite as vector for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Winston T K; Kuo, Tzang-Fu

    2006-06-01

    Currently, gene delivery systems can be divided into two parts: viral or non-viral vectors. In general, viral vectors have a higher efficiency on gene delivery. However, they may sometimes provoke mutagenesis and carcinogenesis once re-activating in human body. Lots of non-viral vectors have been developed that tried to solve the problems happened on viral vectors. Unfortunately, most of non-viral vectors showed relatively lower transfection rate. The aim of this study is to develop a non-viral vector for gene delivery system. Montmorillonite (MMT) is one of clay minerals that consist of hydrated aluminum with Si-O tetrahedrons on the bottom of the layer and Al-O(OH)2 octahedrons on the top. The inter-layer space is about 12 A. The room is not enough to accommodate DNA for gene delivery. In the study, the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) will be intercalated into the interlayer of MMT as a layer expander to expand the layer space for DNA accommodation. The optimal condition for the preparation of DNA-HDTMA-MMT is as follows: 1 mg of 1.5CEC HDTMA-MMT was prepared under pH value of 10.7 and with soaking time for 2 h. The DNA molecules can be protected from nuclease degradation, which can be proven by the electrophoresis analysis. DNA was successfully transfected into the nucleus of human dermal fibroblast and expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene with green fluorescence emission. The HDTMA-MMT has a great potential as a vector for gene delivery in the future.

  9. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Efficient Drug and Gene Delivery Systems: Recent Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely applied as advanced drug and gene delivery nanosystems. Among them, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have attracted great attention as colloidal drug delivery systems for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs and various macromolecules as well as proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, SLNs offer great promise for controlled and site specific drug and gene delivery. This article includes general information about SLN structures and properties, production procedures, characterization. In addition, recent progress on development of drug and gene delivery systems using SLNs was reviewed.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes in Drug and Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirkiani, Soroush; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent important discoveries and developments in nanotechnology have had a remarkable and ever-increasing impact on many industries, especially materials science, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. Within this book, the authors describe different features of carbon nanotubes, survey the properties of both the multi-walled and single-walled varieties, and cover their applications in drug and gene delivery.

  11. Polymeric Gene Delivery for Diabetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wan Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several polymers were used to delivery genes to diabetic animals. Polyaminobutyl glycolic acid was utilized to deliver IL-10 plasmid DNA to prevent autoimmune insulitis of non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse. Polyethylene glycol grafted polylysine was combined with antisense glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD MRNA to represent GAD autoantigene expression. GLP1 and TSTA (SP-EX4 were delivered by bioreducible polymer to stop diabetic progression. Fas siRNA delivery was carried out to treat diabetic NOD mice animal.

  12. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Jafari, Samira; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/ in vivo transformation efficiency.

  13. Gene delivery systems by the combination of lipid bubbles and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2016-11-28

    Gene therapy is promising for the treatment of many diseases including cancers and genetic diseases. From the viewpoint of safety, ultrasound (US)-mediated gene delivery with nano/ microbubbles was recently developed as a novel non-viral vector system. US-mediated gene delivery using nano/microbubbles are able to produce transient changes in the permeability of the cell membrane after US-induced cavitation while reducing cellular damage and enables the tissue-specific or the site-specific intracellular delivery of gene both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently developed novel lipid nanobubbles (Lipid Bubbles). These nanobubbles can also be used to enhance the efficacy of the US-mediated genes (plasmid DNA, siRNA, and miRNA etc.) delivery. In this review, we describe US-mediated delivery systems combined with nano/microbubbles and discuss their feasibility as non-viral vector systems.

  14. Polyethyleneimine grafted short halloysite nanotubes for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zheru; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren; Liu, Mingxian

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have attracted much attentions in gene delivery because of their desirable characteristics including low toxicity, well-controlled characteristics, high gene delivery efficiency, and multi-functionalities. Here, natural occurred halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were developed as a novel non-viral gene vector. To increase the efficiency of endocytosis, HNTs were firstly shortened into an appropriate size (~200nm). Then polyethyleneimine (PEI) was grafted onto HNTs to bind green fluorescence protein (GFP) labeled pDNA. The structure and physical-chemical properties of PEI grafted HNTs (PEI-g-HNTs) were characterized by various methods. PEI-g-HNTs show lower cytotoxicity than PEI. PEI-g-HNTs are positively charged and can bind DNA tightly at designed N/P ratio from 5:1 to 40:1. PEI-g-HNTs/pDNA complexes show much higher transfection efficiency towards both 293T and HeLa cells compared with PEI/pDNA complexes at the equivalent N/P ratio. The transfection efficiencies of PEI-g-HNTs/pDNA complex towards HeLa cell can reach to 44.4% at N/P ratio of 20. PEI-g-HNTs/pDNA complexes possess a higher GFP protein expression than PEI/pDNA from simple western immunoblots. So, PEI-g-HNTs are potential gene vectors with good biocompatibility and high transfection efficiency, which have promising applications in cancer gene therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapong Yata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage, viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage.

  16. BDNF gene delivery mediated by neuron-targeted nanoparticles is neuroprotective in peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, CDF; Gonçalves, NP; Gomes, CP; Saraiva, MJ; Pêgo, AP

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the br...

  17. Barriers to Liposomal Gene Delivery: from Application Site to the Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mostafa; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a therapeutic approach to deliver genetic material into cells to alter their function in entire organism. One promising form of gene delivery system (DDS) is liposomes. The success of liposome-mediated gene delivery is a multifactorial issue and well-designed liposomal systems might lead to optimized gene transfection particularly in vivo. Liposomal gene delivery systems face different barriers from their site of application to their target, which is inside the cells. These barriers include presystemic obstacles (epithelial barriers), systemic barriers in blood circulation and cellular barriers. Epithelial barriers differ depending on the route of administration. Systemic barriers include enzymatic degradation, binding and opsonisation. Both of these barriers can act as limiting hurdles that genetic material and their vector should overcome before reaching the cells. Finally liposomes should overcome cellular barriers that include cell entrance, endosomal escape and nuclear uptake. These barriers and their impact on liposomal gene delivery will be discussed in this review.

  18. Quaternized Polyamidoamine Dendrimers as Novel Gene Delivery System: Relationship between Degree of Quaternization and Their Influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Lim, Yong beom; Choi, Joon Sig; Choi, Myung Un; Yang, Chul Hak; Park, Jong Sang

    2003-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium groups were introduced to Starburst polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers for a gene carrier. These quaternary dendritic carriers exhibited reduced cytotoxicity on 293T cells compared to parent dendrimers examined and their transfection efficiency were similar with parent dendrimers. Quaternization could be a promising tool to improve properties of dendrimers as a gene delivery carrier

  19. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  20. Liposomes for Use in Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Balazs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes have a wide array of uses that have been continuously expanded and improved upon since first being observed to self-assemble into vesicular structures. These arrangements can be found in many shapes and sizes depending on lipid composition. Liposomes are often used to deliver a molecular cargo such as DNA for therapeutic benefit. The lipids used to form such lipoplexes can be cationic, anionic, neutral, or a mixture thereof. Herein physical packing parameters and specific lipids used for gene delivery will be discussed, with lipids classified according to overall charge.

  1. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale organic particles have gained a prominent role in drug and gene delivery field. As the nature of the nanoparticle’s (NPs) surface plays a major role in their targeting efficiency, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity, membrane-mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes have been extensively used due to their high loading capacity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, modifications with stimuli responsive materials are highly needed to improve their stability and turn them active participants in controlled delivery. Towards a nature inspired approach, reconstructed bilayers from cell membrane are a good candidate to enhance NP’s targeting ability and biocompatibility. The primary focus of this research is to develop smart responsive (lipid) membrane coated NPs with surface modifications for controlled and targeted drug and/or gene delivery for application in cancer therapy. Three approaches have been developed, namely i) liposomes as thermoresponsive nanocarriers for the delivery of genetic material; ii) magnetically photosensitive liposome hybrids and iii) biomimetic periodic mesoporous organo silica engineered for better a biocompatibility and targeting capabilities. In the first project synthetic liposomes were loaded with ammonium bicarbonate salt (ABC) and siRNA. The combination of lipids chosen and the relative ratios allowed the rapid release of the genetic material to the multi drug resistant cancer cells studied, upon external heat trigger. This design has improved the gene silencing efficiency via successful endosomal escape. In the second project, SPIO@Au nanoparticles were imbedded in the lipid bilayer to produce a photo/thermal responsive carrier that could be also used in cell imaging besides gene transfection

  3. Mannan-Modified PLGA Nanoparticles for Targeted Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of targeted gene delivery nanocarriers have gained increasing attention during the past decades. In this study, mannan modified DNA loaded bioadhesive PLGA nanoparticles (MAN-DNA-NPs were investigated for targeted gene delivery to the Kupffer cells (KCs. Bioadhesive PLGA nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently bound with pEGFP. Following the coupling of the mannan-based PE-grafted ligands (MAN-PE with the DNA-NPs, the MAN-DNA-NPs were delivered intravenously to rats. The transfection efficiency was determined from the isolated KCs and flow cytometry was applied for the quantitation of gene expression after 48 h post transfection. The size of the MAN-DNA-NPs was found to be around 190 nm and the Zeta potential was determined to be −15.46mV. The pEGFP binding capacity of MAN-DNA-NPs was (88.9±5.8% and the in vitro release profiles of the MAN-DNA-NPs follow the Higuchi model. When compared with non-modified DNA-NPs and Lipofectamine 2000-DNA, MAN-DNA-NPs produced the highest gene expressions, especially in vivo. The in vivo data from flow cytometry analysis showed that MAN-DNA-NPs displayed a remarkably higher transfection efficiency (39% than non-modified DNA-NPs (25% and Lipofectamine 2000-DNA (23% in KCs. The results illustrate that MAN-DNA-NPs have the ability to target liver KCs and could function as promising active targeting drug delivery vectors.

  4. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of suicide genes in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Riccardo; Collico, Veronica; Zuppone, Stefania; Prosperi, Davide; Colombo, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics have been employed in cancer treatment for decades due to their efficacy in killing the malignant cells, but the other side of the coin showed off-target effects, onset of drug resistance and recurrences. To overcome these limitations, different approaches have been investigated and suicide gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative. This approach consists in the introduction of genetic materials into cancerous cells or the surrounding tissue to cause cell death or retard the growth of the tumor mass. Despite promising results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, this innovative approach has been limited, for long time, to the treatment of localized tumors, due to the suboptimal efficiency in introducing suicide genes into cancer cells. Nanoparticles represent a valuable non-viral delivery system to protect drugs in the bloodstream, to improve biodistribution, and to limit side effects by achieving target selectivity through surface ligands. In this scenario, the real potential of suicide genes can be translated into clinically viable treatments for patients. In the present review, we summarize the recent advances of inorganic nanoparticles as non-viral vectors in terms of therapeutic efficacy, targeting capacity and safety issues. We describe the main suicide genes currently used in therapy, with particular emphasis on toxin-encoding genes of bacterial and plant origin. In addition, we discuss the relevance of molecular targeting and tumor-restricted expression to improve treatment specificity to cancer tissue. Finally, we analyze the main clinical applications, limitations and future perspectives of suicide gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovations in gene and growth factor delivery systems for diabetic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiva, Ashang Luwang; O'Brien, Fergal J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The rise in lower extremity amputations due to nonhealing of foot ulcers in diabetic patients calls for rapid improvement in effective treatment regimens. Administration of growth factors (GFs) are thought to offer an off‐the‐shelf treatment; however, the dose‐ and time‐dependent efficacy of the GFs together with the hostile environment of diabetic wound beds impose a major hindrance in the selection of an ideal route for GF delivery. As an alternative, the delivery of therapeutic genes using viral and nonviral vectors, capable of transiently expressing the genes until the recovery of the wounded tissue offers promise. The development of implantable biomaterial dressings capable of modulating the release of either single or combinatorial GFs/genes may offer solutions to this overgrowing problem. This article reviews the state of the art on gene and protein delivery and the strategic optimization of clinically adopted delivery strategies for the healing of diabetic wounds. PMID:28482114

  6. Gene Therapy for the Inner Ear: Challenges and Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Allen F.; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and t...

  7. Ligand-Modified Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles for Enhanced Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Jennifer; Wilhelm, Nadine; von Briesen, Hagen; Noske, Nadja; Günther, Christine; Langer, Klaus; Gorjup, Erwin

    2015-09-08

    The development of nonviral gene delivery systems is a great challenge to enable safe gene therapy. In this study, ligand-modified nanoparticles based on human serum albumin (HSA) were developed and optimized for an efficient gene therapy. Different glutaraldehyde cross-linking degrees were investigated to optimize the HSA nanoparticles for gene delivery. The peptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) and the HIV-1 transactivator of transduction sequence (Tat) are well-known as promising targeting ligands. Plasmid DNA loaded HSA nanoparticles were covalently modified on their surface with these different ligands. The transfection potential of the obtained plasmid DNA loaded RGD- and Tat-modified nanoparticles was investigated in vitro, and optimal incubation conditions for these preparations were studied. It turned out that Tat-modified HSA nanoparticles with the lowest cross-linking degree of 20% showed the highest transfection potential. Taken together, ligand-functionalized HSA nanoparticles represent promising tools for efficient and safe gene therapy.

  8. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  9. Communicating the promise for ocular gene therapies: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminy, Shelly; Kowal, Stephanie P; MacDonald, Ian M; Bubela, Tania

    2015-09-01

    To identify challenges and pose solutions for communications about ocular gene therapy between patients and clinicians as clinical research progresses. Literature review with recommendations. Literature review of science communication best practices to inform recommendations for patient-clinician discussions about ocular gene therapy. Clinicians need to employ communications about ocular gene therapy that are both attentive to patient priorities and concerns and responsive to other sources of information, including overly positive news media and the Internet. Coverage often conflates research with therapy-clinical trials are experimental and are not risk free. If proven safe and efficacious, gene therapy may present a treatment but not a cure for patients who have already experienced vision loss. Clinicians can assist patients by providing realistic estimates for lengthy clinical development timelines and positioning current research within models of clinical translation. This enables patients to weigh future therapeutic options when making current disease management decisions. Ocular gene therapy clinical trials are raising hopes for treating a myriad of hereditary retinopathies, but most such therapies are many years in the future. Clinicians should be prepared to counter overly positive messaging, found in news media and on the Internet, with optimism tempered by evidence to support the ethical translation of gene therapy and other novel biotherapeutics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoparticles for the delivery of therapeutic antibodies: Dogma or promising strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Flávia; Castro, Pedro; Fonte, Pedro; Kennedy, Patrick J; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, therapeutic antibodies have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of a wide array of diseases. However, the application of antibody-based therapy implies multiple administrations and a high cost of antibody production, resulting in costly therapy. Another disadvantage inherent to antibody-based therapy is the limited stability of antibodies and the low level of tissue penetration. The use of nanoparticles as delivery systems for antibodies allows for a reduction in antibody dosing and may represent a suitable alternative to increase antibody stability Areas covered: We discuss different nanocarriers intended for the delivery of antibodies as well as the corresponding encapsulation methods. Recent developments in antibody nanoencapsulation, particularly the possible toxicity issues that may arise from entrapment of antibodies into nanocarriers, are also assessed. In addition, this review will discuss the alterations in antibody structure and bioactivity that occur with nanoencapsulation. Expert opinion: Nanocarriers can protect antibodies from degradation, ensuring superior bioavailability. Encapsulation of therapeutic antibodies may offer some advantages, including potential targeting, reduced immunogenicity and controlled release. Furthermore, antibody nanoencapsulation may aid in the incorporation of the antibodies into the cells, if intracellular components (e.g. intracellular enzymes, oncogenic proteins, transcription factors) are to be targeted.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng; An, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression. (paper)

  12. Dendrimers as Carriers for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi was first literaturally reported in 1998 and has become rapidly a promising tool for therapeutic applications in gene therapy. In a typical RNAi process, small interfering RNAs (siRNA are used to specifically downregulate the expression of the targeted gene, known as the term “gene silencing.” One key point for successful gene silencing is to employ a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. In this context, dendrimers are emerging as potential nonviral vectors to deliver siRNA for RNAi purpose. Dendrimers have attracted intense interest since their emanating research in the 1980s and are extensively studied as efficient DNA delivery vectors in gene transfer applications, due to their unique features based on the well-defined and multivalent structures. Knowing that DNA and RNA possess a similar structure in terms of nucleic acid framework and the electronegative nature, one can also use the excellent DNA delivery properties of dendrimers to develop effective siRNA delivery systems. In this review, the development of dendrimer-based siRNA delivery vectors is summarized, focusing on the vector features (siRNA delivery efficiency, cytotoxicity, etc. of different types of dendrimers and the related investigations on structure-activity relationship to promote safe and efficient siRNA delivery system.

  13. Dendrimers as Carriers for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weizhe; He, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) was first literaturally reported in 1998 and has become rapidly a promising tool for therapeutic applications in gene therapy. In a typical RNAi process, small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are used to specifically downregulate the expression of the targeted gene, known as the term “gene silencing.” One key point for successful gene silencing is to employ a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. In this context, dendrimers are emerging as potential nonviral vectors to deliver siRNA for RNAi purpose. Dendrimers have attracted intense interest since their emanating research in the 1980s and are extensively studied as efficient DNA delivery vectors in gene transfer applications, due to their unique features based on the well-defined and multivalent structures. Knowing that DNA and RNA possess a similar structure in terms of nucleic acid framework and the electronegative nature, one can also use the excellent DNA delivery properties of dendrimers to develop effective siRNA delivery systems. In this review, the development of dendrimer-based siRNA delivery vectors is summarized, focusing on the vector features (siRNA delivery efficiency, cytotoxicity, etc.) of different types of dendrimers and the related investigations on structure-activity relationship to promote safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. PMID:24288498

  14. Investigation of a thiolated polymer in gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalocostantis, Irene

    Thiol-containing bioreducible polymers show significant potential as delivery vectors in gene therapy, a rapidly growing field which seeks to treat genetic-based disorders by delivering functional synthetic genes to diseased cells. Studies have shown that thiolated polymers exhibit improved biodegradability and prolonged in vivo circulation times over non-thiolated polymers. However, the extent to which thiol concentrations impact the carrier's delivery potential has not been well explored. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate how relative concentrations of free thiols and disulfide crosslinks impact a polymeric carriers delivery performance with respect to DNA packaging, complex stability, cargo protection, gene release, internalization efficiency and cytotoxicity. To accomplish this goal, several fluorescent polymers containing varying concentrations of thiol groups were synthesized by conjugating thiol-pendant chains onto the primary amines of cationic poly(allylamine). In vitro delivery assays and characterization techniques were employed to assess the effect of thiols in gene delivery.

  15. Exploring the role of peptides in polymer-based gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanping; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunxi; Yang, Tianzhi; Cai, Cuifang; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2017-09-15

    Polymers are widely studied as non-viral gene vectors because of their strong DNA binding ability, capacity to carry large payload, flexibility of chemical modifications, low immunogenicity, and facile processes for manufacturing. However, high cytotoxicity and low transfection efficiency substantially restrict their application in clinical trials. Incorporating functional peptides is a promising approach to address these issues. Peptides demonstrate various functions in polymer-based gene delivery systems, such as targeting to specific cells, breaching membrane barriers, facilitating DNA condensation and release, and lowering cytotoxicity. In this review, we systematically summarize the role of peptides in polymer-based gene delivery, and elaborate how to rationally design polymer-peptide based gene delivery vectors. Polymers are widely studied as non-viral gene vectors, but suffer from high cytotoxicity and low transfection efficiency. Incorporating short, bioactive peptides into polymer-based gene delivery systems can address this issue. Peptides demonstrate various functions in polymer-based gene delivery systems, such as targeting to specific cells, breaching membrane barriers, facilitating DNA condensation and release, and lowering cytotoxicity. In this review, we highlight the peptides' roles in polymer-based gene delivery, and elaborate how to utilize various functional peptides to enhance the transfection efficiency of polymers. The optimized peptide-polymer vectors should be able to alter their structures and functions according to biological microenvironments and utilize inherent intracellular pathways of cells, and consequently overcome the barriers during gene delivery to enhance transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How controlled release technology can aid gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Many types of gene delivery systems have been developed to enhance the level of gene expression. Controlled release technology is a feasible gene delivery system which enables genes to extend the expression duration by maintaining and releasing them at the injection site in a controlled manner. This technology can reduce the adverse effects by the bolus dose administration and avoid the repeated administration. Biodegradable biomaterials are useful as materials for the controlled release-based gene delivery technology and various biodegradable biomaterials have been developed. Controlled release-based gene delivery plays a critical role in a conventional gene therapy and genetic engineering. In the gene therapy, the therapeutic gene is released from biodegradable biomaterial matrices around the tissue to be treated. On the other hand, the intracellular controlled release of gene from the sub-micro-sized matrices is required for genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is feasible for cell transplantation as well as research of stem cells biology and medicine. DNA hydrogel containing a sequence of therapeutic gene and the exosome including the individual specific nucleic acids may become candidates for controlled release carriers. Technologies to deliver genes to cell aggregates will play an important role in the promotion of regenerative research and therapy.

  17. A new electrospray method for targeted gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stephan; Ruzgys, Paulius; Tamò, Luca; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Geiser, Thomas; Gazdhar, Amiq; Hradetzky, David

    2018-03-05

    A challenge for gene therapy is absence of safe and efficient local delivery of therapeutic genetic material. An efficient and reproducible physical method of electrospray for localized and targeted gene delivery is presented. Electrospray works on the principle of coulombs repulsion, under influence of electric field the liquid carrying genetic material is dispersed into micro droplets and is accelerated towards the targeted tissue, acting as a counter electrode. The accelerated droplets penetrate the targeted cells thus facilitating the transfer of genetic material into the cell. The work described here presents the principle of electrospray for gene delivery, the basic instrument design, and the various optimized parameters to enhance gene transfer in vitro. We estimate a transfection efficiency of up to 60% was achieved. We describe an efficient gene transfer method and a potential electrospray-mediated gene transfer mechanism.

  18. Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0401 TITLE: Malaria Prevention by New Technology : Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary...CONTRACT NUMBER Malaria Prevention by New Technology : Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0401 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...whole animals. Using a specific technology originally applied to expression of HIV antibodies, we demonstrated that mice can be protected from

  19. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  20. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  1. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  2. Current and future technological advances in transdermal gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-12-19

    Transdermal gene delivery holds significant advantages as it is able to minimize the problems of systemic administration such as enzymatic degradation, systemic toxicity, and poor delivery to target tissues. This technology has the potential to transform the treatment and prevention of a range of diseases. However, the skin poses a great barrier for gene delivery because of the "bricks-and-mortar" structure of the stratum corneum and the tight junctions between keratinocytes in the epidermis. This review systematically summarizes the typical physical and chemical approaches to overcome these barriers and facilitate gene delivery via skin for applications in vaccination, wound healing, skin cancers and skin diseases. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are discussed and the insights for future development are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogel-Assisted Antisense LNA Gapmer Delivery for In Situ Gene Silencing in Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Pedro M.D.; Ferreira, Ana R.; Salvador, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    )-modified AON gapmers in combination with a fibrin hydrogel bridging material to induce gene silencing in situ at a SCI lesion site. LNA gapmers were effectively developed against two promising gene targets aiming at enhancing axonal regeneration—RhoA and GSK3β. The fibrin-matrix-assisted AON delivery system......After spinal cord injury (SCI), nerve regeneration is severely hampered due to the establishment of a highly inhibitory microenvironment at the injury site, through the contribution of multiple factors. The potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to modify gene expression at different levels...

  4. Lipopolyplex for therapeutic gene delivery and its application for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lipopolyplex is a core-shell structure composed of nucleic acid, polycation and lipid. As a non-viral gene delivery vector, lipopolyplex combining the advantages of polyplex and lipoplex has shown superior colloidal stability, reduced cytotoxicity, extremely high gene transfection efficiency. Following intravenous administration, there are many strategies based on lipopolyplex to overcome the complex biological barriers in systemic gene delivery including condensation of nucleic acids into nanoparticles, long circulation, cell targeting, endosomal escape, release to cytoplasm and entry into cell nucleus. Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and severely influences the patients’ life quality. Current gene therapy clinical trials for Parkinson’s disease employing viral vectors didn’t achieve satisfactory efficacy. However, lipopolyplex may become a promising alternative approach owing to its stability in blood, ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and specific targeting to diseased brain cells.

  5. Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Souvik

    The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the

  6. Ultrasound-Mediated Drug/Gene Delivery in Solid Tumor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is an emerging modality for drug delivery in chemotherapy. This paper reviews this novel technology by first introducing the designs and characteristics of three classes of drug/gene vehicles, microbubble (including nanoemulsion, liposomes, and micelles. In comparison to conventional free drug, the targeted drug-release and delivery through vessel wall and interstitial space to cancerous cells can be activated and enhanced under certain sonication conditions. In the acoustic field, there are several reactions of these drug vehicles, including hyperthermia, bubble cavitation, sonoporation, and sonodynamics, whose physical properties are illustrated for better understanding of this approach. In vitro and in vivo results are summarized, and future directions are discussed. Altogether, ultrasound-mediated drug/gene delivery under imaging guidance provides a promising option in cancer treatment with enhanced agent release and site specificity and reduced toxicity.

  7. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  8. Safety and Efficacy of AAV Retrograde Pancreatic Ductal Gene Delivery in Normal and Pancreatic Cancer Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Kayla A; Kwon, Jason J; Alioufi, Arafat; Factora, Tricia; Temm, Constance J; Jacobsen, Max; Sandusky, George E; Shontz, Kim; Chicoine, Louis G; Clark, K Reed; Mendell, Joshua T; Korc, Murray; Kota, Janaiah

    2018-03-16

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery shows promise to transduce the pancreas, but safety/efficacy in a neoplastic context is not well established. To identify an ideal AAV serotype, route, and vector dose and assess safety, we have investigated the use of three AAV serotypes (6, 8, and 9) expressing GFP in a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector under an EF1α promoter (scAAV.GFP) following systemic or retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery. Systemic delivery of scAAV9.GFP transduced the pancreas with high efficiency, but gene expression did not exceed >45% with the highest dose, 5 × 10 12 viral genomes (vg). Intraductal delivery of 1 × 10 11 vg scAAV6.GFP transduced acini, ductal cells, and islet cells with >50%, ∼48%, and >80% efficiency, respectively, and >80% pancreatic transduction was achieved with 5 × 10 11 vg. In a Kras G12D -driven pancreatic cancer mouse model, intraductal delivery of scAAV6.GFP targeted acini, epithelial, and stromal cells and exhibited persistent gene expression 5 months post-delivery. In normal mice, intraductal delivery induced a transient increase in serum amylase/lipase that resolved within a day of infusion with no sustained pancreatic inflammation or fibrosis. Similarly, in PDAC mice, intraductal delivery did not increase pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression/fibrosis. Our study demonstrates that scAAV6 targets the pancreas/neoplasm efficiently and safely via retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of AAV Retrograde Pancreatic Ductal Gene Delivery in Normal and Pancreatic Cancer Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla A. Quirin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated gene delivery shows promise to transduce the pancreas, but safety/efficacy in a neoplastic context is not well established. To identify an ideal AAV serotype, route, and vector dose and assess safety, we have investigated the use of three AAV serotypes (6, 8, and 9 expressing GFP in a self-complementary (sc AAV vector under an EF1α promoter (scAAV.GFP following systemic or retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery. Systemic delivery of scAAV9.GFP transduced the pancreas with high efficiency, but gene expression did not exceed >45% with the highest dose, 5 × 1012 viral genomes (vg. Intraductal delivery of 1 × 1011 vg scAAV6.GFP transduced acini, ductal cells, and islet cells with >50%, ∼48%, and >80% efficiency, respectively, and >80% pancreatic transduction was achieved with 5 × 1011 vg. In a KrasG12D-driven pancreatic cancer mouse model, intraductal delivery of scAAV6.GFP targeted acini, epithelial, and stromal cells and exhibited persistent gene expression 5 months post-delivery. In normal mice, intraductal delivery induced a transient increase in serum amylase/lipase that resolved within a day of infusion with no sustained pancreatic inflammation or fibrosis. Similarly, in PDAC mice, intraductal delivery did not increase pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression/fibrosis. Our study demonstrates that scAAV6 targets the pancreas/neoplasm efficiently and safely via retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery.

  10. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  11. Engineered nonviral nanocarriers for intracellular gene delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Puntes, Victor F; Tort, Olivia; Lorenzo, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The efficient delivery of nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a central aspect of cell biology and of medical applications, including cancer therapy and tissue engineering. Non-viral chemical methods have been received with great interest for transfecting cells. However, further development of nanocarriers that are biocompatible, efficient and suitable for clinical applications is still required. In this paper, the different material platforms for gene delivery are comparatively addressed, and the mechanisms of interaction with biological systems are discussed carefully. (paper)

  12. Au nanoinjectors for electrotriggered gene delivery into the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the performance of delivering devices. Ideal intracellular delivery devices should convey various kinds of exogenous materials without deteriorating cell viability regardless of cell type and, furthermore, precisely control the location and the timing of delivery as well as the amount of delivered materials for advanced researches.In this chapter the development of a new intracellular delivery device, a nanoinjector made of a Au (gold) nanowire (a Au nanoinjector) is described in which delivery is triggered by external application of an electric pulse. As a model study, a gene was delivered directly into the nucleus of a neuroblastoma cell, and successful delivery without cell damage was confirmed by the expression of the delivered gene. The insertion of a Au nanoinjector directly into a cell can be generally applied to any kind of cell, and a high degree of surface modification of Au allows attachment of diverse materials such as proteins, small molecules, or nanoparticles as well as genes on Au nanoinjectors. This expands their applicability, and it is expected that they will provide important information on the effects of delivered exogenous materials and consequently contribute to the development of related therapeutic or clinical technologies.

  13. PLGA-Chitosan nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery for oral cancer treatment: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, L. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Doolaanea, A. A.; Ichwan, S. J. A.

    2017-08-01

    Cancer becomes a serious issue on society with increasing of their growth and proliferation, either in well economic developed countries or not. Recent years, oral cancer is one of the most threatening diseases impairing the quality of life of the patient. Scientists have emphasised on application of gene therapy for oral cancer by using nanoparticle as transportation vectors as a new alternative platform in order to overcome the limitations of conventional approaches. In modern medicine, nanotechnologies’ application, such as nanoparticles-mediated gene delivery, is one of promising tool for therapeutic devices. The objective of this article is to present a brief review summarizes on the current progress of nanotechnology-based gene delivery treatment system targeted for oral cancer.

  14. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  15. Efficient Gene Delivery to Pig Airway Epithelia and Submucosal Glands Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibi Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy.

  16. Ex vivo culture of patient tissue & examination of gene delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    This video describes the use of patient tissue as an ex vivo model for the study of gene delivery. Fresh patient tissue obtained at the time of surgery is sliced and maintained in culture. The ex vivo model system allows for the physical delivery of genes into intact patient tissue and gene expression is analysed by bioluminescence imaging using the IVIS detection system. The bioluminescent detection system demonstrates rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression within individual slices without the need for tissue sacrifice. This slice tissue culture system may be used in a variety of tissue types including normal and malignant tissue and allows us to study the effects of the heterogeneous nature of intact tissue and the high degree of variability between individual patients. This model system could be used in certain situations as an alternative to animal models and as a complementary preclinical mode prior to entering clinical trial.

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.fillat@crg.es; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-18

    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  18. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  19. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  20. Polymeric Micelles, a Promising Drug Delivery System to Enhance Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration is the most commonly used and readily accepted form of drug delivery; however, it is find that many drugs are difficult to attain enough bioavailability when administered via this route. Polymeric micelles (PMs can overcome some limitations of the oral delivery acting as carriers able to enhance drug absorption, by providing (1 protection of the loaded drug from the harsh environment of the GI tract, (2 release of the drug in a controlled manner at target sites, (3 prolongation of the residence time in the gut by mucoadhesion, and (4 inhibition of efflux pumps to improve the drug accumulation. To explain the mechanisms for enhancement of oral bioavailability, we discussed the special stability of PMs, the controlled release properties of pH-sensitive PMs, the prolongation of residence time with mucoadhesive PMs, and the P-gp inhibitors commonly used in PMs, respectively. The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of PMs for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs with bioavailability being well maintained.

  1. AAV vectors as gene delivery vehicles in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, M.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant gene delivery vehicles based on the replication-defective AAV have gained a preeminent position in the field of gene delivery to the brain. Efficient global gene delivery to the CNS is beneficial for the study of gene products is the entire CNS as well as for introducing and expressing

  2. Application of Ferriferous Oxide Modified by Chitosan in Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to improve the traditional gene carriers are still required. Here we explore Fe3O4 modified with degradable polymers that enhances gene delivery and target delivery using permanent magnetic field. Two magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with chitosan (CTS and polyethylene glycol (PEG were synthesized by means of controlled chemical coprecipitation. Plasmid pEGFP was encapsulated as a reported gene. The ferriferous oxide complexes were approximately spherical; surface charge of CTS-Fe3O4 and PEG-Fe3O4 was about 20 mv and 0 mv, respectively. The controlled release of DNA from the CTS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was observed. Concurrently, a desired Fe3O4 concentration of less than 2 mM was verified as safe by means of a cytotoxicity test in vitro. Presence of the permanent magnetic field significantly increased the transfection efficiency. Furthermore, the passive target property and safety of magnetic nanoparticles were also demonstrated in an in vivo test. The novel gene delivery system was proved to be an effective tool required for future target expression and gene therapy in vivo.

  3. Gelatin nanoparticles enhance delivery of hepatitis C virus recombinant NS2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Salwa; George, Marina A; El-Shorbagy, Haidan M; Bassiony, Heba; Farroh, Khaled Y; Youssef, Tareq; Salaheldin, Taher A

    2017-01-01

    Development of an effective non-viral vaccine against hepatitis C virus infection is of a great importance. Gelatin nanoparticles (Gel.NPs) have an attention and promising approach as a viable carrier for delivery of vaccine, gene, drug and other biomolecules in the body. The present study aimed to develop stable Gel.NPs conjugated with nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) gene of Hepatitis C Virus genotype 4a (HCV4a) as a safe and an efficient vaccine delivery system. Gel.NPs were synthesized and characterized (size: 150±2 nm and zeta potential +17.6 mv). NS2 gene was successfully cloned and expressed into E. coli M15 using pQE-30 vector. Antigenicity of the recombinant NS2 protein was confirmed by Western blotting to verify the efficiency of NS2 as a possible vaccine. Then NS2 gene was conjugated to gelatin nanoparticles and a successful conjugation was confirmed by labeling and imaging using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Interestingly, the transformation of the conjugated NS2/Gel.NPs complex into E. coli DH5-α was 50% more efficient than transformation with the gene alone. In addition, conjugated NS2/Gel.NPs with ratio 1:100 (w/w) showed higher transformation efficiency into E. coli DH5-α than the other ratios (1:50 and 2:50). Gel.NPs effectively enhanced the gene delivery in bacterial cells without affecting the structure of NS2 gene and could be used as a safe, easy, rapid, cost-effective and non-viral vaccine delivery system for HCV.

  4. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P D; Podsakoff, G M; Chen, X; McQuiston, S A; Colosi, P C; Matelis, L A; Kurtzman, G J; Byrne, B J

    1996-11-26

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.

  5. PLGA based drug delivery systems: Promising carriers for wound healing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Current treatment options are limited and require repeated administrations which led to the development of new therapeutics to satisfy the unmet clinical needs. Many potent wound healing agents were discovered but most of them are fragile and/or sensitive to in vivo conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a widely used biodegradable polymer approved by food and drug administration and European medicines agency as an excipient for parenteral administrations. It is a well-established drug delivery system in various medical applications. The aim of the current review is to elaborate the applications of PLGA based drug delivery systems carrying different wound healing agents and also present PLGA itself as a wound healing promoter. PLGA carriers encapsulating drugs such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins/peptides, and nucleic acids targeting various phases/signaling cycles of wound healing, are discussed with examples. The combined therapeutic effects of PLGA and a loaded drug on wound healing are also mentioned. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Efficient and safe gene delivery to human corneal endothelium using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czugala, Marta; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Böhler, Philip; Onderka, Jasmine; Stork, Björn; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Kruse, Friedrich E; Plank, Christian; Singer, Bernhard B; Fuchsluger, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    To develop a safe and efficient method for targeted, anti-apoptotic gene therapy of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). Magnetofection (MF), a combination of lipofection with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs; PEI-Mag2, SO-Mag5, PalD1-Mag1), was tested in human CECs and in explanted human corneas. Effects on cell viability and function were investigated. Immunocompatibility was assessed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Silica iron-oxide MNPs (SO-Mag5) combined with X-tremeGENE-HP achieved high transfection efficiency in human CECs and explanted human corneas, without altering cell viability or function. Magnetofection caused no immunomodulatory effects in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Magnetofection with anti-apoptotic P35 gene effectively blocked apoptosis in CECs. Magnetofection is a promising tool for gene therapy of corneal endothelial cells with potential for targeted on-site delivery.

  7. Noninvasive gene delivery to foveal cones for vision restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabou, Hanen; Garita-Hernandez, Marcela; Jaillard, Céline; Brazhnikova, Elena; Bertin, Stéphane; Forster, Valérie; Desrosiers, Mélissa; Winckler, Céline; Goureau, Olivier; Duebel, Jens; Sahel, José-Alain

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular injection of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been an evident route for delivering gene drugs into the retina. However, gaps in our understanding of AAV transduction patterns within the anatomically unique environments of the subretinal and intravitreal space of the primate eye impeded the establishment of noninvasive and efficient gene delivery to foveal cones in the clinic. Here, we establish new vector-promoter combinations to overcome the limitations associated with AAV-mediated cone transduction in the fovea with supporting studies in mouse models, human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived organoids, postmortem human retinal explants, and living macaques. We show that an AAV9 variant provides efficient foveal cone transduction when injected into the subretinal space several millimeters away from the fovea, without detaching this delicate region. An engineered AAV2 variant provides gene delivery to foveal cones with a well-tolerated dose administered intravitreally. Both delivery modalities rely on a cone-specific promoter and result in high-level transgene expression compatible with optogenetic vision restoration. The model systems described here provide insight into the behavior of AAV vectors across species to obtain safety and efficacy needed for gene therapy in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29367457

  8. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8 + T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle

  9. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weiming, Xiao [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Juqun, Xi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Yanbing, Ding [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Li, Qian [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Xingyuan, Pan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Mingchun, Ji [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weijuan, Gong, E-mail: wjgong@yzu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  10. Theory and in vivo application of electroporative gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiari, S; Glasspool-Malone, J; Drabick, J J; Gilbert, R A; Heller, R; Jaroszeski, M J; Malone, R W

    2000-09-01

    Efficient and safe methods for delivering exogenous genetic material into tissues must be developed before the clinical potential of gene therapy will be realized. Recently, in vivo electroporation has emerged as a leading technology for developing nonviral gene therapies and nucleic acid vaccines (NAV). Electroporation (EP) involves the application of pulsed electric fields to cells to enhance cell permeability, resulting in exogenous polynucleotide transit across the cytoplasmic membrane. Similar pulsed electrical field treatments are employed in a wide range of biotechnological processes including in vitro EP, hybridoma production, development of transgenic animals, and clinical electrochemotherapy. Electroporative gene delivery studies benefit from well-developed literature that may be used to guide experimental design and interpretation. Both theory and experimental analysis predict that the critical parameters governing EP efficacy include cell size and field strength, duration, frequency, and total number of applied pulses. These parameters must be optimized for each tissue in order to maximize gene delivery while minimizing irreversible cell damage. By providing an overview of the theory and practice of electroporative gene transfer, this review intends to aid researchers that wish to employ the method for preclinical and translational gene therapy, NAV, and functional genomic research.

  11. Adenoviral gene delivery to primary human cutaneous cells and burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Tobias; von Peter, Sebastian; Dubin, Grzegorz; Mittler, Dominik; Jacobsen, Frank; Lehnhardt, Markus; Eriksson, Elof; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The adenoviral transfer of therapeutic genes into epidermal and dermal cells is an interesting approach to treat skin diseases and to promote wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo transfection efficacy in skin and burn wounds after adenoviral gene delivery. Primary keratinocytes (HKC), fibroblasts (HFB), and HaCaT cells were transfected using different concentrations of an adenoviral construct (eGFP). Transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was determined up to 30 days. Expression was quantified by FACS analysis and fluorimeter. Cytotoxicity was measured using the trypan blue exclusion method. 45 male Sprague Dawley rats received 2x10(8) pfu of Ad5-CMV-LacZ or carrier control intradermally into either superficial partial thickness scald burn or unburned skin. Animals were euthanized after 48 h, 7 or 14 days posttreatment. Transgene expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry and bioluminescent assays. The highest transfection rate was observed 48 h posttransfection: 79% for HKC, 70% for HFB, and 48% for HaCaT. The eGFP expression was detectable in all groups over 30 days (P>0.05). Cytotoxic effects of the adenoviral vector were observed for HFB after 10 days and HaCaT after 30 days. Reporter gene expression in vivo was significantly higher in burned skin compared with unburned skin (P=0,004). Gene expression decreases from 2 to 7 days with no significant expression after 14 days. This study demonstrates that effective adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of epidermal primary cells and cell-lines is feasible. Ex vivo gene transfer in epithelial cells might have promise for the use in severely burned patients who receive autologous keratinocyte sheets. Transient cutaneous gene delivery in burn wounds using adenoviral vectors causes significant concentrations in the wound tissue for at least 1 week. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that transient cutaneous adenoviral gene delivery of wound healing promoting factors has

  12. Parenteral nanoemulsions as promising carriers for brain delivery of risperidone: Design, characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Sanela M; Cekić, Nebojša D; Savić, Miroslav M; Isailović, Tanja M; Ranđelović, Danijela V; Marković, Bojan D; Savić, Saša R; Timić Stamenić, Tamara; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana D

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes design and evaluation of parenteral lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for brain delivery of risperidone, a poorly water-soluble psychopharmacological drug. The nanoemulsions were prepared through cold/hot high pressure homogenization and characterized regarding droplet size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, drug-vehicle interactions, and physical stability. To estimate the simultaneous influence of nanoemulsion formulation and preparation parameters--co-emulsifier type, aqueous phase type, homogenization temperature--on the critical quality attributes of developed nanoemulsions, a general factorial experimental design was applied. From the established design space and stability data, promising risperidone-loaded nanoemulsions (mean size about 160 nm, size distribution Solutol(®) HS15 as co-emulsifier, were produced by hot homogenization and their ability to improve risperidone delivery to the brain was assessed in rats. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated erratic brain profiles of risperidone following intraperitoneal administration in selected nanoemulsions, most probably due to their different droplet surface properties (different composition of the stabilizing layer). Namely, polysorbate 80-costabilized nanoemulsion showed increased (1.4-7.4-fold higher) risperidone brain availability compared to other nanoemulsions and drug solution, suggesting this nanoemulsion as a promising carrier worth exploring further for brain targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles as promising tool for intraocular tobramycin delivery: Pharmacokinetic studies on rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Spagnolo, Rita; Zara, Gian Paolo; Cavalli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    Eye drops are widely accepted as formulations for targeting the anterior segment notwithstanding their limitations in terms of bioavailability. The unique structure of the eye requires specially-designed formulations able to favor the pharmacokinetic profile of administered drugs, mainly minimizing the influence of ocular barriers. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems lead to significant technological and therapeutical advantages in ophthalmic therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tobramycin as ion-pair incorporated in mucoadhesive Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) reaches the inner parts of the eye favoring drug activity. After technological characterization of the tobramycin entrapped SLN formulation (Tobra-SLN), a pharmacokinetic study in rabbits after topical instillation and intravenous administration of the formulation has been carried out. In addition, the intracellular activity of Tobra-SLN formulation against phagocytosed Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. The SLN were spherical in shape, and showed a hydrodynamic diameter of about 80nm, a negative zeta potential (-25.7mV) with a polydispersity index of 0.15, representative of a colloidal dispersion with high quality, characterized by an unimodal relatively narrow size distribution. As demonstrated by FTIR and DSC, tobramycin ion-pair could be concentrated into lipid inner core of SLN, without interaction with the stearic acid, thus promoting a slow and constant drug release profile in the dissolution medium. Surprisingly, the drug concentration was significantly higher in all ocular tissues after ocular and intravenous administration of Tobra-SLN formulation with respect to reference formulations and only Tobra-SLN allowed the penetration of drug into retina. Furthermore, the use of Tobra-SLN resulted in both higher intraphagocytic antibiotic concentrations in polymorphonuclear granulocytes and greater bactericidal activity against intracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  14. Selective Inhibition of Histone Deacetylation in Melanoma Increases Targeted Gene Delivery by a Bacteriophage Viral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed adeno-associated virus/phage (AAVP vector, a hybrid between M13 bacteriophage (phage viruses that infect bacteria only and human Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV, is a promising tool in targeted gene therapy against cancer. AAVP can be administered systemically and made tissue specific through the use of ligand-directed targeting. Cancer cells and tumor-associated blood vessels overexpress the αν integrin receptors, which are involved in tumor angiogenesis and tumor invasion. AAVP is targeted to these integrins via a double cyclic RGD4C ligand displayed on the phage capsid. Nevertheless, there remain significant host-defense hurdles to the use of AAVP in targeted gene delivery and subsequently in gene therapy. We previously reported that histone deacetylation in cancer constitutes a barrier to AAVP. Herein, to improve AAVP-mediated gene delivery to cancer cells, we combined the vector with selective adjuvant chemicals that inhibit specific histone deacetylases (HDAC. We examined the effects of the HDAC inhibitor C1A that mainly targets HDAC6 and compared this to sodium butyrate, a pan-HDAC inhibitor with broad spectrum HDAC inhibition. We tested the effects on melanoma, known for HDAC6 up-regulation, and compared this side by side with a normal human kidney HEK293 cell line. Varying concentrations were tested to determine cytotoxic levels as well as effects on AAVP gene delivery. We report that the HDAC inhibitor C1A increased AAVP-mediated transgene expression by up to ~9-fold. These findings indicate that selective HDAC inhibition is a promising adjuvant treatment for increasing the therapeutic value of AAVP.

  15. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-05

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ≤6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles in gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2009-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been known for many decades as catalyst and ceramic precursors, traps for anionic pollutants, catalysts and additives for polymers, but their successful synthesis on the nanometer scale a few years ago opened up a whole new field for their application in nanomedicine. The delivery of drugs and other therapeutic/bioactive molecules (e.g., peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) to mammalian cells is an area of research that is of tremendous importance to medicine and provides manifold applications for any new developments in the area of nanotechnology. Among the many different nanoparticles that have been shown to facilitate gene and/or drug delivery, LDH nanoparticles have attracted particular attention owing to their many desirable properties. This review aims to report recent progress in gene and drug delivery using LDH nanoparticles. It summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using LDH nanoparticles as carriers for nucleic acids and drugs against the general background of bottlenecks that are encountered by cellular delivery systems. It describes further the models that have been proposed for the internalization of LDH nanoparticles into cells so far and discusses the intracellular fate of the particles and their cargo. The authors offer some remarks on how this field of research will progress in the near future and which challenges need to be overcome before LDH nanoparticles can be used in a clinical setting.

  18. Non-viral gene delivery strategies for gene therapy: a “ménage à trois” among nucleic acids, materials, and the biological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Candiani, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Gene delivery is the science of transferring genetic material into cells by means of a vector to alter cellular function or structure at a molecular level. In this context, a number of nucleic acid-based drugs have been proposed and experimented so far and, as they act on distinct steps along the gene transcription–translation pathway, specific delivery strategies are required to elicit the desired outcome. Cationic lipids and polymers, collectively known as non-viral delivery systems, have thus made their breakthrough in basic and medical research. Albeit they are promising alternatives to viral vectors, their therapeutic application is still rather limited as high transfection efficiencies are normally associated to adverse cytotoxic side effects. In this scenario, drawing inspiration from processes naturally occurring in vivo, major strides forward have been made in the development of more effective materials for gene delivery applications. Specifically, smart vectors sensitive to a variety of physiological stimuli such as cell enzymes, redox status, and pH are substantially changing the landscape of gene delivery by helping to overcome some of the systemic and intracellular barriers that viral vectors naturally evade. Herein, after summarizing the state-of-the-art information regarding the use of nucleic acids as drugs, we review the main bottlenecks still limiting the overall effectiveness of non-viral gene delivery systems. Finally, we provide a critical outline of emerging stimuli-responsive strategies and discuss challenges still existing on the road toward conceiving more efficient and safer multifunctional vectors.

  19. Tailoring the dendrimer core for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Hu, Ke; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-04-15

    Dendrimers have been widely used as non-viral gene vectors due to well-defined chemical structures, high density of cationic charges and ease of surface modification. Although a large number of studies have reported the important roles of dendrimer architecture, component, generation and surface functionality in gene delivery, the effect of dendrimer core on this issue still remains unclear. Recent literatures suggest that a slight alternation in dendrimer core has a profound effect in the transfection efficacy and biocompatibility. In this review, we will discuss the transfection mechanism of dendrimers with different types of cores in respect of flexibility, hydrophobicity and functionality. We hope to open a possibility of designing efficient dendrimers for gene delivery by choosing a proper dendrimer core. As a branch of researches on dendrimers and dendritic polymers, the design of biocompatible and high efficient polymeric gene carriers has attracted increasing attentions during these years. Although the effect of dendrimer generation, species, architecture and surface functionality on gene delivery have been widely reported, the effect of dendrimer core on this issue still remains unclear. Recent literatures suggest that a minor variation on the dendrimer core has a profound effect in the transfection efficacy and biocompatibility. This critical review summarized the dendrimers with different types of cores and discussed the transfection mechanism with particular focus on the flexibility, hydrophobicity, and functionality. It is hoped to provide a new insight to design efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene vectors by choosing a proper core. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review on the effect of dendrimer core on gene delivery. The findings obtained in this filed are of central importance in the design of efficient polymeric gene vectors. This article will appeal a wide readership such as physical chemist, dendrimer chemist, biological

  20. Oleanolic acid liposomes with polyethylene glycol modification: promising antitumor drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dawei Gao, Shengnan Tang, Qi TongApplied Chemical Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, ChinaBackground: Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene present in many fruits and vegetables, and has received much attention on account of its biological properties. However, its poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its use. The objective of this study was to encapsulate oleanolic acid into nanoliposomes using the modified ethanol injection method.Methods: The liposomes contain a hydrophobic oleanolic acid core, an amphiphilic soybean lecithin monolayer, and a protective hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG coating. During the preparation process, the formulations described were investigated by designing 34 orthogonal experiments as well as considering the effects of different physical characteristics. The four factors were the ratios of drug to soybean phosphatidylcholine (w/w, cholesterol (w/w, PEG-2000 (w/w, and temperature of phosphate-buffered saline at three different levels. We identified the optimized formulation which showed the most satisfactory lipid stability and particle formation. The morphology of the liposomes obtained was determined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The existence of PEG in the liposome component was validated by Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis.Results: The PEGylated liposomes dispersed individually and had diameters of around 110–200 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was more than 85%, as calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography and Sephadex® gel filtration. Furthermore, when compared with native oleanolic acid, the liposomal formulations showed better stability in vitro. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the oleanolic acid liposomes was evaluated using a microtiter tetrazolium assay.Conclusion: These results suggest that PEGylated liposomes would serve as a potent delivery vehicle

  1. Current state of a dual behaviour of antimicrobial peptides-Therapeutic agents and promising delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Urszula; Sobczak, Marcin; Oledzka, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Micro-organism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties. In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which have very defined and specific molecular targets, host cationic peptides show varying, complex and very rapid mechanisms of actions that make it difficult to form an effective antimicrobial defence. Importantly, AMPs display their antimicrobial activity at micromolar concentrations or less. To do this, many peptide-based drugs are commercially available for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as hepatitis C, myeloma, skin infections and diabetes. Herein, we present an overview of the general mechanism of AMPs action, along with recent developments regarding carriers of AMPs and their potential applications in medical fields. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Nano-BCG: A Promising Delivery System for Treatment of Human Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Julieti Huch; Begnini, Karine Rech; Bender, Camila Bonemann; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating bladder cancer patients. However, the incidence of recurrence and progression to invasive cancer is commonly observed. There are no established effective intravesical therapies available for patients, whose tumors recur following BCG treatment, representing an important unmet clinical need. In addition, there are very limited options for patients who do not respond to or tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities, resulting in poor overall treatment outcomes. Within this context, nanotechnology is an emergent and promising tool for: (1) controlling drug release for extended time frames, (2) combination therapies due to the ability to encapsulate multiple drugs simultaneously, (3) reducing systemic side effects, (4) increasing bioavailability, (5) and increasing the viability of various routes of administration. Moreover, bladder cancer is often characterized by high mutation rates and over expression of tumor antigens on the tumor cell surface. Therapeutic targeting of these biomolecules may be improved by nanotechnology strategies. In this mini-review, we discuss how nanotechnology can help overcome current obstacles in bladder cancer treatment, and how nanotechnology can facilitate combination chemotherapeutic and BCG immunotherapies for the treatment of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

  3. Nano-BCG: A Promising Delivery System for Treatment of Human Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieti Huch Buss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating bladder cancer patients. However, the incidence of recurrence and progression to invasive cancer is commonly observed. There are no established effective intravesical therapies available for patients, whose tumors recur following BCG treatment, representing an important unmet clinical need. In addition, there are very limited options for patients who do not respond to or tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities, resulting in poor overall treatment outcomes. Within this context, nanotechnology is an emergent and promising tool for: (1 controlling drug release for extended time frames, (2 combination therapies due to the ability to encapsulate multiple drugs simultaneously, (3 reducing systemic side effects, (4 increasing bioavailability, (5 and increasing the viability of various routes of administration. Moreover, bladder cancer is often characterized by high mutation rates and over expression of tumor antigens on the tumor cell surface. Therapeutic targeting of these biomolecules may be improved by nanotechnology strategies. In this mini-review, we discuss how nanotechnology can help overcome current obstacles in bladder cancer treatment, and how nanotechnology can facilitate combination chemotherapeutic and BCG immunotherapies for the treatment of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

  4. Targeted delivery of genes to endothelial cells and cell- and gene-based therapy in pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Colin M; Mei, Shirley H J; Kugathasan, Lakshmi; Stewart, Duncan J

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that, despite significant advances in medical therapies over the last several decades, continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Gene therapy is a method to deliver therapeutic genes to replace defective or mutant genes or supplement existing cellular processes to modify disease. Over the last few decades, several viral and nonviral methods of gene therapy have been developed for preclinical PAH studies with varying degrees of efficacy. However, these gene delivery methods face challenges of immunogenicity, low transduction rates, and nonspecific targeting which have limited their translation to clinical studies. More recently, the emergence of regenerative approaches using stem and progenitor cells such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have offered a new approach to gene therapy. Cell-based gene therapy is an approach that augments the therapeutic potential of EPCs and MSCs and may deliver on the promise of reversal of established PAH. These new regenerative approaches have shown tremendous potential in preclinical studies; however, large, rigorously designed clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1749-1779, 2013.

  5. Comparison of different cationized proteins as biomaterials for nanoparticle-based ocular gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanni K; Párraga, Jenny E; Seijo, Begoña; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Cationized polymers have been proposed as transfection agents for gene therapy. The present work aims to improve the understanding of the potential use of different cationized proteins (atelocollagen, albumin and gelatin) as nanoparticle components and to investigate the possibility of modulating the physicochemical properties of the resulting nanoparticle carriers by selecting specific protein characteristics in an attempt to improve current ocular gene-delivery approaches. The toxicity profiles, as well as internalization and transfection efficiency, of the developed nanoparticles can be modulated by modifying the molecular weight of the selected protein and the amine used for cationization. The most promising systems are nanoparticles based on intermediate molecular weight gelatin cationized with the endogenous amine spermine, which exhibit an adequate toxicological profile, as well as effective association and protection of pDNA or siRNA molecules, thereby resulting in higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than the other studied formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendrimer for targeted gene delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sukrut; Blatchford, David R; Millington, Owain; Stevenson, M Lynn; Dufès, Christine

    2014-08-28

    The possibility of using genes as medicines to treat brain diseases is currently limited by the lack of safe and efficacious delivery systems able to cross the blood-brain barrier, thus resulting in a failure to reach the brain after intravenous administration. On the basis that iron can effectively reach the brain by using transferrin receptors for crossing the blood-brain barrier, we propose to investigate if a transferrin-bearing generation 3-polypropylenimine dendrimer would allow the transport of plasmid DNA to the brain after intravenous administration. In vitro, the conjugation of transferrin to the polypropylenimine dendrimer increased the DNA uptake by bEnd.3 murine brain endothelioma cells overexpressing transferrin receptors, by about 1.4-fold and 2.3-fold compared to that observed with the non-targeted dendriplex and naked DNA. This DNA uptake appeared to be optimal following 2h incubation with the treatment. In vivo, the intravenous injection of transferrin-bearing dendriplex more than doubled the gene expression in the brain compared to the unmodified dendriplex, while decreasing the non-specific gene expression in the lung. Gene expression was at least 3-fold higher in the brain than in any tested peripheral organs and was at its highest 24h following the injection of the treatments. These results suggest that transferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendrimer is a highly promising gene delivery system to the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ursolic acid liposomes with chitosan modification: Promising antitumor drug delivery and efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meili; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Qianqian; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Wang, Longgang [Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, No.438 Hebei Street, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Lanxiang [The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, No. 258 Cultural Road, Qinhuangdao 066000 (China); Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, No.438 Hebei Street, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-02-01

    There are tremendous challenges on antitumor and its therapeutic drugs, and preparation of highly efficient nano-vehicles represents one of the novel topics in antitumor pharmaceutical field. Herein, the novel chitosan-coated ursolic acid (UA) liposome (CS-UA-L) was efficiently prepared with highly tumor targeting, drug controlled release and low side-effect. The CS-UA-L was uniformly spherical particles with diameter of ~ 130 nm, and the size was more easily trapped into the tumor tissues. Chitosan modification can make liposomes carrying positive charges, which were inclined to combine with the negative charges on the surface of tumor cells, and then the CS-UA-L could release UA rapidly at pH 5.0 comparing with pH 7.4. Meanwhile, the CS-UA-L exhibited obvious anti-proliferative effect (76.46%) on HeLa cells and significantly antitumor activity (61.26%) in mice bearing U14 cervical cancer. The tumor tissues of CS-UA-L treated mice had enhanced cell apoptosis, extensive necrosis and low cell proliferation activity. These results demonstrated that the multifunctional CS-UA-L allowed a precision treatment for localized tumor, and reducing the total drug dose and side-effect, which hold a great promise in new safe and effective tumor therapy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram representing the principle of synthesis of CS-UA-L and pH-triggered sequential UA release after treatment on tumor bearing mouse. - Highlights: • The novel chitosan-coated ursolic acid liposomes (CS-UA-L) were successfully prepared. • CS-UA-L possessed sensitive pH-response, which could release UA rapidly at pH 5.0 comparing with pH 7.4. • CS-UA-L exhibited obvious anti-proliferative effect (76.46%) on HeLa cells than UA and UA-L. • CS-UA-L suppressed tumor growth more efficiently than those with UA and UA-L in mice bearing U14 cervical cancer. • The CS-UA-L allow for precision treatment of the tumor and potential to reduce the total drug dose and side-effect.

  8. Water insoluble and soluble lipids for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Ram I

    2005-04-05

    Among various synthetic gene carriers currently in use, liposomes composed of cationic lipids and co-lipids remain the most efficient transfection reagents. Physicochemical properties of lipid/plasmid complexes, such as cationic lipid structure, cationic lipid to co-lipid ratio, charge ratio, particle size and zeta potential have significant influence on gene expression and biodistribution. However, most cationic lipids are toxic and cationic liposomes/plasmid complexes do not disperse well inside the target tissues because of their large particle size. To overcome the problems associated with cationic lipids, we designed water soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery to various cells and tissues. This review provides a critical discussion on how the components of water insoluble and soluble lipids affect their transfection efficiency and biodistribution of lipid/plasmid complexes.

  9. Short Hairpin RNA (shRNA): Design, Delivery, and Assessment of Gene Knockdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chris B.; Guthrie, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Max Tze-Han; Taxman, Debra J.

    2013-01-01

    Shortly after the cellular mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) was first described, scientists began using this powerful technique to study gene function. This included designing better methods for the successful delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) into mammalian cells. While the simplest method for RNAi is the cytosolic delivery of siRNA oligonucleotides, this technique is limited to cells capable of transfection and is primarily utilized during transient in vitro studies. The introduction of shRNA into mammalian cells through infection with viral vectors allows for stable integration of shRNA and long-term knockdown of the targeted gene; however, several challenges exist with the implementation of this technology. Here we describe some well-tested protocols which should increase the chances of successful design, delivery, and assessment of gene knockdown by shRNA. We provide suggestions for designing shRNA targets and controls, a protocol for sequencing through the secondary structure of the shRNA hairpin structure, and protocols for packaging and delivery of shRNA lentiviral particles. Using real-time PCR and functional assays we demonstrate the successful knockdown of ASC, an inflammatory adaptor molecule. These studies demonstrate the practicality of including two shRNAs with different efficacies of knockdown to provide an additional level of control and to verify dose dependency of functional effects. Along with the methods described here, as new techniques and algorithms are designed in the future, shRNA is likely to include further promising application and continue to be a critical component of gene discovery. PMID:20387148

  10. A Promising Approach to Provide Appropriate Colon Target Drug Delivery Systems of Vancomycin HCL: Pharmaceutical and Microbiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10–60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1–F6 were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6–F20 were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6–8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  11. Nanomedicine formulations for the delivery of antiviral drugs: a promising solution for the treatment of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Argenziano, Monica; Cavalli, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Viral infections represent a public health problem and one of the leading causes of global mortality. Nanomedicine strategies can be considered a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of antiviral drugs, often associated with solubility and bioavailability issues. Consequently, high doses and frequent administrations are required, resulting in adverse side effects. To overcome these limitations, various nanomedicine platforms have been designed. Areas covered: This review focuses on the state of the art of organic-based nanoparticles for the delivery of approved antivirals. A brief description of the main characteristics of nanocarriers is followed by an overview of the most promising research addressing the treatment of most important viral infections. Expert opinion: The activity of antiviral drugs could be improved with nanomedicine formulations. Indeed, nanoparticles can affect the fate of the encapsulated drugs, allowing controlled release kinetics, enhanced bioavailability, modified pharmacokinetics, and reduced side effects. In addition, the physicochemical properties of nanocarriers can enable their capability to target specific sites and to interact with virus structures. In this regard, nanomedicines can be considered an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic index of antivirals. Efficacy, safety, and manufacturing issues need to be carefully assessed to bring this promising approach to the clinic.

  12. A promising approach to provide appropriate colon target drug delivery systems of vancomycin HCL: pharmaceutical and microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Afifi, Samar A; Zakaria, Azza S

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10-60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1-F6) were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6-F20) were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT) values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6-8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  13. Long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for gene/drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaming; Sheng, Yan; Shi, Junfeng; Yu, Bohao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Liao, Guochao

    2017-12-07

    The major limitation in the improving polymeric nanoparticles into an efficient gene/drug delivery carrier is the rapid opsonization, phagocytic uptake by mononuclear phagocyte system and subsequent clearance from the bloodstream. The prolonged circulation time of nanoparticles in the blood is a prerequisite to realizing a controlled and targeted (passive or active targeting) release of the encapsulated gene/drug at the desired site of action. In this review, the factors such as biological barriers and physical barriers including particle size, shape, zeta potential, and hydrophilicity will be discussed, which can cause effects on blood clearance and organ accumulation. Some natural and synthetic polymers utilized in long-circulating nanoparticles will also be discussed. The most popular method to mask or camouflage nanoparticles is the adsorbed, grafted or conjugated of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) or other hydrophilic polymers (e.g. polysaccharides) to the particle surface. Surface modification of nanoparticles with these polymers results in an increased blood circulation time by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the bare nanoparticles. However, the circulation half-life of nanoparticles still cannot satisfy the need for clinical use. At present, identification of novel potential coating materials is an emerging field of interest in the design of long-circulating polymer-based nanoparticulate gene/drug delivery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. BDNF gene delivery mediated by neuron-targeted nanoparticles is neuroprotective in peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cátia D F; Gonçalves, Nádia P; Gomes, Carla P; Saraiva, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P

    2017-03-01

    Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model. The TMCSH-HC/BDNF nanoparticle treatment promoted the release and significant expression of BDNF in neural tissues, which resulted in an enhanced functional recovery after injury as compared to control treatments (vehicle and non-targeted nanoparticles), associated with an improvement in key pro-regenerative events, namely, the increased expression of neurofilament and growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the injured nerves. Moreover, the targeted nanoparticle treatment was correlated with a significantly higher density of myelinated axons in the distal stump of injured nerves, as well as with preservation of unmyelinated axon density as compared with controls and a protective role in injury-denervated muscles, preventing them from denervation. These results highlight the potential of TMCSH-HC nanoparticles as non-viral gene carriers to deliver therapeutic genes into the peripheral neurons and thus, pave the way for their use as an effective therapeutic intervention for peripheral neuropathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing gene delivery of adeno-associated viruses by cell-permeable peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2 is considered a promising gene delivery vector and has been extensively applied in several disease models; however, inefficient transduction in various cells and tissues has limited its widespread application in many areas of gene therapy. In this study, we have developed a general, but efficient, strategy to enhance viral transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, by incubating viral particles with cell-permeable peptides (CPPs. We show that CPPs increase internalization of viral particles into cells by facilitating both energy-independent and energy-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, CPPs can significantly enhance the endosomal escape process of viral particles, thus enhancing viral transduction to those cells that have exhibited very low permissiveness to AAV2 infection as a result of impaired intracellular viral processing. We also demonstrated that this approach could be applicable to other AAV serotypes. Thus, the membrane-penetrating ability of CPPs enables us to generate an efficient method for enhanced gene delivery of AAV vectors, potentially facilitating its applicability to human gene therapy.

  16. Gene therapy a promising treatment for breast cancer: current scenario in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzavir, S.R.; Zahra, S.A.; Ahmad, A.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world. It accounts for 22.9% of all the cancers and 18% of all female cancers in the world. One million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Pakistan has more alarming situation with 90,000 new cases and ending up into 40,000 deaths annually. The risk factor for a female to develop breast cancer as compared with male is 100 : 1. The traditional way of treatment is by surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Advanced breast cancer is very difficult to treat with any of the traditional treatment options. A new treatment option in the form of gene therapy can be a promising treatment for breast cancer. Gene therapy provides treatment option in the form of targeting mutated gene, expression of cancer markers on the surface of cells, blocking the metastasis and induction of apoptosis, etc. Gene therapy showed very promising results for treatment of various cancers. All this is being trialed, experimented and practiced outside of Pakistan. Therefore, there is an immense need that this kind of work should be started in Pakistan. There are many good research institutes as well as well-reputed hospitals in Pakistan. Presently, there is a need to develop collaboration between research institutes and hospitals, so that the basic work and clinical trials can be done to treat breast cancer patients in the country. This collaboration will prove to be very healthy and will not only strength research institute but also will be very beneficial for cancer patients. (author)

  17. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  18. Efficient gene delivery using chitosan-polyethylenimine hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, You-Kyoung; Park, In-Young; Cho, Chong-Su [Department of Agricultural Bioechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2008-06-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have been investigated as non-viral vectors because they have several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cytotoxicity and low immunogenicity. However, low transfection efficiency and low cell specificity must be solved for their use in clinical trials. In this paper, chitosan-polyethylenimine (PEI) hybrid systems such as chitosan/PEI blend and chitosan-graft-PEI are described for efficient gene delivery because the PEI has high transfection efficiency owing to a proton sponge effect and chitosan has biocompatibility. Also, hepatocyte specificity of the galactosylated chitosan is explained after combination with PEI.

  19. Efficient gene delivery using chitosan-polyethylenimine hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, You-Kyoung; Park, In-Young; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have been investigated as non-viral vectors because they have several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cytotoxicity and low immunogenicity. However, low transfection efficiency and low cell specificity must be solved for their use in clinical trials. In this paper, chitosan-polyethylenimine (PEI) hybrid systems such as chitosan/PEI blend and chitosan-graft-PEI are described for efficient gene delivery because the PEI has high transfection efficiency owing to a proton sponge effect and chitosan has biocompatibility. Also, hepatocyte specificity of the galactosylated chitosan is explained after combination with PEI

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy: A promising therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Abasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in bone marrow, fat, and so many other tissues, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, as well as myocytes and neurons. Moreover, they have great capacity for self-renewal while maintaining their multipotency. Their capacity for proliferation and differentiation, in addition to their immunomodulatory activity, makes them very promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, MSCs have the ability of mobilization to the site of damage; therefore, they can automatically migrate to the site of injury via their chemokine receptors following intravenous transplantation. In this respect, they can be applied for MSC-based gene therapy. In this new therapeutic method, genes of interest are introduced into MSCs via viral and non-viral-based methods that lead to transgene expression in them. Although stem cell-based gene therapy is a relatively new strategy, it lights a new hope for the treatment of a variety of genetic disorders. In the near future, MSCs can be of use in a vast number of clinical applications, because of their uncomplicated isolation, culture, and genetic manipulation. However, full consideration is still crucial before they are utilized for clinical trials, because the number of studies that signify the advantageous effects of MSC-based gene therapy are still limited.

  1. Polyethylenimine-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H.; Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Lin, Donghai; Maadi, Hamid; Tong, Junfeng; Chen, Grace; Wang, Richard; Anwar, Afreen; Shoute, Lian; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Zhixiang; Chen, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of notable interest in many fields of biomedical engineering, especially for gene therapy. In this paper, we report a method for synthesis and delivery of MNPs loaded with DNAs, which overcomes the drawbacks of high cost and cytotoxicity associated with current delivery techniques (chemical- and liposome-based designs). 24-nm MNPs (Fe3O4) were synthesized, functionalized and characterized by analytical techniques to understand the surface properties for DNA binding and cellular uptake. The simple surface functionalization with polyethylenimine (PEI) through glutaraldehyde linker activation gave the complex of PEI-coated MNPs, resulting in high stability with a positive surface charge of about + 31 mV. Under the guidance of an external magnetic field, the functionalized MNPs with a loaded isothiocyanate (FITC) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) will enter the cells, which can be visualized by the fluorescence of FITC or GFP. We also examined the cytotoxicity of our synthesized MNPs by MTT assay. We showed that the IC50s of these MNPs for COS-7 and CHO cells were low and at 0.2 and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, our synthesized MNPs that were loaded with plasmids encoding GFP showed high transfection rate, 38.3% for COS-7cells and 27.6% for CHO cells. In conclusion, we established a promising method with low cost, low toxicity, and high transfection efficiency for siRNA and gene delivery.

  2. Robust Lentiviral Gene Delivery But Limited Transduction Capacity of Commonly Used Adeno-Associated Viral Serotypes in Xenotransplanted Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Maria; Askou, Anne Louise; Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jensen, Thomas G; Corydon, Thomas J; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Aagaard, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for the treatment of skin diseases. Although we have previously documented potent lentiviral gene delivery to human skin, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) rank among the most promising gene delivery tools for in vivo purposes. Thus, we compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin in a xenotransplanted mouse model. Vector constructs encoding firefly luciferase were packaged in AAV capsids of serotype 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 and separately administered by intradermal injection in human skin transplants. For all serotypes, live bioimaging demonstrated low levels of transgene expression in the human skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue outside of the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin graft only. The study demonstrates the limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo.

  3. Myostatin propeptide gene delivery by gene gun ameliorates muscle atrophy in a rat model of botulinum toxin-induced nerve denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sen-Wei; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Liu, Chia-Yi; Lu, Michelle; Pai, Hui-Jing; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2016-02-01

    Muscle atrophy is a common symptom after nerve denervation. Myostatin propeptide, a precursor of myostatin, has been documented to improve muscle growth. However, the mechanism underlying the muscle atrophy attenuation effects of myostatin propeptide in muscles and the changes in gene expression are not well established. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms associated with myostatin propeptide gene delivery by gene gun in a rat denervation muscle atrophy model, and evaluated gene expression patterns. In a rat botulinum toxin-induced nerve denervation muscle atrophy model, we evaluated the effects of wild-type (MSPP) and mutant-type (MSPPD75A) of myostatin propeptide gene delivery, and observed changes in gene activation associated with the neuromuscular junction, muscle and nerve. Muscle mass and muscle fiber size was moderately increased in myostatin propeptide treated muscles (pmyostatin propeptide gene delivery, especially the mutant-type of MSPPD75A, attenuates muscle atrophy through myogenic regulatory factors and acetylcholine receptor regulation. Our data concluded that myostatin propeptide gene therapy may be a promising treatment for nerve denervation induced muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of magnetic gene complexes as effective and serum resistant gene delivery systems for mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Jia-He; Xu, Qian-Hao; Wang, Xia-Rong; Lu, Jingxiong; Hu, Ying; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Ling, Daishun; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2017-03-30

    Gene engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as promising tools for their various applications in biomedicine. Nevertheless, the lack of an effective and safe way to genetically modify these stem cells is still a major obstacle in the current studies. Herein, we designed novel magnetic complexes by assembling cationized pullulan derivatives with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for delivering target genes to MSCs. Results showed that this complexes achieved effective gene expression with the assistance of external magnetic field, and resisted the adverse effect induced by serum proteins on the gene delivery. Moreover, neither significant cytotoxicity nor the interference on the osteogenic differentiation to MSCs were observed after magnetofection. Further studies revealed that this effective and serum resistant gene transfection was partly due to the accelerated and enhanced intracellular uptake process driven by external magnetic field. To conclude, the current study presented a novel option for genetic modification of MSCs in an effective, relatively safe and serum compatible way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  6. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaolin; Wang,Qingbing; Li,Jianfeng; An,Sai; Chen,Yi; Jiang,Chen

    2015-01-01

    Qingbing Wang,1,2 Jianfeng Li,3 Sai An,3 Yi Chen,1 Chen Jiang,3 Xiaolin Wang1,2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 3Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Gene therapy is a very promising technology for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarci...

  7. Self-Assembling Multifunctional Peptide Dimers for Gene Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitae Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling multifunctional peptide was designed for gene delivery systems. The multifunctional peptide (MP consists of cellular penetrating peptide moiety (R8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 specific sequence (GPLGV, pH-responsive moiety (H5, and hydrophobic moiety (palmitic acid (CR8GPLGVH5-Pal. MP was oxidized to form multifunctional peptide dimer (MPD by DMSO oxidation of thiols in terminal cysteine residues. MPD could condense pDNA successfully at a weight ratio of 5. MPD itself could self-assemble into submicron micelle particles via hydrophobic interaction, of which critical micelle concentration is about 0.01 mM. MPD showed concentration-dependent but low cytotoxicity in comparison with PEI25k. MPD polyplexes showed low transfection efficiency in HEK293 cells expressing low level of MMP-2 but high transfection efficiency in A549 and C2C12 cells expressing high level of MMP-2, meaning the enhanced transfection efficiency probably due to MMP-induced structural change of polyplexes. Bafilomycin A1-treated transfection results suggest that the transfection of MPD is mediated via endosomal escape by endosome buffering ability. These results show the potential of MPD for MMP-2 targeted gene delivery systems due to its multifunctionality.

  8. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  9. Gene delivery to the lungs: pulmonary gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate-Beitia, Ilia; Zarate, Jon; Puras, Gustavo; Pedraz, José Luis

    2017-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder where the defective gene, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is well identified. Moreover, the respiratory tract can be targeted through noninvasive aerosolized formulations for inhalation. Therefore, gene therapy is considered a plausible strategy to address this disease. Conventional gene therapy strategies rely on the addition of a correct copy of the CFTR gene into affected cells in order to restore the channel activity. In recent years, genome correction strategies have emerged, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated to Cas9 nucleases. These gene editing tools aim to repair the mutated gene at its original genomic locus with high specificity. Besides, the success of gene therapy critically depends on the nucleic acids carriers. To date, several clinical studies have been carried out to add corrected copies of the CFTR gene into target cells using viral and non-viral vectors, some of them with encouraging results. Regarding genome editing systems, preliminary in vitro studies have been performed in order to repair the CFTR gene. In this review, after briefly introducing the basis of CF, we discuss the up-to-date gene therapy strategies to address the disease. The review focuses on the main factors to take into consideration when developing gene delivery strategies, such as the design of vectors and plasmid DNA, in vitro/in vivo tests, translation to human use, administration methods, manufacturing conditions and regulatory issues.

  10. Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Based Macrophage-Targeting Gene Delivery System Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Improved Transfection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yixing; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2015-04-01

    Gene transfer mediated by mannosylated chitosan (MCS) is a safe and promising approach for gene and vaccine delivery. MCS nanoparticles based gene delivery system showed high in vivo delivery efficiency and elicited strong immune responses in mice. However, little knowledge about the cell binding, transfection efficiency and intracellular trafficking of MCS nanoparticles had been acquired. In this study, using gastrin-releasing peptide as a model plasmid (pGRP), the binding of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles to macrophages and the intracellular trafficking of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were investigated. MCS-mediated transfection efficiency in macrophages was also evaluated using pGL-3 as a reporter gene. The results showed that the binding and transfection efficiency of MCS nanoparticles in macrophages was higher than that of CS, which was attributed to the interaction between mannose ligands in MCS and mannose receptors on the surface of macrophages. Observation with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated the cellular uptake of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were more than that of CS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages. MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages and most of them were entrapped in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. After the nanoparticles escaping from endosomal/lysosomal compartments, naked pGRP entered the nucleus, and a few MCS might enter the nucleus in terms of nanoparticles. Overall, MCS has the potential to be an excellent macrophage-targeting gene delivery carrier.

  11. Preparation and characterization of magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.W.; Liu, G. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, R.Y., E-mail: rhong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li, H.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li, Y.G., E-mail: ilguoliang@sohu.com [Department of radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Wei, D.G., E-mail: dougwei@deas.harvard.edu [Center for Nanoscale Systems, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, 11 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI is ideal candidate polymer for the design of gene delivery systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI-CMD-MNPs exhibited a typical superparamagnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI-CMD-MNPs were well stable over the entire range of pH and NaCl concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PEI-CMD-MNPs transfected cells by a magnet have higher transfection efficiency and gene expression efficiency. - Abstract: The PEI-CMD-MNPs were successfully prepared by the surface modification of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes exhibited a typical superparamagnetic behavior and were well stable over the entire range of pH and NaCl concentration. These PEI-CMD-MNPs were used as magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery. The prepared MNPs at different surface modification stages were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emissions canning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). To evaluate the performance of the magnetic nanoparticles as gene transfer vector, the PEI-CMD-MNPs were used to delivery green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into BHK21 cells. The expression of GFP gene was detected by fluorescence microscope. DNA-PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes absorbed by the cells were also monitored by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The transfection efficiency and gene expression efficiency of that transfected with a magnet were much higher than that of standard transfection.

  12. CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo Gene Therapy: Promise and Hurdles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jing Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its easy-to-use and multiplexing nature, the genome editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR associated nuclease 9 is revolutionizing many areas of medical research and one of the most amazing areas is its gene therapy potentials. Previous explorations into the therapeutic potentials of CRISPR-Cas9 were mainly conducted in vitro or in animal germlines, the translatability of which, however, is either limited (to tissues with adult stem cells amenable to culture and manipulation or currently impermissible (due to ethic concerns. Recently, important progresses have been made on this regard. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo gene therapy in adult rodent models of human genetic diseases delivered by methods that are potentially translatable to human use. Although these recent advances represent a significant step forward to the eventual application of CRISPR-Cas9 to the clinic, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the off-target effects of CRISPR-Cas9, efficacy of homology-directed repair, fitness of edited cells, immunogenicity of therapeutic CRISPR-Cas9 components, as well as efficiency, specificity, and translatability of in vivo delivery methods. In this article, we introduce the mechanisms and merits of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing, briefly retrospect the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene therapy explorations and highlight recent advances, later we discuss in detail the challenges lying ahead in the way of its translatability, propose possible solutions, and future research directions.

  13. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. A rapid pathway toward a superb gene delivery system: programming structural and functional diversity into a supramolecular nanoparticle library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Kan; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Yujie; Wang, Shutao; Lin, Wei-Yu; Guo, Feng; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Chen, Yi-Chun; Ohashi, Minori; Wang, Mingwei; Garcia, Mitch André; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Shen, Clifton K-F; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2010-10-26

    Nanoparticles are regarded as promising transfection reagents for effective and safe delivery of nucleic acids into a specific type of cells or tissues providing an alternative manipulation/therapy strategy to viral gene delivery. However, the current process of searching novel delivery materials is limited due to conventional low-throughput and time-consuming multistep synthetic approaches. Additionally, conventional approaches are frequently accompanied with unpredictability and continual optimization refinements, impeding flexible generation of material diversity creating a major obstacle to achieving high transfection performance. Here we have demonstrated a rapid developmental pathway toward highly efficient gene delivery systems by leveraging the powers of a supramolecular synthetic approach and a custom-designed digital microreactor. Using the digital microreactor, broad structural/functional diversity can be programmed into a library of DNA-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles (DNA⊂SNPs) by systematically altering the mixing ratios of molecular building blocks and a DNA plasmid. In vitro transfection studies with DNA⊂SNPs library identified the DNA⊂SNPs with the highest gene transfection efficiency, which can be attributed to cooperative effects of structures and surface chemistry of DNA⊂SNPs. We envision such a rapid developmental pathway can be adopted for generating nanoparticle-based vectors for delivery of a variety of loads.

  15. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  16. Dry Gel Containing Optimized Felodipine-Loaded Transferosomes: a Promising Transdermal Delivery System to Enhance Drug Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed Ali; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; El Taweel, Mai Magdy

    2018-04-30

    Felodipine has a very low bioavailability due to first-pass metabolism. The aim of this study was to enhance its bioavailability by transdermal application. Felodipine-loaded transferosomes were prepared by thin-film hydration using different formulation variables. An optimized formula was designed using statistical experimental design. The independent variables were the used edge activator, its molar ratio to phosphatidylcholine, and presence or absence of cholesterol. The responses were entrapment efficiency of transferosomes, their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percent drug released after 8 h. The optimized formula was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry studies and its stability on storage at 4°C for 6 months was estimated. This formula was improved by incorporation of different permeation enhancers where ex vivo drug flux through mice skin was estimated and the best improved formula was formulated in a gel and lyophilized. The prepared gel was subjected to in vivo study using Plendil® tablets as a reference. According to the calculated desirability, the optimized transferosome formula was that containing sodium deoxycholate as edge activator at 5:1 M ratio to phosphatidylcholine and no cholesterol. The thermograms of this formula indicated the incorporation of felodipine inside the prepared vesicles. None of the tested parameters differed significantly on storage. The lyophilized gel of labrasol-containing formula was chosen for in vivo study. The relative bioavailability of felodipine from the designed gel was 1.7. In conclusion, topically applied lyophilized gel containing felodipine-loaded transferosomes is a promising transdermal delivery system to enhance its bioavailability.

  17. Cholesterol tethered bioresponsive polycation as a candidate for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Ying [Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Wang Youxiang, E-mail: yx_wang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu Qiaoling; Shen Jiacong [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The efficient unpacking of viral protein shell gave the inspiration for the synthesized vectors. In this research, novel cholesterol tethered bioresponsive polyethylenimine (PEI) was specially designed via disulfide-containing cross-linker. The cholesterol lipid had proved to increase the permeability of gene vector through cell membrane. The acid-base titration indicated that the synthesized polycation possessed efficient proton sponge effect, which was suggested to increase endosomal release of pDNA complexes into the cytoplasm. The cholesterol tethered polycation could effectively induce DNA condensation and form spherical particles with diameter about 200 nm at N/P ratio of 10. At glutathione concentration of 3 mM, the polyplexes were unpacked due to the bioresponsive cleavage of the disulfide bonds. The in-vitro experiment indicated that the polyplexes showed efficient transfection efficiency to HEK293T cells. All the results indicated that the bioresponsive polycation could be served as an effective trigger to control the release of DNA at the intracellular environment. The novel bioresponsive polycation might have great potential in non-viral gene delivery research and application.

  18. Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery of naked plasmid DNA in skeletal muscles: a case for bolus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Pedro Gomes; Mühlmeister, Mareike; Seip, Ralf; Kaijzel, Eric; Löwik, Clemens; Böhmer, Marcel; Tiemann, Klaus; Grüll, Holger

    2014-12-10

    Localized gene delivery has many potential clinical applications. However, the nucleic acids (e.g. pDNA and siRNA) are incapable of passively crossing the endothelium, cell membranes and other biological barriers which must be crossed to reach their intracellular targets. A possible solution is the use of ultrasound to burst circulating microbubbles inducing transient permeabilization of surrounding tissues which mediates nucleic acid extravasation and cellular uptake. In this study we report on an optimization of the ultrasound gene delivery technique. Naked pDNA (200 μg) encoding luciferase and SonoVue® microbubbles were co-injected intravenously in mice. The hindlimb skeletal muscles were exposed to ultrasound from a non-focused transducer (1 MHz, 1.25 MPa, PRI 30s) and injection protocols and total amounts as well as ultrasound parameters were systemically varied. Gene expression was quantified relative to a control using a bioluminescence camera system at day 7 after sonication. Bioluminescence ratios in sonicated/control muscles of up to 101× were obtained. In conclusion, we were able to specifically deliver genetic material to the selected skeletal muscles and overall, the use of bolus injections and high microbubble numbers resulted in increased gene expression reflected by stronger bioluminescence signals. Based on our data, bolus injections seem to be required in order to achieve transient highly concentrated levels of nucleic acids and microbubbles at the tissue of interest which upon ultrasound exposure should lead to increased levels of gene delivery. Thus, ultrasound mediated gene delivery is a promising technique for the clinical translation of localized drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  20. CRISPR/Cas9 and mitochondrial gene replacement therapy: promising techniques and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, Sarah; Santana, Casey; Bishop, Casey; Miller, Alyssa; Capco, David G

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of mothers are at risk of transmitting mitochondrial diseases to their offspring each year, with the most severe form of these diseases being fatal [1]. With no cure, transmission prevention is the only current hope for decreasing the disease incidence. Current methods of prevention rely on low mutant maternal mitochondrial DNA levels, while those with levels close to or above threshold (>60%) are still at a very high risk of transmission [2]. Two novel approaches may offer hope for preventing and treating mitochondrial disease: mitochondrial replacement therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has emerged as a promising tool that has the potential to prevent transmission in patients with higher mutant mitochondrial loads. This method is the subject of many ethical concerns due its use of a donor embryo to transplant the patient's nuclear DNA; however, it has ultimately been approved for use in the United Kingdom and was recently declared ethically permissible by the FDA. The leading-edge CRISPR/Cas9 technology exploits the principles of bacterial immune function to target and remove specific sequences of mutated DNA. This may have potential in treating individuals with disease caused by mutant mitochondrial DNA. As the technology progresses, it is important that the ethical considerations herein emerge and become more established. The purpose of this review is to discuss current research surrounding the procedure and efficacy of the techniques, compare the ethical concerns of each approach, and look into the future of mitochondrial gene replacement therapy.

  1. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  2. PLGA Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery to Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marxa Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles. The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of a glutamic acid-modified hPAMAM complex as a promising versatile gene carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mohammad; Kazemi, Bahram; Najafi, Farhood; Zarebkohan, Amir; Shirkoohi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (HPAMAM), structurally analogous to polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) dendrimers, has been suggested to be an effective carrier for gene delivery. In the present study, glutamic acid-modified hPAMAM was developed as a novel non-viral gene carrier for the first time. The hPAMAM was synthesized by using a modified one-pot method. DNA was found to be bound to hPAMAM at different weight ratios (WhPAMAM/WDNA). The resulting HPAMAM-Glu20 was able to efficiently protect the encapsulated-DNA against degradation for over 2 h. In addition to low cytotoxicity, the transfection efficiency of hPAMAM-Glu20 represented much higher (p glutamic amino acid (Glu)-based gene delivery is an economical, effective and biocompatible method.

  4. Design and Fabrication of N-Alkyl-Polyethylenimine-Stabilized Iron Oxide Nanoclusters for Gene Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiyong; Lee, Seulki; Ai, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, inorganic magnetic nanoparticles, especially iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs), have emerged as great vehicles for biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to rationally design IO-based gene delivery nanovectors, surface modification is essential and determines the loading and release of the gene of interest. Here we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery vehicles based on low molecular weight N-al...

  5. Discovery of Cationic Polymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Sutapa; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Montanez, Gabriela; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive treatment option for diseases of genetic origin, including several cancers and cardiovascular diseases. While viruses are effective vectors for delivering exogenous genes to cells, concerns related to insertional mutagenesis, immunogenicity, lack of tropism, decay and high production costs necessitate the discovery of non-viral methods. Significant efforts have been focused on cationic polymers as non-viral alternatives for gene delivery. Recent studies have employed combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening methods for enhancing the efficacy of gene delivery, biocompatibility of the delivery vehicle, and overcoming cellular level barriers as they relate to polymer-mediated transgene uptake, transport, transcription, and expression. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening of cationic polymer libraries for the discovery of efficient and safe gene delivery systems. PMID:21843141

  6. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Chen, Xiaojuan; McQuiston, Susan A.; Colosi, Peter C.; Matelis, Laura A.; Kurtzman, Gary J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    1996-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the β-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies. PMID:8943064

  7. Bioreducible liposomes for gene delivery: from the formulation to the mechanism of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Candiani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A promising strategy to create stimuli-responsive gene delivery systems is to exploit the redox gradient between the oxidizing extracellular milieu and the reducing cytoplasm in order to disassemble DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes. On these premises, we previously described the synthesis of SS14 redox-sensitive gemini surfactant for gene delivery. Although others have attributed the beneficial effects of intracellular reducing environment to reduced glutathione (GSH, these observations cannot rule out the possible implication of the redox milieu in its whole on transfection efficiency of bioreducible transfectants leaving the determinants of DNA release largely undefined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of addressing this issue, SS14 was here formulated into binary and ternary 100 nm-extruded liposomes and the effects of the helper lipid composition and of the SS14/helper lipids molar ratio on chemical-physical and structural parameters defining transfection effectiveness were investigated. Among all formulations tested, DOPC/DOPE/SS14 at 25:50:25 molar ratio was the most effective in transfection studies owing to the presence of dioleoyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine head groups in co-lipids. The increase in SS14 content up to 50% along DOPC/DOPE/SS14 liposome series yielded enhanced transfection, up to 2.7-fold higher than that of the benchmark Lipofectamine 2000, without altering cytotoxicity of the corresponding lipoplexes at charge ratio 5. Secondly, we specifically investigated the redox-dependent mechanisms of gene delivery into cells through tailored protocols of transfection in GSH-depleted and repleted vs. increased oxidative stress conditions. Importantly, GSH specifically induced DNA release in batch and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of helper lipids carrying unsaturated dioleoyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine head groups significantly improved transfection efficiencies

  8. The adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis - a novel promising vehicke fer antigen delivery to dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimšová, Marcela; Šebo, Peter; Leclerc, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 293, - (2004), s. 571-576 ISSN 1438-4221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA QLK2-CT-1999(XX) 00556 Keywords : cyaa * cellular immune response * antigen delivery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.919, year: 2004

  9. Delivery strategies of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hao; Cheng, Kun

    2017-11-28

    The CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system is a part of the adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria to defend against invasive nucleic acids from phages and plasmids. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) of the system recognizes its target sequence in the genome, and the Cas9 nuclease of the system acts as a pair of scissors to cleave the double strands of DNA. Since its discovery, CRISPR-Cas9 has become the most robust platform for genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has triggered enormous interest in therapeutic applications. CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied to correct disease-causing gene mutations or engineer T cells for cancer immunotherapy. The first clinical trial using the CRISPR-Cas9 technology was conducted in 2016. Despite the great promise of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, several challenges remain to be tackled before its successful applications for human patients. The greatest challenge is the safe and efficient delivery of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to target cells in human body. In this review, we will introduce the molecular mechanism and different strategies to edit genes using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We will then highlight the current systems that have been developed to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 in vitro and in vivo for various therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyglycerol-functionalized nanodiamond as a platform for gene delivery: Derivatization, characterization, and hybridization with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A gene vector consisting of nanodiamond, polyglycerol, and basic polypeptide (ND-PG-BPP has been designed, synthesized, and characterized. The ND-PG-BPP was synthesized by PG functionalization of ND through ring-opening polymerization of glycidol on the ND surface, multistep organic transformations (–OH → –OTs (tosylate → –N3 in the PG layer, and click conjugation of the basic polypeptides (Arg8, Lys8 or His8 terminated with propargyl glycine. The ND-PG-BPP exhibited good dispersibility in water (>1.0 mg/mL and positive zeta potential ranging from +14.2 mV to +44.1 mV at neutral pH in Milli-Q water. It was confirmed by gel retardation assay that ND-PG-Arg8 and ND-PG-Lys8 with higher zeta potential hybridized with plasmid DNA (pDNA through electrostatic attraction, making them promising as nonviral vectors for gene delivery.

  11. Polyglycerol-functionalized nanodiamond as a platform for gene delivery: Derivatization, characterization, and hybridization with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Nakae, Yuki; Qin, Hongmei; Ito, Tadamasa; Kimura, Takahide; Kojima, Hideto; Chan, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Summary A gene vector consisting of nanodiamond, polyglycerol, and basic polypeptide (ND-PG-BPP) has been designed, synthesized, and characterized. The ND-PG-BPP was synthesized by PG functionalization of ND through ring-opening polymerization of glycidol on the ND surface, multistep organic transformations (–OH → –OTs (tosylate) → –N3) in the PG layer, and click conjugation of the basic polypeptides (Arg8, Lys8 or His8) terminated with propargyl glycine. The ND-PG-BPP exhibited good dispersibility in water (>1.0 mg/mL) and positive zeta potential ranging from +14.2 mV to +44.1 mV at neutral pH in Milli-Q water. It was confirmed by gel retardation assay that ND-PG-Arg8 and ND-PG-Lys8 with higher zeta potential hybridized with plasmid DNA (pDNA) through electrostatic attraction, making them promising as nonviral vectors for gene delivery. PMID:24778723

  12. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan XP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography were used to characterize the graft copolymer.Results: The buffering capability of SP was similar to that of polyethyleneimine within the endosomal pH range. The copolymer could condense DNA effectively to form complexes with a positive charge (13–30 mV and a small particle size (130–200 nm at N/P ratios between 5 and 20, and protect DNA from degradation by DNase I. In addition, SP showed much lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine 25,000. Importantly, the gene transfection activity and cellular uptake of SP-DNA complexes were all markedly higher than that of complexes of polyethyleneimine 25,000 and DNA in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines.Conclusion: This work highlights the promise of SP as a safe and efficient synthetic vector for DNA delivery.Keywords: poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride, polyethylenimine, DNA, gene delivery

  13. Biosensor-controlled gene therapy/drug delivery with nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Tarl W.; Rose, William A.; Wang, Nan; Reece, Lisa M.; Lvov, Yuri; Leary, James F.

    2005-04-01

    Nanomedicine involves cell-by-cell regenerative medicine, either repairing cells one at a time or triggering apoptotic pathways in cells that are not repairable. Multilayered nanoparticle systems are being constructed for the targeted delivery of gene therapy to single cells. Cleavable shells containing targeting, biosensing, and gene therapeutic molecules are being constructed to direct nanoparticles to desired intracellular targets. Therapeutic gene sequences are controlled by biosensor-activated control switches to provide the proper amount of gene therapy on a single cell basis. The central idea is to set up gene therapy "nanofactories" inside single living cells. Molecular biosensors linked to these genes control their expression. Gene delivery is started in response to a biosensor detected problem; gene delivery is halted when the cell response indicates that more gene therapy is not needed. Cell targeting of nanoparticles, both nanocrystals and nanocapsules, has been tested by a combination of fluorescent tracking dyes, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Intracellular targeting has been tested by confocal microscopy. Successful gene delivery has been visualized by use of GFP reporter sequences. DNA tethering techniques were used to increase the level of expression of these genes. Integrated nanomedical systems are being designed, constructed, and tested in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in small animals. While still in its infancy, nanomedicine represents a paradigm shift in thinking-from destruction of injured cells by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy to cell-by-cell repair within an organ and destruction of non-repairable cells by natural apoptosis.

  14. Non-electrostatic complexes with DNA: towards novel synthetic gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J; Bessodes, M; Pitard, B; Mailhe, P; Scherman, D; Byk, G

    2000-05-01

    We have developed new DNA complexing amphiphile based on Hoechst 33258 interaction with DNA grooves. The synthesis and physicochemical characterisation of lipid/DNA complexes, as compared to that of classical lipopolyamine for gene delivery, are described and discussed.

  15. Reducible poly(amido ethylenimine)s designed for triggered intracellular gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Lane V.; Christensen, L.; Chang, Chien-Wen; Kim, Won Jong; Kim, Sung Wan; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lin, C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Feijen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Poly(amido ethylenimine) polymers, a new type of peptidomimetic polymer, containing multiple disulfide bonds (SS-PAEIs) designed to degrade after delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into the cell were synthesized and investigated as new carriers for triggered intracellular gene delivery. More

  16. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-01-01

    -mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes

  17. Coalitional game theory as a promising approach to identify candidate autism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anika; Sun, Min Woo; Paskov, Kelley Marie; Stockham, Nate Tyler; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Wall, Dennis Paul

    2018-01-01

    Despite mounting evidence for the strong role of genetics in the phenotypic manifestation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the specific genes responsible for the variable forms of ASD remain undefined. ASD may be best explained by a combinatorial genetic model with varying epistatic interactions across many small effect mutations. Coalitional or cooperative game theory is a technique that studies the combined effects of groups of players, known as coalitions, seeking to identify players who tend to improve the performance--the relationship to a specific disease phenotype--of any coalition they join. This method has been previously shown to boost biologically informative signal in gene expression data but to-date has not been applied to the search for cooperative mutations among putative ASD genes. We describe our approach to highlight genes relevant to ASD using coalitional game theory on alteration data of 1,965 fully sequenced genomes from 756 multiplex families. Alterations were encoded into binary matrices for ASD (case) and unaffected (control) samples, indicating likely gene-disrupting, inherited mutations in altered genes. To determine individual gene contributions given an ASD phenotype, a "player" metric, referred to as the Shapley value, was calculated for each gene in the case and control cohorts. Sixty seven genes were found to have significantly elevated player scores and likely represent significant contributors to the genetic coordination underlying ASD. Using network and cross-study analysis, we found that these genes are involved in biological pathways known to be affected in the autism cases and that a subset directly interact with several genes known to have strong associations to autism. These findings suggest that coalitional game theory can be applied to large-scale genomic data to identify hidden yet influential players in complex polygenic disorders such as autism.

  18. The promise of multimedia technology for STI/HIV prevention: frameworks for understanding improved facilitator delivery and participant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; Epperson, Matthew W; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard, Dawn; Hunt, Timothy; Sarfo, Bright; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing excitement about multimedia sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention interventions, yet there has been limited discussion of how use of multimedia technology may improve STI/HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms through which multimedia technology may work to improve the delivery and uptake of intervention material. We present conceptual frameworks describing how multimedia technology may improve intervention delivery by increasing standardization and fidelity to the intervention material and the participant's ability to learn by improving attention, cognition, emotional engagement, skills-building, and uptake of sensitive material about sexual and drug risks. In addition, we describe how the non-multimedia behavioral STI/HIV prevention intervention, Project WORTH, was adapted into a multimedia format for women involved in the criminal justice system and provide examples of how multimedia activities can more effectively target key mediators of behavioral change in this intervention.

  19. A Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery System: Multifunctional Envelope-Type Nano Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Akita, Hidetaka; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    In this review we introduce a new concept for developing a nonviral gene delivery system which we call "Programmed Packaging." Based on this concept, we succeeded in developing a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND), which exerts high transfection activities equivalent to those of an adenovirus in a dividing cell. The use of MEND has been extended to in vivo applications. PEG/peptide/DOPE ternary conjugate (PPD)-MEND, a new in vivo gene delivery system for the targeting of tumor cells that dissociates surface-modified PEG in tumor tissue by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and exerts significant transfection activities, was developed. In parallel with the development of MEND, a quantitative gene delivery system, Confocal Image-assisted 3-dimensionally integrated quantification (CIDIQ), also was developed. This method identified the rate-limiting step of the nonviral gene delivery system by comparing it with adenoviral-mediated gene delivery. The results of this analysis provide a new direction for the development of rational nonviral gene delivery systems.

  20. Nano-scale gene delivery systems; current technology, obstacles, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Dunwell, Thomas L; Trigueros, Sonia

    2018-01-07

    Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary. The emerging field of nano-gene delivery exploits the use of new materials and the properties that arise at the nanometre-scale to produce delivery vectors that can effectively deliver genetic material into a variety of different types of cells. The novel physicochemical properties of the new delivery vectors can be used to address the current challenges existing in nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. While there is a growing interest in nanostructure-based gene delivery, the field is still in its infancy, and there is yet much to discover about nanostructures and their physicochemical properties in a biological context. We carry out an organized and focused search of bibliographic databases. Our results suggest that despite new breakthroughs in nanostructure synthesis and advanced characterization techniques, we still face many barriers in producing highly efficient and non-toxic delivery systems. In this review, we overview the types of systems currently used for clinical and biomedical research applications along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing barriers that arise from nano-scale interactions with biological material. In conclusion, we hope that by bringing the far reaching multidisciplinary nature of nano-gene delivery to light, new targeted nanotechnology-bases strategies are developed to overcome the major challenges covered in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For

  1. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sima Singh,1,* Niranjan G Kotla,2,* Sonia Tomar,3 Balaji Maddiboyina,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Dinesh Sharma,7 Omprakash Sunnapu2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, 2Technologies for the Advancement of Science, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Ram Gopal College of Pharmacy, Rohtak, Haryana, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 7Ranbaxy Laboratory Ltd, Gurgaon, Haryana, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics, and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data

  2. Development of Liposomal Bubbles with Perfluoropropane Gas as Gene Delivery Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ryo; Sawamura, Kaori; Takizawa, Tomoko; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi

    2007-05-01

    Liposomes have some advantages as drug, antigen and gene delivery carriers. Their size can be easily controlled and they can be modified to add a targeting function. Based on liposome technology, we developed novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) containing the ultrasound imaging gas, perfluoropropane. We assessed the feasibility of Bubble liposomes as carriers for gene delivery after cavitation induced by ultrasound. At first, we investigated their ability to deliver genes with Bubble liposomes and ultrasound to various types of cells such as mouse sarcoma cells, mouse melanoma cells, human T cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that the Bubble liposomes could deliver plasmid DNA to many cell types without cytotoxicity. In addition, we found that Bubble liposomes could effectively deliver plasmid DNA into mouse femoral artery in vivo. The gene transduction with Bubble liposomes was more effectively than conventional lipofection. We conclude that Bubble liposomes are unique and efficient gene delivery carriers in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Synergistic effect of amino acids modified on dendrimer surface in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yitong; Wang, Hui; Shao, Naimin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Yiyun

    2014-11-01

    Design of an efficient gene vector based on dendrimer remains a great challenge due to the presence of multiple barriers in gene delivery. Single-functionalization on dendrimer cannot overcome all the barriers. In this study, we synthesized a list of single-, dual- and triple-functionalized dendrimers with arginine, phenylalanine and histidine for gene delivery using a one-pot approach. The three amino acids play different roles in gene delivery: arginine is essential in formation of stable complexes, phenylalanine improves cellular uptake efficacy, and histidine increases pH-buffering capacity and minimizes cytotoxicity of the cationic dendrimer. A combination of these amino acids on dendrimer generates a synergistic effect in gene delivery. The dual- and triple-functionalized dendrimers show minimal cytotoxicity on the transfected NIH 3T3 cells. Using this combination strategy, we can obtain triple-functionalized dendrimers with comparable transfection efficacy to several commercial transfection reagents. Such a combination strategy should be applicable to the design of efficient and biocompatible gene vectors for gene delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Advances in Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Non-viral vectors, typically based on cationic lipids or polymers, are preferred due to safety concerns with viral vectors. So far, non-viral vectors can proficiently transfect cells in culture, but obtaining efficient nanomedicines is far from evident. To overcome the hurdles associated with non-viral vectors is significant for improving delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect of nucleic acid. The drawbacks include the strong interaction of cationic delivery vehicles with blood components, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), toxicity, targeting ability of the carriers to the cells of interest, and so on. PEGylation is the predominant method used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins with non-viral vectors and minimize the clearance by RES after intravenous administration. The nanoparticles that are not rapidly cleared from the circulation accumulate in the tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the targeting ligands attached to the distal end of the PEGylated components allow binding to the receptors on the target cell surface. Neutral or anionic liposomes have been also developed for systemic delivery of nucleic acids in experimental animal model. Designing and synthesizing novel cationic lipids and polymers, and binding nucleic acid with peptides, targeting ligands, polymers, or environmentally sensitive moieties also attract many attentions for resolving the problems encountered by non-viral vectors. The application of inorganic nanoparticles in nucleic acid delivery is an emerging field, too. Recently, different classes of non-viral vectors appear to be converging and the features of different classes of non-viral vectors could be combined in one strategy. More hurdles associated with efficient nucleic acid delivery therefore might be expected to be overcome. In this account, we will focus on these novel non-viral vectors, which are classified into multifunctional hybrid nucleic acid vectors, novel

  5. Targeted Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cancer Gene Therapy via Liposome-Templated Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeming; Liu, Fuyao; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Ann T; Deng, Gang; Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Jie; Hong, Zhangyong; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2017-12-08

    Due to its simplicity, versatility, and high efficiency, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology has emerged as one of the most promising approaches for treatment of a variety of genetic diseases, including human cancers. However, further translation of CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer gene therapy requires development of safe approaches for efficient, highly specific delivery of both Cas9 and single guide RNA to tumors. Here, novel core-shell nanostructure, liposome-templated hydrogel nanoparticles (LHNPs) that are optimized for efficient codelivery of Cas9 protein and nucleic acids is reported. It is demonstrated that, when coupled with the minicircle DNA technology, LHNPs deliver CRISPR/Cas9 with efficiency greater than commercial agent Lipofectamine 2000 in cell culture and can be engineered for targeted inhibition of genes in tumors, including tumors the brain. When CRISPR/Cas9 targeting a model therapeutic gene, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), is delivered, LHNPs effectively inhibit tumor growth and improve tumor-bearing mouse survival. The results suggest LHNPs as versatile CRISPR/Cas9-delivery tool that can be adapted for experimentally studying the biology of cancer as well as for clinically translating cancer gene therapy.

  6. GFP expression by intracellular gene delivery of GFP-coding fragments using nanocrystal quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Yamamoto, Kenji; Yasuhara, Masato; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach to supplement a deficient gene function. Although there has been some success with specific gene delivery using various methods including viral vectors and liposomes, most of these methods have a limited efficiency or also carry a risk for oncogenesis. We herein report that quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLSP) successfully introduced gene-fragments with promoter elements, which promoted the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene in mammalian cells. The expression of eGFP protein was observed when the QD/gene-construct was added to the culture media. The gene-expression efficiency varied depending on multiple factors around QDs, such as (1) the reading direction of the gene-fragments, (2) the quantity of gene-fragments attached on the surface of the QD-constructs, (3) the surface electronic charges varied according to the structure of the QD/gene-constructs, and (4) the particle size of QD/gene complex varied according to the structure and amounts of gene-fragments. Using this QD/gene-construct system, eGFP protein could be detected 28 days after the gene-introduction whereas the fluorescence of QDs had disappeared. This system therefore provides another method for the intracellular delivery of gene-fragments without using either viral vectors or specific liposomes.

  7. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  8. Bioreducible Fluorinated Peptide Dendrimers Capable of Circumventing Various Physiological Barriers for Highly Efficient and Safe Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaojun; Jin, Rongrong; Wang, Jiali; Yue, Dong; Jiang, Qian; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-03-09

    Polymeric vectors have shown great promise in the development of safe and efficient gene delivery systems; however, only a few have been developed in clinical settings due to poor transport across multiple physiological barriers. To address this issue and promote clinical translocation of polymeric vectors, a new type of polymeric vector, bioreducible fluorinated peptide dendrimers (BFPDs), was designed and synthesized by reversible cross-linking of fluorinated low generation peptide dendrimers. Through masterly integration all of the features of reversible cross-linking, fluorination, and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core-based peptide dendrimers, this novel vector exhibited lots of unique features, including (i) inactive surface to resist protein interactions; (ii) virus-mimicking surface topography to augment cellular uptake; (iii) fluorination-mediated efficient cellular uptake, endosome escape, cytoplasm trafficking, and nuclear entry, and (iv) disulfide-cleavage-mediated polyplex disassembly and DNA release that allows efficient DNA transcription. Noteworthy, all of these features are functionally important and can synergistically facilitate DNA transport from solution to the nucleus. As a consequences, BFPDs showed excellent gene transfection efficiency in several cell lines (∼95% in HEK293 cells) and superior biocompatibility compared with polyethylenimine (PEI). Meanwhile BFPDs provided excellent serum resistance in gene delivery. More importantly, BFPDs offer considerable in vivo gene transfection efficiency (in muscular tissues and in HepG2 tumor xenografts), which was approximately 77-fold higher than that of PEI in luciferase activity. These results suggest bioreducible fluorinated peptide dendrimers are a new class of highly efficient and safe gene delivery vectors and should be used in clinical settings.

  9. Neurogenetics and gene therapy for reward deficiency syndrome: are we going to the Promised Land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Thanos, Peter K; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Febo, Marcelo; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Fratantonio, James; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Gold, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Addiction is a substantial health issue with limited treatment options approved by the FDA and as such currently available. The advent of neuroimaging techniques that link neurochemical and neurogenetic mechanisms to the reward circuitry brain function provides a framework for potential genomic-based therapies. Through candidate and genome-wide association studies approaches, many gene polymorphisms and clusters have been implicated in drug, food and behavioral dependence linked by the common rubric reward deficiency syndrome (RDS). The results of selective studies that include the role of epigenetics, noncoding micro RNAs in RDS behaviors especially drug abuse involving alcohol, opioids, cocaine, nicotine, pain and feeding are reviewed in this article. New targets for addiction treatment and relapse prevention, treatment alternatives such as gene therapy in animal models, and pharmacogenomics and nutrigenomics methods to manipulate transcription and gene expression are explored. The recognition of the clinical benefit of early genetic testing to determine addiction risk stratification and dopaminergic agonistic, rather than antagonistic therapies are potentially the genomic-based wave of the future. In addition, further development, especially in gene transfer work and viral vector identification, could make gene therapy for RDS a possibility in the future.

  10. Junk DNA enhances pEI-based non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, E.V.B. van; Oosting, R.S.; Hennink, W.E.; Crommelin, D.J.A.; Mastrobattista, E.

    Gene therapy aims at delivering exogenous DNA into the nuclei of target cells to establish expression of a therapeutic protein. Non-viral gene delivery is examined as a safer alternative to viral approaches, but is presently characterized by a low efficiency. In the past years several non-viral

  11. Effective Nanoparticle-based Gene Delivery by a Protease Triggered Charge Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, Torben; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    Gene carriers made from synthetic materials are of interest in relation to gene therapy but suffer from lack of transfection efficiency upon systemic delivery. To address this problem, a novel lipo-peptide-PEG conjugate constituted by a lipid-anchor, a peptide sensitive to proteases and a poly (e...

  12. Influence of cationic lipid concentration on properties of lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose RJC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajendran JC Bose,1,2 Yoshie Arai,1 Jong Chan Ahn,1 Hansoo Park,2 Soo-Hong Lee11Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, 2Department of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Nanoparticles have been widely used for nonviral gene delivery. Recently, cationic hybrid nanoparticles consisting of two different materials were suggested as a promising delivery vehicle. In this study, nanospheres with a poly(D,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA core and cationic lipid shell were prepared, and the effect of cationic lipid concentrations on the properties of lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers investigated. Lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres (LPHNSs were fabricated by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of cationic lipids and characterized for size, surface charge, stability, plasmid DNA-binding capacity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. All LPHNSs had narrow size distribution with positive surface charges (ζ-potential 52–60 mV, and showed excellent plasmid DNA-binding capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements with HEK293T, HeLa, HaCaT, and HepG2 cells also showed that LPHNSs exhibited less cytotoxicity than conventional transfection agents, such as Lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine–PLGA. As cationic lipid concentrations increased, the particle size of LPHNSs decreased while their ζ-potential increased. In addition, the in vitro transfection efficiency of LPHNSs increased as lipid concentration increased. Keywords: core–shell hybrid nanospheres, lipid concentration, surface modification, low cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency

  13. Affinity-based biosensors as promising tools for gene doping detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minunni, Maria; Scarano, Simona; Mascini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Innovative bioanalytical approaches can be foreseen as interesting means for solving relevant emerging problems in anti-doping control. Sport authorities fear that the newer form of doping, so-called gene doping, based on a misuse of gene therapy, will be undetectable and thus much less preventable. The World Anti-Doping Agency has already asked scientists to assist in finding ways to prevent and detect this newest kind of doping. In this Opinion article we discuss the main aspects of gene doping, from the putative target analytes to suitable sampling strategies. Moreover, we discuss the potential application of affinity sensing in this field, which so far has been successfully applied to a variety of analytical problems, from clinical diagnostics to food and environmental analysis.

  14. Synthetic polyspermine imidazole-4, 5-amide as an efficient and cytotoxicity-free gene delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Yue Duan, Xue-Mei Ge, Nan Lu, Fei Wu, Weien Yuan, Tuo JinSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A chemically dynamic spermine-based polymer: polyspermine imidazole-4, 5-amide (PSIA, Mw > 7 kDa was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in terms of its ability to deliver nucleic acids. This polymer was made from an endogenous monomer professionally condensing genes in sperms, spermine, and a known safety drug metabolite, imidazole-4, 5-dicarboxylic acid, through a bis-amide bond conjugated with the imidazole ring. This polymer can condense pDNA at a W/W ratio above 10 to form polyplexes (100–200 nm in diameter, which is consistent with the observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the zeta potential was in the range of 10–20 mV. The pDNA packaged polymer was stable in phosphate buffer solution (PBS at pH 7.4 (simulated body fluid while the polyplexes were releasing pDNA into the solution at pH 5.8 (simulated endo-lysosomes due to the degradation of the bis-amide linkages in response to changes in pH values. PSIA-polyplexes were able to achieve efficient cellular uptake and luciferase gene silencing by co-transfection of pDNA and siRNA in COS-7 cells and HepG2 cells with negligible cytotoxicity. Biodistribution of Rhodamine B-labeled PSIA-polyplexes after being systemically injected in BALB/c nude-mice showed that the polyplexes circulated throughout the body, accumulated mainly in the kidney at 4 hours of sample administration, and moved to the liver and spleen after 24 hours. All the results suggested that PSIA offered a promising example to balance the transfection efficiency and toxicity of a synthetic carrier system for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids.Keywords: gene delivery, polyspermine, cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, biodistribution

  15. Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanoparticles with photoluminescence properties that do not photobleach. Due to these advantages, using QDs for non-viral gene delivery has the additional benefit of being able to track the delivery of the genes in real time as it happens. We investigate the efficacy of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) electrostatically complexed with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) both as a non-viral gene delivery vector and as a fluorescent probe for tracking the delivery of genes into nuclei. The MPA-capped CdSe AQDs that were completely synthesized in water were the model AQDs. A nominal MPA:Cd:Se = 4:3:1 was chosen for optimal photoluminescence and zeta potential. The gene delivery study was carried out in vitro using a human colon cancer cell line, HT29 (ATCC). The model gene was a plasmid DNA (pDNA) that can express red fluorescent protein (RFP). Positively charged branched PEI was employed to provide a proton buffer to the AQDs to allow for endosomal escape. It is shown that by using a PEI-AQD complex with a PEI/AQD molar ratio of 300 and a nominal pDNA/PEI-AQD ratio of 6, we can achieve 75 ± 2.6% RFP expression efficiency with cell vitality remaining at 78 ± 4% of the control. (paper)

  16. Cell based-gene delivery approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2010-03-01

    Cell based-gene delivery has provided an important therapeutic strategy for different disorders in the recent years. This strategy is based on the transplantation of genetically modified cells to express specific genes and to target the delivery of therapeutic factors, especially for the treatment of cancers and neurological, immunological, cardiovascular and heamatopoietic disorders. Although, preliminary reports are encouraging, and experimental studies indicate functionally and structurally improvements in the animal models of different disorders, universal application of this strategy for human diseases requires more evidence. There are a number of parameters that need to be evaluated, including the optimal cell source, the most effective gene/genes to be delivered, the optimal vector and method of gene delivery into the cells and the most efficient route for the delivery of genetically modified cells into the patient. Also, some obstacles have to be overcome, including the safety and usefulness of the approaches and the stability of the improvements. Here, recent studies concerning with the cell-based gene delivery for spinal cord injury and some neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease are briefly reviewed, and their exciting consequences are discussed.

  17. CRISPR-Cas9: a promising tool for gene editing on induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Ki Ho; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in genome editing with programmable nucleases have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. The ease of use of the technology-and particularly clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-will allow us to improve our understanding of genomic variation in disease processes via cellular and animal models. Here, we highlight the progress made in correcting gene mutations in monogenic hereditary disorders and discuss various CRISPR-associated applications, such as cancer research, synthetic biology, and gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges, ethical issues, and future prospects of CRISPR-based systems for human research are also discussed.

  18. Three-layered polyplex as a microRNA targeted delivery system for breast cancer gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin; Chen, Jihua

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play an important role in modulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Since miRNAs can regulate multiple cancer-related genes simultaneously, regulating miRNAs could target a set of related oncogenic genes or pathways. Owing to their reduced immune response and low toxicity, miRNAs with small size and low molecular weight have become increasingly promising therapeutic drugs in cancer therapy. However, one of the major challenges of miRNAs-based cancer therapy is to achieve specific, effective, and safe delivery of therapeutic miRNAs into cancer cells. Here we provide a strategy using three-layered polyplex with folic acid as a targeting group to systemically deliver miR-210 into breast cancer cells, which results in breast cancer growth being inhibited.

  19. RNA-Seq reveals seven promising candidate genes affecting the proportion of thick egg albumen in layer-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Jin, Sihua; Ma, Chendong; Wang, Zhicheng; Fang, Qi; Jiang, Runshen

    2017-12-22

    Eggs with a much higher proportion of thick albumen are preferred in the layer industry, as they are favoured by consumers. However, the genetic factors affecting the thick egg albumen trait have not been elucidated. Using RNA sequencing, we explored the magnum transcriptome in 9 Rhode Island white layers: four layers with phenotypes of extremely high ratios of thick to thin albumen (high thick albumen, HTA) and five with extremely low ratios (low thick albumen, LTA). A total of 220 genes were differentially expressed, among which 150 genes were up-regulated and 70 were down-regulated in the HTA group compared with the LTA group. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the up-regulated genes in HTA were mainly involved in a wide range of regulatory functions. In addition, a large number of these genes were related to glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interactions and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. Based on functional analysis, ST3GAL4, FUT4, ITGA2, SDC3, PRLR, CDH4 and GALNT9 were identified as promising candidate genes for thick albumen synthesis and metabolism during egg formation. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of egg albumen traits and may contribute to future breeding strategies that optimise the proportion of thick egg albumen.

  20. Recent Advances in Skin Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Gene and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Mostaghaci, Babak; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in transdermal delivery systems because of their noninvasive, targeted, and on-demand delivery of gene and drugs. However, efficient penetration of therapeutic compounds into the skin is still challenging largely due to the impermeability of the outermost layer of the skin, known as stratum corneum. Recently, there have been major research activities to enhance the skin penetration depth of pharmacological agents. This article reviews recent advances in the development of various strategies for skin penetration enhancement. We show that approaches such as ultrasound waves, laser, and microneedle patches have successfully been employed to physically disrupt the stratum corneum structure for enhanced transdermal delivery. Rather than physical approaches, several non-physical route have also been utilized for efficient transdermal delivery across the skin barrier. Finally, we discuss some clinical applications of transdermal delivery systems for gene and drug delivery. This paper shows that transdermal delivery devices can potentially function for diverse healthcare and medical applications while further investigations are still necessary for more efficient skin penetration of gene and drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo. Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  2. CRISPR-Cas9: a promising tool for gene editing on induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Ki Ho; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in genome editing with programmable nucleases have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. The ease of use of the technology—and particularly clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)—will allow us to improve our understanding of genomic variation in disease processes via cellular and animal models. Here, we highlight the progress made in correcting gene mutations in monogenic hereditary disorders and discuss various CRISPR-associated applications, such as cancer research, synthetic biology, and gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges, ethical issues, and future prospects of CRISPR-based systems for human research are also discussed. PMID:28049282

  3. A novel dendrimer based on poly (L-glutamic acid) derivatives as an efficient and biocompatible gene delivery vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xin; Pan Shirong; Wang Chi; Wen Yuting; Wu Hongmei; Wang Cuifeng; Wu Chuanbin; Feng Min; Li Jie

    2011-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems based on cationic polymers have faced limitations related to their relative low gene transfer efficiency, cytotoxicity and system instability in vivo. In this paper, a flexible and pompon-like dendrimer composed of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) G4.0 as the inner core and poly (L-glutamic acid) grafted low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PLGE) as the surrounding multiple arms was synthesized (MGI dendrimer). The novel MGI dendrimer was designed to combine the merits of size-controlled PAMAM G4.0 and the low toxicity and flexible chains of PLGE. In phosphate-buffered saline dispersions the well-defined DNA/MGI complex above a N/P ratio of 30 showed good stability with particle sizes of approximately 200 nm and a comparatively low polydispersity index. However, the particle size of the DNA/25 kDa polyethylenimine (DNA/PEI 25K) complex was larger than 700 nm under the same salt conditions. The shielding of the compact amino groups at the periphery of flexible PAMAM and biocompatible PLGE chains in MGI resulted in a dramatic decrease of the cytotoxicity compared to native PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. The in vitro transfection efficiency of DNA/MGI dendrimer complex was higher than that of PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. Importantly, in serum-containing medium, DNA/MGI complexes at their optimal N/P ratio maintained the same high levels of transfection efficiency as in serum-free medium, while the transfection efficiency of native PAMAM G4.0, PEI 25K and Lipofectamine 2000 were sharply decreased. In vivo gene delivery of pVEGF165/MGI complex into balloon-injured rabbit carotid arteries resulted in significant inhibition of restenosis by increasing VEGF165 expression in local vessels. Therefore, the pompon-like MGI dendrimer may be a promising vector candidate for efficient gene delivery in vivo.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Effective Gene Delivery with Novel Liposomal Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiie, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    Microbubbles, which were ultrasound contrast agents, could improve the transfection efficiency by cavitation with ultrasound exposure. However, conventional microbubbles had some problems regarding size and targeting ability. To solve these problems, we paid attention to liposomes that had many advantages as drug, antigen and gene delivery carriers. Because they can easily be controlled their size and added a targeting function. And we succeeded to prepare novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) entrapping perfluoropropane which was utilized for contrast enhancement in ultrasonography. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of Bubble liposomes as gene delivery tools utilized cavitation by ultrasound exposure. In vitro gene delivery, Bubble liposomes could deliver plasmid DNA to many cell types such as tumor cells, T cell line and endothelial cells without cytotoxicity. In vivo gene delivery, Bubble liposomes could effectively deliver plasmid DNA into mouse femoral artery. This method was more effectively than conventional lipofection. We conclude that Bubble liposomes are unique and efficient gene delivery tools in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Activated Charge-Reversal Polymeric Nano-System: The Promising Strategy in Drug Delivery for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various polymeric nanoparticles (NPs with optimal size, tumor-targeting functionalization, or microenvironment sensitive characteristics have been designed to solve several limitations of conventional chemotherapy. Nano-sized polymeric drug carrier systems have remarkably great advantages in drug delivery and cancer therapy, which are still plagued with severe deficiencies, especially insufficient cellular uptake. Recently, surface charge of medical NPs has been demonstrated to play an important role in cellular uptake. NPs with positive charge show higher affinity to anionic cell membranes such that with more efficient cellular internalization, but otherwise cause severe aggregation and fast clearance in circulation. Thus, surface charge-reversal NPs, specifically activated at the tumor site, have shown to elegantly resolve the enhanced cellular uptake in cancer cells vs. non-specific protein adsorption dilemma. Herein, this review mainly focuses on the effect of tumor-site activated surface charge reversal NPs on tumor treatment, including the activated mechanisms and various applications in suppressing cancer cells, killing cancer stem cell and overcoming multidrug resistance, with the emphasis on recent research in these fields. With the comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the activated surface charge reversal NPs, this approach might arouse great interest of scientific research on enhanced efficient polymeric nano-carriers in cancer therapy.

  6. Development of novel recombinant biomimetic chimeric MPG-based peptide as nanocarriers for gene delivery: Imitation of a real cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Asia; Nikkhah, Maryam; Sadeghian, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-10-01

    In last decades great efforts have been devoted to the study of development of recombinant peptide based vectors that consist of biological motifs with potential applications in gene therapy. Recombinant Biomimetic Chimeric Vectors (rBCVs) are biopolymeric nanocarriers that are designed to mimic viral features to overcome the cellular obstacles in gene transferring pathway into cell nucleus. In this research, we designed and genetically engineered three novel rBCVs with similar sequences that differed in motifs arrangement and motif abundance: MPG-2H1, 2TMPG-2H1 and 2RMPG-2H1. The MPG as a famous amphipathic cell penetrating peptide is the main segment of these constructs which was studied for the first time in association with truncated histone H1 DNA condensing motif. Through the performance of several physicochemical and biological assays, the rBCVs were remarkably examined regarding transfection efficiency. The main objective of this study is focused on the importance of motif design in transfection efficiency of rBCVs on one hand, and the assessment of correlation between structural features and functionality of motifs on the other hand. The results revealed that all three kinds of rBCVs/pDNA nanoparticles with average sizes of 200nm could overwhelm the cellular obstacles associated with gene transfer, and lead to efficient gene delivery. Furthermore, no significant toxicity was perceived and efficient endosome disruptive activity was obtained. It is noteworthy to say among three mentioned constructs 2RMPG-2H1 showed the highest transfection efficiency. Overall the peptide based vectors hold great promise as a nontoxic and effective gene carrier in vitro and in vivo, besides the rational design possibility as the most vital advantages over the other non-viral gene delivery vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Crosslinked hydrogels—a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun D. Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA can maintain a high level of supersaturation over a prolonged period of time via a feedback-controlled diffusion mechanism thus avoiding the initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration typically encountered with ASDs based on water-soluble polymers. The creation of both immediate- and controlled-release ASD dosage forms is also achievable with the PHEMA based hydrogels. So far, ASD systems based on glassy PHEMA have been shown to be very effective in retarding precipitation of amorphous drugs in the solid state to achieve a robust physical stability. This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs.

  9. Crosslinked hydrogels-a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I

    2014-02-01

    Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) can maintain a high level of supersaturation over a prolonged period of time via a feedback-controlled diffusion mechanism thus avoiding the initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration typically encountered with ASDs based on water-soluble polymers. The creation of both immediate- and controlled-release ASD dosage forms is also achievable with the PHEMA based hydrogels. So far, ASD systems based on glassy PHEMA have been shown to be very effective in retarding precipitation of amorphous drugs in the solid state to achieve a robust physical stability. This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs.

  10. Promising applications in drug delivery systems of a novel β-cyclodextrin derivative obtained by green synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Lamas, María C

    2016-01-15

    An efficient and green method has been developed for the synthesis of succinyl-β-cyclodextrin in aqueous media obtaining very good yield. Acidic groups have been introduced in the synthesized carrier molecule to improve the guest-host affinity. To evaluate the suitability of the novel excipient focused to develop oral dosage forms, albendazole, a BSC class II compound, was chosen as a model drug. The β-cyclodextrin derivative and the inclusion complex were thoroughly characterized in solution and solid state by phase solubility studies, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, ESI-MS, DSC, 1D (1)H NMR, 1D (13)C NMR, selective 1D TOCSY, 2D COSY, 2D HSQC, 2D HMBC and ROESY NMR spectroscopy. Phase solubility studies indicated that both of them β-cyclodextrin and succinyl-β-cyclodextrin formed 1:1 inclusion complexes with albendazole, and the stability constants were 68M(-1) (β-cyclodextrin), 437M(-1) (succinyl-β-cyclodextrin), respectively. Water solubility and dissolution rate of albendazole were significantly improved in complex forms. Thus, the succinyl-β-cyclodextrin derivative could be a promising excipient to design oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebellomedullary Cistern Delivery for AAV-Based Gene Therapy: A Technical Note for Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranch, Lluis; Bringas, John; Pivirotto, Philip; Sebastian, Waldy San; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof

    2015-01-01

    Accessing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the craniocervical junction through the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane via cerebellomedullary injection (also known as cisternal puncture or cisterna magna injection) has become a standard procedure in preclinical studies. Such delivery provides broader coverage to the central and peripheral nervous system unlike local parenchymal delivery alone. As a clinical application, this approach offers a more reliable method for neurological gene replacem...

  12. DNA Nanotechnology for Precise Control over Drug Delivery and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Chava; Xie, Sibai; Zhang, Liangfang; Chen, Yi

    2016-03-02

    Nanomedicine has been growing exponentially due to its enhanced drug targeting and reduced drug toxicity. It uses the interactions where nanotechnological components and biological systems communicate with each other to facilitate the delivery performance. At this scale, the physiochemical properties of delivery systems strongly affect their capacities. Among current delivery systems, DNA nanotechnology shows many advantages because of its unprecedented engineering abilities. Through molecular recognition, DNA nanotechnology can be used to construct a variety of nanostructures with precisely controllable size, shape, and surface chemistry, which can be appreciated in the delivery process. In this review, different approaches that are currently used for the construction of DNA nanostructures are reported. Further, the utilization of these DNA nanostructures with the well-defined parameters for the precise control in drug delivery and gene therapy is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Systematic Evaluation of Promising Clinical Trials-Gene Silencing for the Treatment of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Numan; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ozbek, Hanefi; Caliskan, Tezcan; Topuk, Savas; Sirin, Duygu Yasar; Ates, Ozkan

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the role of artificial small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in glioblastoma treatment and to give a detailed overview of the literature concerning studies performed in this field worldwide in the last 31 years. Articles about clinical trials conducted between December 1, 1949 and November 8, 2017, were identified from the Cochrane Collaboration, the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, ProQuest, the National Library of Medicine, and PubMed electronic databases, using the terms "post transcriptional gene silencing," "small interfering RNA," "siRNA," and "glioblastoma," either individually or combined (\\"OR\\" and \\"AND"), without language and country restrictions. Articles that met the examination criteria were included in the study. After descriptive statistical evaluation, the results were reported in frequency (%). After scanning 2.752 articles, five articles were found that met the research criteria. Examination of full texts of the five identified articles provided no sufficient evidence for research conducted with regard to the use of gene silencing via siRNAs in glioblastoma treatment. To be able to evaluate the clinical use of siRNAs, there is an urgent need for in-vivo studies and for trials with randomized, controlled, and clinical designs that provide long-term functional outcomes.

  14. A sight on protein-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatin, Sara; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Maleki-Dizaj, Solmaz; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric nanomaterials have extensively been applied for the preparation of targeted and controlled release drug/gene delivery systems. However, problems involved in the formulation of synthetic polymers such as using of the toxic solvents and surfactants have limited their desirable applications. In this regard, natural biomolecules including proteins and polysaccharide are suitable alternatives due to their safety. According to literature, protein-based nanoparticles possess many advantages for drug and gene delivery such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to functionalize with targeting ligands. This review provides a general sight on the application of biodegradable protein-based nanoparticles in drug/gene delivery based on their origins. Their unique physicochemical properties that help them to be formulated as pharmaceutical carriers are also discussed.

  15. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyanohara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal. Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem; and (iv the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients.

  16. Lumbar spine intervertebral disc gene delivery: a pilot study in lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Sheela R; Rawlins, Bernard A; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Crystal, Ronald G; Hidaka, Chisa; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2013-02-01

    Basic research toward understanding and treating disc pathology in the spine has utilized numerous animal models, with delivery of small molecules, purified factors, and genes of interest. To date, gene delivery to the rat lumbar spine has only been described utilizing genetically programmed cells in a matrix which has required partial disc excision, and expected limitation of treatment diffusion into the disc. This study was designed to develop and describe a surgical technique for lumbar spine exposure and disc space preparation, and use of a matrix-free method for gene delivery. Naïve or genetically programmed isogeneic bone marrow stromal cells were surgically delivered to adolescent male Lewis rat lumbar discs, and utilizing quantitative biochemical and qualitative immunohistological assessments, the implanted cells were detected 3 days post-procedure. Statistically significant differences were noted for recovery of the β-galactosidase marker gene comparing delivery of naïve or labeled cells (10(5) cells per disc) from the site of implantation, and between delivery of 10(5) or 10(6) labeled cells per disc at the site of implantation and the adjacent vertebral body. Immunohistology confirmed that the β-galactosidase marker was detected in the adjacent vertebra bone in the zone of surgical implantation. The model requires further testing in larger cohorts and with biologically active genes of interest, but the observations from the pilot experiments are very encouraging that this will be a useful comparative model for basic spine research involving gene or cell delivery, or other locally delivered therapies to the intervertebral disc or adjacent vertebral bodies in rats.

  17. Artificial Virus as Trump-card to Resolve Exigencies in Targeted Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajithkumar, K C; Pramod, Kannissery

    2018-01-01

    Viruses are potent pathogens that can effectively deliver the genetic material to susceptible host cells. This capability is beneficially utilized to successfully deliver the genetic material. However, the use of virus mediated gene delivery is considered divisive, because the potentially replicable genomes recombine or integrate with the cell DNA resulting in immunogenicity, ranging from inflammation to death. Thus, the need for potentially effective non-viral gene delivery vehicles arises. Non-viral vectors, protein only particles and virus like particles (VLP) can be constructed which contain all the necessary functional moieties. These resemble viruses and are called artificial or synthetic virus. The artificial virus eliminates the disadvantages of viral vectors but retain the beneficial effects of the viruses. Need for further functionalization can be avoided by this approach because incorporation of requisite agents such as cell ligands, membrane active peptides, etc. into proteins is possible. The protein- DNA complexes resemble bacterial inclusion bodies. Nucleic acids influence conformation of protein units which subsequently result in cell uptake and finally to the cell nucleus. Such tunable systems mimic the activities of infected viruses and are used for the safe and effective delivery of drugs and genetic material in gene therapy. The versatility, stability and biocompatible nature of artificial virus along with high transfection efficacy have made it favorite for gene delivery purposes, in addition to being useful for various biomedical and drug delivery applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The promise of discovering population-specific disease-associated genes in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Nathan; Moorjani, Priya; Rai, Niraj; Sarkar, Biswanath; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Girisha, Katta Mohan; Mustak, Mohammed S; Srinivasan, Sudha; Kaushik, Amit; Vahab, Saadi Abdul; Jagadeesh, Sujatha M; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Singh, Lalji; Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-09-01

    The more than 1.5 billion people who live in South Asia are correctly viewed not as a single large population but as many small endogamous groups. We assembled genome-wide data from over 2,800 individuals from over 260 distinct South Asian groups. We identified 81 unique groups, 14 of which had estimated census sizes of more than 1 million, that descend from founder events more extreme than those in Ashkenazi Jews and Finns, both of which have high rates of recessive disease due to founder events. We identified multiple examples of recessive diseases in South Asia that are the result of such founder events. This study highlights an underappreciated opportunity for decreasing disease burden among South Asians through discovery of and testing for recessive disease-associated genes.

  19. ScreenFect A: an efficient and low toxic liposome for gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ming; Ruan, Gui-Xin; HuangFu, Ming-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Lan; Liu, Hui-Na; Li, Lin-Xian; Hu, Yu-Lan; Han, Min; Davidson, Gary; Levkin, Pavel A; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-07-05

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in variety of therapeutic applications including tissue engineering and cancer therapy. Genetic modification of MSCs can be used to enhance the therapeutic effect of MSCs by facilitating a specific function or by transforming MSCs into more effective gene therapy tools. However, the successful generation of genetically modified MSCs is often limited by the poor transfection efficiency or high toxicity of available transfection reagents. In our previous study, we used thiol-yne click chemistry to develop new liposomal vectors, including ScreenFect(®) A (SF) (Li et al., 2012). In this study, we investigated the transfection performance of SF on MSCs. A comparative evaluation of transfection efficiency, cell viability and cellular DNA uptake was performed using the Lipofectamine™ 2000 (L2K) as a control, and the results show that SF is superior to L2K for MSC transfection. The presence of serum did not significantly influence the transfection efficiency of either SF or L2K but greatly reduced the viability of MSC transfected by L2K. The higher efficiency of SF-mediated transfection compared to L2K was also correlated with better proliferation of cells. These results were supported by monitoring the intracellular fate of DNA, which confirmed stable transportation of DNA from lysosomes and efficient nuclear localization. TGF-β1 gene delivery by SF promoted MSC osteogenic differentiation in an osteogenic induction condition. As the first study of SF lipofection on stem cells, this study highlights a promising role of SF in gene delivery to MSCs as well as other stem cells to facilitate tissue engineering and other therapeutic effects based on genetically modified stem cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ternary complex of plasmid DNA with NLS-Mu-Mu protein and cationic niosome for biocompatible and efficient gene delivery: a comparative study with protamine and lipofectamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Torkzadeh-Mahanai, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ebrahimi Meimand, Hossein Ali; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2017-10-28

    Non-viral gene delivery methods are considered due to safety and simplicity in human gene therapy. Since the use of cationic peptide and niosome represent a promising approach for gene delivery purposes we used recombinant fusion protein and cationic niosome as a gene carrier. A multi-domain fusion protein including nuclear localization motif (NLS) and two DNA-binding (Mu) domains, namely NLS-Mu-Mu (NMM) has been designed, cloned and expressed in E. coli DE3 strain. Afterward, the interested protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Binary vectors based on protein/DNA and ternary vectors based on protein/DNA/niosome were prepared. Protamine was used as a control. DNA condensing properties of NMM and protamine were evaluated by various experiments. Furthermore, we examined cytotoxicity, hemolysis and transfection potential of the binary and ternary complexes in HEK293T and MCF-7 cell lines. Protamine and Lipofectamine™2000 were used as positive controls, correspondingly. The recombinant NMM was expressed and purified successfully and DNA was condensed efficiently at charge ratios that were not harmful to cells. Peptidoplexes showed transfection efficiency (TE) but ternary complexes had higher TE. Additionally, NMM ternary complex was more efficient compared to protamine ternary vectors. Our results showed that niosomal ternary vector of NMM is a promising non-viral gene carrier to achieve an effective and safe carrier system for gene therapy.

  1. Non-viral gene delivery strategies for cancer therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Nupura S.

    Gene therapy involves the delivery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into cells to override or replace a malfunctioning gene for treating debilitating genetic diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to its use as a therapeutic, it can also serve as a technology to enable regenerative medicine strategies. The central challenge of the gene therapy research arena is developing a safe and effective delivery agent. Since viral vectors have critical immunogenic and tumorogenic safety issues that limit their clinical use, recent efforts have focused on developing non-viral biomaterial based delivery vectors. Cationic polymers are an attractive class of gene delivery vectors due to their structural versatility, ease of synthesis, biodegradability, ability to self-complex into nanoparticles with negatively charged DNA, capacity to carry large cargo, cellular uptake and endosomal escape capacity. In this thesis, we hypothesized that developing a biomaterial library of poly(betaamino esters) (PBAE), a newer class of cationic polymers consisting of biodegradable ester groups, would allow investigating vector design parameters and formulating effective non-viral gene delivery strategies for cancer drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell engineering. Consequently, a high-throughput transfection assay was developed to screen the PBAE-based nanoparticles in hard to transfect fibroblast cell lines. To gain mechanistic insights into the nanoparticle formulation process, biophysical properties of the vectors were characterized in terms of molecular weight (MW), nanoparticle size, zeta potential and plasmid per particle count. We report a novel assay developed for quantifying the plasmid per nanoparticle count and studying its implications for co-delivery of multiple genes. The MW of the polymers ranged from 10 kDa to 100 kDa, nanoparticle size was about 150 run, zeta potential was about 30 mV in sodium acetate buffer (25 mM, pH 5) and 30 to 100

  2. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  3. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  4. DNA-transporting nanoparticles : design and in vitro evaluation of DNA and formulation for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, E.V.B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of gene therapy is to treat, cure or prevent a disease by replacing defective genes, introducing new genes or changing the expression of a person’s genes. Success of gene therapy is dependent on successful delivery of DNA from the site of administration into cell nuclei. Naturally occurring

  5. Electric pulse-mediated gene delivery to various animal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir, Lluis M; Moller, Pernille H; André, Franck

    2005-01-01

    therapy, termed electrogenetherapy (EGT as well). By transfecting cells with a long lifetime, such as muscle fibers, a very long-term expression of genes can be obtained. A great variety of tissues have been transfected successfully, from muscle as the most extensively used, to both soft (e.g., spleen...

  6. Effect of adrenomedullin gene delivery on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Y. Henein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders that ultimately afflicts large number of individuals. Adrenomedullin (AM is a potent vasodilator peptide; previous studies reported development of insulin resistance in aged AM deficient mice. In this study, we employed a gene delivery approach to explore its potential role in insulin resistance. Four groups were included: control, diabetic, non-diabetic injected with the AM gene and diabetic injected with the AM gene. One week following gene delivery, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and corticosterone were measured as well as the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. Soleus muscle glucose uptake and RT-PCR of both AM and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT 4 gene expressions were assessed. A single tail vein injection of adrenomedullin gene in type 2 diabetic rats improved skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness with significant improvement of soleus muscle glucose uptake, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, insulin and triglycerides and significant increase in muscle GLUT 4 gene expression (P < 0.05 compared with the non-injected diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of AM gene delivery were accompanied by a significant increase in the serum level of adiponectin (2.95 ± 0.09 versus 2.33 ± 0.17 μg/ml in the non-injected diabetic group as well as a significant decrease in leptin and corticosterone levels (7.51 ± 0.51 and 262.88 ± 10.34 versus 10.63 ± 1.4 and 275.86 ± 11.19 ng/ml respectively in the non-injected diabetic group. The conclusion of the study is that AM gene delivery can improve insulin resistance and may have significant therapeutic applications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  8. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Ezzedine, Alaa H.; Abdallah, Abdallah; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  9. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  10. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  11. Lignin nanotubes as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Elena; Ling, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Srivastava, Arun; Dempere, Luisa Amelia; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2014-01-13

    Lignin nanotubes (LNTs) synthesized from the aromatic plant cell wall polymer lignin in a sacrificial alumina membrane template have as useful features their flexibility, ease of functionalization due to the availability of many functional groups, label-free detection by autofluorescence, and customizable optical properties. In this report we show that the physicochemical properties of LNTs can be varied over a wide range to match requirements for specific applications by using lignin with different subunit composition, a function of plant species and genotype, and by choosing the lignin isolation method (thioglycolic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid (Klason), sodium hydroxide lignin), which influences the size and reactivity of the lignin fragments. Cytotoxicity studies with human HeLa cells showed that concentrations of up to 90 mg/mL are tolerated, which is a 10-fold higher concentration than observed for single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that all LNT formulations enter HeLa cells without auxiliary agents and that LNTs made from NaOH-lignin penetrate the cell nucleus. We further show that DNA can adsorb to LNTs. Consequently, exposure of HeLa cells to LNTs coated with DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) leads to transfection and expression of GFP. The highest transfection efficiency was obtained with LNTs made from NaOH-lignin due to a combination of high DNA binding capacity and DNA delivery directly into the nucleus. These combined features of LNTs make LNTs attractive as smart delivery vehicles of DNA without the cytotoxicity associated with CNTs or the immunogenicity of viral vectors.

  12. Development of Gold Nanoparticle towards Radioenhancement Therapy, Renal Clearance, siRNA Delivery and Light-Controlled Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been widely studied and used in research for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes. However, they still face many technical challenges before they can be used to effectively address unmet biomedical needs. The theme of this dissertation is focused on addressing challenges of GNPs in clinical translation, and to improve their potential for application in radioenhancement therapy and siRNA delivery. We demonstrate the facile self-assembly of micellar gold nanocapsules using zwitterionic surfactants, with hydrodynamic diameters below 10 nm, which holds promise for good renal clearance to promote the excretion of GNPs in human body. We also prepared PEI- and PEG-coated GNPs and demonstrated their uptake into HeLa cells with exposure to soft X-rays (120 kVp), based on the consideration that the proximity of GNPs to nuclear DNA may be beneficial for enhancing low-energy ionizing radiotherapy. GNP-mediated siRNA delivery may be challenged by nonspecific siRNA desorption during circulation, which can cause off-target effects and immunogenicity. The use of gold nanorods (GNRs) for siRNA delivery also faces challenges like reduced dispersion stability during siRNA functionalization. We developed an effective way to load siRNA onto GNRs at high density, using oleylsulfobetaine (OSB) as an intermediate surfactant and dithiocarbamates (DTCs) as desorption-resistant anchors for siRNA. The GNR?siRNA complexes provided excellent control for laser-triggered gene silencing.

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of VEGF-siRNA/CRS as a novel vector for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui School of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy. The biological activities were evaluated using cell viability assay, gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and antitumor tests in vivo. The mean nanoparticle size of VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 121.4±0.3 nm with positive ζ potential of 7.69±4.47 mV. The release rate of VEGF-siRNA from VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 82.50% sustained for 48 h in Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (pH 8.0. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the efficiency of the transfection, and the result showed that VEGF mRNA expression had been knocked down by 82.36%. The expression of VEGF protein was also recorded to be downregulated to 14.83% using ELISA. The results of cytotoxicity measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that VEGF-siRNA/CRS had significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. The results of antitumor assays indicated that VEGF-siRNA/CRS exhibited tumor cell growth inhibition in vivo. The results demonstrated that VEGF-siRNA could be delivered and transported by the designed carrier, while siRNA could be released constantly and led to an increasing gene-silencing effect against VEGF gene. In conclusion, VEGF-siRNA/CRS is a promising carrier for si

  14. Oral Delivery of Probiotics Expressing Dendritic Cell-Targeting Peptide Fused with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus COE Antigen: A Promising Vaccine Strategy against PEDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Wang, Li; Huang, Xuewei; Ma, Sunting; Yu, Meiling; Shi, Wen; Qiao, Xinyuan; Tang, Lijie; Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing

    2017-10-25

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) that damages intestinal epithelial cells and results in severe diarrhea and dehydration in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. The oral vaccine route is reported as a promising approach for inducing protective immunity against PEDV invasion. Furthermore, dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells, link humoral and cellular immune responses for homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. In this study, in order to explore an efficient oral vaccine against PEDV infection, a mucosal DC-targeting oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus casei to deliver the DC-targeting peptide (DCpep) fused with the PEDV core neutralizing epitope (COE) antigen. This probiotic vaccine could efficiently elicit secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)-based mucosal and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral immune responses via oral vaccination in vivo. Significant differences ( p targeting peptide fused with PEDV COE antigen. This mucosal DC-targeting oral vaccine delivery effectively enhances vaccine antigen delivery efficiency, providing a useful strategy to induce efficient immune responses against PEDV infection.

  15. Substrate-mediated delivery of gene complex nanoparticles via polydopamine coating for enhancing competitiveness of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo-Chao; Chang, Hao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Substrate-mediated delivery of functional plasmid DNA (pDNA) has been proven to be a promising strategy to promote competitiveness of endothelial cells (ECs) over smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which is beneficial to inducing fast endothelialization of implanted vascular devices. Thus, it is of great importance to develop universal approaches with simplicity and easiness to immobilize DNA complex nanoparticles on substrates. In this study, the bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) coating was employed in immobilization of DNA complex nanoparticles, which were composed of protamine (PrS) and plasmid DNA encoding with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-pDNA) gene. We demonstrated that the DNA complex nanoparticles can be successfully immobilized onto the PDA surface. Consequently, the HGF expression of both ECs and SMCs were significantly improved when they cultured on the DNA complex nanoparticles-immobilized substrates. Furthermore, EC proliferation was specifically promoted due to bioactivity of HGF, leading to an enhancement of EC competitiveness over SMCs. Our findings demonstrated the substrate-mediated functional gene nanoparticle delivery through PDA coating as a simple and efficient approach. It may hold great potential in the field of interventional cardiovascular implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP) was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography were used to characterize the graft copolymer. Results The buffering capability of SP was similar to that of polyethyleneimine within the endosomal pH range. The copolymer could condense DNA effectively to form complexes with a positive charge (13–30 mV) and a small particle size (130–200 nm) at N/P ratios between 5 and 20, and protect DNA from degradation by DNase I. In addition, SP showed much lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine 25,000. Importantly, the gene transfection activity and cellular uptake of SP-DNA complexes were all markedly higher than that of complexes of polyethyleneimine 25,000 and DNA in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines. Conclusion This work highlights the promise of SP as a safe and efficient synthetic vector for DNA delivery. PMID:23028224

  17. Adenoviral Gene Delivery to Primary Human Cutaneous Cells and Burn Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Tobias; von Peter, Sebastian; Dubin, Grzegorz; Mittler, Dominik; Jacobsen, Frank; Lehnhardt, Markus; Eriksson, Elof; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The adenoviral transfer of therapeutic genes into epidermal and dermal cells is an interesting approach to treat skin diseases and to promote wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo transfection efficacy in skin and burn wounds after adenoviral gene delivery. Primary keratinocytes (HKC), fibroblasts (HFB), and HaCaT cells were transfected using different concentrations of an adenoviral construct (eGFP). Transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was determine...

  18. Myocardial gene delivery using molecular cardiac surgery with recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, JD; Thesier, DM; Swain, JBD; Katz, MG; Tomasulo, C; Henderson, A; Wang, L; Yarnall, C; Fargnoli, A; Sumaroka, M; Isidro, A; Petrov, M; Holt, D; Nolen-Walston, R; Koch, WJ; Stedman, HH; Rabinowitz, J; Bridges, CR

    2013-01-01

    We use a novel technique that allows for closed recirculation of vector genomes in the cardiac circulation using cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to here as molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD). We demonstrate that this platform technology is highly efficient in isolating the heart from the systemic circulation in vivo. Using MCARD, we compare the relative efficacy of single-stranded (ss) adeno-associated virus (AAV)6, ssAAV9 and self-complimentary (sc)AAV6-encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by the constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter to transduce the ovine myocardium in situ. MCARD allows for the unprecedented delivery of up to 48 green fluorescent protein genome copies per cell globally in the sheep left ventricular (LV) myocardium. We demonstrate that scAAV6-mediated MCARD delivery results in global, cardiac-specific LV gene expression in the ovine heart and provides for considerably more robust and cardiac-specific gene delivery than other available delivery techniques such as intramuscular injection or intracoronary injection; thus, representing a potential, clinically translatable platform for heart failure gene therapy. PMID:21228882

  19. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qingbing Wang,1,2 Jianfeng Li,3 Sai An,3 Yi Chen,1 Chen Jiang,3 Xiaolin Wang1,2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 3Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Gene therapy is a very promising technology for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, its application has been limited by the abundant stromal response in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to prepare a dendrimer-based gene-free loading vector with high permeability in the tumor stroma and explore an imaging-guided local gene delivery strategy for PDAC to promote the efficiency of targeted gene delivery.Methods: The experimental protocol was approved by the animal ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Third-generation dendrigraft poly-L-lysines was selected as the nanocarrier scaffold, which was modified by cell-penetrating peptides and gadolinium (Gd chelates. DNA plasmids were loaded with these nanocarriers via electrostatic interaction. The cellular uptake and loaded gene expression were examined in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in vitro. Permeability of the nanoparticles in the tumor stroma and transfected gene distribution in vivo were studied using a magnetic resonance imaging-guided delivery strategy in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PDAC.Results: The nanocarriers were synthesized with a dendrigraft poly-L-lysine to polyethylene glycol to DTPA ratio of 1:3.4:8.3 and a mean diameter of 110.9±7.7 nm. The luciferases were strictly expressed in the tumor, and the luminescence intensity in mice treated by Gd-DPT/plasmid luciferase (1.04×104±9.75×102 p/s/cm2/sr was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those treated with Gd-DTPA (9.56×102±6.15×10 p/s/cm2/sr and Gd-DP (5.75×103± 7.45×102 p/s/cm2/sr

  20. Recent advances in dendrimer-based nanovectors for tumor-targeted drug and gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of nanotechnology in medicine have given rise to multifunctional smart nanocarriers that can be engineered with tunable physicochemical characteristics to deliver one or more therapeutic agent(s) safely and selectively to cancer cells, including intracellular organelle-specific targeting. Dendrimers having properties resembling biomolecules, with well-defined 3D nanopolymeric architectures, are emerging as a highly attractive class of drug and gene delivery vector. The presence of numerous peripheral functional groups on hyperbranched dendrimers affords efficient conjugation of targeting ligands and biomarkers that can recognize and bind to receptors overexpressed on cancer cells for tumor-cell-specific delivery. The present review compiles the recent advances in dendrimer-mediated drug and gene delivery to tumors by passive and active targeting principles with illustrative examples. PMID:25555748

  1. Coating nanocarriers with hyaluronic acid facilitates intravitreal drug delivery for retinal gene therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Thomas F.; Remaut, Katrien; Deschout, Hendrik; Engbersen, Johan F J; Hennink, Wim E.; Van Steenbergen, Mies J.; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy could potentially affect the lives of millions of people suffering from blinding disorders. Yet, one of the major hurdles remains the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to the retinal target cells. Due to the different barriers that need to be overcome in case of topical or

  2. Toward a suitable structural analysis of gene delivery carrier based on polycationic carbohydrates by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, Cédric; Benito, Juan M.; Bonnet, Véronique; Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; García Fernández, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Polycationic carbohydrates represent an attractive class of biomolecules for several applications and particularly as non viral gene delivery vectors. In this case, the establishment of structure-biological activity relationship requires sensitive and accurate characterization tools to both control and achieve fine structural deciphering. Electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) appears as a suitable approach to address these questions. In the study herein, we have investigated the usefulness of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to get structural data about five polycationic carbohydrates demonstrated as promising gene delivery agents. A particular attention was paid to determine the influence of charge states as well as both fluoranthene reaction time and supplementary activation (SA) on production of charge reduced species, fragmentation yield, varying from 2 to 62%, as well as to obtain the most higher both diversity and intensity of fragments, according to charge states and targeted compounds. ETD fragmentation appeared to be mainly directed toward pending group rather than carbohydrate cyclic scaffold leading to a partial sequencing for building blocks when amino groups are close to carbohydrate core, but allowing to complete structural deciphering of some of them, such as those including dithioureidocysteaminyl group which was not possible with CID only. Such findings clearly highlight the potential to help the rational choice of the suitable analytical conditions, according to the nature of the gene delivery molecules exhibiting polycationic features. Moreover, our ETD-MS/MS approach open the way to a fine sequencing/identification of grafted groups carried on various sets of oligo-/polysaccharides in various fields such as glycobiology or nanomaterials, even with unknown or questionable extraction, synthesis or modification steps. - Highlights: • The first ETD-MS/MS characterization of polycationic carbohydrate based non-viral gene delivery

  3. Toward a suitable structural analysis of gene delivery carrier based on polycationic carbohydrates by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.przybylski@upmc.fr [Université d’Evry-Val-d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, CNRS UMR 8587, Bâtiment Maupertuis, Bld F. Mitterrand, F-91025 Evry (France); Benito, Juan M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas (IIQ), CSIC−Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio 49, Isla de la Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Bonnet, Véronique [Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Glycochimie, des Antimicrobiens et des Agroressources, CNRS UMR 7378, 80039 Amiens (France); Mellet, Carmen Ortiz [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); García Fernández, José M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas (IIQ), CSIC−Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio 49, Isla de la Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Polycationic carbohydrates represent an attractive class of biomolecules for several applications and particularly as non viral gene delivery vectors. In this case, the establishment of structure-biological activity relationship requires sensitive and accurate characterization tools to both control and achieve fine structural deciphering. Electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) appears as a suitable approach to address these questions. In the study herein, we have investigated the usefulness of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to get structural data about five polycationic carbohydrates demonstrated as promising gene delivery agents. A particular attention was paid to determine the influence of charge states as well as both fluoranthene reaction time and supplementary activation (SA) on production of charge reduced species, fragmentation yield, varying from 2 to 62%, as well as to obtain the most higher both diversity and intensity of fragments, according to charge states and targeted compounds. ETD fragmentation appeared to be mainly directed toward pending group rather than carbohydrate cyclic scaffold leading to a partial sequencing for building blocks when amino groups are close to carbohydrate core, but allowing to complete structural deciphering of some of them, such as those including dithioureidocysteaminyl group which was not possible with CID only. Such findings clearly highlight the potential to help the rational choice of the suitable analytical conditions, according to the nature of the gene delivery molecules exhibiting polycationic features. Moreover, our ETD-MS/MS approach open the way to a fine sequencing/identification of grafted groups carried on various sets of oligo-/polysaccharides in various fields such as glycobiology or nanomaterials, even with unknown or questionable extraction, synthesis or modification steps. - Highlights: • The first ETD-MS/MS characterization of polycationic carbohydrate based non-viral gene delivery

  4. Physicochemical characterization by AFM, FT-IR and DSC and biological assays of a promising antileishmania delivery system loaded with a natural Brazilian product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Torres, Elina Cassia; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Hori, Juliana I; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2016-05-10

    The control and treatment of Leishmaniasis, a neglected and infectious disease affecting approximately 12 million people worldwide, are challenging. Leishmania parasites multiply intracellularly within macrophages located in deep skin and in visceral tissues, and the currently employed treatments for this disease are subject to significant drawbacks, such as resistance and toxicity. Thus, the search for new Leishmaniasis treatments is compulsory, and Ocotea duckei Vattimo, a plant-derived product from the biodiverse Brazilian flora, may be a promising new treatment for this disease. In this regard, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize a delivery system based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) that contain the liposoluble lignan fraction (LF) of Ocotea duckei Vattimo, which targets the Leishmania phagolysosome of infected macrophages. LF-loaded SLNs were obtained via the hot microemulsion method, and their physical and chemical properties were comprehensively assessed using PCS, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, DSC, HPLC, kinetic drug release studies, and biological assays. The size of the developed delivery system was 218.85±14.2 nm, its zeta potential was -30 mV and its entrapment efficiency (EE%) was high (the EEs% of YAN [yangambin] and EPI-YAN [epi-yangambin] markers were 94.21±0.40% and 94.20±0.00%, respectively). Microscopy, FT-IR and DSC assays confirmed that the delivery system was nanosized and indicated a core-shell encapsulation model, which corroborated the measured kinetics of drug release. The total in vitro release rates of YAN and EPI-YAN in buffer (with sink conditions attained) were 29.6±8.3% and 34.3±8.9%, respectively, via diffusion through the cellulose acetate membrane of the SLN over a period of 4 h. After 24 h, the release rates of both markers reached approximately 45%, suggesting a sustained pattern of release. Mathematical modeling indicated that both markers, YAN and EPI-YAN, followed matrix diffusion-based release kinetics (Higuchi

  5. A Biomimic Reconstituted High-Density-Lipoprotein-Based Drug and p53 Gene Co-delivery System for Effective Antiangiogenesis Therapy of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qiaohong; Duan, Zhongxiang; Jiao, Guangli; Lei, Jixiao

    2015-07-01

    A biomimic reconstituted high-density-lipoprotein-based drug and p53 gene co-delivery system (rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes) was fabricated as a targeted co-delivery nanovector of drug and gene for potential bladder cancer therapy. Here, CD-PEI was utilized to effectively condense the p53 plasmid, to incorporate the plasmid into rHDL, and to act as an antitumor drug to suppress tumor angiogenesis. The rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, neutral surface charge, and low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that SR-BI-targeted function induced specific cytoplasmic delivery and high gene transfection efficiency in MBT-2 murine bladder cells. In addition, rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes co-delivering CD and p53 gene achieved synergistic angiogenesis suppression by more effectively downregulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein via different pathways in vitro. In vivo investigation on C3H/He mice bearing MBT-2 tumor xenografts revealed that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes possessed strong antitumor activity. These findings suggested that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes could be an ideal tumor-targeting system for simultaneous transfer of drug and gene, which might be a new promising strategy for effective bladder cancer therapy.

  6. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  7. (3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayer films for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuicui; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Tellier, Liane E; Green, Jordan J

    2013-07-10

    Biodegradable polyelectrolyte surfaces for gene delivery were created through electrospinning of biodegradable polycations combined with iterative solution-based multilayer coating. Poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-capped with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine was utilized because of its ability to electrostatically interact with anionic molecules like DNA, its biodegradability, and its low cytotoxicity. A new DNA release system was developed for sustained release of DNA over 24 h, accompanied by high exogenous gene expression in primary human glioblastoma (GB) cells. Electrospinning a different PBAE, poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4,4'-trimethylenedipiperidine), and its combination with polyelectrolyte 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayers are promising for DNA release and intracellular delivery from a surface.

  8. (3-Aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine End-capped Poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based Multilayer Films for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuicui; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Tellier, Liane E.; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polyelectrolyte surfaces for gene delivery were created through electrospinning of biodegradable polycations combined with iterative solution-based multilayer coating. Poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-capped with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine was utilized due to its ability to electrostatically interact with anionic molecules like DNA, its biodegradability, and its low cytotoxicity. A new DNA release system was developed for sustained release of DNA over 24 hours, accompanied by high exogenous gene expression in primary human glioblastoma (GB) cells. Electrospinning a different PBAE, poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4,4′-trimethylenedipiperidine), and its combination with polyelectrolyte 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayers are promising for DNA release and intracellular delivery from a surface. PMID:23755861

  9. Local Gene Delivery System by Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound Exposure into Joint Synovium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Negishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have developed novel polyethylene glycol modified liposomes (bubble liposomes; BL entrapping an ultrasound (US imaging gas, which can work as a gene delivery tool with US exposure. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of US-mediated gene transfer systems with BL into synoviocytes in vitro and joint synovium in vivo. Highly efficient gene transfer could be achieved in the cultured primary synoviocytes transfected with the combination of BL and US exposure, compared to treatment with plasmid DNA (pDNA alone, pDNA plus BL, or pDNA plus US. When BL was injected into the knee joints of mice, and US exposure was applied transcutaneously to the injection site, highly efficient gene expression could be observed in the knee joint transfected with the combination of BL and US exposure, compared to treatment with pDNA alone, pDNA plus BL, or pDNA plus US. The localized and prolonged gene expression was also shown by an in vivo luciferase imaging system. Thus, this local gene delivery system into joint synovium using the combination of BL and US exposure may be an effective means for gene therapy in joint disorders.

  10. An efficient parallel stochastic simulation method for analysis of nonviral gene delivery systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential to become an effective treatment for a wide variety of diseases. One of the main challenges to make gene therapy practical in clinical settings is the development of efficient and safe mechanisms to deliver foreign DNA molecules into the nucleus of target cells. Several computational and experimental studies have shown that the design process of synthetic gene transfer vectors can be greatly enhanced by computational modeling and simulation. This paper proposes a novel, effective parallelization of the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for pharmacokinetic models that characterize the rate-limiting, multi-step processes of intracellular gene delivery. While efficient parallelizations of the SSA are still an open problem in a general setting, the proposed parallel simulation method is able to substantially accelerate the next reaction selection scheme and the reaction update scheme in the SSA by exploiting and decomposing the structures of stochastic gene delivery models. This, thus, makes computationally intensive analysis such as parameter optimizations and gene dosage control for specific cell types, gene vectors, and transgene expression stability substantially more practical than that could otherwise be with the standard SSA. Here, we translated the nonviral gene delivery model based on mass-action kinetics by Varga et al. [Molecular Therapy, 4(5), 2001] into a more realistic model that captures intracellular fluctuations based on stochastic chemical kinetics, and as a case study we applied our parallel simulation to this stochastic model. Our results show that our simulation method is able to increase the efficiency of statistical analysis by at least 50% in various settings. © 2011 ACM.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Mucoadhesive Nanocomposites as Intravesical Gene Delivery Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as scaffolds for intravesical gene delivery to the urothelium. Hydrogels were prepared by chemically crosslinking gelatin A or B with glutaraldehyde. Physicochemical and delivery properties including hydration ratio, viscosity, size, yield, thermosensitivity, and enzymatic degradation were studied, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out. The optimal hydrogels (H, composed of 15% gelatin A175, displayed an 81.5% yield rate, 87.1% hydration ratio, 42.9 Pa·s viscosity, and 125.8 nm particle size. The crosslinking density of the hydrogels was determined by performing pronase degradation and ninhydrin assays. In vitro lentivirus (LV release studies involving p24 capsid protein analysis in 293T cells revealed that hydrogels containing lentivirus (H-LV had a higher cumulative release than that observed for LV alone (3.7-, 2.3-, and 2.3-fold at days 1, 3, and 5, resp.. Lentivirus from lentivector constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP was then entrapped in hydrogels (H-LV-GFP. H-LV-GFP showed enhanced gene delivery in AY-27 cells in vitro and to rat urothelium by intravesical instillation in vivo. Cystometrogram showed mucoadhesive H-LV reduced peak micturition and threshold pressure and increased bladder compliance. In this study, we successfully developed first optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds.

  12. Lipid nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery systems to the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Delgado, Diego; Gascón, Alicia R; Solinís, Maria Ángeles

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the application of lipid nanoparticles (Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, or Lipid Drug Conjugates) as effective drug/gene delivery systems for retinal diseases. Most drug products for ocular disease treatment are marketed as eye drop formulations but, due to ocular barriers, the drug concentration in the retina hardly ever turns out to be effective. Up to this date, several delivery systems have been designed to deliver drugs to the retina. Drug delivery strategies may be classified into 3 groups: noninvasive techniques, implants, and colloidal carriers. The best known systems for drug delivery to the posterior eye are intravitreal implants; in fact, some of them are being clinically used. However, their long-term accumulation might impact the patient's vision. On the contrary, colloidal drug delivery systems (microparticles, liposomes, or nanoparticles) can be easily administered in a liquid form. Nanoparticular systems diffuse rapidly and are better internalized in ocular tissues than microparticles. In comparison with liposomes, nanoparticles have a higher loading capacity and are more stable in biological fluids and during storage. In addition, their capacity to adhere to the ocular surface and interact with the endothelium makes these drug delivery systems interesting as new therapeutic tools in ophthalmology. Within the group of nanoparticles, those composed of lipids (Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Nanostructred Lipid Carriers, and Lipid Drug Conjugates) are more biocompatible, easy to produce at large scale, and they may be autoclaved or sterilized. The present review summarizes scientific results that evidence the potential application of lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems for the retina and also as nonviral vectors in gene therapy of retina disorders, although much more effort is still needed before these lipidic systems could be available in the market.

  13. The next step in gene delivery: molecular engineering of adeno-associated virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhui; Faust, Susan M; Rabinowitz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    Delivery is at the heart of gene therapy. Viral DNA delivery systems are asked to avoid the immune system, transduce specific target cell types while avoiding other cell types, infect dividing and non-dividing cells, insert their cargo within the host genome without mutagenesis or to remain episomal, and efficiently express transgenes for a substantial portion of a lifespan. These sought-after features cannot be associated with a single delivery system, or can they? The Adeno-associated virus family of gene delivery vehicles has proven to be highly malleable. Pseudotyping, using AAV serotype 2 terminal repeats to generate designer shells capable of transducing selected cell types, enables the packaging of common genomes into multiple serotypes virions to directly compare gene expression and tropism. In this review the ability to manipulate this virus will be examined from the inside out. The influence of host cell factors and organism biology including the immune response on the molecular fate of the viral genome will be discussed as well as differences in cellular trafficking patterns and uncoating properties that influence serotype transduction. Re-engineering the prototype vector AAV2 using epitope insertion, chemical modification, and molecular evolution not only demonstrated the flexibility of the best-studied serotype, but now also expanded the tool kit for molecular modification of all AAV serotypes. Current AAV research has changed its focus from examination of wild-type AAV biology to the feedback of host cell/organism on the design and development of a new generation of recombinant AAV delivery vehicles. This article is part of a Special Section entitled "Special Section: Cardiovascular Gene Therapy". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel electric power-driven hydrodynamic injection system for gene delivery: safety and efficacy of human factor IX delivery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, T; Kamimura, K; Suda, T; Kanefuji, T; Oda, M; Zhang, G; Liu, D; Aoyagi, Y

    2013-08-01

    The development of a safe and reproducible gene delivery system is an essential step toward the clinical application of the hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) method. For this purpose, we have developed a novel electric power-driven injection system called the HydroJector-EM, which can replicate various time-pressure curves preloaded into the computer program before injection. The assessment of the reproducibility and safety of gene delivery system in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the precise replication of intravascular time-pressure curves and the reproducibility of gene delivery efficiency. The highest level of luciferase expression (272 pg luciferase per mg of proteins) was achieved safely using the time-pressure curve, which reaches 30 mm Hg in 10 s among various curves tested. Using this curve, the sustained expression of a therapeutic level of human factor IX protein (>500 ng ml(-1)) was maintained for 2 months after the HGD of the pBS-HCRHP-FIXIA plasmid. Other than a transient increase in liver enzymes that recovered in a few days, no adverse events were seen in rats. These results confirm the effectiveness of the HydroJector-EM for reproducible gene delivery and demonstrate that long-term therapeutic gene expression can be achieved by automatic computer-controlled hydrodynamic injection that can be performed by anyone.

  15. Combining bio-electrospraying with gene therapy: a novel biotechnique for the delivery of genetic material via living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eliot; Chan, Emma; Gustafsson, Kenth; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2010-05-01

    The investigations reported in this article demonstrate the ability of bio-electrosprays and cell electrospinning to deliver a genetic construct in association with living cells. Previous studies on both bio-electrosprays and cell electrospinning demonstrated great promise for tissue engineering and regenerative biology/medicine. The investigations described herein widen the applicability of these biotechniques by combining gene therapy protocols, resulting in a novel drug delivery methodology previously unexplored. In these studies a human cell line was transduced with recombinant self-inactivating lentiviral particles. These particles incorporated a green fluorescent protein fused to an endosomal targeting construct. This construct encodes a peptide, which can subsequently be detected on the surface of cells by specific T-cells. The transduced cell line was subsequently manipulated in association with either bio-electrospraying or cell electrospinning. Hence this demonstrates (i) the ability to safely handle genetically modified living cells and (ii) the ability to directly form pre-determined architectures bearing living therapeutic cells. This merged technology demonstrates a unique approach for directly forming living therapeutic architectures for controlled and targeted release of experimental cells/genes, as well as medical cell/gene therapeutics for a plethora of biological and medical applications. Hence, such developments could be applied to personalised medicine.

  16. Targeted Gene Transfer to the Brain via the Delivery of Brain-Penetrating DNA Nanoparticles with Focused Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Brian P.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Suk, Jung Soo; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hanes, Justin; Price, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of many pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS), including brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the delivery of systemically administered gene carriers to the CNS is hindered by both the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the nanoporous and electrostatically charged brain extracelluar matrix (ECM), which acts as a steric and adhesive barrier. We have previously shown that these physiological barriers may be overcome by, respectively, opening the BBB with MR image-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles and using highly compact “brain penetrating” nanoparticles (BPN) coated with a dense polyethylene glycol corona that prevents adhesion to ECM components. Here, we tested whether this combined approach could be utilized to deliver systemically administered DNA-bearing BPN (DNA-BPN) across the BBB and mediate localized, robust, and sustained transgene expression in the rat brain. Systemically administered DNA-BPN delivered through the BBB with FUS led to dose-dependent transgene expression only in the FUS-treated region that was evident as early as 24 h post administration and lasted for at least 28 days. In the FUS-treated region ~42% of all cells, including neurons and astrocytes, were transfected, while less than 6% were transfected in the contralateral non-FUS treated hemisphere. Importantly, this was achieved without any sign of toxicity or astrocyte activation. We conclude that the image-guided delivery of DNA-BPN with FUS and microbubbles constitutes a safe and non-invasive strategy for targeted gene therapy to the brain. PMID:26732553

  17. Reduction-sensitive lipopolyamines as a novel nonviral gene delivery system for modulated release of DNA with improved transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, G; Wetzer, B; Frederic, M; Dubertret, C; Pitard, B; Jaslin, G; Scherman, D

    2000-11-16

    We have designed and synthesized original cationic lipids for modulated release of DNA from cationic lipid/DNA complexes. Our rationale was that modulated degradation of the lipids during or after penetration into the cell could improve the trafficking of DNA to the nucleus resulting in increased transgene expression. The new reduction-sensitive lipopolyamines (RSL) harbor a disulfide bridge within different positions in the backbone of the lipids as biosensitive function. A useful synthetic method was developed to obtain, with very good yields and reproducibility, unsymmetrical disulfide-bridged molecules, starting from symmetrical disulfides and thiols. The new lipopolyamines are good candidates as carriers of therapeutic genes for in vivo gene delivery. To optimize the transfection efficiency in these novel series, we have carried out structure-activity relationship studies by placing the disulfide bridge at different positions in the backbone of the cationic lipid and by systematic variation of lipid chain length. Results indicate that the transfection level can be modulated as a function of the location of the disulfide bridge in the molecule. We suggest that an early release of DNA during or after penetration into the cell, probably promoted by reduction of a disulfide bridge placed between the polyamine and the lipid, implies a total loss of transfection efficiency. On the other hand, proper modulation of DNA release by inserting the disulfide bridge between one lipid chain and the rest of the molecule brings about increased transfection efficiency as compared to previously described nondegradable lipopolyamine analogues. Finally, preliminary physicochemical characterization of the complexes demonstrates that DNA release from complexes can be modulated as a function of the surrounding reducing conditions of the complexes and of the localization of the disulfide bridge within the lipopolyamine. Our results suggest that RSL is a promising new approach for gene

  18. User evaluations offer promise for pod-intravaginal ring as a drug delivery platform: A mixed methods study of acceptability and use experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Getz, Melissa L; Dawson, Lauren; Guillen, Melissa; Ramirez, Jaime J; Baum, Marc M; Vincent, Kathleen L

    2018-01-01

    evaluations elicited by them, could both challenge use or be used to leverage use in future trials and product rollout once fully articulated. High willingness-to-use data and lack of salient differences in user experiences related to use of the pod-IVR platform (regardless of agents delivered) suggests that the pod-IVR is a feasible and acceptable drug delivery device in and of itself. This finding holds promise both for an anti-HIV pod-IVR and, potentially, a multipurpose prevention pod-IVR that could deliver both prevention for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV and contraception. Given the very early clinical trial context, further acceptability, perceptibility, and adherence data should continue to be explored, in the context of longer use periods (e.g., 28-day ring use), and in the contexts of sexual activity and menses. Using early design and development contexts to gain insights into potential challenges and facilitators of drug delivery systems such as the pod-IVR could save valuable resources and time as a potential biomedical technology moves through the clinical trial pipeline and into real-world use.

  19. Hydrogel Design for Supporting Neurite Outgrowth and Promoting Gene Delivery to Maximize Neurite Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Stevans, Alyson C.; Holland, Samantha; Wang, Christine E.; Shikanov, Ariella; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels capable of gene delivery provide a combinatorial approach for nerve regeneration, with the hydrogel supporting neurite outgrowth and gene delivery inducing the expression of inductive factors. This report investigates the design of hydrogels that balance the requirements for supporting neurite growth with those requirements for promoting gene delivery. Enzymatically-degradable PEG hydrogels encapsulating dorsal root ganglia explants, fibroblasts, and lipoplexes encoding nerve growth factor were gelled within channels that can physically guide neurite outgrowth. Transfection of fibroblasts increased with increasing concentration of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion sites and decreasing PEG content. The neurite length increased with increasing RGD concentration within 10% PEG hydrogels, yet was maximal within 7.5% PEG hydrogels at intermediate RGD levels. Delivering lipoplexes within the gel produced longer neurites than culture in NGF-supplemented media or co-culture with cells exposed to DNA prior to encapsulation. Hydrogels designed to support neurite outgrowth and deliver gene therapy vectors locally may ultimately be employed to address multiple barriers that limit regeneration. PMID:22038654

  20. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Results Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. Conclusion This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods. PMID:23799175

  1. Non-viral transfection methods optimized for gene delivery to a lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-04-01

    Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods.

  2. Technical Improvement and Application of Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery in Study of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of an safe and efficient in vivo gene delivery method is indispensable for molecular biology research and the progress in the following gene therapy. Over the past few years, hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD with naked DNA has drawn increasing interest in both research and potential clinic applications due to its high efficiency and low risk in triggering immune responses and carcinogenesis in comparison to viral vectors. This method, involving intravenous injection (i.v. of massive DNA in a short duration, gives a transient but high in vivo gene expression especially in the liver of small animals. In addition to DNA, it has also been shown to deliver other substance such as RNA, proteins, synthetic small compounds and even viruses in vivo. Given its ability to robustly mimic in vivo hepatitis B virus (HBV production in liver, HGD has become a fundamental and important technology on HBV studies in our group and many other groups. Recently, there have been interesting reports about the applications and further improvement of this technology in other liver research. Here, we review the principle, safety, current application and development of hydrodynamic delivery in liver disease studies, and discuss its future prospects, clinical potential and challenges.

  3. A novel Listeria monocytogenes-based DNA delivery system for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van Pijkeren, Jan Peter

    2012-01-31

    Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.

  4. Early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression and risk of preterm delivery: a nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhie Seid Y

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm delivery (PTD is a significant public health problem associated with greater risk of mortality and morbidity in infants and mothers. Pathophysiologic processes that may lead to PTD start early in pregnancy. We investigated early pregnancy peripheral blood global gene expression and PTD risk. Methods As part of a prospective study, ribonucleic acid was extracted from blood samples (collected at 16 weeks gestational age from 14 women who had PTD (cases and 16 women who delivered at term (controls. Gene expressions were measured using the GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Student's T-test and fold change analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes. We used hierarchical clustering and principle components analysis to characterize signature gene expression patterns among cases and controls. Pathway and promoter sequence analyses were used to investigate functions and functional relationships as well as regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes. Results A total of 209 genes, including potential candidate genes (e.g. PTGDS, prostaglandin D2 synthase 21 kDa, were differentially expressed. A set of these genes achieved accurate pre-diagnostic separation of cases and controls. These genes participate in functions related to immune system and inflammation, organ development, metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid and cell signaling. Binding sites of putative transcription factors such as EGR1 (early growth response 1, TFAP2A (transcription factor AP2A, Sp1 (specificity protein 1 and Sp3 (specificity protein 3 were over represented in promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR confirmed microarray expression measurements of selected genes. Conclusions PTD is associated with maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression changes. Maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression patterns may be useful for better understanding of PTD

  5. Administration of HPV DNA vaccine via electroporation elicits the strongest CD8+ T cell immune responses compared to intramuscular injection and intradermal gene gun delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Simon R.; Peng, Shiwen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.; Pai, Sara I.

    2009-01-01

    DNA vaccines are an attractive approach to eliciting antigen-specific immunity. Intracellular targeting of tumor antigens through its linkage to immunostimulatory molecules such as calreticulin (CRT) can improve antigen processing and presentation through the MHC Class I pathway and increase cytotoxic CD8+ T cell production. However, even with these enhancements, the efficacy of such immunotherapeutic strategies is dependent on the identification of an effective route and method of DNA administration. Electroporation and gene gun-mediated particle delivery are leading methods of DNA vaccine delivery that can generate protective and therapeutic levels of immune responses in experimental models. In this study, we perform a head-to-head comparison of three methods of vaccination – conventional intramuscular injection, electroporation mediated intramuscular delivery, and epidermal gene gun-mediated particle delivery - in the ability to generate antigen specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses as well as anti-tumor immune responses against an HPV-16 E7 expressing tumor cell line using the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Vaccination via electroporation generated the highest number of E7-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which correlated to improved outcomes in the treatment of growing tumors. In addition, we demonstrate that electroporation results in significantly higher levels of circulating protein compared to gene gun or intramuscular vaccination, which likely enhances calreticulin’s role as a local tumor anti-angiogenesis agent. We conclude that electroporation is a promising method for delivery of HPV DNA vaccines and should be considered for DNA vaccine delivery in human clinical trials. PMID:19622402

  6. Gene therapy for human glioblastoma using neurotropic JC virus-like particles as a gene delivery vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun-Nun; Yang, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Mu-Sheng; Chou, Ming-Chieh; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Lin, Mien-Chun; Tai, Chien-Kuo; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chen, Pei-Lain; Chang, Deching; Wang, Meilin

    2018-02-02

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor, has a short period of survival even with recent multimodality treatment. The neurotropic JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects glial cells and oligodendrocytes and causes fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with AIDS. In this study, a possible gene therapy strategy for GBM using JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a gene delivery vector was investigated. We found that JCPyV VLPs were able to deliver the GFP reporter gene into tumor cells (U87-MG) for expression. In an orthotopic xenograft model, nude mice implanted with U87 cells expressing the near-infrared fluorescent protein and then treated by intratumoral injection of JCPyV VLPs carrying the thymidine kinase suicide gene, combined with ganciclovir administration, exhibited significantly prolonged survival and less tumor fluorescence during the experiment compared with controls. Furthermore, JCPyV VLPs were able to protect and deliver a suicide gene to distal subcutaneously implanted U87 cells in nude mice via blood circulation and inhibit tumor growth. These findings show that metastatic brain tumors can be targeted by JCPyV VLPs carrying a therapeutic gene, thus demonstrating the potential of JCPyV VLPs to serve as a gene therapy vector for the far highly treatment-refractory GBM.

  7. Bile salts-containing vesicles: promising pharmaceutical carriers for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and peptide/protein-based therapeutics or vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Most of the new drugs, biological therapeutics (proteins/peptides) and vaccines have poor performance after oral administration due to poor solubility or degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Though, vesicular carriers exemplified by liposomes or niosomes can protect the entrapped agent to a certain extent from degradation. Nevertheless, the harsh GIT environment exemplified by low pH, presence of bile salts and enzymes limits their capabilities by destabilizing them. In response to that, more resistant bile salts-containing vesicles (BS-vesicles) were developed by inclusion of bile salts into lipid bilayers constructs. The effectiveness of orally administrated BS-vesicles in improving the performance of vesicles has been demonstrated in researches. Yet, these attempts did not gain considerable attention. This is the first review that provides a comprehensive overview of utilizing BS-vesicles as a promising pharmaceutical carrier with a special focus on their successful applications in oral delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and vaccines. Insights on the possible mechanisms by which BS-vesicles improve the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated drug or immunological response of entrapped vaccine are explained. In addition, methods adopted to prepare and characterize BS-vesicles are described. Finally, the gap in the scientific researches tackling BS-vesicles that needs to be addressed is highlighted.

  8. Bolstering cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in liver: A hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery strategy for potential alleviation of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Lancina, Michael G; Wang, Jing; Korzun, William J; Yang, Hu; Ghosh, Shobha

    2017-06-01

    Current atherosclerosis treatment strategies primarily focus on limiting further cholesteryl esters (CE) accumulation by reducing endogenous synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. No therapy is currently available to enhance the removal of CE, a crucial step to reduce the burden of the existing disease. Given the central role of hepatic cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) in the intrahepatic hydrolysis of CE and subsequent removal of the resulting free cholesterol (FC), in this work, we applied galactose-functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer generation 5 (Gal-G5) for hepatocyte-specific delivery of CEH expression vector. The data presented herein show the increased specific uptake of Gal-G5/CEH expression vector complexes (simply Gal-G5/CEH) by hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the upregulated CEH expression in the hepatocytes significantly enhanced the intracellular hydrolysis of high density lipoprotein-associated CE (HDL-CE) and subsequent conversion/secretion of hydrolyzed FC as bile acids (BA). The increased CEH expression in the liver significantly increased the flux of HDL-CE to biliary as well as fecal FC and BA. Meanwhile, Gal-G5 did not induce hepatic or renal toxicity. It was also not immunotoxic. Because of these encouraging pre-clinical testing results, using this safe and highly efficient hepatocyte-specific gene delivery platform to enhance the hepatic processes involved in cholesterol elimination is a promising strategy for the alleviation of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards prostate cancer gene therapy: Development of a chlorotoxin-targeted nanovector for toxic (melittin) gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Zahra; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death due to cancer in men. Owing to shortcomings in the current treatments, other therapies are being considered. Toxic gene delivery is one of the most effective methods for cancer therapy. Cationic polymers are able to form stable nanoparticles via interaction with nucleic acids electrostatically. Branched polyethylenimine that contains amine groups has notable buffering capacity and the ability to escape from endosome through the proton sponge effect. However, the cytotoxicity of this polymer is high, and modification is one of the applicable strategies to overcome this problem. In this study, PEI was targeted with chlorotoxin (CTX) via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP) cross-linker. CTX can bind specifically to matrix metalloproteinase-2 that is overexpressed in certain cancers. Melittin as the major component of bee venom has been reported to have anti-cancer activity. This was thus selected to deliver to PC3 cell line. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that transfection efficiency of targeted nanoparticles is significantly higher compared to non-targeted nanoparticles. Targeted nanoparticles carrying the melittin gene also decreased cell viability of PC3 cells significantly while no toxic effects were observed on NIH3T3 cell line. Therefore, CTX-targeted nanoparticles carrying the melittin gene could serve as an appropriate gene delivery system for prostate and other MMP-2 positive cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cytotoxicity fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer as gene carriers for monitoring the delivery of siRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Lingmei [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Huang, Saipeng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Chen, Zhao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Science (China); Li, Yanchao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Liu, Ke [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yliu@iccas.ac.cn; Du, Libo, E-mail: dulibo@iccas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-09-15

    Visual detection of gene vectors has attracted a great deal of attention due to the application of these vectors in monitoring and evaluating the effect of gene carriers in living cells. A non-viral vector, the fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer (F-PAMAM), was synthesized through conjugation of PAMAM dendrimers and fluorescein. In vitro and ex vivo experiments show that F-PAMAM exhibits superphotostability, low cytotoxicity and facilitates endocytosis by A549 cells. The vector has a high siRNA binding affinity and it increases the efficiency of cy5-siRNA delivery in A549 cells, in comparison with a cy5-siRNA monomer. Our results provide a new method for simultaneously monitoring the delivery of siRNA and its non-viral carriers in living cells.

  11. Hydrodynamic gene delivery in human skin using a hollow microneedle device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, M; Stefanidou, M; Porta, P; Serve, J; O'Mahony, C; Malissen, B; Henri, S; Levin, Y; Kochba, E; Wong, F S; Dayan, C; Coulman, S A; Birchall, J C

    2017-11-10

    Microneedle devices have been proposed as a minimally invasive delivery system for the intradermal administration of nucleic acids, both plasmid DNA (pDNA) and siRNA, to treat localised disease or provide vaccination. Different microneedle types and application methods have been investigated in the laboratory, but limited and irreproducible levels of gene expression have proven to be significant challenges to pre-clinical to clinical progression. This study is the first to explore the potential of a hollow microneedle device for the delivery and subsequent expression of pDNA in human skin. The regulatory approved MicronJet600® (MicronJet hereafter) device was used to deliver reporter plasmids (pCMVβ and pEGFP-N1) into viable excised human skin. Exogenous gene expression was subsequently detected at multiple locations that were distant from the injection site but within the confines of the bleb created by the intradermal bolus. The observed levels of gene expression in the tissue are at least comparable to that achieved by the most invasive microneedle application methods e.g. lateral application of a microneedle. Gene expression was predominantly located in the epidermis, although also evident in the papillary dermis. Optical coherence tomography permitted real time visualisation of the sub-surface skin architecture and, unlike a conventional intradermal injection, MicronJet administration of a 50μL bolus appears to create multiple superficial microdisruptions in the papillary dermis and epidermis. These were co-localised with expression of the pCMVβ reporter plasmid. We have therefore shown, for the first time, that a hollow microneedle device can facilitate efficient and reproducible gene expression of exogenous naked pDNA in human skin using volumes that are considered to be standard for intradermal administration, and postulate a hydrodynamic effect as the mechanism of gene delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize deliver...

  13. Translational Advancement of Somatostatin Gene Delivery for Disease Modification and Cognitive Sparing in Intractable Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    seizures. A thoroughly characterized rodent epilepsy model will be used as a platform to test the hypotheses. In this model temporal lobe electrical...expression in the hippocampus resected from a young temporal lobe epilepsy patient. Post-baccalaureate student Andrew Moss has since expanded this project...somatostatin gene delivery persistently reduces seizure severity in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy , Gowri Natarajan, Jessica Anne McElroy

  14. Hydrodynamic gene delivery in human skin using a hollow microneedle device

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, M.; Stefanidou, M.; Porta, P.; Serve, J.; O'Mahony, Conor; Malissen, B.; Henri, S.; Levin, Y.; Kochba, E.; Wong, F. S.; Dayan, C.; Coulman, S. A.; Birchall, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Microneedle devices have been proposed as a minimally invasive delivery system for the intradermal administration of nucleic acids, both plasmid DNA (pDNA) and siRNA, to treat localised disease or provide vaccination. Different microneedle types and application methods have been investigated in the laboratory, but limited and irreproducible levels of gene expression have proven to be significant challenges to pre-clinical to clinical progression. This study is the first to explore the potenti...

  15. Prevention of adverse events of interferon γ gene therapy by gene delivery of interferon γ-heparin-binding domain fusion protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained gene delivery of interferon (IFN γ can be an effective treatment, but our previous study showed high levels of IFNγ-induced adverse events, including the loss of body weight. These unwanted events could be reduced by target-specific delivery of IFNγ after in vivo gene transfer. To achieve this, we selected the heparin-binding domain (HBD of extracellular superoxide dismutase as a molecule to anchor IFNγ to the cell surface. We designed three IFNγ derivatives, IFNγ-HBD1, IFNγ-HBD2, and IFNγ-HBD3, each of which had 1, 2, or 3 HBDs, respectively. Each plasmid-encoding fusion proteins was delivered to the liver, a model target in this study, by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. The serum concentration of IFNγ-HBD2 and IFNγ-HBD3 after gene delivery was lower than that of IFNγ or IFNγ-HBD1. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, but not of IFNγ-HBD3, effectively increased the mRNA expression of IFNγ-inducible genes in the liver, suggesting liver-specific distribution of IFNγ-HBD2. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2-suppressed tumor growth in the liver as efficiently as that of IFNγ with much less symptoms of adverse effects. These results indicate that the adverse events of IFNγ gene transfer can be prevented by gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, a fusion protein with high cell surface affinity.

  16. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  17. Comparative analysis of DNA nanoparticles and AAVs for ocular gene delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongchao Han

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a critical tool for the treatment of monogenic retinal diseases. However, the limited vector capacity of the current benchmark delivery strategy, adeno-associated virus (AAV, makes development of larger capacity alternatives, such as compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs, critical. Here we conduct a side-by-side comparison of self-complementary AAV and CK30PEG NPs using matched ITR plasmids. We report that although AAVs are more efficient per vector genome (vg than NPs, NPs can drive gene expression on a comparable scale and longevity to AAV. We show that subretinally injected NPs do not leave the eye while some of the AAV-injected animals exhibited vector DNA and GFP expression in the visual pathways of the brain from PI-60 onward. As a result, these NPs have the potential to become a successful alternative for ocular gene therapy, especially for the multitude of genes too large for AAV vectors.

  18. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Sachiko Kaihara; Numata, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin), protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin). The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed. PMID:23344060

  19. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Numata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin, protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin. The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed.

  20. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 delivery with one single adenoviral vector devoid of all viral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Schiwon, Maren; Leitner, Theo; Dávid, Stephan; Bergmann, Thorsten; Liu, Jing; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2017-12-07

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system revolutionized the field of gene editing but viral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has not been fully explored. Here we adapted clinically relevant high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdV) devoid of all viral genes for the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery using a single viral vector. We present a platform enabling fast transfer of the Cas9 gene and gRNA expression units into the HCAdV genome including the option to choose between constitutive or inducible Cas9 expression and gRNA multiplexing. Efficacy and versatility of this pipeline was exemplified by producing different CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 oncogene E6, the dystrophin gene causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the HIV co-receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). All CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV proved to be efficient to deliver the respective CRISPR/Cas9 expression units and to introduce the desired DNA double strand breaks at their intended target sites in immortalized and primary cells.

  2. Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.

  3. Efficient in vivo gene transfer to xenotransplanted human skin by lentivirus-mediated, but not by AAV-directed, gene delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Maria Vad; Askou, Anne Louise; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup

    skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue beneath or surrounding the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin...... graft only. The study demonstrates limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo....

  4. Feasibility of baculovirus-mediated reporter gene delivery for efficient monitoring of islet transplantation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Pan, Yu; Lv, Jing; Wu, Haifei; Tian, Jingyan; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of baculovirus vector-mediated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery to monitor islet transplantation. Methods: Baculovirus vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or NIS (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS) were established using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The GFP expression of Bac-GFP-infected rat islets was observed in vitro by fluorescence microscopy. Iodine uptake and inhibition of iodine uptake by NaClO 4 in Bac-NIS-infected islets were dynamically monitored in vitro. Bac-GFP- or Bac-NIS-infected islets were implanted into the left axillary cavity of NOD-SCID mice, and fluorescence imaging and 125 I NanoSPECT/CT imaging were subsequently performed in vivo. Results: Bac-GFP efficiently infected rat islets (over 95% infected at MOI = 40), and the expression of GFP lasted approximately two weeks. NaClO 4 could inhibit iodine uptake by Bac-NIS-infected islets. In vivo imaging revealed that the fluorescence intensity of the transplant sites in Bac-GFP-infected groups was significantly higher than in the non-infected group. Grafts could be clearly observed by 125 I NanoSPECT/CT imaging for up to 8 h. Conclusion: Baculovirus vectors are powerful vehicles for studying rat islets in gene delivery. It is feasible to use a baculovirus vector to delivery an NIS gene for non-invasive monitoring transplanted islets in vivo by the expression of the target gene

  5. Intracellular Protein Delivery and Gene Transfection by Electroporation Using a Microneedle Electrode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, we present intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50 % of cells and transfection of 12 % of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. We conclude that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  6. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: A promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2014-10-01

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5min intervals for 1h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345±15×103 to 425±35×103cellsmL-1) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39±3.5% to 53±4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: a promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; El-Chakhtoura, J; Hammes, F; Saikaly, P E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-10-15

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5 min intervals for 1 h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345 ± 15 × 10(3) to 425 ± 35 × 10(3) cells mL(-1)) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39 ± 3.5% to 53 ± 4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and application of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin derivatives as gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ning; Huan, Meng-Lei; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jing, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2017-11-01

    The nano self-assembly profiles of amphiphilic gene delivery vectors could improve the density of local cationic head groups to promote their DNA condensation capability and enhance the interaction between cell membrane and hydrophobic tails, thus increasing cellular uptake and gene transfection. In this paper, two series of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using 6-mono-OTs-β-CD (1) as the precursor to construct amphiphilic gene vectors with different building blocks in a selective and controlled manner. The effect of different type and degree of cationic head groups on transfection and the endocytic mechanism of β-CD derivatives/DNA nanocomplexes were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the designed β-cyclodextrin derivatives were able to compact DNA to form stable nanocomplexes and exhibited low cytotoxicity. Among them, PEI-1 with PEI head group showed enhanced transfection activity, significantly higher than commercially available agent PEI25000 especially in the presence of serum, showing potential application prospects in clinical trials. Moreover, the endocytic uptake mechanism involved in the gene transfection of PEI-1 was mainly through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which could avoid the lysosomal degradation of loaded gene, and had great importance for improving gene transfection activity.

  9. Optimizing hyaluronidase dose and plasmid DNA delivery greatly improves gene electrotransfer efficiency in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Vedel, Kenneth; Needham Andersen, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    Transfection of rat skeletal muscle in vivo is a widely used research model. However, gene electrotransfer protocols have been developed for mice and yield variable results in rats. We investigated whether changes in hyaluronidase pre-treatment and plasmid DNA delivery can improve transfection...... with a homogenous distribution. We also show that transfection was stable over five weeks of regular exercise or inactivity. Our findings show that species-specific plasmid DNA delivery and hyaluronidase pre-treatment greatly improves transfection efficiency in rat skeletal muscle....... efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. We found that pre-treating the muscle with a hyaluronidase dose suitable for rats (0.56. U/g b.w.) prior to plasmid DNA injection increased transfection efficiency by >200% whereas timing of the pre-treatment did not affect efficiency. Uniformly distributing plasmid DNA...

  10. Ultrasound and microbubble-targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds : ICIN Report Project 49: Drug and gene delivery through ultrasound and microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffermans, L J M; Meijering, D B M; van Wamel, A; Henning, R H; Kooiman, K; Emmer, M; de Jong, N; van Gilst, W H; Musters, R; Paulus, W J; van Rossum, A C; Deelman, L E; Kamp, O

    The molecular understanding of diseases has been accelerated in recent years, producing many new potential therapeutic targets. A noninvasive delivery system that can target specific anatomical sites would be a great boost for many therapies, particularly those based on manipulation of gene

  11. Irradiation promotes Akt-targeting therapeutic gene delivery to the tumor vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Frerart, Francoise; Bouzin, Caroline; Brouet, Agnes; Wever, Julie de; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Gallez, Bernard; Feron, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced increases in nitric oxide (NO) production can influence tumor blood flow and improve delivery of Akt-targeting therapeutic DNA lipocomplexes to the tumor. Methods and Materials: The contribution of NO to the endothelial response to radiation was identified using NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors and endothelial NOS (eNOS)-deficient mice. Reporter-encoding plasmids complexed with cationic lipids were used to document the tumor vascular specificity and the efficacy of in vivo lipofection after irradiation. A dominant-negative Akt gene construct was used to evaluate the facilitating effects of radiotherapy on the therapeutic transgene delivery. Results: The abundance of eNOS protein was increased in both irradiated tumor microvessels and endothelial cells, leading to a stimulation of NO release and an associated increase in tumor blood flow. Transgene expression was subsequently improved in the irradiated vs. nonirradiated tumor vasculature. This effect was not apparent in eNOS-deficient mice and could not be reproduced in irradiated cultured endothelial cells. Finally, we combined low-dose radiotherapy with a dominant-negative Akt gene construct and documented synergistic antitumor effects. Conclusions: This study offers a new rationale to combine radiotherapy with gene therapy, by directly exploiting the stimulatory effects of radiation on NO production by tumor endothelial cells. The preferential expression of the transgene in the tumor microvasculature underscores the potential of such an adjuvant strategy to limit the angiogenic response of irradiated tumors

  12. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Abd Ellah

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1. Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  13. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  14. [Application of ultrasound-enhanced gene and drug delivery to the ocular tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Shozo; Yamashita, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2013-01-01

    Visual images provide an immensely rich source of information about the external world. Eye has characteristic structure sensory cells are arranged along the eye wall, and is filled inside with vitreous body. In recent years, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent had widely spread, and numerous number of patients who suffered ocular angiogenic disease such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and retinal vascular occlusion for the disease, were treated and spared the blindness. Vitreous cavity was regarded as reservoir of drug, intravitreal injection is thought a sort of drug delivery. However, with regard to the administration of a selective drug deliver, it has not yet been solved. Our aim is to establish a new method of gene transfer, drug delivery using low-energy ultrasound to the eye, to date, we confirmed drug and gene deliver to the ocular tissue such as cornea, conjunctiva and retina with high efficiency. In addition, tissue damage was minimal. We have also shown that ultrasound irradiation with combination of a microbubbles or bubble liposome could be introduced drug and gene more effectively. Based on these knowledge, we will focus on development of a new device for intraocular ultrasound exposure and potential for therapeutic application of ultrasound to humans retinal disease such as retinal artery obstruction.

  15. Water soluble cationic dextran derivatives containing poly(amidoamine) dendrons for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kaijin; Zhang, Shanshan; Liang, Bing; Gao, Cong; Du, Wenjun; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2015-06-05

    To develop new dextran derivatives for efficient gene delivery, the conjugation of poly(amidoamine) dendrons onto biocompatible dextran was carried out by a Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, as confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses. For resultant dextran conjugates with various generations of poly(amidoamine) dendrons, their buffering capacity and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated by acid-base titration and MTT tests, respectively. In particular, their physicochemical characteristics for the complexation with plasmid DNA were investigated by the combined analyses from agarose gel electrophoresis, zeta potential, particle size, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence emission spectra. Moreover, their complexes with plasmid DNA were studied with respect to their transfection efficiency in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines. In the case of a higher generation of poly(amidoamine) dendrons, such a dextran conjugate was found to have much lower cytotoxicity and better gene delivery capability when compared to branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25kDa), a commonly used gene vector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, Zahida; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Rafi, Mohammed; Wenger, David A.; Siddiqui, Khwaja M.; Siler, Catherine A.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dornburg, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The avian retroviruses reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A (REV-A) and spleen necrosis virus (SNV) are not naturally infectious in human cells. However, REV-A-derived viral vectors efficiently infect human cells when they are pseudotyped with envelope proteins displaying targeting ligands specific for human cell-surface receptors. Here we report that vectors containing the gag region of REV-A and pol of SNV can be pseudotyped with the envelope protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the glycoproteins of different rabies virus (RV) strains. Vectors pseudotyped with the envelope protein of the highly neurotropic RV strain CVS-N2c facilitated cell type-specific gene delivery into mouse and human neurons, but did not infect other human cell types. Moreover, when such vector particles were injected into the brain of newborn mice, only neuronal cells were infected in vivo. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neurons may present quite specific gene therapy approaches for many degenerative diseases of the brain

  17. Surface functionalization of inorganic nano-crystals with fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera synergistically accelerates trans-gene delivery into embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsuzawa, K.; Chowdhury, E.H.; Nagaoka, M.; Maruyama, K.; Akiyama, Y.; Akaike, T.

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells holding great promises in regenerative medicine have the potential to be differentiated to a specific cell type through genetic manipulation. However, conventional ways of gene transfer to such progenitor cells suffer from a number of disadvantages particularly involving safety and efficacy issues. Here, we report on the development of a bio-functionalized inorganic nano-carrier of DNA by embedding fibronectin and E-cadherin chimera on the carrier, leading to its high affinity interactions with embryonic stem cell surface and accelerated trans-gene delivery for subsequent expression. While only apatite nano-particles were very inefficient in transfecting embryonic stem cells, fibronectin-anchored particles and to a more significant extent, fibronectin and E-cadherin-Fc-associated particles dramatically enhanced trans-gene delivery with a value notably higher than that of commercially available lipofection system. The involvement of both cell surface integrin and E-cadherin in mediating intracellular localization of the hybrid carrier was verified by blocking integrin binding site with excess free fibronectin and up-regulating both integrin and E-cadherin through PKC activation. Thus, the new establishment of a bio-functional hybrid gene-carrier would promote and facilitate development of stem cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine

  18. Nebulisation of receptor-targeted nanocomplexes for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Maria D I; McAnulty, Robin J; Tagalakis, Aristides D; Bottoms, Stephen E; Campbell, Frederick; Hailes, Helen C; Tabor, Alethea B; Laurent, Geoffrey J; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Hart, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy mediated by synthetic vectors may provide opportunities for new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) via aerosolisation. Vectors for CF must transfect the airway epithelium efficiently and not cause inflammation so they are suitable for repeated dosing. The inhaled aerosol should be deposited in the airways since the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) is expressed predominantly in the epithelium of the submucosal glands and in the surface airway epithelium. The aim of this project was to develop an optimised aerosol delivery approach applicable to treatment of CF lung disease by gene therapy. The vector suspension investigated in this study comprises receptor-targeting peptides, cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA that self-assemble by electrostatic interactions to form a receptor-targeted nanocomplex (RTN) of approximately 150 nm with a cationic surface charge of +50 mV. The aerodynamic properties of aerosolised nanocomplexes produced with three different nebulisers were compared by determining aerosol deposition in the different stages of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI). We also investigated the yield of intact plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and densitometry, and transfection efficacies in vitro and in vivo. RTNs nebulised with the AeroEclipse II BAN were the most effective, compared to other nebulisers tested, for gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. The biophysical properties of the nanocomplexes were unchanged after nebulisation while the deposition of RTNs suggested a range of aerosol aerodynamic sizes between 5.5 µm-1.4 µm cut off (NGI stages 3-6) compatible with deposition in the central and lower airways. RTNs showed their ability at delivering genes via nebulisation, thus suggesting their potential applications for therapeutic interventions of cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders.

  19. Nebulisation of receptor-targeted nanocomplexes for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D I Manunta

    Full Text Available Gene therapy mediated by synthetic vectors may provide opportunities for new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF via aerosolisation. Vectors for CF must transfect the airway epithelium efficiently and not cause inflammation so they are suitable for repeated dosing. The inhaled aerosol should be deposited in the airways since the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR is expressed predominantly in the epithelium of the submucosal glands and in the surface airway epithelium. The aim of this project was to develop an optimised aerosol delivery approach applicable to treatment of CF lung disease by gene therapy.The vector suspension investigated in this study comprises receptor-targeting peptides, cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA that self-assemble by electrostatic interactions to form a receptor-targeted nanocomplex (RTN of approximately 150 nm with a cationic surface charge of +50 mV. The aerodynamic properties of aerosolised nanocomplexes produced with three different nebulisers were compared by determining aerosol deposition in the different stages of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI. We also investigated the yield of intact plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and densitometry, and transfection efficacies in vitro and in vivo.RTNs nebulised with the AeroEclipse II BAN were the most effective, compared to other nebulisers tested, for gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. The biophysical properties of the nanocomplexes were unchanged after nebulisation while the deposition of RTNs suggested a range of aerosol aerodynamic sizes between 5.5 µm-1.4 µm cut off (NGI stages 3-6 compatible with deposition in the central and lower airways.RTNs showed their ability at delivering genes via nebulisation, thus suggesting their potential applications for therapeutic interventions of cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders.

  20. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  1. Design of PEI-conjugated bio-reducible polymer for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2018-07-10

    The poly(cystaminebis(acrylamide)-diaminohexane) (poly(CBA-DAH)) was designed previously as a bio-reducible efficient gene delivery carrier. However, the high weight ratio required to form the polyplexes between poly(CBA-DAH) with pDNA is still a problem that needs to be addressed. To solve this problem and increase the transfection efficiency, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI, 1.8 kDa) was conjugated to poly(CBA-DAH) via disulfide bond. The PEI conjugated poly(CBA-DAH) (PCDP) can bind with pDNA at a very low weight ratio of 0.5 and above, like PEI 25 kDa, and form the polyplexes with nano-size (102-128 nm) and positive surface charge (27-34 mV). PCDP and PCDP polyplexes had negligible cytotoxicity and indicated similar or better cellular uptake than the comparison groups such as PEI 25 kDa and Lipofectamine® polyplexes. To confirm the transfection efficiency, the plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoded with the luciferase reporter gene (gWiz-Luc) and green fluorescent protein reporter gene (GFP) were used and treated with PCDP into the A549, Huh-7, and Mia PaCa-2 cells. PCDP/pDNA polyplexes showed highest transfection efficiency in all tested cell lines. In the luciferase assay, PCDP polyplexes showed 10.2 times higher gene transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine® polyplexes in mimic in vivo conditions (30% FBS, A549 cells). The VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid (pshVEGF), which is constructed as a therapeutic gene by our previous work, was delivered by PCDP into the cancer cells. The VEGF gene expression of PCDP/pshVEGF polyplexes was dramatically lower than control and the VEGF gene silencing efficiencies of PCDP/pshVEGF (w/w; 10/1) polyplexes were 54% (A549 cells), 77% (Huh-7 cells), and 66% (Mia PaCa-2 cells). In addition, PCDP/pshVEGF had reduced cell viability rates of about 31% (A549 cells), 39% (Huh-7 cells), and 42% (Mia PaCa-2 cells) and showed better results than all comparison groups. In the transfection efficiency and VEGF silencing assay, PCDP polyplexes showed

  2. Adeno-associated viral vectors as agents for gene delivery : application in disorders and trauma of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Eggers, Ruben; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of viral vectors as agents for gene delivery provides a direct approach to manipulate gene expression in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The present article describes in detail the methodology for the injection of viral vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors,

  3. Amphiphilic block co-polymers: preparation and application in nanodrug and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Molavi, Ommoleila; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2012-07-01

    Self-assembly of amphiphilic block co-polymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ether)s, poly(amino acid)s, poly(ester)s and polypropyleneoxide (PPO) as the hydrophobic block can lead to the formation of nanoscopic structures of different morphologies. These structures have been the subject of extensive research in the past decade as artificial mimics of lipoproteins and viral vectors for drug and gene delivery. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the synthesis of commonly used amphiphilic block co-polymers. It will also briefly go over some pharmaceutical applications of amphiphilic block co-polymers as "nanodelivery systems" for small molecules and gene therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transferrin receptor molecular imaging: targeting for diagnosis and monitoring of gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Mi Kim; Hwan-Jeong Jeong; Jin-Hee Kim; Chang-Guhn Kim

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the targetability of Tf conjugated compounds to Tf-R expressed on cancer cells for detection and diagnosis and the usefulness of gamma probe-targeting delivery system on monitoring whether the gene complex bind to the cells specifically. Methods: For the detection and diagnosis of Tf-R positive cancer cells, Tf-chitosan conjugates were synthesized as previously described by Kircheis et al with some modifications. Succinimidyl 6-hydrazino nicotinate hydrochloride (HYNIC) was bound to Tf-chitosan conjugates. HYNIC-Tf-chitosan conjugates were labelled with 99mTc. In the monitoring of Tf-R specific gene delivery system, we used the HYNIC-Tf conjugated dendrimer. For tumor model, 5- to 6-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were injected subcutaneously in the left thigh with Ramos cells (human Burkitt's lymphoma). The gamma imagings were acquired after administration of 99mTc HYNIC-Tf conjugates and 99mTc HYNIC-Tf-DNA polyplexes via the tail vein of tumor bearing nude mice at 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. To compare the image acquired with HYNIC-Tf conjugate, Ga-67 study was performed. To certify the expression of delivered gene via DNA polyplexes, 2 days after gene complex injection we inspected the expression of GFP in dissected tumor tissue. Results: Radiolabeling yields of both HYNIC-Tf conjugate and HYNIC-Tf-dendrimer gene complex were above 90% until 12hr. Uptake in the Ramos model of 99mTc HYNIC-Tf conjugate showed higher than those of Ga-67. A few minutes after injection 99mTc HYNIC-Tf conjugate localized mainly in the circulation (heart), kidneys, and tumor. At later times, radioactivity in tumor increased until 90 min. Pharmacokinetics of Ga-67 were different from those of 99mTc HYNIC-Tf conjugate. Tumor to nontumor ratio of Ga-67 was approximately 2 but in case of 99mTc HYNIC-Tf conjugate showed until 5. In Ramos lymphoma model, 99mTc HYNIC-Tf-DNA polyplexes accumulated the tumor site, and the gene expression of 99m

  5. Dual targeting of gene delivery by genetic modification of adenovirus serotype 5 fibers and cell-selective transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, L M; Ritchie, N; Nicklin, S A; Reynolds, P N; Baker, A H

    2004-08-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene delivery is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of the vasculature and is being used in both preclinical models and clinical trials. However, safety concerns relating to infection of nontarget tissue and the poor infectivity of vascular cells compared to other cell types necessitates Ad vector refinement. Here, we combine a transductional targeting approach to improve vascular cell infectivity through RGD peptide insertion into adenovirus fibers, combined with transcriptional targeting to endothelial cells using a approximately 1 kb fragment of the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (FLT-1) promoter. Single- and double-modified vectors were characterized in human cell lines that either support or have silenced FLT-1 expression. In rat hepatocytes and endothelial cells, the double modification substantially shifted transduction profiles toward vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, in intact aortae derived from spontaneously hypertensive rats that display enhanced alphav integrin expression on dysfunctional endothelium, enhanced levels of transduction were observed using the double-modified vector but not in aortae derived from normotensive control rats. Our data indicate that Ad-mediated transduction can be beneficially modified in vitro and in vivo by combining fiber modification and a cell-selective promoter within a single-component vector system.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride for potential application in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Wan, Ying; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zha, Qichen; Liu, Haoming; Qiu, Zhiye; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-03-01

    A series of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) samples with various degrees of quaternization ranging from 12.4 to 43.7% was synthesized. The structures and properties of HTCC were investigated by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, conductometric titration and XRD analysis. It was found that HTCC had a more amorphous structure than chitosan. HTCC samples showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. The samples spontaneously formed complexes with pGL3 luciferase plasmid. These complexes had desirable particle sizes (160-300 nm) and zeta potentials (10.8-18.7 mV) when the weight ratios of HTCC to plasmid altered in the range of 3:1-20:1. In vitro gene transfection results indicated that HTCC had significantly high transfection efficiency compared with chitosan for delivering pGL3 luciferase plasmid to HeLa cells. The results suggest that HTCC could be a promising non-viral vector for safe and efficient DNA delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lukashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG. To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  8. Biofunctionalized nanoparticles with pH-responsive and cell penetrating blocks for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, V M; Marques, J G; Sousa, F; Queiroz, J A; Correia, I J; Louro, R O

    2013-01-01

    Bridging the gap between nanoparticulate delivery systems and translational gene therapy is a long sought after requirement in nanomedicine-based applications. However, recent developments regarding nanoparticle functionalization have brought forward the ability to synthesize materials with biofunctional moieties that mimic the evolved features of viral particles. Herein we report the versatile conjugation of both cell penetrating arginine and pH-responsive histidine moieties into the chitosan polymeric backbone, to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the native material. Amino acid coupling was confirmed by 2D TOCSY NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized chitosan–histidine–arginine (CH–H–R) polymer complexed plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals, and spontaneously assembled into stable 105 nm nanoparticles with spherical morphology and positive surface charge. The functionalized delivery systems were efficiently internalized into the intracellular compartment, and exhibited remarkably higher transfection efficiency than unmodified chitosan without causing any cytotoxic effect. Additional findings regarding intracellular trafficking events reveal their preferential escape from degradative lysosomal pathways and nuclear localization. Overall, this assembly of nanocarriers with bioinspired moieties provides the foundations for the design of efficient and customizable materials for cancer gene therapy. (paper)

  9. Novel PVA-DNA nanoparticles prepared by ultra high pressure technology for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Okuno, Akira; Miyazaki, Kozo; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Ohya, Yuichi; Ouchi, Tatsuro; Mutsuo, Shingo; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Yoshiro; Fujisato, Toshiyta; Kishida, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-DNA nanoparticles have been developed by ultra high pressure (UHP) technology. Mixture solutions of DNA and PVA having various molecular weights (Mw) and degree of saponifications (DS) were treated under 10,000 atmospheres (981 MPa) condition at 40 deg. C for 10 min. Agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the PVA-DNA nanoparticles with average diameter of about 200 nm were formed. Using PVA of higher Mw and degree of saponifications, the amount of nanoparticles formed increased. The driving force of nanoparticle formation was the hydrogen bonding between DNA and PVA. In order to apply the PVA-DNA nanoparticles for gene delivery, the cytotoxicity and the cellular uptake of them were investigated using Raw264 cell lines. The cell viability was not influenced whether the presence of the PVA-DNA nanoparticles. Further, the nanoparticles internalized into cells were observed by fluorescent microscope. These results indicates that the PVA-DNA nanoparticles prepared by UHP technology showed be useful as drug carrier, especially for gene delivery

  10. A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Detamore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.

  11. A review of gene delivery and stem cell based therapies for regenerating inner ear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-09-13

    Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.

  12. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    as narrative material to communicate self-identity. Finally, (c) we propose that brands deliver fuzzy experiential promises through effectively motivating consumers to adopt and play a social role implicitly suggested and facilitated by the brand. A promise is an inherently ethical concept and the article...... concludes with an in-depth discussion of fuzzy brand promises as two-way ethical commitments that put requirements on both brands and consumers....

  13. Safe and stable noninvasive focal gene delivery to the mammalian brain following focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Mihaela A; Petersen, Nicholas; Jurgens, Eric M; Milstein, Elizabeth R; Rosenfeld, Zachary B; Ballon, Douglas J; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2018-04-27

    OBJECTIVE Surgical infusion of gene therapy vectors has provided opportunities for biological manipulation of specific brain circuits in both animal models and human patients. Transient focal opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) raises the possibility of noninvasive CNS gene therapy to target precise brain regions. However, variable efficiency and short follow-up of studies to date, along with recent suggestions of the potential for immune reactions following MRgFUS BBB disruption, all raise questions regarding the viability of this approach for clinical translation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficiency, safety, and long-term stability of MRgFUS-mediated noninvasive gene therapy in the mammalian brain. METHODS Focused ultrasound under the control of MRI, in combination with microbubbles consisting of albumin-coated gas microspheres, was applied to rat striatum, followed by intravenous infusion of an adeno-associated virus serotype 1/2 (AAV1/2) vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker. Following recovery, animals were followed from several hours up to 15 months. Immunostaining for GFP quantified transduction efficiency and stability of expression. Quantification of neuronal markers was used to determine histological safety over time, while inflammatory markers were examined for evidence of immune responses. RESULTS Transitory disruption of the BBB by MRgFUS resulted in efficient delivery of the AAV1/2 vector to the targeted rodent striatum, with 50%-75% of striatal neurons transduced on average. GFP transgene expression appeared to be stable over extended periods of time, from 2 weeks to 6 months, with evidence of ongoing stable expression as long as 16 months in a smaller cohort of animals. No evidence of substantial toxicity, tissue injury, or neuronal loss was observed. While transient inflammation from BBB disruption alone was noted for the first few days, consistent

  14. Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song HM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongmei Song, Gang Wang, Bin He, Li Li, Caixia Li, Yusi Lai, Xianghui Xu, Zhongwei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Effective gene transfection without serum deprivation is a prerequisite for successful stem cell-based gene therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI is an efficient nonviral gene vector, but its application has been hindered by serum sensitivity and severe cytotoxicity.Methods: To solve this problem, a new family of lipopolyplexes was developed by coating PEI/DNA polyplexes with three serum-resistant cationic lipids, namely, lysinylated, histidylated, and arginylated cholesterol. The physical properties, transfection efficiency, cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and cytotoxicity of the lipopolyplexes was investigated.Results: The outer coat composed of lysinylated or histidylated cholesterol remarkably improved the transfection efficiency of the polyplex with a low PEI/DNA ratio of 2 in the presence of serum. The resulting lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipopolyplexes were even more efficient than the best performing polyplex with a high PEI/DNA ratio of 10. Results from cellular uptake and subcellular distribution studies suggest that their higher transfection efficiency may result from accelerated DNA nuclear localization. The superiority of the lipopolyplexes over the best performing polyplex was also confirmed by delivering the therapeutic gene, hVEGF165. Equally importantly, the lipid coating removed the necessity of introducing excess free PEI chains into the transfection solution for higher efficiency, generating lipopolyplexes with no signs of cytotoxicity.Conclusion: Noncovalent modification of polyplexes with lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipids can simultaneously improve efficiency and reduce the toxicity of gene delivery under serum conditions, showing great promise for genetic modification of bone

  15. Bifidobacterium breve as a delivery vector of IL-24 gene therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Vuletic, I; Deng, D; Crielaard, W; Xie, Z; Zhou, K; Zhang, J; Sun, H; Ren, Q; Guo, C

    2017-11-01

    Beneficial bacteria are becoming ever more popular gene delivery method for hypoxia-tumor targeting in vivo. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effect of new recombinant Bifidobacterium breve strain expressing interleukin (IL)-24 gene (B. breve-IL24) on head and neck tumor xenograft in mice. Briefly, B. breve transformants were obtained through electro-transformation. Bacteria-tumor-targeting ability were analyzed in vivo over different time points (1, 3 and 7 days post-bacteria injection). Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of bacteria on tumor cells in vivo were analyzed as follows: 30 Balb/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor were randomly divided in three groups (Drug group, green fluorescent protein (GFP) group and Saline group). The therapy lasted for 2 weeks and included B. breve-IL24 administration via tail vein for Drug group, B. breve-GFP for GFP group and phosphate buffered saline for Saline group. The tumor growth was monitored using standard caliper technique, while the apoptosis induction in vivo was analyzed by Real-time Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) imaging ([18F]-ML-10 tracer). At the end of the experiment, tumor tissues were collected and analyzed by western blotting. Briefly, our results suggested that our new recombinant bacterium has the capability of targeting tumor tissue in vivo. As for the therapeutic effect, our new strain has revealed to be a promising therapeutic approach against tumor growth in vivo. Briefly, higher tumor growth inhibition and higher tumor cell apoptosis induction were observed in Drug group compared with the GFP and Saline groups. To conclude, a new recombinant strain B. breve-IL24 offers a novel, safe and clinically acceptable therapeutic approach for tumor therapy in vivo.

  16. SMART POLYMERS: INNOVATIONS IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Apoorva Mahajan; Geeta Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    Smart polymers are attracting the researchers for development of novel drug delivery systems. Importance of smart polymers is rising day by day as these polymers undergo large reversible, physical or chemical changes in response to small changes in the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, dual- stimuli, light and phase transition. Smart polymers are representing promising means for targeted drug delivery, enhanced drug delivery, gene therapy, actuator stimuli and protein folders....

  17. Retroviral packaging cells encapsulated in TheraCyte immunoisolation devices enable long-term in vivo gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupetsky, Anna; Parveen, Zahida; Marusich, Elena; Goodrich, Adrienne; Dornburg, Ralph

    2003-05-01

    The method of delivering a therapeutic gene into a patient is still one of the major obstacles towards successful human gene therapy. Here we describe a novel gene delivery approach using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices. Retroviral vector producing cells, derived from the avian retrovirus spleen necrosis virus, SNV, were encapsulated in TheraCyte devices and tested for the release of retroviral vectors. In vitro experiments show that such devices release infectious retroviral vectors into the tissue culture medium for up to 4 months. When such devices were implanted subcutaneously in SCID mice, infectious virus was released into the blood stream. There, the vectors were transported to and infected tumors, which had been induced by subcutaneous injection of tissue culture cells. Thus, this novel concept of a continuous, long-term gene delivery may constitute an attractive approach for future in vivo human gene therapy.

  18. Selective Gene Delivery for Integrating Exogenous DNA into Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes Using Peptide-DNA Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Oikawa, Kazusato; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kodama, Yutaka; Numata, Keiji

    2018-05-14

    Selective gene delivery into organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastid genomes) has been limited because of a lack of appropriate platform technology, even though these organelles are essential for metabolite and energy production. Techniques for selective organellar modification are needed to functionally improve organelles and produce transplastomic/transmitochondrial plants. However, no method for mitochondrial genome modification has yet been established for multicellular organisms including plants. Likewise, modification of plastid genomes has been limited to a few plant species and algae. In the present study, we developed ionic complexes of fusion peptides containing organellar targeting signal and plasmid DNA for selective delivery of exogenous DNA into the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of intact plants. This is the first report of exogenous DNA being integrated into the mitochondrial genomes of not only plants, but also multicellular organisms in general. This fusion peptide-mediated gene delivery system is a breakthrough platform for both plant organellar biotechnology and gene therapy for mitochondrial diseases in animals.

  19. Chitosan-Graft-Polyethylenimine/DNA Nanoparticles as Novel Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors Targeting Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lulu; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    The development of safe and efficient gene carriers is the key to the clinical success of gene therapy. The present study was designed to develop and evaluate the chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine (CP)/DNA nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene vectors for gene therapy of osteoarthritis. The CP/DNA nanoparticles were produced through a complex coacervation of the cationic polymers with pEGFP after grafting chitosan (CS) with a low molecular weight (Mw) PEI (Mw = 1.8 kDa). Particle size and zeta potential were related to the weight ratio of CP:DNA, where decreases in nanoparticle size and increases in surface charge were observed as CP content increased. The buffering capacity of CP was significantly greater than that of CS. The transfection efficiency of CP/DNA nanoparticles was similar with that of the Lipofectamine™ 2000, and significantly higher than that of CS/DNA and PEI (25 kDa)/DNA nanoparticles. The transfection efficiency of the CP/DNA nanoparticles was dependent on the weight ratio of CP:DNA (w/w). The average cell viability after the treatment with CP/DNA nanoparticles was over 90% in both chondrocytes and synoviocytes, which was much higher than that of PEI (25 kDa)/DNA nanoparticles. The CP copolymers efficiently carried the pDNA inside chondrocytes and synoviocytes, and the pDNA was detected entering into nucleus. These results suggest that CP/DNA nanoparticles with improved transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity might be a safe and efficient non-viral vector for gene delivery to both chondrocytes and synoviocytes. PMID:24392152

  20. Sendai viroplexes for epidermal growth factor receptor-directed delivery of interleukin-12 and salmosin genes to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Seok; Kim, Min Woo; Jeong, Hwa Yeon; Kang, Seong Jae; Park, Sang Il; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hong Sung; Kim, Keun Sik; Park, Yong Serk

    2016-07-01

    The effective delivery of therapeutic genes to target cells has been a fundamental goal in cancer gene therapy because of its advantages with respect to both safety and transfection efficiency. In the present, study we describe a tumor-directed gene delivery system that demonstrates remarkable efficacy in gene delivery and minimizes the off-target effects of gene transfection. The system consists of a well-verified cationic O,O'-dimyristyl-N-lysyl glutamate (DMKE), Sendai virus fusion (F) protein and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, referred to as cationic Sendai F/HN virosomes. To achieve tumor-specific recognition, anti-epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor antibody was coupled to the surface of the virosomes containing interleukin-12 (IL-12) and/or salmosin genes that have potent anti-angiogenetic functions. Among the virosomal formulations, the anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) viroplexes, prepared via complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic DMKE lipid, exhibited more efficient gene transfection to tumor cells over-expressing EGF receptors compared to the neutrally-charged anti-EGFR virosomes encapsulating pDNA. In addition, the anti-EGFR viroplexes with IL-12 and salmosin genes exhibited the most effective therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Especially when combined with doxorubicin, transfection of the two genes via the anti-EGFR viroplexes exhibited an enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor growth and metastasis in lungs. The results of the present study suggest that anti-EGFR viroplexes can be utilized as an effective strategy for tumor-directed gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Efficient gene delivery to human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingtong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Baoding; Deng, Wenwen; Cao, Xia; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shicheng; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    This study centered on an innovative application of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PPS) with cationic modification as a safe and efficient nonviral gene vector to deliver a plasmid encoding human Wnt3a (pWnt3a) into human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). After modification with branched low-molecular-weight (1,200 Da) polyethylenimine, the cationized PPS (CPPS) was combined with pWnt3a to form spherical nanoscale particles (CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles). Particle size and distribution indicated that the CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 might be a potential candidate for DNA plasmid transfection. A cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 were nontoxic to HUMSCs compared to those of Lipofectamine 2000 and polyethylenimine (25 kDa). These nanoparticles were further transfected to HUMSCs. Western blotting demonstrated that the nanoparticles (CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio 40:1) had the greatest transfection efficiency in HUMSCs, which was significantly higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000; however, when the CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio was increased to 80:1, the nanoparticle-treated group showed no obvious improvement in translation efficiency over Lipofectamine 2000. Therefore, CPPS, a novel cationic polysaccharide derived from P. yezoensis, could be developed into a safe, efficient, nonviral gene vector in a gene-delivery system.

  2. One-Pot Parallel Synthesis of Lipid Library via Thiolactone Ring Opening and Screening for Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Mijanur R; Böser, Alexander; Rana, Akshita; Schwarz, Karina; Levkin, Pavel A

    2018-04-18

    Efficient delivery of nucleic acids into cells is of great interest in the field of cell biology and gene therapy. Despite a lot of research, transfection efficiency and structural diversity of gene-delivery vectors are still limited. A better understanding of the structure-function relationship of gene delivery vectors is also essential for the design of novel and intelligent delivery vectors, efficient in "difficult-to-transfect" cells and in vivo clinical applications. Most of the existing strategies for the synthesis of gene-delivery vectors require multiple steps and lengthy procedures. Here, we demonstrate a facile, three-component one-pot synthesis of a combinatorial library of 288 structurally diverse lipid-like molecules termed "lipidoids" via a thiolactone ring opening reaction. This strategy introduces the possibility to synthesize lipidoids with hydrophobic tails containing both unsaturated bonds and reducible disulfide groups. The whole synthesis and purification are convenient, extremely fast, and can be accomplished within a few hours. Screening of the produced lipidoids using HEK293T cells without addition of helper lipids resulted in identification of highly stable liposomes demonstrating ∼95% transfection efficiency with low toxicity.

  3. Gene delivery by microfluidic flow-through electroporation based on constant DC and AC field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Lu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used physical methods to deliver exogenous nucleic acids into cells with high efficiency and low toxicity. Conventional electroporation systems typically require expensive pulse generators to provide short electrical pulses at high voltage. In this work, we demonstrate a flow-through electroporation method for continuous transfection of cells based on disposable chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost power supply that provides a constant voltage. We successfully transfect cells using either DC or AC voltage with high flow rates (ranging from 40 µl/min to 20 ml/min) and high efficiency (up to 75%). We also enable the entire cell membrane to be uniformly permeabilized and dramatically improve gene delivery by inducing complex migrations of cells during the flow.

  4. Peptide-conjugated micelles as a targeting nanocarrier for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen Jen, E-mail: wjlin@ntu.edu.tw; Chien, Wei Hsuan [National Taiwan University, School of Pharmacy, Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated micelles possessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting ability for gene delivery. A sequence-modified dodecylpeptide, GE11(2R), with enhancing EGF receptor binding affinity, was applied in this study as a targeting ligand. The active targeting micelles were composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) copolymer conjugated with GE11(2R)-peptide. The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated micelles were 277.0 ± 5.1 and 308.7 ± 14.5 nm, respectively. The peptide-conjugated micelles demonstrated the cellular uptake significantly higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells due to GE11(2R)-peptide specificity. Furthermore, the peptide-conjugated micelles were able to encapsulate plasmid DNA and expressed cellular transfection higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed cells. The EGFR-targeting delivery micelles enhanced DNA internalized into cells and achieved higher cellular transfection in EGFR high-expressed cells.

  5. Progranulin gene delivery reduces plaque burden and synaptic atrophy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is a multifunctional protein that is widely expressed throughout the brain, where it has been shown to act as a critical regulator of CNS inflammation and also functions as an autocrine neuronal growth factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. PGRN has been shown to activate cell signaling pathways regulating excitoxicity, oxidative stress, and synaptogenesis, as well as amyloidogenesis. Together, these critical roles in the CNS suggest that PGRN has the potential to be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is the leading cause of dementia and is marked by the appearance of extracellular plaques consisting of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ, as well as neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal loss and synaptic atrophy. The ability of PGRN to target multiple key features of AD pathophysiology suggests that enhancing its expression may benefit this disease. Here, we describe the application of PGRN gene transfer using in vivo delivery of lentiviral expression vectors in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene effectively enhanced PGRN expression in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. This elevated PGRN expression significantly reduced amyloid plaque burden in these mice, accompanied by reductions in markers of inflammation and synaptic atrophy. The overexpression of PGRN was also found to increase activity of neprilysin, a key amyloid beta degrading enzyme. PGRN regulation of neprilysin activity could play a major role in the observed alterations in plaque burden. Thus, PGRN may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  6. Nonviral gene-delivery by highly fluorinated gemini bispyridinium surfactant-based DNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Emilia; Compari, Carlotta; Bacciottini, Franco; Contardi, Laura; Pongiluppi, Erika; Barbero, Nadia; Viscardi, Guido; Quagliotto, Pierluigi; Donofrio, Gaetano; Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Biological and thermodynamic properties of a new homologous series of highly fluorinated bispyridinium cationic gemini surfactants, differing in the length of the spacer bridging the pyridinium polar heads in 1,1' position, are reported for the first time. Interestingly, gene delivery ability is closely associated with the spacer length due to a structural change of the molecule in solution. This conformation change is allowed when the spacer reaches the right length, and it is suggested by the trends of the apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality. To assess the compounds' biological activity, they were tested with an agarose gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), MTT proliferation assay and Transient Transfection assays on a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Data from atomic force microscopy (AFM) allow for morphological characterization of DNA nanoparticles. Dilution enthalpies, measured at 298K, enabled the determination of apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality. All tested compounds (except that with the longest spacer), at different levels, can deliver the plasmid when co-formulated with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). The compound with a spacer formed by eight carbon atoms gives rise to a gene delivery ability that is comparable to that of the commercial reagent. The compound with the longest spacer compacts DNA in loosely condensed structures by forming bows, which are not suitable for transfection. Regarding the compounds' hydrogenated counterparts, the tight relationship between the solution thermodynamics data and their biological performance is amazing, making "old" methods the foundation to deeply understanding "new" applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Daniela Rodica [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation is represented by the versatility of mesoporous silica nanomaterials in various applications such as catalysis and bio-applications, with main focus on biological applications of Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (MSN). The metamorphosis that we impose to these materials from catalysis to sensing and to drug and gene delivery is detailed in this dissertation. First, we developed a synthetic method that can fine tune the amount of chemically accessible organic functional groups on the pores surface of MSN by exploiting electrostatic and size matching between the cationic alkylammonium head group of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and various anionic organoalkoxysilane precursors at the micelle-water interface in a base-catalyzed condensation reaction of silicate. Aiming nature imitation, we demonstrated the catalytic abilities of the MSNs, We utilized an ethylenediamine functional group for chelating Cu2+ as a catalytic functional group anchored inside the mesopores. Thus, a polyalkynylene-based conducting polymer (molecular wire) was synthesized within the Cu-functionalized MSNs silica catalyst. For sensing applications, we have synthesized a poly(lactic acid) coated mesoporous silica nanosphere (PLA-MSN) material that serves as a fluorescence sensor system for detection of amino-containing neurotransmitters in neutral aqueous buffer. We exploited the mesoporosity of MSNs for encapsulating pharmaceutical drugs. We examined bio-friendly capping molecules such as polyamidoamine dendrimers of generations G2 to G4, to prevent the drug leaching. Next, the drug delivery system employed MSNs loaded with Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug. The results demonstrated that these nano-Trojan horses have ability to deliver Doxorubicin to cancer cells and induce their death. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of MSN as an universal cellular transmembrane nanovehicle, we anchored positively charged dendrimers on

  8. Amino acid-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles as safe and versatile gene delivery agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagbir; Yang, Peng; Michel, Deborah; Verrall, Ronald E; Foldvari, Marianna; Badea, Ildiko

    2011-05-01

    Gene based therapy represents an important advance in the treatment of diseases that heretofore have had either no treatment or cure. To capitalize on the true potential of gene therapy, there is a need to develop better delivery systems that can protect these therapeutic biomolecules and deliver them safely to the target sites. Recently, we have designed and developed a series of novel amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants with the general chemical formula C(12)H(25) (CH(3))(2)N(+)-(CH(2))(3)-N(AA)-(CH(2))(3)-N(+) (CH(3))(2)-C(12)H(25) (AA= glycine, lysine, glycyl-lysine and, lysyl-lysine). These compounds were synthesized and tested in rabbit epithelial cells using a model plasmid and a helper lipid. Plasmid/gemini/lipid (P/G/L) nanoparticles formulated using these novel compounds achieved higher gene expression than the nanoparticles containing the parent unsubstituted compound. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of P/G/L nanoparticles and explored the relationship between transfection efficiency/toxicity and their physicochemical characteristics (such as size, binding properties, etc.). An overall low toxicity is observed for all complexes with no significant difference among substituted and unsubstituted compounds. An interesting result revealed by the dye exclusion assay suggests a more balanced protection of the DNA by the glycine and glycyl-lysine substituted compounds. Thus, the higher transfection efficiency is attributed to the greater biocompatibility and flexibility of the amino acid/peptide-substituted gemini surfactants and demonstrates the feasibility of using amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants as gene carriers for the treatment of diseases affecting epithelial tissue.

  9. Virus Delivery of CRISPR Guides to the Murine Prostate for Gene Alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Maria; Berthelsen, Martin F; Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F; Thomsen, Martin K

    2018-04-27

    With an increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identification of new tumor drivers or modulators is crucial. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) for prostate cancer are hampered by tumor heterogeneity and its complex microevolution dynamics. Traditional prostate cancer mouse models include, amongst others, germline and conditional knockouts, transgenic expression of oncogenes, and xenograft models. Generation of de novo mutations in these models is complex, time-consuming, and costly. In addition, most of traditional models target the majority of the prostate epithelium, whereas human prostate cancer is well known to evolve as an isolated event in only a small subset of cells. Valuable models need to simulate not only prostate cancer initiation, but also progression to advanced disease. Here we describe a method to target a few cells in the prostate epithelium by transducing cells by viral particles. The delivery of an engineered virus to the murine prostate allows alteration of gene expression in the prostate epithelia. Virus type and quantity will hereby define the number of targeted cells for gene alteration by transducing a few cells for cancer initiation and many cells for gene therapy. Through surgery-based injection in the anterior lobe, distal from the urinary track, the tumor in this model can expand without impairing the urinary function of the animal. Furthermore, by targeting only a subset of prostate epithelial cells the technique enables clonal expansion of the tumor, and therefore mimics human tumor initiation, progression, as well as invasion through the basal membrane. This novel technique provides a powerful prostate cancer model with improved physiological relevance. Animal suffering is limited, and since no additional breeding is required, overall animal count is reduced. At the same time, analysis of new candidate genes and pathways is accelerated, which in turn is more cost efficient.

  10. Structure-function correlation of chloroquine and analogues as transgene expression enhancers in nonviral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Zeidan, Ryan; Mishra, Swaroop; Liu, Aijie; Pun, Suzie H; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Jensen, Gregory S; Bellocq, Nathalie C; Davis, Mark E

    2006-11-02

    To understand how chloroquine (CQ) enhances transgene expression in polycation-based, nonviral gene delivery systems, a number of CQ analogues with variations in the aliphatic amino side chain or in the aromatic ring are synthesized and investigated. Our studies indicate that the aliphatic amino moiety of CQ is essential to provide increased gene expression. Further, the enhancements are more dramatically affected by changes to the aromatic ring and are positively correlated to the strength of intercalation between DNA and the CQ analogues. Quinacrine (QC), a CQ analogue with a fused acridinyl structure that can strongly intercalate DNA, enhances transfection similarly to CQ at a concentration 10 times lower, while N(4)-(4-pyridinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CP), a CQ analogue that has a weakly intercalating pyridinyl ring, shows no effect on gene expression. Subtle change on the 7-substituent of the chloroquine aromatic structure can also greatly affect the ability of the CQ analogues to enhance transgene expression. Transfection in the presence of N(4)-(7-trifluoromethyl-4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamin e (CQ7a) shows expression efficiency 10 times higher than in the presence of CQ at same concentration, while transfection in the presence of N(4)-(4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CQ7b) does not reveal any enhancing effects on expression. Through a number of comparative studies with CQ and its analogues, we conclude that there are at least three mechanistic features of CQ that lead to the enhancement in gene expression: (i) pH buffering in endocytic vesicles, (ii) displacement of polycations from the nucleic acids in polyplexes, and (iii) alteration of the biophysical properties of the released nucleic acid.

  11. Targeted capture and heterologous expression of the Pseudoalteromonas alterochromide gene cluster in Escherichia coli represents a promising natural product exploratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Avena C; Gulland, Lauren E S; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-04-17

    Marine pseudoalteromonads represent a very promising source of biologically important natural product molecules. To access and exploit the full chemical capacity of these cosmopolitan Gram-(-) bacteria, we sought to apply universal synthetic biology tools to capture, refactor, and express biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of complex organic compounds in reliable host organisms. Here, we report a platform for the capture of proteobacterial gene clusters using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) strategy coupled with direct pathway manipulation and expression in Escherichia coli. The ~34 kb pathway for production of alterochromide lipopeptides by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida JCM 20779 was captured and heterologously expressed in E. coli utilizing native and E. coli-based T7 promoter sequences. Our approach enabled both facile production of the alterochromides and in vivo interrogation of gene function associated with alterochromide's unusual brominated lipid side chain. This platform represents a simple but effective strategy for the discovery and biosynthetic characterization of natural products from marine proteobacteria.

  12. Different Influences of Lipofection and Electrotransfection on In Vitro Gene Delivery to Primary Cultured Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xui-Si; Huang, Jing; Zhan, Cong-Qing; Chen, Jing; Li, Tao; Kaye, Alan D; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Xiao, Lan

    2016-03-01

    Many pain states are linked to central nervous system (CNS) diseases involving the dysfunction of dendritic arborization, making restoration a promising therapeutic strategy. Transfection of primary cortex neurons offers the possibility to study mechanisms which are important for the restoration of proper arborization. Its progress is, however, limited at present due to the lack of suitable gene transfer techniques. To obtain better insight into the transfection potential of currently used techniques, 2 non-viral transfection methods, lipofection and gene electrotransfer (GET), were compared. This is a comparison study performed on cultured cells. The transfection efficiency and neuronal viability, as well as the neuronal dendritic arborization after lipofection or GET, were compared. Primary cultured cortex neurons were transfected with the pEGFP-N1 plasmid, either using Lipofectamine 2000 (2, 3, or 4µL) or with electroporation, with our previously optimized protocol (200V/25 ms). Transfection efficiency and cell viability were inversely proportional for lipofection. The appropriate ratio of Lipofectamine and plasmid DNA provides optimal conditions for lipofection. Although GET offered higher transfection efficiency, it could not induce complex dendritic arborization, which made it unsuitable for in vitro gene transfer into cortex neurons. Limitations include species variability and translational applicability for CNS diseases and pain states related to potential toxicity. Based on these findings, lipofection might be advantageous for in vitro application to primary cultured cortex neurons. Pain states, stress mediated pathogenesis, and certain CNS diseases might potentially utilize this important technique in the future as a therapeutic modality.

  13. Poly[N-(2-aminoethyl)ethyleneimine] as a New Non-Viral Gene Delivery Carrier : The Effect of Two Protonatable Nitrogens in the Monomer Unit on Gene Delivery Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khazaie, Yahya; Novo, Luis; van Gaal, Ethlinn; Fassihi, Afshin; Mirahmadi-Zareh, Seyedeh Zohreh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr; van Nostrum, Cornelus F.; Hennink, Wim E.; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro gene delivery efficiency of poly[N-(2-aminoethyl)ethylene-imine](PAEEI), a polymer with a linear Polyethyleneimine (LPEI) backbone and with aminoethyl side groups that has two protonatable nitrogen atoms per monomer unit instead of one

  14. Hyperbranched–dendrimer architectural copolymer gene delivery using hyperbranched PEI conjugated to poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of transfection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, Seyyed Jamal [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Leila [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Askarian, Saeedeh [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darroudi, Majid [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Massoudi, Abdolhossein [University of Payam noor, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, Mehdi; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza, E-mail: Oskueekr@mums.ac.ir [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The applications of dendrimer-based vectors seem to be promising in non-viral gene delivery because of their potential for addressing the problems with viral vectors. In this study, generation 3 poly(propyleneimine) (G3-PPI) dendrimers with 1, 4-diaminobutane as a core initiator was synthesized using a divergent growth approach. To increase the hydrophobicity and reduce toxicity, 10% of primary amines of G3-PPI dendrimers were replaced with bromoalkylcarboxylates with different chain lengths (6-bromohexanoic and 10-bromodecanoic). Then, to retain the overall buffering capacity and enhance transfection, the alkylcarboxylate–PPIs were conjugated to 10 kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The results showed that the modified PPI was able to form complexes with the diameter of less than 60 nm with net-positive surface charge around 20 mV. No significant toxicity was observed in modified PPIs; however, the hexanoate conjugated PPI–PEI (PPI-HEX-10% PEI) and the decanoate conjugated PPI–PEI (PPI-DEC-10%-PEI) showed the best transfection efficiency in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line, even PPI-HEX-10%-PEI showed transfection efficiency equal to standard PEI 25 kDa with reduced toxicity. This study suggested a new series of hyperbranched (PEI)–dendrimer (PPI) architectural copolymers as non-viral gene delivery vectors with high transfection efficiency and low toxicity.

  15. Hyperbranched-dendrimer architectural copolymer gene delivery using hyperbranched PEI conjugated to poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of transfection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Jamal; Gholami, Leila; Askarian, Saeedeh; Darroudi, Majid; Massoudi, Abdolhossein; Rezaee, Mehdi; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2017-02-01

    The applications of dendrimer-based vectors seem to be promising in non-viral gene delivery because of their potential for addressing the problems with viral vectors. In this study, generation 3 poly(propyleneimine) (G3-PPI) dendrimers with 1, 4-diaminobutane as a core initiator was synthesized using a divergent growth approach. To increase the hydrophobicity and reduce toxicity, 10% of primary amines of G3-PPI dendrimers were replaced with bromoalkylcarboxylates with different chain lengths (6-bromohexanoic and 10-bromodecanoic). Then, to retain the overall buffering capacity and enhance transfection, the alkylcarboxylate-PPIs were conjugated to 10 kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The results showed that the modified PPI was able to form complexes with the diameter of less than 60 nm with net-positive surface charge around 20 mV. No significant toxicity was observed in modified PPIs; however, the hexanoate conjugated PPI-PEI (PPI-HEX-10% PEI) and the decanoate conjugated PPI-PEI (PPI-DEC-10%-PEI) showed the best transfection efficiency in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line, even PPI-HEX-10%-PEI showed transfection efficiency equal to standard PEI 25 kDa with reduced toxicity. This study suggested a new series of hyperbranched (PEI)-dendrimer (PPI) architectural copolymers as non-viral gene delivery vectors with high transfection efficiency and low toxicity.

  16. Development of a DNA-liposome complex for gene delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasoulianboroujeni, M. [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Kupgan, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 423 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Moghadam, F. [School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Tahriri, M. [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Boughdachi, A. [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshkenar, P. [Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Ambrose, J.J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kiaie, N. [Tissue Engineering Department, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Ramsey, J.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 423 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Tayebi, L., E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The association structures formed by cationic liposomes and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)-liposome have been effectively utilized as gene carriers in transfection assays. In this research study, cationic liposomes were prepared using a modified lipid film hydration method consisting of a lyophilization step for gene delivery applications. The obtained results demonstrated that the mean particle size had no significant change while the polydispersity (PDI) increased after lyophilization. The mean particle size slightly reduced after lyophilization (520 ± 12 nm to 464 ± 25 nm) while the PDI increased after lyophilization (0.094 ± 0.017 to 0.220 ± 0.004). In addition. The mean particle size of vesicles increases when DNA is incorporated to the liposomes (673 ± 27 nm). According to the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the spherical shape of liposomes confirmed their successful preservation and reconstitution from the powder. It was found that liposomal formulation has enhanced transfection considerably compared to the naked DNA as negative control. Finally, liposomal formulation in this research had a better function than Lipofectamine® 2000 as a commercialized product because the cellular activity (cellular protein) was higher in the prepared lipoplex than Lipofectamine® 2000. - Highlights: • Liposomal formulation in this research had a better function than Lipofectamine® 2000. • The average particle size had no significant change while the PDI increased after lyophilization. • LacZ expression of the developed cationic liposomes is approximately equal to the Lipofectamine® 2000.

  17. Effect of a Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery of BMP-2 on Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schwabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gene therapeutic drug delivery approaches have been introduced to improve the efficiency of growth factors at the site of interest. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a new nonviral copolymer-protected gene vector (COPROG for the stimulation of bone healing. Methods. In vitro, rat osteoblasts were transfected with COPROG + luciferase plasmid or COPROG + hBMP-2 plasmid. In vivo, rat tibial fractures were intramedullary stabilized with uncoated versus COPROG+hBMP-2-plasmid-coated titanium K-wires. The tibiae were prepared for biomechanical and histological analyses at days 28 and 42 and for transfection/safety study at days 2, 4, 7, 28, and 42. Results. In vitro results showed luciferase expression until day 21, and hBMP-2-protein was measured from day 2 – day 10. In vivo, the local application of hBMP-2-plasmid showed a significantly higher maximum load after 42 days compared to that in the control. The histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly less mineralized periosteal callus area in the BMP-2 group compared to the control at day 28. The rt-PCR showed no systemic biodistribution of luciferase RNA. Conclusion. A positive effect on fracture healing by nonviral BMP-2 plasmid application from COPROG-coated implants could be shown in this study; however, the effect of the vector may be improved with higher plasmid concentrations. Transfection showed no biodistribution to distant organs and was considered to be safe.

  18. Solid-phase-assisted synthesis of targeting peptide-PEG-oligo(ethane amino)amides for receptor-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Irene; Dohmen, Christian; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Troiber, Christina; Kos, Petra; Schaffert, David; Lächelt, Ulrich; Teixidó, Meritxell; Günther, Michael; Kessler, Horst; Giralt, Ernest; Wagner, Ernst

    2012-04-28

    In the forthcoming era of cancer gene therapy, efforts will be devoted to the development of new efficient and non-toxic gene delivery vectors. In this regard, the use of Fmoc/Boc-protected oligo(ethane amino)acids as building blocks for solid-phase-supported assembly represents a novel promising approach towards fully controlled syntheses of effective gene vectors. Here we report on the synthesis of defined polymers containing the following: (i) a plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding domain of eight succinoyl-tetraethylenpentamine (Stp) units and two terminal cysteine residues; (ii) a central polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain (with twenty-four oxyethylene units) for shielding; and (iii) specific peptides for targeting towards cancer cells. Peptides B6 and c(RGDfK), which bind transferrin receptor and α(v)β(3) integrin, respectively, were chosen because of the high expression of these receptors in many tumoral cells. This study shows the feasibility of designing these kinds of fully controlled vectors and their success for targeted pDNA-based gene transfer. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. An efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector based on hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xuan Liang,1,* Xianyue Ren,2,* Zhenzhen Liu,1 Yingliang Liu,1 Jue Wang,2 Jingnan Wang,2 Li-Ming Zhang,1 David YB Deng,2 Daping Quan,1 Liqun Yang1 1Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Designed Synthesis and Application of Polymer Material, Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *Both these authors contributed equally to this work Background: The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives as an efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector. Methods: A series of hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with 3-(dimethylamino-1-propylamine (DMAPA-Glyp and 1-(2-aminoethyl piperazine (AEPZ-Glyp residues were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their buffer capacity was assessed by acid–base titration in aqueous NaCl solution. Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (pDNA condensation ability and protection against DNase I degradation of the glycogen derivatives were assessed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The zeta potentials and particle sizes of the glycogen derivative/pDNA complexes were measured, and the images of the complexes were observed using atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity were evaluated by hemolysis assay and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, respectively. pDNA transfection efficiency mediated by the cationic glycogen derivatives was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in the 293T (human embryonic kidney and the CNE2 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. In vivo delivery of pDNA in model animals (Sprague Dawley

  20. Exploring advantages/disadvantages and improvements in overcoming gene delivery barriers of amino acid modified trimethylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Tang, Cui; Yin, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    Present study aimed at exploring advantages/disadvantages of amino acid modified trimethylated chitosan in conquering multiple gene delivery obstacles and thus providing comprehensive understandings for improved transfection efficiency. Arginine, cysteine, and histidine modified trimethyl chitosan were synthesized and employed to self-assemble with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to form nanocomplexes, namely TRNC, TCNC, and THNC, respectively. They were assessed by structural stability, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, release behavior, nuclear localization, and in vitro and in vivo transfection efficiencies. Besides, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) was added into TRNC to compromise certain disadvantageous attributes for pDNA delivery. Optimal endosomal escape ability failed to bring in satisfactory transfection efficiency of THNC due to drawbacks in structural stability, cellular uptake, pDNA liberation, and nuclear distribution. TCNC evoked the most potent gene expression owing to multiple advantages including sufficient stability, preferable uptake, efficient pDNA release, and high nucleic accumulation. Undesirable stability and insufficient pDNA release adversely affected TRNC-mediated gene transfer. However, incorporation of TPP could improve such disadvantages and consequently resulted in enhanced transfection efficiencies. Coordination of multiple contributing effects to conquer all delivery obstacles was necessitated for improved transfection efficiency, which would provide insights into rational design of gene delivery vehicles.

  1. Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery of naked plasmid DNA in skeletal muscles : a case for bolus injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Sanches, P.; Muehlmeister, M.; Seip, R.; Kaijzel, E.L.; Loewik, C.; Boehmer, M.; Tiemann, K.; Grüll, H.

    2014-01-01

    Localized gene delivery has many potential clinical applications. However, the nucleic acids (e.g. pDNA and siRNA) are incapable of passively crossing the endothelium, cell membranes and other biological barriers which must be crossed to reach their intracellular targets. A possible solution is the

  2. Gene delivery to pancreatic exocrine cells in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houbracken Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective gene transfer to the pancreas or to pancreatic cells has remained elusive although it is essential for studies of genetic lineage tracing and modulation of gene expression. Different transduction methods and viral vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo, in rat and mouse pancreas. Results For in vitro transfection/transduction of rat exocrine cells lipofection reagents, adenoviral vectors, and Mokola- and VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors were used. For in vivo transduction of mouse and rat pancreas adenoviral vectors and VSV-G lentiviral vectors were injected into the parenchymal tissue. Both lipofection of rat exocrine cell cultures and transduction with Mokola pseudotyped lentiviral vectors were inefficient and resulted in less than 4% EGFP expressing cells. Adenoviral transduction was highly efficient but its usefulness for gene delivery to rat exocrine cells in vitro was hampered by a drastic increase in cell death. In vitro transduction of rat exocrine cells was most optimal with VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors, with stable transgene expression, no significant effect on cell survival and about 40% transduced cells. In vivo, pancreatic cells could not be transduced by intra-parenchymal administration of lentiviral vectors in mouse and rat pancreas. However, a high efficiency could be obtained by adenoviral vectors, resulting in transient transduction of mainly exocrine acinar cells. Injection in immune-deficient animals diminished leukocyte infiltration and prolonged transgene expression. Conclusions In summary, our study remarkably demonstrates that transduction of pancreatic exocrine cells requires lentiviral vectors in vitro but adenoviral vectors in vivo.

  3. Photodegradable neutral-cationic brush block copolymers for nonviral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianglong; Li, Yang; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Guoying; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a photodegradable gene-delivery vector based on PEO-b-P(GMA-g-PDMAEMA) neutral-cationic brush block copolymers that possess cationic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes for DNA compaction, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a hydrophilic block, and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) as the backbone. The PEO-b-P(GMA-g-PDMAEMA) copolymers were synthesized through the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization and postmodification. A photocleavable PEO-based macroRAFT agent was first synthesized; next, the PEO-b-PGMA block copolymer was prepared by RAFT polymerization of GMA; this was followed by a click reaction to introduce the RAFT initiators on the side chains of the PGMA block; then, RAFT polymerization of DMAEMA afforded the PEO-b-P(GMA-g-PDMAEMA) copolymer. The obtained neutral-cationic brush block copolymer could effectively complex plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles at an N/P ratio (i.e., the number of nitrogen residues per DNA phosphate) of 4. Upon UV irradiation, pDNA could be released owing to cleavage of the pDNA-binding cationic PDMAEMA side chains as well as the nitrobenzyl ester linkages at the diblock junction point. In addition, in vitro gene transfection results demonstrated that the polyplexes could be effectively internalized by cells with good transfection efficiency, and the UV irradiation protocol could considerably enhance the efficiency of gene transfection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Recombinant human parvovirus B19 vectors: erythroid cell-specific delivery and expression of transduced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnazhagan, S; Weigel, K A; Raikwar, S P; Mukherjee, P; Yoder, M C; Srivastava, A

    1998-06-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562-566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111-1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited and

  5. Recombinant Human Parvovirus B19 Vectors: Erythroid Cell-Specific Delivery and Expression of Transduced Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Weigel, Kirsten A.; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Yoder, Mervin C.; Srivastava, Arun

    1998-01-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562–566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111–1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited

  6. Tumor-directed gene therapy in mice using a composite nonviral gene delivery system consisting of the piggyBac transposon and polyethylenimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Chaoqun; Chen, Chunmei; Zheng, Yufang; Gu, Jianren; Xu, Congjian

    2009-01-01

    Compared with viral vectors, nonviral vectors are less immunogenic, more stable, safer and easier to replication for application in cancer gene therapy. However, nonviral gene delivery system has not been extensively used because of the low transfection efficiency and the short transgene expression, especially in vivo. It is desirable to develop a nonviral gene delivery system that can support stable genomic integration and persistent gene expression in vivo. Here, we used a composite nonviral gene delivery system consisting of the piggyBac (PB) transposon and polyethylenimine (PEI) for long-term transgene expression in mouse ovarian tumors. A recombinant plasmid PB [Act-RFP, HSV-tk] encoding both the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) under PB transposon elements was constructed. This plasmid and the PBase plasmid were injected into ovarian cancer tumor xenografts in mice by in vivo PEI system. The antitumor effects of HSV-tk/ganciclovir (GCV) system were observed after intraperitoneal injection of GCV. Histological analysis and TUNEL assay were performed on the cryostat sections of the tumor tissue. Plasmid construction was confirmed by PCR analysis combined with restrictive enzyme digestion. mRFP1 expression could be visualized three weeks after the last transfection of pPB/TK under fluorescence microscopy. After GCV admission, the tumor volume of PB/TK group was significantly reduced and the tumor inhibitory rate was 81.96% contrasted against the 43.07% in the TK group. Histological analysis showed that there were extensive necrosis and lymphocytes infiltration in the tumor tissue of the PB/TK group but limited in the tissue of control group. TUNEL assays suggested that the transfected cells were undergoing apoptosis after GCV admission in vivo. Our results show that the nonviral gene delivery system coupling PB transposon with PEI can be used as an efficient tool for gene therapy in ovarian cancer

  7. 3D Porous Chitosan-Alginate Scaffolds as an In Vitro Model for Evaluating Nanoparticle-Mediated Tumor Targeting and Gene Delivery to Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Florczyk, Stephen J; Stephen, Zachary R; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-10-12

    Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted gene delivery are conventionally evaluated using 2D in vitro cultures. However, this does not translate well to corresponding in vivo studies because of the marked difference in NP behavior in the presence of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated whether prostate cancer (PCa) cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-alginate (CA) porous scaffolds could model cationic NP-mediated gene targeted delivery to tumors in vitro. We assessed in vitro tumor cell proliferation, formation of tumor spheroids, and expression of marker genes that promote tumor malignancy in CA scaffolds. The efficacy of NP-targeted gene delivery was evaluated in PCa cells in 2D cultures, PCa tumor spheroids grown in CA scaffolds, and PCa tumors in a mouse TRAMP-C2 flank tumor model. PCa cells cultured in CA scaffolds grew into tumor spheroids and displayed characteristics of higher malignancy as compared to those in 2D cultures. Significantly, targeted gene delivery was only observed in cells cultured in CA scaffolds, whereas cells cultured on 2D plates showed no difference in gene delivery between targeted and nontarget control NPs. In vivo NP evaluation confirmed targeted gene delivery, indicating that only CA scaffolds correctly modeled NP-mediated targeted delivery in vivo. These findings suggest that CA scaffolds serve as a better in vitro platform than 2D cultures for evaluation of NP-mediated targeted gene delivery to PCa.

  8. Catalytic immunoglobulin gene delivery in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: prophylactic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Jinghong; Yang, Junling; Lim, Jeong-Eun; Pattanayak, Abhinandan; Song, Min; Planque, Stephanie; Paul, Sudhir; Fukuchi, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is hypothesized to be a causal event leading to dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ vaccination removes Aβ deposits from the brain. Aβ immunotherapy, however, may cause T cell- and/or Fc-receptor-mediated brain inflammation and relocate parenchymal Aβ deposits to blood vessels leading to cerebral hemorrhages. Because catalytic antibodies do not form stable immune complexes and Aβ fragments produced by catalytic antibodies are less likely to form aggregates, Aβ-specific catalytic antibodies may have safer therapeutic profiles than reversibly-binding anti-Aβ antibodies. Additionally, catalytic antibodies may remove Aβ more efficiently than binding antibodies because a single catalytic antibody can hydrolyze thousands of Aβ molecules. We previously isolated Aβ-specific catalytic antibody, IgVL5D3, with strong Aβ-hydrolyzing activity. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of brain-targeted IgVL5D3 gene delivery via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) in an AD mouse model. One single injection of rAAV9-IgVL5D3 into the right ventricle of AD model mice yielded widespread, high expression of IgVL5D3 in the unilateral hemisphere. IgVL5D3 expression was readily detectable in the contralateral hemisphere but to a much lesser extent. IgVL5D3 expression was also confirmed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Prophylactic and therapeutic injection of rAAV9-IgVL5D3 reduced Aβ load in the ipsilateral hippocampus of AD model mice. No evidence of hemorrhages, increased vascular amyloid deposits, increased proinflammatory cytokines, or infiltrating T-cells in the brains was found in the experimental animals. AAV9-mediated anti-Aβ catalytic antibody brain delivery can be prophylactic and therapeutic options for AD.

  9. Direct Head-To-Head Comparison of Cationic Liposome-Mediated Gene Delivery to Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells of Different Human Sources: A Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boura, Joana S.; dos Santos, Francisco; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Madeira, Catarina; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nonviral gene delivery to human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) can be considered a very promising strategy to improve their intrinsic features, amplifying the therapeutic potential of these cells for clinical applications. In this work, we performed a comprehensive comparison of liposome-mediated gene transfer efficiencies to MSC derived from different human sources—bone marrow (BM MSC), adipose tissue-derived cells (ASC), and umbilical cord matrix (UCM MSC). The results obtained using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding plasmid indicated that MSC isolated from BM and UCM are more amenable to genetic modification when compared to ASC as they exhibited superior levels of viable, GFP+ cells 48 hr post-transfection, 58±7.1% and 54±3.8%, respectively, versus 33±4.7%. For all cell sources, high cell recoveries (≈50%) and viabilities (>85%) were achieved, and the transgene expression was maintained for 10 days. Levels of plasmid DNA uptake, as well as kinetics of transgene expression and cellular division, were also determined. Importantly, modified cells were found to retain their characteristic immunophenotypic profile and multilineage differentiation capacity. By using the lipofection protocol optimized herein, we were able to maximize transfection efficiencies to human MSC (maximum of 74% total GFP+ cells) and show that lipofection is a promising transfection strategy for MSC genetic modification, especially when a transient expression of a therapeutic gene is required. Importantly, we also clearly demonstrated that intrinsic features of MSC from different sources should be taken into consideration when developing and optimizing strategies for MSC engineering with a therapeutic gene. PMID:23360350

  10. Size effect on transfection and cytotoxicity of nanoscale plasmid DNA/polyethyleneimine complexes for aerosol gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon Byeon, Jeong, E-mail: jbyeon@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kim, Jang-Woo, E-mail: jwkim@hoseo.edu [Department of Digital Display Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    Nanoscale plasmid DNA (pDNA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes were fabricated in the aerosol state using a nebulization system consisting of a collison atomizer and a cool-walled diffusion dryer. The aerosol fabricated nanoscale complexes were collected and employed to determine fundamental properties of the complexes, such as size, structure, surface charge, and in vitro gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. The results showed that mass ratio between pDNA and PEI should be optimized to enhance gene transfection efficiency without a significant loss of cell viability. These findings may support practical advancements in the field of nonviral gene delivery.

  11. Boosting ART uptake and retention among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants: the promise of innovative service delivery models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Meena; Sullivan, David; Phelps, B Ryan; Modi, Surbhi; Broyles, Laura N

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the "Treat All" era, there has been increasing emphasis on using differentiated models of HIV service delivery. The gaps within the clinical cascade for mothers and their infants suggest that current service delivery models are not meeting families' needs and prompt re-consideration of how services are provided. This article will explore considerations for differentiated care and encourage the ongoing increase of ART coverage through innovative strategies while also addressing the unique needs of mothers and infants. Service delivery models should recognize that the timing of the mother's HIV diagnosis is a critical aspect of determining eligibility. Women newly diagnosed with HIV require a more intensive approach so that adequate counselling and monitoring of ART initiation and response can be provided. Women already on ART with evidence of virologic failure are also at high risk of transmitting HIV to their infants and require close follow-up. However, women stable on ART with a suppressed viral load before conception have a very low likelihood of HIV transmission and thus are strong candidates for multi-month ART dispensing, community-based distribution of ART, adherence clubs, community adherence support groups and longer intervals between clinical visits. A number of other factors should be considered when defining eligibility of mothers and infants for differentiated care, including location of services, viral load monitoring and duration on ART. To provide differentiated care that is client-centred and driven while encompassing a family-based approach, it will be critical to engage mothers, families and communities in models that will optimize client satisfaction, retention in care and quality of services. Differentiated care for mothers and infants represents an opportunity to provide client-centred care that reduces the burden on clients and health systems while improving the quality and uptake

  12. RNAi-based therapeutic nanostrategy: IL-8 gene silencing in pancreatic cancer cells using gold nanorods delivery vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Nishtha; Yang, Chengbin; Yin, Feng; Chuan, Tjin Swee; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing possesses great ability for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. Among various oncogene mutations, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene mutations are found to be overexpressed in many pancreatic cell lines. In this work, we demonstrate IL-8 gene silencing by employing an RNAi-based gene therapy approach and this is achieved by using gold nanorods (AuNRs) for efficient delivery of IL-8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the pancreatic cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1. Upon comparing to Panc-1 cells, we found that the dominant expression of the IL-8 gene in MiaPaCa-2 cells resulted in an aggressive behavior towards the processes of cell invasion and metastasis. We have hence investigated the suitability of using AuNRs as novel non-viral nanocarriers for the efficient uptake and delivery of IL-8 siRNA in realizing gene knockdown of both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging techniques have been applied to confirm transfection and release of IL-8 siRNA. The ratio of AuNRs and siRNA has been optimized and transfection efficiencies as high as 88.40 ± 2.14% have been achieved. Upon successful delivery of IL-8 siRNA into cancer cells, the effects of IL-8 gene knockdown are quantified in terms of gene expression, cell invasion, cell migration and cell apoptosis assays. Statistical comparative studies for both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells are presented in this work. IL-8 gene silencing has been demonstrated with knockdown efficiencies of 81.02 ± 10.14% and 75.73 ± 6.41% in MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, respectively. Our results are then compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Oligofectamine, serving as positive control. The gene knockdown results illustrate the potential role of AuNRs as non-viral gene delivery vehicles for RNAi-based targeted cancer therapy applications. (paper)

  13. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX, which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon, pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies, can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX, or alternatively, through the use of polymer

  14. The force analysis for superparamagnetic nanoparticles-based gene delivery in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Shi, Zongqian, E-mail: zqshi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhang, Pengbo [Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No.157 West 5 Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710004 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Due to the peculiar magnetic properties and the ability to function in cell-level biological interaction, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) have been being the attractive carrier for gene delivery. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles with surface-bound gene vector can be attracted to the surface of cells by the Kelvin force provided by external magnetic field. In this article, the influence of the oscillating magnetic field on the characteristics of magnetofection is studied in terms of the magnetophoretic velocity. The magnetic field of a cylindrical permanent magnet is calculated by equivalent current source (ECS) method, and the Kelvin force is derived by using the effective moment method. The results show that the static magnetic field accelerates the sedimentation of the particles, and drives the particles inward towards the axis of the magnet. Based on the investigation of the magnetophoretic velocity of the particle under horizontally oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating velocity within the amplitude of the magnet oscillation is observed. Furthermore, simulation results indicate that the oscillating amplitude plays an important role in regulating the active region, where the particles may present oscillating motion. The analysis of the magnetophoretic velocity gives us an insight into the physical mechanism of the magnetofection. It's also helpful to the optimal design of the magnetofection system. - Highlights: • We compare the results of the ECS method and FEA method with the commercial software, Ansys. • We analyze the physic mechanism of the oscillating motion of the particles in the presence of an oscillating magnet. • We discuss the influence of the oscillating amplitude of the magnet on the behavior of the particle.

  15. Enhancement of antitumor activity of gammaretrovirus carrying IL-12 gene through genetic modification of envelope targeting HER2 receptor: a promising strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-S; Shiau, A-L; Chen, Y-F; Tsai, H-T; Tzai, T-S; Wu, C-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an HER2-targeted, envelope-modified Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based gammaretroviral vector carrying interleukin (IL)-12 gene for bladder cancer therapy. It displayed a chimeric envelope protein containing a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody to the HER2 receptor and carried the mouse IL-12 gene. The fragment of anti-erbB2scFv was constructed into the proline-rich region of the viral envelope of the packaging vector lacking a transmembrane subunit of the carboxyl terminal region of surface subunit. As compared with envelope-unmodified gammaretroviruses, envelope-modified ones had extended viral tropism to human HER2-expressing bladder cancer cell lines, induced apoptosis, and affected cell cycle progression despite lower viral titers. Moreover, animal studies showed that envelope-modified gammaretroviruses carrying IL-12 gene exerted higher antitumor activity in terms of retarding tumor growth and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice than unmodified ones, which were associated with enhanced tumor cell apoptosis as well as increased intratumoral levels of IL-12, interferon-gamma, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha proteins. Therefore, the antitumor activity of gammaretroviruses carrying the IL-12 gene was enhanced through genetic modification of the envelope targeting HER2 receptor, which may be a promising strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

  16. Transferrin-facilitated lipofection gene delivery strategy: characterization of the transfection complexes and intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshee, Nirmal; Bastola, Dhundy R; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2002-11-01

    We previously showed that mixing transferrin with a cationic liposome prior to the addition of DNA, greatly enhanced the lipofection efficiency. Here, we report characterization of the transfection complexes in formulations prepared with transferrin, lipofectin, and DNA (pCMVlacZ) in various formulations. DNA in all the formulations that contain lipofectin was resistant to DNase I treatment. Transfection experiments performed in Panc 1 cells showed that the standard formulation, which was prepared by adding DNA to a mixture of transferrin and lipofectin, yielded highest transfection efficiency. There was no apparent difference in zeta potential among these formulations, but the most efficient formulation contained complexes with a mean diameter of three to four times that of liposome and the complexes in other gene delivery formulations. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the standard transfection complexes formulated using gold-labeled transferrin showed extended circular DNA decorated with transferrin as compared to extensively condensed DNA found in lipofectin-DNA complexes and heterogeneous structures in other formulations. By confocal microscopy, DNA and transferrin were found to colocalize at the perinuclear space and in the nucleus, suggesting cotransportation intracellularly, including nuclear transport. We propose that transferrin enhances the transfection efficiency of the standard lipofection formulation by preventing DNA condensation, and facilitating endocytosis and nuclear targeting.

  17. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1,2-dialkoylamidopropane-based lipoplexes for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Ahmad; Saleh, Suhair; Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Kearns, Molinda; Savva, Michalakis

    2015-04-01

    Elucidation of the molecular and formulation requirements for efficient lipofection is a prerequisite to enhance the biological activity of cationic lipid-mediated gene delivery systems. To this end, the in vitro lipofection activity of the ionizable asymmetric 1,2-dialkoylamidopropane-based derivatives bearing a single primary amine group as the cationic head group was evaluated. The electrostatic interactions of these cationic lipids with plasmid DNA in serum-free medium were investigated by means of gel electrophoresis retardation and Eth-Br quenching assays. The effect of the inclusion of the helper lipid DOPE in the formulation on these interactions was also considered. The physicochemical properties of these lipids in terms of bilayer fluidity and extent of ionization were investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and surface potential techniques, respectively. The results showed that only the active lipid, 1,2lmp[5], existed in a liquid crystalline state at physiological temperature. Moreover, the extent of ionization of this lipid in assemblies was significantly higher that it's saturated analogues. Inclusion of the helper lipid DOPE improved the encapsulation and association between 1,2lmp[5] and plasmid DNA, which was reflected by the significant boost of lipofection activity of the 1,2lmp[5]/DOPE formulation as compared to the lipid alone. In conclusion, membrane fluidity and sufficient protonation of ionizable cationic lipid are required for efficient association and encapsulation of plasmid DNA and elicit of improved in vitro lipofection activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of DNA/nuclear protein/polycation and the terplexes for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yuan; Pan Shirong; Feng Min; Wen Yuting; Deng Jingjing; Luo Xin; Wu Chuanbin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan II Road 74, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Hui, E-mail: fengmin@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Zhongshan Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-01-29

    Nuclear transport of exogenous DNA is a major barrier to nonviral gene delivery that needs to be addressed in the design of new vectors. In this study, we prepared pDNA/HMGB1/PEG-PEI terplexes to promote nuclear import. HMGB1 in the terplexes was used to assist the transportation of pDNA into the nucleus of cells, since it contained nuclear localization signal (NLS); PEG chains were introduced to stabilize pDNA/vector terplexes and reduce the cytotoxicity. HMGB1/PEG-PEI combined vectors have been investigated specifically for their structure interaction by atomic force microscopy and circular dichroic spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the HMGB1 molecule could bind with the pDNA chains, but not condense pDNA well. The PEG-PEI further compacted pDNA/HMGB1 complexes into nanosized spherical terplexes. The pDNA delivered by HMGB1/PEG-PEI combined vectors was significantly accumulated in the nucleus of cells, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The percentage of GFP-transfected cells and VEGF protein expression level induced by HMGB1/PEG-PEI were 2.6-4.9-fold and 1.4-2.8-fold higher, respectively, than that of a common cationic polymer PEI 25 kDa. Therefore, the HMGB1/PEG-PEI combined vector could be used as a versatile vector for promoting exogenous DNA nuclear localization, thereby enhancing its expression.

  19. In Vivo Tumor Gene Delivery Using Novel Peptideticles: pH-Responsive and Ligand Targeted Core-Shell Nanoassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Mohsen; Majidi, Asia; Molaabasi, Fatemeh; Sheikhnejad, Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2018-04-30

    Modulating cancer causing genes with nucleic acid based-molecules as cutting-edge approaches need efficient delivery systems to succeed in clinic. Herein, we report design and fabrication of a novel tissue penetrating Peptideticle with charge-structure switching in tumor microenvironment for an effective gene delivery. The comparative in vitro studies indicate that peptideticles identify and bind to tumor endothelial cells and efficiently penetrate into multicellular tumor spheroid. In addition, negatively charged peptideticle at pH 7.4, prevent unwanted interaction while it's sharp charge-structure switching at pH 6.2-6.9 (e.g.in tumor tissue) facilitates malignant cells penetration. More importantly, upon systemic administration into tumor bearing mice, peptideticles effectively localized in tumor tissue and delivered luciferase gene with a 200-fold higher efficiency compared to their non-pH-responsive counterparts. In conclusion, this study presents a robust nanoassembly of safe materials for high efficient tumor gene delivery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  20. Widespread gene transfer in the central nervous system of cynomolgus macaques following delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hinderer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 vectors have recently been shown to transduce cells throughout the central nervous system of nonhuman primates when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, a finding which could lead to a minimally invasive approach to treat genetic and acquired diseases affecting the entire CNS. We characterized the transduction efficiency of two routes of vector administration into the CSF of cynomolgus macaques—lumbar puncture, which is typically used in clinical practice, and suboccipital puncture, which is more commonly used in veterinary medicine. We found that delivery of vector into the cisterna magna via suboccipital puncture is up to 100-fold more efficient for achieving gene transfer to the brain. In addition, we evaluated the inflammatory response to AAV9-mediated GFP expression in the nonhuman primate CNS. We found that while CSF lymphocyte counts increased following gene transfer, there were no clinical or histological signs of immune toxicity. Together these data indicate that delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna is an effective method for achieving gene transfer in the CNS, and suggest that adapting this uncommon injection method for human trials could vastly increase the efficiency of gene delivery.

  1. Polyamidoamine-Decorated Nanodiamonds as a Hybrid Gene Delivery Vector and siRNA Structural Characterization at the Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Lee, Dukhee; Kim, Nam Ah; Jung, Hun Soon; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Young Kee; Kang, Eunah; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2017-09-20

    Nanodiamonds have been discovered as a new exogenous material source in biomedical applications. As a new potent form of nanodiamond (ND), polyamidoamine-decorated nanodiamonds (PAMAM-NDs) were prepared for E7 or E6 oncoprotein-suppressing siRNA gene delivery for high risk human papillomavirus-induced cervical cancer, such as types 16 and 18. It is critical to understand the physicochemical properties of siRNA complexes immobilized on cationic solid ND surfaces in the aspect of biomolecular structural and conformational changes, as the new inert carbon material can be extended into the application of a gene delivery vector. A spectral study of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between siRNA and PAMAM-NDs decreased endothermic heat capacity. Moreover, siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes showed low cell cytotoxicity and significant suppressing effects for forward target E6 and E7 oncogenic genes, proving functional and therapeutic efficacy. The cellular uptake of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes at 8 h was visualized by macropinocytes and direct endosomal escape of the siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes. It is presumed that PAMAM-NDs provided a buffering cushion to adjust the pH and hard mechanical stress to escape endosomes. siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes provide a potential organic/inorganic hybrid material source for gene delivery carriers.

  2. Application of pulsed-magnetic field enhances non-viral gene delivery in primary cells from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamau Chapman, Sarah W. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hassa, Paul O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Heidelberg, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Koch-Schneidemann, Sabine; Rechenberg, Brigitte von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe [MatSearch, Chemin Jean Pavillard 14, 1009 Pully (Switzerland); Steitz, Benedikt; Petri-Fink, Alke; Hofmann, Heinrich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hottiger, Michael O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: hottiger@vetbio.uzh.ch

    2008-04-15

    Primary cell lines are more difficult to transfect when compared to immortalized/transformed cell lines, and hence new techniques are required to enhance the transfection efficiency in these cells. We isolated and established primary cultures of synoviocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, melanocytes, macrophages, lung fibroblasts, and embryonic fibroblasts. These cells differed in several properties, and hence were a good representative sample of cells that would be targeted for expression and delivery of therapeutic genes in vivo. The efficiency of gene delivery in all these cells was enhanced using polyethylenimine-coated polyMAG magnetic nanoparticles, and the rates (17-84.2%) surpassed those previously achieved using other methods, especially in cells that are difficult to transfect. The application of permanent and pulsating magnetic fields significantly enhanced the transfection efficiencies in synoviocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, melanocytes and lung fibroblasts, within 5 min of exposure to these magnetic fields. This is an added advantage for future in vivo applications, where rapid gene delivery is required before systemic clearance or filtration of the gene vectors occurs.

  3. Self-focusing therapeutic gene delivery with intelligent gene vector swarms: intra-swarm signalling through receptor transgene expression in targeted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery in vivo that is tightly focused on the intended target cells is essential to maximize the benefits of gene therapy and to reduce unwanted side-effects. Cell surface markers are immediately available for probing by therapeutic gene vectors and are often used to direct gene transfer with these vectors to specific target cell populations. However, it is not unusual for the choice of available extra-cellular markers to be too scarce to provide a reliable definition of the desired therapeutically relevant set of target cells. Therefore, interrogation of intra-cellular determinants of cell-specificity, such as tissue-specific transcription factors, can be vital in order to provide detailed cell-guiding information to gene vector particles. An important improvement in cell-specific gene delivery can be achieved through auto-buildup in vector homing efficiency using intelligent 'self-focusing' of swarms of vector particles on target cells. Vector self-focusing was previously suggested to rely on the release of diffusible chemo-attractants after a successful target-specific hit by 'scout' vector particles. I hypothesize that intelligent self-focusing behaviour of swarms of cell-targeted therapeutic gene vectors can be accomplished without the employment of difficult-to-use diffusible chemo-attractants, instead relying on the intra-swarm signalling through cells expressing a non-diffusible extra-cellular receptor for the gene vectors. In the proposed model, cell-guiding information is gathered by the 'scout' gene vector particles, which: (1) attach to a variety of cells via a weakly binding (low affinity) receptor; (2) successfully facilitate gene transfer into these cells; (3) query intra-cellular determinants of cell-specificity with their transgene expression control elements and (4) direct the cell-specific biosynthesis of a vector-encoded strongly binding (high affinity) cell-surface receptor. Free members of the vector swarm loaded with therapeutic cargo

  4. Carbamazepine solubility enhancement in tandem with swellable polymer osmotic pump tablet: A promising approach for extended delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Rabti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary osmotic pump (EOP is a unique extended release (ER drug delivery system based on the principle of osmosis. It has the ability to minimize the amount of the drug, accumulation and fluctuation in drug level during chronic uses. Carbamazepine (CBZ, a poorly water-soluble antiepileptic drug, has serious side effects on overdoses and chronic uses. The aim of the present study was to design a new EOP tablet of CBZ containing a solubility enhancers and swellable polymer to reduce its side effects and enhance the patient compliance. Firstly, a combination of solubilizing carriers was selected to improve the dissolution of the slightly soluble drug. Then, designing the new EOP tablet and investigating the effect of different variables of core and coat formulations on drug release behavior by single parameter optimization and by Taguchi orthogonal design with analysis of variance (ANOVA, respectively. The results showed that CBZ solubility was successfully enhanced by a minimum amount of combined polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30 and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS. The plasticizer amount and molecular weight (MW together with the osmotic agent amount directly affect the release rate whereas the swellable polymer amount and viscosity together with the semi-permeable membrane (SPM thickness inversely influence the release rate. In addition, the tendency of following zero order kinetics was mainly affected by the coat components rather than those of the core. Further, orifice size does not have any significant effect on the release behavior within the range of 0.1 mm to 0.8 mm. In this study we report the successful formulation of CBZ-EOP tablets, which were similar to the marketed product Tegretol CR 200 and able to satisfy the USP criterion limits and to deliver about 80% of CBZ at a rate of approximately zero order for up to 12 h.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of cationic nanomicelles for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandke, Rhishikesh Subhash

    The goal of proposed study was to contribute towards the development of a nano size, high efficiency and low toxicity non-viral polymeric vector for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. A series of fatty acid grafted low-molecular-weight chitosan (N-acyl LMWCs) were synthesized, purified and characterized for their physicochemical properties using various analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and dynamic light scattering. The formulation parameters including pH, sonication duration, and filtration altered the physicochemical characteristics of N-acyl LMWC nanomicelles. The acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids also had an impact on the physicochemical properties and the transfection efficiency of nanomicelles. N-acyl LMWC nanomicelles showed efficient in vitro transfection as visualized and quantified using a reporter plasmid (encoding green fluorescent protein), and therapeutic plasmids (encoding for interleukin-4 and interleukin-10), respectively. The in vitro transfection efficiencies of N-acyl LMWCs with 18:1 and 18:2 grafts (oleic and linoleic acids) were comparable with FuGENERTM HD (marketed non-viral vector) but were ˜8-fold and 35-fold higher as compared to LMWC and naked DNA, respectively. The in vivo transfection efficiency of N-acyl LMWC to deliver plasmids individually encoding IL-4 and IL-10 as well as a bicistronic plasmid encoding both IL-4 and IL-10 was studied in a multiple, low-dose streptozotocin induced diabetic mouse model. The transfection efficiency of pDNA/N-acyl LMWC polyplexes injected via intramuscular route showed significant improvement (ptumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. The pancreas of pDNA/N-acyl LMWC polyplex treated animals exhibited protection from streptozotocin-induced insulitis and the delivery systems were biocompatible. Histological studies revealed that there were no signs of chronic inflammation at the injection site. The bicistronic plasmid exhibited

  6. Adiabatic differential scanning calorimetric study of divalent cation induced DNA - DPPC liposome formulation compacted for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Süleymanoglu

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexes between nucleic acids and phospholipid vesicles have been developed as stable non-viral gene delivery vehicles. Currently employed approach uses positively charged lipid species and a helper zwitterionic lipid, the latter being applied for the stabilization of the whole complex. However, besides problematic steps during their preparation, cationic lipids are toxic for cells. The present work describes some energetic issues pertinent to preparation and use of neutral lipid-DNA self-assemblies, thus avoiding toxicity of lipoplexes. Differential scanning calorimetry data showed stabilization of polynucleotide helix upon its interaction with liposomes in the presence of divalent metal cations. It is thus possible to suggest this self-assembly as an improved formulation for use in gene delivery.

  7. Effective in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by the combination of liposomal bubbles (bubble liposomes) and ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Gene delivery with a physical mechanism using ultrasound (US) and nano/microbubbles is expected as an ideal system in terms of delivering plasmid DNA noninvasively into a specific target site. We developed novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes (BLs)) containing the lipid nanobubbles of perfluoropropane which were utilized for contrast enhancement in ultrasonography. BLs were smaller in diameter than conventional microbubbles and induced cavitation upon exposure ultrasound. In addition, when coupled with US exposure, BLs could deliver plasmid DNA into various types of cells in vitro and in vivo. The transfection efficiency with BLs and US was higher than that with conventional lipofection method. Therefore, the combination of BLs and US might be an efficient and novel nonviral gene delivery system.

  8. Gene Silencing in Skin After Deposition of Self-Delivery siRNA With a Motorized Microneedle Array Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn P Hickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of potent siRNAs that effectively target genes responsible for skin disorders, translation to the clinic has been hampered by inefficient delivery through the stratum corneum barrier and into the live cells of the epidermis. Although hypodermic needles can be used to transport siRNA through the stratum corneum, this approach is limited by pain caused by the injection and the small volume of tissue that can be accessed by each injection. The use of microneedle arrays is a less painful method for siRNA delivery, but restricted payload capacity limits this approach to highly potent molecules. To address these challenges, a commercially available motorized microneedle array skin delivery device was evaluated. This device combines the positive elements of both hypodermic needles and microneedle array technologies with little or no pain to the patient. Application of fluorescently tagged self-delivery (sd-siRNA to both human and murine skin resulted in distribution throughout the treated skin. In addition, efficient silencing (78% average reduction of reporter gene expression was achieved in a transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse skin model. These results indicate that this device effectively delivers functional sd-siRNA with an efficiency that predicts successful clinical translation.

  9. Side-chain amino-acid-based pH-responsive self-assembled block copolymers for drug delivery and gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonu; Acharya, Rituparna; Chatterji, Urmi; De, Priyadarsi

    2013-12-10

    Developing safe and effective nanocarriers for multitype of delivery system is advantageous for several kinds of successful biomedicinal therapy with the same carrier. In the present study, we have designed amino acid biomolecules derived hybrid block copolymers which can act as a promising vehicle for both drug delivery and gene transfer. Two representative natural chiral amino acid-containing (l-phenylalanine and l-alanine) vinyl monomers were polymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process in the presence of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) based macro-chain transfer agents (mPEGn-CTA) for the synthesis of well-defined side-chain amino-acid-based amphiphilic block copolymers, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(Boc-amino acid methacryloyloxyethyl ester) (mPEGn-b-P(Boc-AA-EMA)). The self-assembled micellar aggregation of these amphiphilic block copolymers were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potential applications of these hybrid polymers as drug carrier have been demonstrated in vitro by encapsulation of nile red dye or doxorubicin drug into the core of the micellar nanoaggregates. Deprotection of side-chain Boc- groups in the amphiphilic block copolymers subsequently transformed them into double hydrophilic pH-responsive cationic block copolymers having primary amino groups in the side-chain terminal. The DNA binding ability of these cationic block copolymers were further investigated by using agarose gel retardation assay and AFM. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated their biocompatible nature and these polymers can serve as "smart" materials for promising bioapplications.

  10. Degradable self-assembling dendrons for gene delivery: experimental and theoretical insights into the barriers to cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Anna; Posocco, Paola; Pricl, Sabrina; Calderon, Marcelo; Haag, Rainer; Hwang, Mark E; Shum, Victor W T; Pack, Daniel W; Smith, David K

    2011-12-21

    This paper uses a combined experimental and theoretical approach to gain unique insight into gene delivery. We report the synthesis and investigation of a new family of second-generation dendrons with four triamine surface ligands capable of binding to DNA, degradable aliphatic-ester dendritic scaffolds, and hydrophobic units at their focal points. Dendron self-assembly significantly enhances DNA binding as monitored by a range of experimental methods and confirmed by multiscale modeling. Cellular uptake studies indicate that some of these dendrons are highly effective at transporting DNA into cells (ca. 10 times better than poly(ethyleneimine), PEI). However, levels of transgene expression are relatively low (ca. 10% of PEI). This indicates that these dendrons cannot navigate all of the intracellular barriers to gene delivery. The addition of chloroquine indicates that endosomal escape is not the limiting factor in this case, and it is shown, both experimentally and theoretically, that gene delivery can be correlated with the ability of the dendron assemblies to release DNA. Mass spectrometric assays demonstrate that the dendrons, as intended, do degrade under biologically relevant conditions over a period of hours. Multiscale modeling of degraded dendron structures suggests that complete dendron degradation would be required for DNA release. Importantly, in the presence of the lower pH associated with endosomes, or when bound to DNA, complete degradation of these dendrons becomes ineffective on the transfection time scale-we propose this explains the poor transfection performance of these dendrons. As such, this paper demonstrates that taking this kind of multidisciplinary approach can yield a fundamental insight into the way in which dendrons can navigate barriers to cellular uptake. Lessons learned from this work will inform future dendron design for enhanced gene delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral gene delivery systems: determination of loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carolina; Suñé, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Sarrate, Rocío; Fàbregas, Anna; Miñarro, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramon

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan has been studied for use in particle delivery systems for therapeutic purposes, since one of its most important applications is as a non-viral vector in gene therapy. Due to its positive charge, it is capable of forming DNA complexes (polyplexes) obtained through several methods and with the property of protecting nucleic acids. Two methods for obtaining the nanoparticles of chitosan-nucleic acids are reported in this study: simple complexation (of depolymerized chitosan or of different chitosan salts with plasmid) and ionic gelation (by adsorption of plasmid in the nanoparticles or by encapsulation of plasmid into nanoparticles). The determination of the loading efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles with the plasmid is carried out by electrophoretic mobility of the samples on agarose gel. Furthermore, the nanoparticles have been characterized according to their morphology, size and surface charge using AFM, TEM, laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering techniques. The polyplexes obtained have been found to be spherical and nanometric in size (between 100-230nm) with a zeta potential between 37 and 48mV. Positive results have been obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis for all studied cases: a concentration of between 20 and 30μg/mL of chitosan salts is required while for the remaining chitosan samples studied, 100% loading efficiency does not occur until a concentration equal to 100μg/mL (regardless of previous depolymerisation and the method performed). Chitosan-plasmid nanocapsules have been obtained at the polymer concentrations worked with (between 0.025 and 0.2%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant enzyme gene delivery to protect from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L; Louboutin, J-P; Reyes, B A S; Van Bockstaele, E J; Strayer, D S

    2006-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function: HIV-1 gene products, especially gp120, induce free radical-mediated apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), are among the potential mediators of these effects. Neurons readily form ROS after gp120 exposure, and so might be protected from ROS-mediated injury by antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and/or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). Both enzymes detoxify oxygen free radicals. As they are highly efficient gene delivery vehicles for neurons, recombinant SV40-derived vectors were used for these studies. Cultured mature neurons derived from NT2 cells and primary fetal neurons were transduced with rSV40 vectors carrying human SOD1 and/or GPx1 cDNAs, then exposed to gp120. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Transduction efficiency of both neuron populations was >95%, as assayed by immunostaining. Transgene expression was also ascertained by Western blotting and direct assays of enzyme activity. Gp120 induced apoptosis in a high percentage of unprotected NT2-N. Transduction with SV(SOD1) and SV(GPx1) before gp120 challenge reduced neuronal apoptosis by >90%. Even greater protection was seen in cells treated with both vectors in sequence. Given singly or in combination, they protect neuronal cells from HIV-1-gp120 induced apoptosis. We tested whether rSV40 s can deliver antioxidant enzymes to the CNS in vivo: intracerebral injection of SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) into the caudate putamen of rat brain yielded excellent transgene expression in neurons. In vivo transduction using SV(SOD1) also protected neurons from subsequent gp120-induced apoptosis after injection of both into the caudate putamen of rat brain. Thus, SOD1 and GPx1 can be delivered by SV40 vectors in vitro or in vivo. This approach may merit consideration for

  13. Efficient gene delivery to primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells: The innate and acquired properties of vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasharrofi, Nooshin; Kouhkan, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid

    2017-02-25

    The purpose of this study is designing non-viral gene delivery vectors for transfection of the primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). In the design process of gene delivery vectors, considering physicochemical properties of vectors alone does not seem to be enough since they interact with constituents of the surrounding environment and hence gain new characteristics. Moreover, due to these interactions, their cargo can be released untimely or undergo degradation before reaching to the target cells. Further, the characteristics of cells itself can also influence the transfection efficacy. For example, the non-dividing property of RPE cells can impede the transfection efficiency which in most studies was ignored by using immortal cell lines. In this study, vectors with different characteristics differing in mixing orders of pDNA, PEI polymer, and PLGA/PEI or PLGA nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Then, their characteristics and efficacy in gene delivery to RPE cells in the presence of vitreous or fetal bovine serum (FBS) were evaluated. All formulations showed no cytotoxicity and were able to protect pDNA from premature release and degradation in extracellular media. Also, the adsorption of vitreous or serum proteins onto the surface of vectors changed their properties and hence cellular uptake and transfection efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of heterocyclic-based head group modifications on the structure-activity relationship of tocopherol-based lipids for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosangi, Mallikarjun; Mujahid, Thasneem Yoosuf; Gopal, Vijaya; Patri, Srilakshmi V

    2016-07-12

    Gene therapy, a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, is greatly dependent on the development of efficient vectors. In this study, we designed and synthesized several tocopherol-based lipids varying in the head group region. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of stable aqueous suspensions of lipids that were synthetically prepared and formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) as the co-lipid. The physicochemical properties such as the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, stability and morphology of these formulations were investigated. Interaction with plasmid DNA was clearly demonstrated through gel binding and EtBr displacement assays. Further, the transfection potential was examined in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a, hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines, all of different origins. Cell-uptake assays with N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylmorpholinium, N-methylimidazolium and N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium head group containing formulations evidently depicted efficient cell uptake as observed by particulate cytoplasmic fluorescence. Trafficking of lipoplexes using an endocytic marker and rhodamine-labeled phospholipid DHPE indicated that the lipoplexes were not sequestered in the lysosomes. Importantly, lipoplexes were non-toxic and mediated good transfection efficiency as analyzed by β-Gal and GFP reporter gene expression assays which established the superior activity of lipids whose structures correlate strongly with the transfection efficiency.

  15. Balancing Cell Migration with Matrix Degradation Enhances Gene Delivery to Cells Cultured Three-Dimensionally Within Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Huang, Alyssa; Shikanova, Ariella; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2010-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, hydrogels are employed to fill defects and support the infiltration of cells that can ultimately regenerate tissue. Gene delivery within hydrogels targeting infiltrating cells has the potential to promote tissue formation, but the delivery efficiency of nonviral vectors within hydrogels is low hindering their applicability in tissue regeneration. To improve their functionality, we have conducted a mechanistic study to investigate the contribution of cell migration and matrix degradation on gene delivery. In this report, lipoplexes were entrapped within hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) crosslinked with peptides containing matrix metalloproteinase degradable sequences. The mesh size of these hydrogels is substantially less than the size of the entrapped lipoplexes, which can function to retain vectors. Cell migration and transfection were simultaneously measured within hydrogels with varying density of cell adhesion sites (Arg-Gly-Asp peptides) and solids content. Increasing RGD density increased expression levels up to 100-fold, while greater solids content sustained expression levels for 16 days. Increasing RGD density and decreasing solids content increased cell migration, which indicates expression levels increase with increased cell migration. Initially exposing cells to vector resulted in transient expression that declined after 2 days, verifying the requirement of migration to sustain expression. Transfected cells were predominantly located within the population of migrating cells for hydrogels that supported cell migration. Although the small mesh size retained at least 70% of the lipoplexes in the absence of cells after 32 days, the presence of cells decreased retention to 10% after 16 days. These results indicate that vectors retained within hydrogels contact migrating cells, and that persistent cell migration can maintain elevated expression levels. Thus matrix degradation and cell migration are fundamental design

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bifeng; Cui, Daxiang; Xu, Ping; Ozkan, Cengiz; Feng, Gao; Ozkan, Mihri; Huang, Tuo; Chu, Bingfeng; Li, Qing; He, Rong; Hu, Guohan

    2009-03-01

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH2-asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang; Xu Ping; Feng Gao; Huang Tuo; Li Qing; He Rong [Department of Bio-Nano-Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ozkan, Cengiz [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue-Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Ozkan, Mihri [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Chu, Bingfeng [Department of Stomatology, General Hospital of PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing100853 (China); Hu Guohan [Department of Neurosurgery of Changzheng Hospital, 415 Fengyang Road, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 20003 (China)], E-mail: dxcui@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: huguohan6504@sina.com

    2009-03-25

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH{sub 2}-asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang; Xu Ping; Feng Gao; Huang Tuo; Li Qing; He Rong; Ozkan, Cengiz; Ozkan, Mihri; Chu, Bingfeng; Hu Guohan

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH 2 -asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  19. Protein kinase A inhibition modulates the intracellular routing of gene delivery vehicles in HeLa cells, leading to productive transfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular entry of nanoparticles for drug- and gene delivery relies on various endocytic pathways, including clathrin-and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. To improve delivery, i.e., the therapeutic and/or cell biological impact, current efforts are aimed at avoiding processing of the carriers along the

  20. Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with non-ionic Pluronic block copolymers increases gene expression in injected muscles and lymphoid organs. We studied the role of immune cells in muscle transfection upon inflammation. Local inflammation in murine hind limb ischemia model (MHLIM) drastically increased DNA, RNA and expressed protein levels in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA/Pluronic. The systemic inflammation (MHLIM or peritonitis) also increased expression of pDNA/Pluronic in the muscles. When pDNA/Pluronic was injected in ischemic muscles the reporter gene, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) co-localized with desmin(+) muscle fibers and CD11b(+) macrophages (MØs), suggesting transfection of MØs along with the muscle cells. P85 enhanced (∼ 4 orders) transfection of MØs with pDNA in vitro. Moreover, adoptively transferred MØs were shown to pass the transgene to inflamed muscle cells in MHLIM. Using a co-culture of myotubes (MTs) and transfected MØs expressing a reporter gene under constitutive (cmv-luciferase) or muscle specific (desmin-luciferase) promoter we demonstrated that P85 enhances horizontal gene transfer from MØ to MTs. Therefore, MØs can play an important role in muscle transfection with pDNA/Pluronic during inflammation, with both inflammation and Pluronic contributing to the increased gene expression. pDNA/Pluronic has potential for therapeutic gene delivery in muscle pathologies that involve inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Delivery of promise of pheromones: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue contains the remainder of the reviews and research papers on the topic of using semiochemicals in pest management, but with different topics. It leads off with a review article that presents an overview of the prospects and technical details of using semiochemicals for detection and samp...

  2. Direct visualization of electroporation-assisted in vivo gene delivery to tumors using intravital microscopy – spatial and time dependent distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachs Gabi U

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the treatment of experimental tumors. However, the transfection efficiency of electroporation-assisted DNA delivery is still low compared to viral methods and there is a clear need to optimize this approach. In order to optimize treatment, knowledge about spatial and time dependency of gene expression following delivery is of utmost importance in order to improve gene delivery. Intravital microscopy of tumors growing in dorsal skin fold window chambers is a useful method for monitoring gene transfection, since it allows non-invasive dynamic monitoring of gene expression in tumors in a live animal. Methods Intravital microscopy was used to monitor real time spatial distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP and time dependence of transfection efficiency in syngeneic P22 rat tumor model. DNA alone, liposome-DNA complexes and electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using two different sets of electric pulse parameters were compared. Results Electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz was superior to other methods and resulted in 22% increase in fluorescence intensity in the tumors up to 6 days post-transfection, compared to the non-transfected area in granulation tissue. Functional GFP was detected within 5 h after transfection. Cells expressing GFP were detected throughout the tumor, but not in the surrounding tissue that was not exposed to electric pulses. Conclusions Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a suitable method for monitoring time and spatial distribution of gene expression in experimental tumors and provided evidence that electroporation-assisted gene delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz is an effective method, resulting in early onset and homogenous

  3. Direct visualization of electroporation-assisted in vivo gene delivery to tumors using intravital microscopy – spatial and time dependent distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemazar, Maja; Wilson, Ian; Dachs, Gabi U; Tozer, Gillian M; Sersa, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the treatment of experimental tumors. However, the transfection efficiency of electroporation-assisted DNA delivery is still low compared to viral methods and there is a clear need to optimize this approach. In order to optimize treatment, knowledge about spatial and time dependency of gene expression following delivery is of utmost importance in order to improve gene delivery. Intravital microscopy of tumors growing in dorsal skin fold window chambers is a useful method for monitoring gene transfection, since it allows non-invasive dynamic monitoring of gene expression in tumors in a live animal. Intravital microscopy was used to monitor real time spatial distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time dependence of transfection efficiency in syngeneic P22 rat tumor model. DNA alone, liposome-DNA complexes and electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using two different sets of electric pulse parameters were compared. Electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz was superior to other methods and resulted in 22% increase in fluorescence intensity in the tumors up to 6 days post-transfection, compared to the non-transfected area in granulation tissue. Functional GFP was detected within 5 h after transfection. Cells expressing GFP were detected throughout the tumor, but not in the surrounding tissue that was not exposed to electric pulses. Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a suitable method for monitoring time and spatial distribution of gene expression in experimental tumors and provided evidence that electroporation-assisted gene delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz is an effective method, resulting in early onset and homogenous distribution of gene expression in the syngeneic P22 rat tumor model

  4. In vivo targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons mediated by neurotropic poly(ethylene imine-based nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes CDF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cátia DF Lopes,1–3,* Hugo Oliveira,1,* Inês Estevão,1 Liliana Raquel Pires,1 Ana Paula Pêgo1,2,4,5 1INEB – Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto (UPorto, Porto, Portugal; 2i3S – Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, NanoBiomaterials for Targeted Therapies Group, UPorto, Porto, Portugal; 3FMUP – Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; 4ICBAS – Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, UPorto, Porto, Portugal; 5FEUP – Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A major challenge in neuronal gene therapy is to achieve safe, efficient, and minimally invasive transgene delivery to neurons. In this study, we report the use of a nonviral neurotropic poly(ethylene imine-based nanoparticle that is capable of mediating neuron-specific transfection upon a subcutaneous injection. Nanoparticles were targeted to peripheral neurons by using the nontoxic carboxylic fragment of tetanus toxin (HC, which, besides being neurotropic, is capable of being retrogradely transported from neuron terminals to the cell bodies. Nontargeted particles and naked plasmid DNA were used as control. Five days after treatment by subcutaneous injection in the footpad of Wistar rats, it was observed that 56% and 64% of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia neurons, respectively, were expressing the reporter protein. The delivery mediated by HC-functionalized nanoparticles spatially limited the transgene expression, in comparison with the controls. Histological examination revealed no significant adverse effects in the use of the proposed delivery system. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the developed neurotropic nanoparticles for the minimally invasive delivery of genes to the peripheral nervous system, opening new avenues for the application of gene therapy strategies in the treatment of peripheral

  5. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Williams, Elsie M. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B. [Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F., E-mail: david.ackerley@vuw.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-08

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT.

  6. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A.; Williams, Elsie M.; Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT

  7. Decationized polyplexes for targeted delivery of nucleic acids : from carrier design to in vivo evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novo, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy is considered a promising treatment for current intractable diseases. However, the clinical applicability of gene therapy is highly dependent on the development of safe and efficient gene delivery vectors. So far, viral vectors have been used for clinical applications, but due to severe

  8. Plant thymidine kinase 1: a novel efficient suicide gene for malignant glioma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Z.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Willer, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains poor, and new treatments are urgently needed. Targeted suicide gene therapy exploits the enzymatic conversion of a prodrug, such as a nucleoside analog, into a cytotoxic compound. Although this therapeutic strategy has been considered a promising regimen...... suicide gene therapy system in combination with stem cell mediated gene delivery promises new treatment of malignant gliomas....

  9. TACN-based cationic lipids with amino acid backbone and double tails: materials for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Xun, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25 kDa PEI. Cationic liposomes prepared from these lipids and DOPE showed good DNA affinity, and full DNA condensation was found at N/P ratio of 3 via agarose gel electrophoresis. The lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay, which gave proper particle sizes and zeta-potentials for transfection. In vitro gene transfection results in two cell lines reveal that TAN (with aspartic acid and amide bond in the structure) shows the best transfection efficiency, which is close to commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA vaccination for cervical cancer: Strategic optimisation of RALA mediated gene delivery from a biodegradable microneedle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grace; Ali, Ahlam A; McCrudden, Cian M; McBride, John W; McCaffrey, Joanne; Robson, Tracy; Kett, Vicky L; Dunne, Nicholas J; Donnelly, Ryan F; McCarthy, Helen O

    2018-03-03

    Dissolvable microneedles can be employed to deliver DNA to antigen presenting cells within the skin. However, this technology faces two main challenges: the poor transfection efficacy of pDNA following release from the microneedle matrix, and the limited loading capacity of the micron-scale devices. Two-tier delivery systems combining microneedle platforms and DNA delivery vectors have increased efficacy but the challenge of increasing the loading capacity remains. This study utilised lyophilisation to increase the loading of RALA/pDNA nanoparticles within dissolvable PVA microneedles. As a result, delivery was significantly enhanced in vivo into an appropriate range for DNA vaccination (∼50 μg per array). Furthermore, modifying the manufacturing process was not detrimental to the microneedle mechanical properties or cargo functionality. It was demonstrated that arrays retained mechanical and functional stability over short term storage, and were able to elicit gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Finally, treatment with this novel formulation significantly retarded the growth of established tumours, and proved superior to standard intramuscular injection in a preclinical model of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The novel albumin-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles for gene delivery: preparation, optimization and cell uptake investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mahdi [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Avci, Pinar [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States); Mobasseri, Rezvan [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamblin, Michael R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States); Naderi-Manesh, Hossein, E-mail: naderman@modares.ac.ir [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Natural polymers and proteins such as chitosan (CS) and albumin (Alb) have recently attracted much attention both in drug delivery and gene delivery. The underlying rationale is their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and controlled release. This study aimed to prepare novel albumin-chitosan-DNA (Alb-CS-DNA) core-shell nanoparticles as a plasmid delivery system and find the best conditions for their preparation. Phase separation method and ionic interaction were used for preparation of Alb nanoparticles and Alb-CS-DNA core-shell nanoparticles, respectively. The effects of three important independent variables (1) CS/Alb mass ratio, (2) the ratios of moles of the amine groups of cationic polymers to those of the phosphate groups of DNA (N/P ratio), and (3) Alb concentration, on the nanoparticle size and loading efficiency of the plasmid were investigated and optimized through Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be CS/Alb mass ratio = 3, N/P ratio = 8.24 and Alb concentration = 0.1 mg/mL. The most critical factors for the size of nanoparticles and loading efficiency were Alb concentration and N/P ratio. The optimized nanoparticles had an average size of 176 {+-} 3.4 nm and loading efficiency of 80 {+-} 3.9 %. Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were not toxic. The high cellular uptake of nanoparticles ({approx}85 %) was shown by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.

  12. Development of a Targeted anti-HER2 scFv Chimeric Peptide for Gene Delivery into HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Roya; Nazari, Mahboobeh; Alipour, Mohsen; Majidi, Asia; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-12-30

    Chimeric polymers are known as suitable carriers for gene delivery. Certain properties are critical for a polymer to be used as a gene delivery vector. A new polymer was designed for the targeted delivery of genes into breast cancer cell lines, based on MPG peptide. It is composed of different functional domains, including HIV gp41, nuclear localization sequence of SV40 T-antigen, two C-terminus repeats of histone H1, and the scFv of anti-HER2 antibody. The results demonstrated that the vector can effectively condense plasmid DNA into nanoparticles with an average size of 250nm. Moreover, fusion of the scFv portion to the carrier brought about the specific recognition of HER2. Overall, the transfection efficiency of the vector demonstrated that it could deliver the desired gene into BT-474 HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cationic polymeric gene delivery of beta-glucuronidase for doxorubicin prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, MJ; Storm, G; Hennink, WE; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Background An approach to improve current chemotherapy is the selective transduction of tumor cells with suicide genes to sensitize these cells to prodrugs of cytostatic agents; Methods In this study, gene transfer was accomplished with the cationic polymer poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)

  14. Development of Novel Polymeric Materials for Gene Therapy and pH-Sensitive Drug Delivery: Modeling, Synthesis, Characterization, and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Curtis [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The underlying theme of this thesis is the use of polymeric materials in bioapplications. Chapters 2-5 either develop a fundamental understanding of current materials used for bioapplications or establish protocols and procedures used in characterizing and synthesizing novel materials. In chapters 6 and 7 these principles and procedures are applied to the development of materials to be used for gene therapy and drug delivery. Chapter one is an introduction to the ideas that will be necessary to understand the subsequent chapters, as well as a literature review of these topics. Chapter two is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Controlled Release'' that examines the mechanism of drug release from a polymer gel, as well as experimental design suggestions for the evaluation of water soluble drug delivery systems. Chapter three is a paper that has been published in the ''Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences'' that discusses the effect ionic salts have on properties of the polymer systems examined in chapter two. Chapter four is a paper published in the Materials Research Society Fall 2000 Symposium Series dealing with the design and synthesis of a pH-sensitive polymeric drug delivery device. Chapter five is a paper that has been published in the journal ''Biomaterials'' proposing a novel polymer/metal composite for use as a biomaterial in hip arthroplasty surgery. Chapter six is a paper that will appear in an upcoming volume of the Journal ''Biomaterials'' dealing with the synthesis of a novel water soluble cationic polymer with possible applications in non-viral gene therapy. Chapter seven is a paper that has been submitted to ''Macromolecules'' discussing several novel block copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(diethylamino ethyl methacrylate) that possess both pH-sensitive and temperature sensitive properties. Chapter eight contains a

  15. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  16. Titania nanotube delivery fetal bovine serum for enhancing MC3T3-E1 activity and osteogenic gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Xinming; Li, Zhaoyang; Liu, Yunde; Yang, Xianjin

    2015-01-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) delivery of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was conducted on titanium (Ti) to enhance bone tissue repair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) showed FBS increased the tube wall thickness and decreased the tube diameter. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared further confirmed that FBS completely covered the TNT and changed the surface composition. Water contact angle tests showed TNT/FBS possessed hydrophilic properties. Compared to original Ti, the TNT/FBS group had more attached osteoblasts after 2 h and enhanced filopodia growth at 0.5 h. Significantly, more osteoblasts were also observed on TNT/FBS after 7 d culturing. FBS was released steadily from TNT; about 70% of FBS had been released at 3 d and 90% at 5 d, as shown by the bicinchoninic acid method. TNT/FBS also enhanced subsequent osteoblast differentiation and gene expression; the quantum real-time polymerase chain reaction test showed that TNT/FBS up-regulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression at 7 d and 14 d. Therefore, TNT/FBS delivered sustained in situ nutrition and enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression. - Highlights: • Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) was filled in titania nanotube (TNT) structures. • FBS provided sustained-release in situ nutrition for surface osteoblast growth. • TNT/FBS enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression

  17. Titania nanotube delivery fetal bovine serum for enhancing MC3T3-E1 activity and osteogenic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jing, E-mail: pengjingtd@163.com [Airport College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Zhang, Xinming, E-mail: xinmingmail@163.com [Tianjin Product Quality Inspection Technology Research Institute, Tianjin 300384 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yunde [School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300203 (China); Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) delivery of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was conducted on titanium (Ti) to enhance bone tissue repair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) showed FBS increased the tube wall thickness and decreased the tube diameter. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared further confirmed that FBS completely covered the TNT and changed the surface composition. Water contact angle tests showed TNT/FBS possessed hydrophilic properties. Compared to original Ti, the TNT/FBS group had more attached osteoblasts after 2 h and enhanced filopodia growth at 0.5 h. Significantly, more osteoblasts were also observed on TNT/FBS after 7 d culturing. FBS was released steadily from TNT; about 70% of FBS had been released at 3 d and 90% at 5 d, as shown by the bicinchoninic acid method. TNT/FBS also enhanced subsequent osteoblast differentiation and gene expression; the quantum real-time polymerase chain reaction test showed that TNT/FBS up-regulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression at 7 d and 14 d. Therefore, TNT/FBS delivered sustained in situ nutrition and enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression. - Highlights: • Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) was filled in titania nanotube (TNT) structures. • FBS provided sustained-release in situ nutrition for surface osteoblast growth. • TNT/FBS enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression.

  18. Murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for interleukin-12 gene delivery into Ewing sarcoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoping; Guan, Hui; Cao, Ying; Kleinerman, Eugenie S

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of interleukin 12 (IL-12) gene therapy in Ewing sarcoma and whether murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could serve as vehicles for IL-12 gene delivery. MSCs were isolated from murine bone marrow cells. Cells were phenotyped using flow cytometry. Cultured MSCs differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes using the appropriate media. Freshly isolated MSCs were transfected with adenoviral vectors containing either the beta-galactosidase (Ad:beta-gal) or the IL-12 (Ad:IL-12) gene. Expression of IL-12 was confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mice with TC71 Ewing sarcoma tumors were then treated intravenously with MSCs transfected with Ad:beta-gal or Ad:IL-12. Tumors were measured and analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of IL-12 protein. Expression of both p35 and p40 IL-12 subunits was demonstrated in MSCs transfected in vitro with Ad:IL-12. IL-12 expression was seen in tumors from mice treated with MSCs transfected with Ad:IL-12. Tumor growth was also significantly inhibited compared with that in mice treated with MSCs transfected with Ad:beta-gal. MSCs can be transfected with the IL-12 gene. These transfected cells localize to tumors after intravenous injection and induce local IL-12 protein production and the regression of established tumors. Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  19. Discovery of Antibiotics-derived Polymers for Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Synthesis and Cheminformatics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potta, Thrimoorthy; Zhen, Zhuo; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D.; Ramos, James; Breneman, Curt M.; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    We describe the combinatorial synthesis and cheminformatics modeling of aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery and expression. Fifty-six polymers were synthesized by polymerizing aminoglycosides with diglycidyl ether cross-linkers. Parallel screening resulted in identification of several lead polymers that resulted in high transgene expression levels in cells. The role of polymer physicochemical properties in determining efficacy of transgene expression was investigated using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) cheminformatics models based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) and ‘building block’ polymer structures. The QSAR model exhibited high predictive ability, and investigation of descriptors in the model, using molecular visualization and correlation plots, indicated that physicochemical attributes related to both, aminoglycosides and diglycidyl ethers facilitated transgene expression. This work synergistically combines combinatorial synthesis and parallel screening with cheminformatics-based QSAR models for discovery and physicochemical elucidation of effective antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:24331709

  20. Gene therapy strategy for long-term myocardial protection using adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of heme oxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis G; Agrawal, Reitu; Zhang, Lunan; Rezvani, Mojgan; Mangi, Abeel A; Ehsan, Afshin; Griese, Daniel P; Dell'Acqua, Giorgio; Mann, Michael J; Oyama, Junichi; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Layne, Matthew D; Perrella, Mark A; Dzau, Victor J

    2002-02-05

    Ischemia and oxidative stress are the leading mechanisms for tissue injury. An ideal strategy for preventive/protective therapy would be to develop an approach that could confer long-term transgene expression and, consequently, tissue protection from repeated ischemia/reperfusion injury with a single administration of a therapeutic gene. In the present study, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) as a vector for direct delivery of the cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into the rat myocardium, with the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for long-term protection from ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) was delivered to normal rat hearts by intramyocardial injection. AAV-mediated transfer of the hHO-1 gene 8 weeks before acute coronary artery ligation and release led to a dramatic reduction (>75%) in left ventricular myocardial infarction. The reduction in infarct size was accompanied by decreases in myocardial lipid peroxidation and in proapoptotic Bax and proinflammatory interleukin-1beta protein abundance, concomitant with an increase in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level. This suggested that the transgene exerts its cardioprotective effects in part by reducing oxidative stress and associated inflammation and apoptotic cell death. This study documents the beneficial therapeutic effect of rAAV-mediated transfer, before myocardial injury, of a cytoprotective gene that confers long-term myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that this novel "pre-event" gene transfer approach may provide sustained tissue protection from future repeated episodes of injury and may be beneficial as preventive therapy for patients with or at risk of developing coronary ischemic events.

  1. Disulfide-functional poly(amido amine)s with tunable degradability for gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzes, M. Rachel; Akeroyd, Niels; Engbersen, Johan F. J.; Paulusse, Jos M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled degradability in response to the local environment is one of the most effective strategies to achieve spatiotemporal release of genes from a polymeric carrier. Exploiting the differences in reduction potential between the extracellular and intracellular environment, disulfides are

  2. An efficient parallel stochastic simulation method for analysis of nonviral gene delivery systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    DNA molecules into the nucleus of target cells. Several computational and experimental studies have shown that the design process of synthetic gene transfer vectors can be greatly enhanced by computational modeling and simulation. This paper proposes a

  3. Three-dimensional tumor spheroids for in vitro analysis of bacteria as gene delivery vectors in tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Annika; Sun, Zhongke; Grimm, Verena; Ampem, Grace; Riegel, Karin; Westendorf, Astrid M; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Otte, Kerstin; Dürre, Peter; Riedel, Christian U

    2015-12-12

    Several studies in animal models demonstrated that obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium, Salmonella, or Clostridium specifically colonize solid tumors. Consequently, these and other bacteria are discussed as live vectors to deliver therapeutic genes to inhibit tumor growth. Therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment using anaerobic bacteria have been investigated in different mouse models. In the present study, solid three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) of the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 were generated and tested for their potential to study prodrug-converting enzyme therapies using bacterial vectors in vitro. HT-29 MCTS resembled solid tumors displaying all relevant features with an outer zone of proliferating cells and hypoxic and apoptotic regions in the core. Upon incubation with HT-29 MCTS, Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 and Salmonella typhimurium YB1 selectively localized, survived and replicated in hypoxic areas inside MCTS. Furthermore, spores of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium sporogenes germinated in these hypoxic areas. To further evaluate the potential of MCTS to investigate therapeutic approaches using bacteria as gene delivery vectors, recombinant bifidobacteria expressing prodrug-converting enzymes were used. Expression of a secreted cytosine deaminase in combination with 5-fluorocytosine had no effect on growth of MCTS due to an intrinsic resistance of HT-29 cells to 5-fluorouracil, i.e. the converted drug. However, a combination of the prodrug CB1954 and a strain expressing a secreted chromate reductase effectively inhibited MCTS growth. Collectively, the presented results indicate that MCTS are a suitable and reliable model to investigate live bacteria as gene delivery vectors for cancer therapy in vitro.

  4. Cytosolic and Nuclear Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-ribonucleoprotein for Gene Editing Using Arginine Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mout, Rubul; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-10-20

    In this protocol, engineered Cas9-ribonucleoprotein (Cas9 protein and sgRNA, together called Cas9-RNP) and gold nanoparticles are used to make nanoassemblies that are employed to deliver Cas9-RNP into cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Cas9 protein is engineered with an N-terminus glutamic acid tag (E-tag or En, where n = the number of glutamic acid in an E-tag and usually n = 15 or 20), C-terminus nuclear localizing signal (NLS), and a C-terminus 6xHis-tag. [Cas9En hereafter] To use this protocol, the first step is to generate the required materials (gold nanoparticles, recombinant Cas9En, and sgRNA). Laboratory-synthesis of gold nanoparticles can take up to a few weeks, but can be synthesized in large batches that can be used for many years without compromising the quality. Cas9En can be cloned from a regular SpCas9 gene (Addgene plasmid id = 47327), and expressed and purified using standard laboratory procedures which are not a part of this protocol. Similarly, sgRNA can be laboratory-synthesized using in vitro transcription from a template gene (Addgene plasmid id = 51765) or can be purchased from various sources. Once these materials are ready, it takes about ~30 min to make the Cas9En-RNP complex and 10 min to make the Cas9En-RNP/nanoparticles nanoassemblies, which are immediately used for delivery (Figure 1). Complete delivery (90-95% cytoplasmic and nuclear delivery) is achieved in less than 3 h. Follow-up editing experiments require additional time based on users' need. Synthesis of arginine functionalized gold nanoparticles (ArgNPs) (Yang et al ., 2011), expression of recombinant Cas9En, and in vitro synthesis of sgRNA is reported elsewhere (Mout et al ., 2017). We report here only the generation of the delivery vehicle i.e. , the fabrication of Cas9En-RNP/ArgNPs nanoassembly.

  5. p53 and PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 gene therapy of human prostate PC-3 carcinoma xenograft, using transferrin-facilitated lipofection gene delivery strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masafumi; Iwakawa, Jun; Cheng, Helen; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2002-04-10

    We previously reported that supplementation of a cationic liposome with transferrin (Tf) greatly enhanced lipofection efficiency (P.-W. Cheng, Hum. Gene Ther. 1996;7:275-282). In this study, we examined the efficacy of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressor gene therapy in a mouse xenograft model of human prostate PC-3 carcinoma cells, using a vector consisting of dimyristoyloxypropyl-3-dimethylhydroxyethyl ammonium bromide (DMRIE)-cholesterol (DC) and Tf. When the volume of the tumors grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice reached 50-60 mm(3), three intratumoral injections of the following four formulations were performed during week 1 and then during week 3: (1) saline, (2) DC + Tf + pCMVlacZ, (3) DC + Tf + pCMVPTEN, and (4) DC + Tf + pCMVp53 (standard formulation). There was no significant difference in tumor volume and survival between group 1 and group 2 animals. As compared with group 1 controls, group 3 animals had slower tumor growth during the first 3 weeks but thereafter their tumor growth rate was similar to that of the controls. By day 2 posttreatment, group 4 animals had significantly lower tumor volume relative to initial tumor volume as well as controls at the comparable time point. Also, animals treated with p53 survived longer. Treatment with DC, Tf, pCMVp53, DC + pCMVp53, or Tf + pCMVp53 had no effect on tumor volume or survival. Expression of p53 protein and apoptosis were detected in tumors treated with the standard formulation, thus associating p53 protein expression and apoptosis with efficacy. However, p53 protein was expressed in only a fraction of the tumor cells, suggesting a role for bystander effects in the efficacy of p53 gene therapy. We conclude that intratumoral gene delivery by a nonviral vector consisting of a cationic liposome and Tf can achieve efficacious p53 gene therapy of prostate cancer.

  6. Efficacy of In Vivo Electroporation-Mediated IL-10 Gene Delivery on Survival of Skin Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Shafighi, Maziar; Beltraminelli, Helmut; Weber, Benedikt; Schmid, Ralph A; Geiser, Thomas; Gazdhar, Amiq; Hunger, Robert E

    2018-04-01

    Despite advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of flap necrosis and improvement in surgical techniques, skin flap necrosis after reconstructive surgery remains a crucial issue. We investigated the efficacy of electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer to random skin flap with an aim to accelerate wound healing and improve skin flap survival. Nine male Wistar rats (300-330 g) were divided in two groups (a) control group (n = 5), only surgery no gene transfer, and (b) experimental group, received electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer 24 h before the surgery as prophylaxis (n = 4). Random skin flap (McFarlane) was performed in both groups. Planimetry, Laser Doppler imaging, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the effect of IL-10 gene transfer between study groups at day 7. Electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer decreased percentage of flap necrosis (p value = 0.0159) and increased cutaneous perfusion compared to the control group (p value = 0.0159). In addition, Spearman's rank correlation showed a significant negative correlation between percentage of flap necrosis and Laser Index (p value = 0.0083, r -0.83, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher mean CD31 + vessel density was detected in the experimental group compared to the control group (p value = 0.0159). Additionally, semi-quantitative image analysis showed lower inflammatory cell count in experimental group compared to control group (p value = 0.0317). In vivo electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer reduced necrosis, enhanced survival and vascularity in the ischemic skin flap.

  7. Electrotransfection and lipofection show comparable efficiency for in vitro gene delivery of primary human myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Tomaz; Strazisar, Marusa; Mis, Katarina; Kotnik, Nejc; Pegan, Katarina; Lojk, Jasna; Grubic, Zoran; Pavlin, Mojca

    2015-04-01

    Transfection of primary human myoblasts offers the possibility to study mechanisms that are important for muscle regeneration and gene therapy of muscle disease. Cultured human myoblasts were selected here because muscle cells still proliferate at this developmental stage, which might have several advantages in gene therapy. Gene therapy is one of the most sought-after tools in modern medicine. Its progress is, however, limited due to the lack of suitable gene transfer techniques. To obtain better insight into the transfection potential of the presently used techniques, two non-viral transfection methods--lipofection and electroporation--were compared. The parameters that can influence transfection efficiency and cell viability were systematically approached and compared. Cultured myoblasts were transfected with the pEGFP-N1 plasmid either using Lipofectamine 2000 or with electroporation. Various combinations for the preparation of the lipoplexes and the electroporation media, and for the pulsing protocols, were tested and compared. Transfection efficiency and cell viability were inversely proportional for both approaches. The appropriate ratio of Lipofectamine and plasmid DNA provides optimal conditions for lipofection, while for electroporation, RPMI medium and a pulsing protocol using eight pulses of 2 ms at E = 0.8 kV/cm proved to be the optimal combination. The transfection efficiencies for the optimal lipofection and optimal electrotransfection protocols were similar (32 vs. 32.5%, respectively). Both of these methods are effective for transfection of primary human myoblasts; however, electroporation might be advantageous for in vivo application to skeletal muscle.

  8. Novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for highly efficient gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lok, Martin C.; Jiang, Xulin; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s containing multiple disulfide linkages (SS-PAAs) were synthesized and evaluated as nonviral gene vectors. These linear SS-PAAs could be easily obtained by Michael-type polyaddition of various primary amines to the disulfide-containing cystamine

  9. BDNF gene delivery within and beyond templated agarose multi-channel guidance scaffolds enhances peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyong; Lu, Paul; Lynam, Dan; Bednark, Bridget; Campana, W. Marie; Sakamoto, Jeff; Tuszynski, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. Approach. 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site. Main results. Twelve weeks after injury, scaffolds supported highly linear regeneration of host axons across the 15 mm lesion gap. The incorporation of BDNF-secreting cells into scaffolds significantly increased axonal regeneration, and additional injection of viral vectors expressing BDNF into the distal segment of the transected nerve significantly enhanced axonal regeneration beyond the lesion. Significance. Combinatorial treatment with multichannel bioengineered scaffolds and distal growth factor delivery significantly improves peripheral nerve repair, rivaling the gold standard of autografts.

  10. Formulation of Stable and Homogeneous Cell-Penetrating Peptide NF55 Nanoparticles for Efficient Gene Delivery In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Freimann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although advances in genomics and experimental gene therapy have opened new possibilities for treating otherwise incurable diseases, the transduction of nucleic acids into the cells and delivery in vivo remain challenging. The high molecular weight and anionic nature of nucleic acids require their packing into nanoparticles for the delivery. The efficacy of nanoparticle drugs necessitates the high bioactivity of constituents, but their distribution in organisms is mostly governed by the physical properties of nanoparticles, and therefore, generation of stable particles with strictly defined characteristics is highly essential. Using previously designed efficient cell-penetrating peptide NF55, we searched for strategies enabling control over the nanoparticle formation and properties to further improve transfection efficacy. The size of the NF55/pDNA nanoparticles correlates with the concentration of its constituents at the beginning of assembly, but characteristics of nanoparticles measured by DLS do not reliably predict the applicability of particles in in vivo studies. We introduce a new formulation approach called cryo-concentration, where we acquired stable and homogeneous nanoparticles for administration in vivo. The cryo-concentrated NF55/pDNA nanoparticles exhibit several advantages over standard formulation: They have long shelf-life and do not aggregate after reconstitution, have excellent stability against enzymatic degradation, and show significantly higher bioactivity in vivo.

  11. The use of Listeria monocytogenes as a DNA delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that lyses the phagosomal vacuole of infected cells, proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm and can actively enter adjacent cells. The pathogen is therefore well suited to exploitation as a vector for the delivery of DNA to target cells as the lifecycle favors cellular targeting with vector amplification and the potential for cell-to-cell spread. We have recently demonstrated DNA transfer by L. monocytogenes in growing tumors in murine models. Our approach exploited an ampicillin sensitive stain of L. monocytogenes which can be lysed through systemic administration of ampicillin to facilitate release of plasmid DNA for expression by infected mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the implications of this technology and the potential for future improvements of the system.

  12. Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Tong

    Full Text Available The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB. This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. We demonstrated that freshly isolated monocytes had superior inflamed-brain homing ability over MDM cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, brain trafficking of IV infused monocytes was positively correlated with the number of adoptive transferred cells, and could be further enhanced by transient disruption of the BBB with IV administration of Mannitol, Bradykinin or Serotonin right before cell infusion. A small portion of transmigrated cells was detected to differentiate into IBA-1 positive cells with microglia morphology in the brain. Finally, with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SHP30, the ability of nanoscale agent-carriage monocytes to enter the inflamed brain region was validated. In addition, lentiviral vector DHIV-101 was used to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP gene into monocytes, and the exogenous GFP gene was detected in the brain at 48 hours following IV infusion of the transduced monocytes. All together, our study has set up the optimized conditions for the more-in-depth tests and development of monocyte-mediated delivery, and our data supported

  13. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (Prooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  14. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, H; Vivekananda, J; Nielsen, B L; Ye, G N; Tewari, K K; Sanford, J C

    1990-01-01

    Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) by suitable vectors in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells, delivered by high-velocity microprojectiles, is reported here. Several chloroplast expression vectors containing bacterial cat genes, placed under the control of either psbA promoter region from pea (pHD series) or rbcL promoter region from maize (pAC series) have been used in this study. In addition, chloroplast expression vectors containing replicon fragments from pea, tobacc...

  15. Reversing Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics by Phage-Mediated Delivery of Dominant Sensitive Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, Rotem; Friedman, Nir; Molshanski-Mor, Shahar; Qimron, Udi

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen resistance to antibiotics is a rapidly growing problem, leading to an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, development of new antibiotics faces numerous obstacles, and a method that resensitizes pathogens to approved antibiotics therefore holds key advantages. We present a proof of principle for a system that restores antibiotic efficiency by reversing pathogen resistance. This system uses temperate phages to introduce, by lysogenization, the genes rpsL and gyrA...

  16. Reversing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by phage-mediated delivery of dominant sensitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Rotem; Friedman, Nir; Molshanski-Mor, Shahar; Qimron, Udi

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen resistance to antibiotics is a rapidly growing problem, leading to an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, development of new antibiotics faces numerous obstacles, and a method that resensitizes pathogens to approved antibiotics therefore holds key advantages. We present a proof of principle for a system that restores antibiotic efficiency by reversing pathogen resistance. This system uses temperate phages to introduce, by lysogenization, the genes rpsL and gyrA conferring sensitivity in a dominant fashion to two antibiotics, streptomycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. Unique selective pressure is generated to enrich for bacteria that harbor the phages carrying the sensitizing constructs. This selection pressure is based on a toxic compound, tellurite, and therefore does not forfeit any antibiotic for the sensitization procedure. We further demonstrate a possible way of reducing undesirable recombination events by synthesizing dominant sensitive genes with major barriers to homologous recombination. Such synthesis does not significantly reduce the gene's sensitization ability. Unlike conventional bacteriophage therapy, the system does not rely on the phage's ability to kill pathogens in the infected host, but instead, on its ability to deliver genetic constructs into the bacteria and thus render them sensitive to antibiotics prior to host infection. We believe that transfer of the sensitizing cassette by the constructed phage will significantly enrich for antibiotic-treatable pathogens on hospital surfaces. Broad usage of the proposed system, in contrast to antibiotics and phage therapy, will potentially change the nature of nosocomial infections toward being more susceptible to antibiotics rather than more resistant.

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of Vectored PGT121 Gene Delivery in HIV-1-Infected Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Abbink, Peter; Bricault, Christine A; Liu, Po-Ting; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Mercado, Noe B; Nanayakkara, Ovini S; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Larocca, Rafael A; Seaman, Michael S; Barouch, Dan H

    2018-04-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies. However, administration of purified bNAbs poses challenges in resource-poor settings, where the HIV-1 disease burden is greatest. In vivo vector-based production of bNAbs represents an alternative strategy. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121 in wild-type and immunocompromised C57BL/6 mice as well as in HIV-1-infected bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice. Ad5.PGT121 and AAV1.PGT121 produced functional antibody in vivo Ad5.PGT121 produced PGT121 rapidly within 6 h, whereas AAV1.PGT121 produced detectable PGT121 in serum by 72 h. Serum PGT121 levels were rapidly reduced by the generation of anti-PGT121 antibodies in immunocompetent mice but were durably maintained in immunocompromised mice. In HIV-1-infected BLT humanized mice, Ad5.PGT121 resulted in a greater reduction of viral loads than did AAV1.PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 also led to more-sustained virologic control than purified PGT121 IgG. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Further evaluation of vector delivery of HIV-1 bNAbs is warranted, although approaches to prevent the generation of antiantibody responses may also be required. IMPORTANCE Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies, but delivery of purified antibodies may prove challenging. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Copyright © 2018 Badamchi-Zadeh et al.

  18. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. Co-delivery of novel MDR-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells holds great promise for cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In this study, a multifunctional nanocomplex, composed of polyethylenimine (PEI/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonates (PSS/graphene oxide (GO and termed PPG, was prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly method to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR along with miR-21 targeted siRNA (anti-miR-21 in cancer drug resistance. ADR was firstly loaded onto the PPG surface (PPGADR by physical mixing and anti-miR-21 was sequentially loaded onto PPGADR through electric absorption to form (anti-miR-21PPGADR. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR resistant breast cancer cell line and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. Furthermore, the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PPG could be correlated with effective silencing of miR-21 and with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. The endocytosis study confirmed that PPG could effectively carry drug molecules into cells via the caveolae and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways. These results suggest that this PPG could be a potential and efficient non-viral vector for reversing MDR, and the strategy of combining anticancer drugs with miRNA therapy to overcome MDR could be an attractive approach in cancer treatment.

  19. Studies on guanidinated N-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide-N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide co-polymers as gene delivery carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhu; Liu, Wei; Guo, Liang; Li, Xinsong

    2012-01-01

    Guanidinated N-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide (APMA)-N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide (HPMA) co-polymers were prepared and evaluated to develop novel non-viral gene transfection carriers. The co-polymers were synthesized via radical co-polymerization of APMA and HPMA followed by total guanidination of amino groups, which employed guanidinated APMA (GPMA) for increasing cell-penetrating and HPMA as the positive shielding content. The molecular weight of guanidinated APMA-HPMA co-polymers (GPMA-HPMA) was determined by static light scattering. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and transfection experiments of GPMA-HPMA/pDNA complexes were conducted. A significant decrease of their parent cytotoxicity and an efficient transfection at relative low charge ratios were observed. The cellular distribution of most GPMA-HPMA/pDNA complexes was partially localized in the nucleus, as indicated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The guanidination strategy employed may lead to non-viral gene delivery carriers that combine satisfactory transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity, which contribute to their cell-penetrating ability.

  20. Evaluation of gene delivery strategies to efficiently overexpress functional HLA-G on human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana S Boura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC constitutively express low levels of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G, which has been shown to contribute to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of HLA-G on bone marrow-derived MSC would improve their immunomodulatory function, thus increasing their therapeutic potential. Therefore, we investigated which gene transfer system is best suited for delivering this molecule while maintaining its immunomodulatory effects. We performed a side-by-side comparison between three nonviral plasmid-based platforms (pmax-HLA-G1; MC-HLA-G1; pEP-HLA-G1 and a viral system (Lv-HLA-G1 using gene transfer parameters that yielded similar levels of HLA-G1-expressing MSC. Natural killer (NK cell–mediated lysis assays and T cell proliferation assays showed that MSC modified with the HLA-G1 expressing viral vector had significantly lower susceptibility to NK-lysis and significantly reduced T cell proliferation when compared to nonmodified cells or MSC modified with plasmid. We also show that, in plasmid-modified MSC, an increase in Toll-like receptor (TLR9 expression is the mechanism responsible for the abrogation of HLA-G1's immunomodulatory effect. Although MSC can be efficiently modified to overexpress HLA-G1 using viral and nonviral strategies, only viral-based delivery of HLA-G1 is suitable for improvement of MSC's immunomodulatory properties.

  1. Synthesis and optimization of cholesterol-based diquaternary ammonium Gemini Surfactant (Chol-GS) as a new gene delivery vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bieong-Kil; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Bae, Yun-Ui; Seu, Young-Bae

    2011-01-01

    Amongst a number of potential nonviral vectors, cationic liposomes have been actively researched, with both gemini surfactants and bola amphiphiles reported as being in possession of good structures in terms of cell viability and in vitro transfection. In this study, a cholesterol-based diquaternary ammonium gemini surfactant (Chol-GS) was synthesized and assessed as a novel nonviral gene vector. Chol-GS was synthesized from cholesterol by way of four reaction steps. The optimal efficiency was found to be at a weight ratio of 1:4 of lipid:DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-L-alpha- glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine), and at a ratio of between 10:1~15:1 of liposome:DNA. The transfection efficiency was compared with commercial liposomes and with Lipofectamine, 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethylhydroxyethylammonium bromide (DMRIE-C), and N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]- N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP). The results indicate that the efficiency of Chol-GS is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes in COS7 and Huh7 cells, and higher than DOTAP and Lipofectamine in A549 cells. Confirmation of these findings was observed through the use of green fluorescent protein expression. Chol-GS exhibited a moderate level of cytotoxicity, at optimum concentrations for efficient transfection, indicating cell viability. Hence, the newly synthesized Chol-GS liposome has the potential of being an excellent nonviral vector for gene delivery.

  2. Nano and Microtechnologies for the Delivery of Oligonucleotides with Gene Silencing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotides (ONs are synthetic fragments of nucleic acid designed to modulate the expression of target proteins. DNA-based ONs (antisense, antigene, aptamer or decoy and more recently a new class of RNA-based ONs, the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, have gained great attention for the treatment of different disease states, such as viral infections, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. However, the development of therapeutic strategies based on ONs is hampered by their low bioavailability, poor intracellular uptake and rapid degradation in biological fluids. The use of a non-viral carrier can be a powerful tool to overcome these drawbacks. Lipid or polymer-based nanotechnologies can improve biological stability and cellular uptake of ONs, with possibility of tissue and/or cellular targeting. The use of polymeric devices can also produce a prolonged release of the ON, thus reducing the need of frequent administrations. This review summarizes advantages and issues related to the main non-viral vectors used for ON delivery.

  3. Protein-lipid nanohybrids as emerging platforms for drug and gene delivery: Challenges and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; Medhat, Waseem; Hany, Mark; Saher, Nourhan; Fang, Jia-You; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2017-05-28

    Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been long used to deliver a vast range of drugs and bioactives owing to their ability to demonstrate novel physical, chemical, and/or biological properties. An exponential growth has spurred in research and development of these nanocarriers which led to the evolution of a great number of diverse nanosystems including liposomes, nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), micelles, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Among them, lipid-based nanocarriers have made the largest progress whether commercially or under development. Despite this progress, these lipid-based nanocarriers suffer from several limitations that led to the development of many protein-coated lipid nanocarriers. To less extent, protein-based nanocarriers suffer from limitations that led to the fabrication of some lipid bilayer enveloping protein nanocarriers. This review discusses in-depth some limitations associated with the lipid-based or protein-based nanocarriers and the fruitful outcomes brought by protein-lipid hybridization. Also discussed are the various hybridization techniques utilized to formulate these protein-lipid nanohybrids and the mechanisms involved in the drug loading process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transgene expression, but not gene delivery, is improved by adhesion-assisted lipofection of hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H; Yunxu, C; Marit, G; Pla, M; Reiffers, J; Thèze, J; Froussard, P

    1999-05-01

    In contrast to adherent cells, cells growing in suspension and particularly hematopoietic cells, are notoriously difficult to transfect in vitro using nonviral approaches. In the present study, the effect of cell adhesion on gene transfer efficacy was investigated by allowing hematopoietic cells to bind to an adherent cell monolayer (ACM) before being subjected to cationic liposome-mediated DNA transfer. Human CD34 and T CD4 cell lines were cultivated on an ACM constituted of murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells and transfected with a plasmid carrying the beta-galactosidase gene. X-gal staining showed that up to 27% of the cells expressed the transgene. In contrast, less than 0.1% of these cells were positively transfected in suspension. This adhesion-assisted lipofection (AAL) procedure was also successfully tested on blood lymphocytes, since it resulted in up to 30% of transfected human primary T lymphocytes. Flow cytometry analysis performed on T lymphocyte subsets revealed that 8 and 9%, respectively, of CD4 and CD8 cells could be transfected with a plasmid carrying the green fluorescent protein gene. Other adherent cells, such as MS5 murine stromal cells or HeLa epithelial cells, were also a compatible matrix for AAL. Moreover, the pCMV beta plasmid was present in similar amounts in the nuclei of TF1 cells transfected in suspension or with the AAL procedure. These data raise the possibility that cell matrix/hematopoietic cell interactions might govern expression of the transgene in hematopoietic cells growing usually in suspension, but not endocytosis of liposome/DNA particles and plasmid migration ot the cell nucleus.

  5. Site-targeted non-viral gene delivery by direct DNA injection into the pancreatic parenchyma and subsequent in vivo electroporation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    The pancreas is considered an important gene therapy target because the organ is the site of several high burden diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. We aimed to develop an efficient in vivo gene delivery system using non-viral DNA. Direct intra-parenchymal injection of a solution containing circular plasmid pmaxGFP DNA was performed on adult anesthetized ICR female mice. The injection site was sandwiched with a pair of tweezer-type electrode disks, and electroporated using a square-pulse generator. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression within the injected pancreatic portion was observed one day after gene delivery. GFP expression reduced to baseline within a week of transfection. Application of voltages over 40 V resulted in tissue damage during electroporation. We demonstrate that electroporation is effective for safe and efficient transfection of pancreatic cells. This novel gene delivery method to the pancreatic parenchyma may find application in gene therapy strategies for pancreatic diseases and in investigation of specific gene function in situ. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptions are made.

  6. Gene delivery into primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Lichota, Jacek

    model was established by co-culturing primary BCECs together with primary astrocytes, both of which were isolated from rats. This was done in order to study the possibility of using gene transfection in an environment closer to the in-vivo BBB situation. The in-vitro BBB barrier model showed trans......-endothelial electrical resistance above 200 ohm*cm2, indicating that the BCECs formed a tight polar monolayer with functional tight junctions. This was confirmed by immunostaining for the thigh junction protein ZO-1. Rat BCECs were transfected with a red fluorescence protein Hc-RED for 24 hours. Positive transfection...

  7. Trans-suppression of host CDH3 and LOXL4 genes during Cryptosporidium parvum infection involves nuclear delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Li, Yao; Pang, Jing; Dong, Stephanie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that trans-suppression of the cadherin 3 (CDH3) and lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) genes in human intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of the Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a C. parvum RNA that has been previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Downregulation of CDH3 and LOXL4 genes was detected in host epithelial cells following C. parvum infection or in cells expressing the parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 attenuated the trans-suppression of CDH3 and LOXL4 genes in host cells induced by infection. Interestingly, Cdg7_FLc_1000 was detected to be recruited to the promoter regions of both CDH3 and LOXL4 gene loci in host cells following C. parvum infection. Host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 promoted the PH domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1)-mediated H3K9 methylation associated with trans-suppression in the CDH3 gene locus, but not the LOXL4 gene. Therefore, our data suggest that host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 causes CDH3 trans-suppression in human intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection through PRDM1-mediated H3K9 methylation in the CDH3 gene locus, whereas Cdg7_FLc_1000 induces trans-suppression of the host LOXL4 gene through H3K9/H3K27 methylation-independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipoplex morphologies and their influences on transfection efficiency in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baichao; Zhang, Shubiao; Jiang, Huiming; Zhao, Budiao; Lv, Hongtao

    2007-11-20

    Cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer is widely used for their advantages over viral gene transfer because it is non-immunogenic, easy to produce and not oncogenic. The main drawback of the application of cationic lipids is their low transfection efficiency. Many reports about transfection efficiency of cationic lipids have been published in recent years. In this review, the current status and prospects for transfection efficiency of different morphologies of lipoplexes are discussed. High transfection activity will be acquired for H(C)(II) structure when membrane fusion is dominant, but when serum is present L(C)(alpha) lipoplexes show great superiority for their inhibition dissociation by serum during lipoplexes transporting. Increasing DOPE often gains high activity for the H(C)(II) structure promoted by DOPE. High lipofection will be gained from large lipoplexes when endocytosis is dominant, because large particles facilitate membrane contact and fusion. We suggest morphologies of lipoplex should be characterized at two levels, lipoplex size and self-assemble structures of lipoplexes, and understanding these would be very important for scientists to prepare novel cationic lipids and design novel formulations with high transfection efficiency.

  9. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  10. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  11. Oligopeptide complex for targeted non-viral gene delivery to adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Adhikary, Partho Protim; Lim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2014-12-01

    Commercial anti-obesity drugs acting in the gastrointestinal tract or the central nervous system have been shown to have limited efficacy and severe side effects. Anti-obesity drug development is thus focusing on targeting adipocytes that store excess fat. Here, we show that an adipocyte-targeting fusion-oligopeptide gene carrier consisting of an adipocyte-targeting sequence and 9-arginine (ATS-9R) selectively transfects mature adipocytes by binding to prohibitin. Injection of ATS-9R into obese mice confirmed specific binding of ATS-9R to fat vasculature, internalization and gene expression in adipocytes. We also constructed a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (shFABP4), a key lipid chaperone in fatty-acid uptake and lipid storage in adipocytes. Treatment of obese mice with ATS-9R/shFABP4 led to metabolic recovery and body-weight reduction (>20%). The ATS-9R/shFABP4 oligopeptide complex could prove to be a safe therapeutic approach to regress and treat obesity as well as obesity-induced metabolic syndromes.

  12. Corrective effects of hepatotoxicity by hepatic Dyrk1a gene delivery in mice with intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Latour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia results from hepatic metabolism dysfunction and is characterized by a high plasma homocysteine level, which is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of homocysteine in plasma lead to hepatic lesions and abnormal lipid metabolism. Therefore, lowering homocysteine levels might offer therapeutic benefits. Recently, we were able to lower plasma homocysteine levels in mice with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia using an adenoviral construct designed to restrict the expression of DYRK1A, a serine/threonine kinase involved in methionine metabolism (and therefore homocysteine production, to hepatocytes. Here, we aimed to extend our previous findings by analyzing the effect of hepatocyte-specific Dyrk1a gene transfer on intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated hepatic toxicity and liver dysfunction. Commensurate with decreased plasma homocysteine and alanine aminotransferase levels, targeted hepatic expression of DYRK1A in mice with intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia resulted in elevated plasma paraoxonase-1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activities and apolipoprotein A–I levels. It also rescued hepatic apolipoprotein E, J, and D levels. Further, Akt/GSK3/cyclin D1 signaling pathways in the liver of treated mice were altered, which may help prevent homocysteine-induced cell cycle dysfunction. DYRK1A gene therapy could be useful in the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in populations, such as end-stage renal disease patients, who are unresponsive to B-complex vitamin therapy.

  13. Incorporating pTGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles with fibronectin into 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds: Efficient, sustained gene delivery to stem cells for chondrogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a 3-dimensional nanoparticle gene delivery system (3D-NGDS based on collagen/chitosan scaffolds, in which plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles mixed with fibronectin (FN were used to transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds. An analysis performed to quantify the TGF-b1 concentrations in MSC cultures revealed that the MSCs transfected with the 3D-NGDS showed remarkably high levels of TGF-b1 over long periods, retaining a concentration of TGF-b1 of approximately 10 ng/mL within two weeks, with the highest level (12.6 ng/mL being observed on the 6th day. An immunohistochemistry analysis for collagen type II revealed that much higher production of collagen II from the 9th to 15th day was observed in the 3D-NGDS-transfected MSCs than that in MSCs transfected by the Lipofectamine 2000 method. The glycosaminoglycan content of the 3D-NGDS was comparable to those treated with TGF-β1 as well as TGF-β1 plus dexamethasone, and was significantly higher than those treated with free plasmid and Lipofectamine 2000. A remarkable type I collagen expression inhibition of the 3D-NGDS at day 21 was observed via ELISA. These results suggested that transfection with the 3D-NGDS could successfully induce MSC chondrogenic differentiation in vitro without dexamethasone. In summary, the 3D-NGDS could be developed into a promising alternative method to transfer exogenous nucleic acid to MSCs in clinical trials.

  14. Polylysine-modified polyethylenimine (PEI-PLL) mediated VEGF gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in cell culture and in rat models of Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad Abid; Malik, Yousra Saeed; Xing, Zhenkai; Guo, Zhaopei; Tian, Huayu; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits which result from the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Gene therapy using growth factors such as VEGF seems to be a viable approach for potential therapeutic treatment of PD. In this study, we utilized a novel non-viral gene carrier designated as PEI-PLL synthesized by our laboratory to deliver VEGF gene to study its effect by using both cell culture as well as animal models of PD. For cell culture experiments, we utilized 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mediated cell death model of MN9D cells following transfection with either a control plasmid or VEGF expressing plasmid. As compared to control transfected cells, PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery to MN9D cells resulted in increased cell viability, increase in the number of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and decreased apoptosis following 6-OHDA insult. Next, we studied the therapeutic potential of PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery in SNPc by using unilateral 6-OHDA Medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesion model of PD in rats. VEGF administration prevented the loss of motor functions induced by 6-OHDA as determined by behavior analysis. Similarly, VEGF inhibited the 6-OHDA mediated loss of DA neurons in Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta (SNPc) as well as DA nerve fibers in striatum as determined by TH immunostaining. In addition, PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery also prevented apoptosis and microglial activation in PD rat models. Together, these results clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery on dopaminergic system in both cell culture and animal models of PD. In this report, we exploited the potential of PEI-PLL to deliver VEGF gene for the potential therapeutic treatment of PD by using both cell culture and animal models of PD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of novel polymeric gene carriers for the delivery of VEGF gene

  15. Chitosan Stabilized Gold-Folate-Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoplexes Facilitate Efficient Gene Delivery in Hepatic and Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyelu, Jude; Singh, Moganavelli

    2018-07-01

    The biodegradable polymer, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) is a popular polymer of choice in many nanotherapeutic studies. Herein, we report on the synthesis and evaluation of four chitosan stabilized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with and without coating with gold, and the targeting ligand, folic acid, as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors. The poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were synthesized via nanoprecipitation/solvent evaporation method in conjunction with the surface functionalizing folic acid and chitosan. The physiochemical properties (morphology, particle size, zeta potential, folic acid/chitosan presence, DNA binding), and biological properties (nuclease protection, in vitro cytotoxicity and transfection potential in human kidney, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma cells), of all four gene bound nanoparticles were evaluated. Gel retardation assays confirmed that all the nanoparticles were able to successfully bind the reporter plasmid, pCMV-luc DNA at varying weight ratios. The gold-folate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoplexes with the highest binding efficiency (w/w ratio 4:1), best protected the plasmid DNA as evidenced from the nuclease protection assays. Furthermore, these nanoplexes presented as spherical particles with an average particle size of 199.4 nm and zeta potential of 35.7 mV. Folic acid and chitosan functionalization of the nanoparticles was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All nanoplexes maintained over 90% cell viability in all cell lines investigated. Interestingly, the gold-folate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoplexes showed a greater transgene activity in the hepatic and breast cancer cells compared to the other nanocomplexes in the same cell lines. The favorable size, colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, significant transgene expression, and nuclease protection ability in vitro, all provide support for the use of gold

  16. Chitosan in Non-Viral Gene Delivery: Role of Structure, Characterization Methods, and Insights in Cancer and Rare Diseases Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Santos-Carballal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-viral gene delivery vectors have lagged far behind viral ones in the current pipeline of clinical trials of gene therapy nanomedicines. Even when non-viral nanovectors pose less safety risks than do viruses, their efficacy is much lower. Since the early studies to deliver pDNA, chitosan has been regarded as a highly attractive biopolymer to deliver nucleic acids intracellularly and induce a transgenic response resulting in either upregulation of protein expression (for pDNA, mRNA or its downregulation (for siRNA or microRNA. This is explained as the consequence of a multi-step process involving condensation of nucleic acids, protection against degradation, stabilization in physiological conditions, cellular internalization, release from the endolysosome (“proton sponge” effect, unpacking and enabling the trafficking of pDNA to the nucleus or the siRNA to the RNA interference silencing complex (RISC. Given the multiple steps and complexity involved in the gene transfection process, there is a dearth of understanding of the role of chitosan’s structural features (Mw and degree of acetylation, DA% on each step that dictates the net transfection efficiency and its kinetics. The use of fully characterized chitosan samples along with the utilization of complementary biophysical and biological techniques is key to bridging this gap of knowledge and identifying the optimal chitosans for delivering a specific gene. Other aspects such as cell type and administration route are also at play. At the same time, the role of chitosan structural features on the morphology, size and surface composition of synthetic virus-like particles has barely been addressed. The ongoing revolution brought about by the recent discovery of CRISPR-Cas9 technology will undoubtedly be a game changer in this field in the short term. In the field of rare diseases, gene therapy is perhaps where the greatest potential lies and we anticipate that chitosans will be key players

  17. A comparison of thiolated and disulfide-crosslinked polyethylenimine for nonviral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Latha; Bicknell, Katrina A; Brooks, Gavin; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Williams, Adrian C

    2013-09-01

    Branched polyethylenimine (25 kDa) is thiolated and compared with redox-sensitive crosslinked derivatives. Both polymers thiol contents are assessed; the thiolated polymers have 390-2300 mmol SH groups/mol, whereas the crosslinked polymers have lower thiol contents. Cytotoxicity assays show that both modified polymers give lower hemolysis than unmodified PEI. Increased thiol content increases gene transfer efficiency but also elevates cytotoxicity. Crosslinking improves plasmid DNA condensation and enhances transfection efficiency, but extensive crosslinking overstabilizes the polyplexes and decreases transfection, emphasizing the need to balance polyplex stabilization and unpacking. Thus, at low levels of crosslinking, 25 kDa PEI can be an efficient redox-sensitive carrier system. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Octaarginine-modified chitosan as a nonviral gene delivery vector: properties and in vitro transfection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Zhaoyang; Liu Wenguang; Lam, Wingmoon; Sun Peng; Kao, Richard Y. T.; Luk, Keith D. K.; Lu, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Protein transduction domains (PTD) have been identified to have the capacity to facilitate molecular cargo to translocate through cell membrane. This study aims to utilize the cell membrane penetrating ability of octaarginine oligopeptide, a simplified prototype of the PTD, to enhance the transfection efficiency of chitosan. Octaarginine-modified chitosan (R 8 -CS) was synthesized as a gene transfer carrier by carbodiimide chemistry. The structure and composition of R 8 -CSs were characterized using FTIR and 1 H NMR. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay showed that R 8 -CS could efficiently condense the DNA. The particle size of R 8 -CS/DNA complexes were determined to be around 100–200 nm. The nanoparticle complexes exhibited a spherical and compact morphology. R 8 -CS demonstrated higher transfection activity and lower cytotoxicity as compared to the unmodified chitosan and also showed good serum resistance.

  19. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  20. Gene delivery of therapeutic polypeptides to brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Moos, Torben

    . Results: mRNA expression of proteins with neuroprotective potential in RBEC were enabled. Their expression patters were compared with those of RBE4 and HeLa cells using RT-qPCR analyzes. The evidence for protein synthesis and secretion was obtained by detection of FLAG-tagged to the C-terminal of any......Background: The potential for treatment of chronic disorders affecting the CNS is complicated by the inability of several drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). None-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints...... in this passage, as turning BCECs into recombinant protein factories by transfection could result in protein secretion into the brain. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of transfection to primary rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBEC) for recombinant protein synthesis...

  1. Well-defined block copolymers for gene delivery to dendritic cells: probing the effect of polycation chain-length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rupei; Palumbo, R Noelle; Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Krogstad, Emily; Wang, Chun

    2010-03-03

    The development of safe and efficient polymer carriers for DNA vaccine delivery requires mechanistic understanding of structure-function relationship of the polymer carriers and their interaction with antigen-presenting cells. Here we have synthesized a series of diblock copolymers with well-defined chain-length using atom transfer radical polymerization and characterized the influence of polycation chain-length on the physico-chemical properties of the polymer/DNA complexes as well as the interaction with dendritic cells. The copolymers consist of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and a cationic poly(aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEM) block. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the PAEM block was varied among 19, 39, and 75, with nearly uniform distribution. With increasing PAEM chain-length, polyplexes formed by the diblock copolymers and plasmid DNA had smaller average particle size and showed higher stability against electrostatic destabilization by salt and heparin. The polymers were not toxic to mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and only displayed chain-length-dependent toxicity at a high concentration (1mg/mL). In vitro gene transfection efficiency and polyplex uptake in DCs were also found to correlate with chain-length of the PAEM block with the longer polymer chain favoring transfection and cellular uptake. The polyplexes induced a modest up-regulation of surface markers for DC maturation that was not significantly dependent on PAEM chain-length. Finally, the polyplex prepared from the longest PAEM block (DP of 75) achieved an average of 20% enhancement over non-condensed anionic dextran in terms of uptake by DCs in the draining lymph nodes 24h after subcutaneous injection into mice. Insights gained from studying such structurally well-defined polymer carriers and their interaction with dendritic cells may contribute to improved design of practically useful DNA vaccine delivery systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Yagiz, Kader; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A K M G; Puntel, Mariana; Foulad, David; Zadmehr, Ali; Ahlzadeh, Gabrielle E; Kroeger, Kurt M; Tesarfreund, Matthew; Lee, Sharon; Debinski, Waldemar; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N; Rodriguez, Ron; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2010-11-16

    Restricting the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents by targeting receptors exclusively expressed on tumor cells is critical when treating infiltrative brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBMs express an IL-13 receptor (IL13Rα2) that differs from the physiological IL4R/IL13R receptor. We developed a regulatable adenoviral vector (Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE) encoding a mutated human IL-13 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (mhIL-13-PE) that specifically binds to IL13Rα2 to provide sustained expression, effective anti-GBM cytotoxicity, and minimal neurotoxicity. The therapeutic Ad also encodes mutated human IL-4 that binds to the physiological IL4R/IL13R without interacting with IL13Rα2, thus inhibiting potential binding of mhIL-13-PE to normal brain cells. Using intracranial GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse models, we tested the Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE and two protein formulations, hIL-13-PE used in clinical trials (Cintredekin Besudotox) and a second-generation mhIL-13-PE. Cintredekin Besudotox doubled median survival without eliciting long-term survival and caused severe neurotoxicity; mhIL-13-PE led to ∼40% long-term survival, eliciting severe neurological toxicity at the high dose tested. In contrast, Ad-mediated delivery of mhIL-13-PE led to tumor regression and long-term survival in over 70% of the animals, without causing apparent neurotoxicity. Although Cintredekin Besudotox was originally developed to target GBM, when tested in a phase III trial it failed to achieve clinical endpoints and revealed neurotoxicity. Limitations of Cintredekin Besudotox include its short half-life, which demanded frequent or continued administration, and binding to IL4R/IL13R, present in normal brain cells. These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM.

  3. Transcription activator-like effector-mediated regulation of gene expression based on the inducible packaging and delivery via designed extracellular vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainšček, Duško; Lebar, Tina; Jerala, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins present a powerful tool for genome editing and engineering, enabling introduction of site-specific mutations, gene knockouts or regulation of the transcription levels of selected genes. TALE nucleases or TALE-based transcription regulators are introduced into mammalian cells mainly via delivery of the coding genes. Here we report an extracellular vesicle-mediated delivery of TALE transcription regulators and their ability to upregulate the reporter gene in target cells. Designed transcriptional activator TALE-VP16 fused to the appropriate dimerization domain was enriched as a cargo protein within extracellular vesicles produced by mammalian HEK293 cells stimulated by Ca-ionophore and using blue light- or rapamycin-inducible dimerization systems. Blue light illumination or rapamycin increased the amount of the TALE-VP16 activator in extracellular vesicles and their addition to the target cells resulted in an increased expression of the reporter gene upon addition of extracellular vesicles to the target cells. This technology therefore represents an efficient delivery for the TALE-based transcriptional regulators. - Highlights: • Inducible dimerization enriched cargo proteins within extracellular vesicles (EV). • Farnesylation surpassed LAMP-1 fusion proteins for the EV packing. • Extracellular vesicles were able to deliver TALE regulators to mammalian cells. • TALE mediated transcriptional activation was achieved by designed EV.

  4. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, H; Vivekananda, J; Nielsen, B L; Ye, G N; Tewari, K K; Sanford, J C

    1990-01-01

    Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) by suitable vectors in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells, delivered by high-velocity microprojectiles, is reported here. Several chloroplast expression vectors containing bacterial cat genes, placed under the control of either psbA promoter region from pea (pHD series) or rbcL promoter region from maize (pAC series) have been used in this study. In addition, chloroplast expression vectors containing replicon fragments from pea, tobacco, or maize chloroplast DNA have also been tested for efficiency and duration of cat expression in chloroplasts of tobacco cells. Cultured NT1 tobacco cells collected on filter papers were bombarded with tungsten particles coated with pUC118 (negative control), 35S-CAT (nuclear expression vector), pHD312 (repliconless chloroplast expression vector), and pHD407, pACp18, and pACp19 (chloroplast expression vectors with replicon). Sonic extracts of cells bombarded with pUC118 showed no detectable cat activity in the autoradiograms. Nuclear expression of cat reached two-thirds of the maximal 48 hr after bombardment and the maximal at 72 hr. Cells bombarded with chloroplast expression vectors showed a low level of expression until 48 hr of incubation. A dramatic increase in the expression of cat was observed 24 hr after the addition of fresh medium to cultured cells in samples bombarded with pHD407; the repliconless vector pHD312 showed about 50% of this maximal activity. The expression of nuclear cat and the repliconless chloroplast vector decreased after 72 hr, but a high level of chloroplast cat expression was maintained in cells bombarded with pHD407. Organelle-specific expression of cat in appropriate compartments was checked by introducing various plasmid constructions into tobacco protoplasts by electroporation. Although the nuclear expression vector 35S-CAT showed expression of cat, no activity was observed with any chloroplast vectors.

  5. Microneedle assisted micro-particle delivery from gene guns: experiments using skin-mimicking agarose gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongwei; Das, Diganta B; Rielly, Chris D

    2014-02-01

    A set of laboratory experiments has been carried out to determine if micro-needles (MNs) can enhance penetration depths of high-speed micro-particles delivered by a type of gene gun. The micro-particles were fired into a model target material, agarose gel, which was prepared to mimic the viscoelastic properties of porcine skin. The agarose gel was chosen as a model target as it can be prepared as a homogeneous and transparent medium with controllable and reproducible properties allowing accurate determination of penetration depths. Insertions of various MNs into gels have been analysed to show that the length of the holes increases with an increase in the agarose concentration. The penetration depths of micro-particle were analysed in relation to a number of variables, namely the operating pressure, the particle size, the size of a mesh used for particle separation and the MN dimensions. The results suggest that the penetration depths increase with an increase of the mesh pore size, because of the passage of large agglomerates. As these particles seem to damage the target surface, then smaller mesh sizes are recommended; here, a mesh with a pore size of 178 μm was used for the majority of the experiments. The operating pressure provides a positive effect on the penetration depth, that is it increases as pressure is increased. Further, as expected, an application of MNs maximises the micro-particle penetration depth. The maximum penetration depth is found to increase as the lengths of the MNs increase, for example it is found to be 1272 ± 42, 1009 ± 49 and 656 ± 85 μm at 4.5 bar pressure for spherical micro-particles of 18 ± 7 μm diameter when we used MNs of 1500, 1200 and 750 μm length, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. 2011 Rita Schaffer lecture: nanoparticles for intracellular nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan J

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles are a promising technology for delivery of new types of therapeutics. A polymer library approach has allowed engineering of polymeric particles that are particularly effective for the delivery of DNA and siRNA to human cells. Certain chemical structural motifs, degradable linkages, hydrophobicity, and biophysical properties are key for successful intracellular delivery. Small differences to biomaterial structure, and especially the type of degradable linkage in the polymers, can be critical for successful delivery of siRNA vs. DNA. Furthermore, subtle changes to biomaterial structure can facilitate cell-type gene delivery specificity between human brain cancer cells and healthy cells as well as between human retinal endothelial cells and epithelial cells. These polymeric nanoparticles are effective for nucleic acid delivery in a broad range of human cell types and have applications to regenerative medicine, ophthalmology, and cancer among many other biomedical research areas.

  7. Facile preparation of a cationic poly(amino acid) vesicle for potential drug and gene co-delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; He, Chaoliang; Li, Mingqiang; Li, Di; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-12-01

    A novel pH-responsive poly(amino acid) grafted with oligocation was prepared through the combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Firstly, poly(γ-2-chloroethyl-L-glutamate) (PCELG) with a pendent 2-chloroethyl group was synthesized through ROP of γ-2-chloroethyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (CELG NCA) using n-hexylamine as the initiator. Then, PCELG was used to initiate the ARTP of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AMA), yielding poly(L-glutamate)-graft-oligo(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (PLG-g-OAMA). The pKa of PLG-g-OAMA was 7.3 established by the acid-base titration method. The amphiphilic poly(amino acid) could directly self-assemble into a vesicle in PBS. The vesicle was characterized by TEM and DLS. Hydrophilic DOX·HCl was loaded into the hollow core of the vesicle. The in vitro release behavior of DOX·HCl from the vesicle in PBS could be adjusted by the solution pH. In vitro cell experiments revealed that the vesicle could reduce the toxicity of the DOX·HCl. In addition, the preliminary gel retardation assay displayed that PLG-g-OAMA could efficiently bind DNA at a PLG-g-OAMA/DNA weight ratio of 0.3 or above, indicating its potential use as a gene carrier. More in-depth studies of the PLG-g-OAMA vesicle for drug and gene co-delivery in vitro and in vivo are in progress.

  8. Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai; Li Libing; Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang; Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun; Wang Hua; Wang Lisheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 ± 9.01 vs. 41.94 ± 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 ± 1303 vs. 1667 ± 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 ± 1084 vs. 1566 ± 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

  9. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  10. Biopolymers/poly(ε-caprolactone)/polyethylenimine functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite hybrid cryogel: Synthesis, characterization and application in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Bogdan C; Drobota, Mioara; Timpu, Daniel; Vasiliu, Tudor; Constantinescu, Cristina Ana; Rebleanu, Daniela; Calin, Manuela; David, Geta

    2017-12-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), surface functionalized with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), was used for the preparation of biocomposites in combination with biopolymers and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), by cryogelation technique, to yield biomimetic scaffolds with controlled interconnected macroporosity, mechanical stability, and predictable degradation behavior. The structural characteristics, swelling and degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) filled matrices were investigated as compared to the corresponding naked polymer 3D system. It was found that the homogeneity and cohesivity of the composite are significantly dependent on the size and amount of the included inorganic particles, which are thus determining the structural parameters. Surface modification with LPEI and nanodimensions favored the nHAp integration in the organic matrix, with preferential location along protein fibers, while β-TCP microparticles induced an increased disorder in the hybrid system. The biocomposite including nHAp only was further investigated targeting biomedical uses, and proved to be non-cytotoxic and capable of acting as gene-activated matrix (GAM). It allowed sustained delivery over time (until 22days) of embedded PEI 25 -pDNA polyplexes at high levels of transgene expression, while insuring a decrease in cytotoxicity as compared to polyplexes alone. Experimental data recommend such biocomposite as an attractive material for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of gadolinium cationic lipids as tools for biodistribution studies of gene delivery complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Francoise; Cohen-Ohana, Mirit; Mignet, Nathalie; Sbarbati, Andrea; Herscovici, Jean; Scherman, Daniel; Byk, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    Gadolinium-chelating cationic lipids have been synthesized to obtain lipoplexes with MRI contrast properties. These compounds were designed to follow the biodistribution of synthetic DNA for gene delivery by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The lipid MCO-I-68 was synthesized, and chelate complexes with gadolinium were formed and characterized in terms of physicochemical and DNA binding properties. The transfection activity of MCO-I-68-Gd/DNA complexes was assayed in vitro on NIH 3T3. Different formulations of the product were tested. When up to 5% of the gadolinium lipid complexes were co-formulated with the cationic lipid RPR120535 used as a reference, the transfection levels were maintained as compared to RPR120535 alone. To date, only a liposomal formulation of a gadolinium-cationic lipid chelate without DNA had been observed using magnetic resonance imaging. In vivo intratumoral administration of MCO-I-68-Gd/DNA lipoplexes to tumor model led to an important increase of the NMR signal. It was demonstrated that the new complexes also acted as transfection carriers when they were formulated from liposomes.

  12. Trans-suppression of defense DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection is associated with host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Dolata, Courtney E; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-03-01

    To counteract host immunity, Cryptosporidium parvum has evolved multiple strategies to suppress host antimicrobial defense. One such strategy is to reduce the production of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) by host epithelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the expression profile of host beta-defensin genes in host cells following infection. We found that C. parvum infection caused a significant downregulation of the DEFB1 gene. Interestingly, downregulation of DEFB1 gene was associated with host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA transcript, a C. parvum RNA that has previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 in host cells could attenuate the trans-suppression of host DEFB1 gene and decreased the parasite burden. Therefore, our data suggest that trans-suppression of DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a process that may be relevant to the epithelial defense evasion by C. parvum at the early stage of infection.

  13. Anchoring of self-assembled plasmid DNA/ anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid micelles on bisphosphonate-modified stent for cardiovascular gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guilei Ma,1,# Yong Wang,1,# Ilia Fishbein,2 Mei Yu,1 Linhua Zhang,1 Ivan S Alferiev,2 Jing Yang,1 Cunxian Song,1 Robert J Levy2 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Abramson Research Building, Philadelphia, PA, USA #These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the anchoring of plasmid DNA/anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid tri-complex (DAC micelles onto bisphosphonate-modified 316 L coronary stents for cardiovascular site-specific gene delivery. Methods: Stents were first modified with polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP, thereby enabling the retention of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer that permits the anchoring (via vector-binding molecules of DAC micelles. DAC micelles were then chemically linked onto the PAA-BP-modified stents by using N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol-propionate (SPDP as a crosslinker. Rhodamine-labeled DNA was used to assess the anchoring of DAC micelles, and radioactive-labeled antibody was used to evaluate binding capacity and stability. DAC micelles (encoding green fluorescent protein were tethered onto the PAA-BP-modified stents, which were assessed in cell culture. The presence of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer on the steel surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope analysis. Results: The anchoring of DAC micelles was generally uniform and devoid of large-scale patches of defects. Isotopic quantification confirmed that the amount of antibody chemically linked on the stents was 17-fold higher than that of the physical adsorbed control stents and its retention time was also significantly longer. In cell culture, numerous green fluorescent protein-positive cells were found on the PAA-BP modified stents, which demonstrated high localization and efficiency of gene delivery. Conclusion: The DAC micelle

  14. Novel non-viral vectors for gene delivery: synthesis of a second-generation library of mono-functionalized poly-(guanidinium)amines and their introduction into cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, G; Soto, J; Mattler, C; Frederic, M; Scherman, D

    1998-01-01

    The development of new gene delivery technologies is a prerequisite towards gene therapy clinical trials. Because gene delivery mediated by viral vectors remains of limited scope due to immunological and propagation risks, the development of new non-viral gene delivery systems is of crucial importance. We have synthesized a secondary library of mono-functionalized poly-(guanidinium)amines generated from a library of mono-functionalized polyamines applying the concept of "libraries from libraries." The method allows a quick and easy access to mono-functionalized geometrically varied poly-(guanidinium)amines. The new building blocks were introduced into cationic lipids to obtain novel poly-(guanidinium)amine lipids, which are potential DNA vectors for gene delivery. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. (3-Aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine End-capped Poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based Multilayer Films for Gene Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cuicui; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Tellier, Liane E.; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polyelectrolyte surfaces for gene delivery were created through electrospinning of biodegradable polycations combined with iterative solution-based multilayer coating. Poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-capped with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine was utilized due to its ability to electrostatically interact with anionic molecules like DNA, its biodegradability, and its low cytotoxicity. A new DNA release system was developed ...

  16. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    OpenAIRE

    Peluffo, Hugo; Acarin, Laia; Arís, Anna; González, Pau; Villaverde, Antoni; Castellano, Bernardo; González, Berta

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD) after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn S...

  17. rAAV Vectors as Safe and Efficient Tools for the Stable Delivery of Genes to Primary Human Chondrosarcoma Cells In Vitro and In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Madry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chondrosarcoma remains a major challenge in orthopaedic oncology. Gene transfer strategies based on recombinant adenoassociated viral (rAAV vectors may provide powerful tools to develop new, efficient therapeutic options against these tumors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rAAV is adapted for a stable and safe delivery of foreign sequences in human chondrosarcoma tissue by transducing primary human chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in situ with different reporter genes (E. coli lacZ, firefly luc, Discosoma sp. RFP. The effects of rAAV administration upon cell survival and metabolic activities were also evaluated to monitor possibly detrimental effects of the gene transfer method. Remarkably, we provide evidence that efficient and prolonged expression of transgene sequences via rAAV can be safely achieved in all the systems investigated, demonstrating the potential of the approach of direct application of therapeutic gene vectors as a means to treat chondrosarcoma.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Glycidyl-Based Poly(aminoester-Folic Acid Targeting Conjugates and Study on Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Che Hsiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new poly(aminoester (EPAE-FA containing folic acid and amino groups in the backbone and side chain was synthesized. EPAE-FA self-assembled readily with the plasmid DNA (pCMV-βgal in HEPES buffer and was characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, fluorescence images, and XTT cell viability assays. To evaluate the transfection effect of graft ratio of FA on the EPAE system, EPAE-FA polymers with two different graft ratios (EPAE-FA12k and EPAE-FA14k were also prepared. This study found that all EPAE-FA polymers were able to bind plasmid DNA and yielded positively charged complexes with nano-sized particles ( < 200 nm. To assess the transfection efficiency mediated by EPAE and EPAE-FA polymers, we performed in vitro transfection activity assays using FR-negative (COS-7 and FR-positive (HeLa cells. The EPAE-FA12k/DNA and EPAE-FA14k/DNA complexes were able to transfect HeLa cell in vitro with higher transfection efficiency than PEI25k/DNA at the similar weight ratio. These results demonstrated that the introduction of FA into EPAE system had a significant effect on transferring ability for FR-positive cells (HeLa. Examination of the cytotoxicity of PEI25k and EPAE-FA system revealed that EPAE-FA system had lower cytotoxicity. In this paper, EPAE-FA seemed to be a novel cationic poly(aminoester for gene delivery and an interesting candidate for further study.

  19. Magnetic resonance-imaging of the effect of targeted antiangiogenic gene delivery in a melanoma tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter [Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Research Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Philipps University Marburg, Department of Radiology, Marburg (Germany); Steinbach, Silke [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Marburg (Germany); Mayer, Dirk; Guccione, Samira [Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Research Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Burbelko, Mykhaylo; Kiessling, Andreas; Figiel, Jens [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Radiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effect of targeted gene therapy to melanoma tumours (M21) by MR-imaging. M21 and M21-L tumours were grown to a size of 850 mm{sup 3}. M21 and M21-L tumours were intravenously treated with an αvβ3-integrin-ligand-coupled nanoparticle (RGDNP)/RAF(-) complex five times every 72 hours. MRI was performed at set time intervals 24h and 72h after the i.v. injection of the complex. The MRI protocol was T1-wt-SE±CM, T2-wt-FSE, DCE-MRI, Diffusion-wt-STEAM-sequence, T2-time obtained on a 1.5-T-GE-MRI device. The size of the treated M21 tumours kept nearly constant during the treatment phase (847.8±31.4 mm{sup 3} versus 904.8±44.4 mm{sup 3}). The SNR value (T2-weighted images) of the tumours was 36.7±0.6 and dropped down to 30.6±1.9 (p=0.004). At the beginning the SNR value (T1-weighted images) of the tumours after contrast medium application was 42.3±1.9 and dropped down to 28.5±3.0 (p<0.001). In the treatment group the diffusion coefficient increased significantly under therapy (0.54±0.01x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s versus 0.67±0.04x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). The DCE-MRI showed a reduction of the slope and of the Akep of 67.8±4.3 % respectively 64.8±3.3 % compared to baseline. Targeted gene delivery therapy induces significant changes in MR-imaging. MRI showed a significant reduction of contrast medium uptake parameters and increase of the diffusion coefficient of the tumours. (orig.)

  20. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  1. A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human glioblastoma HTB14 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yusuke; Kamitani, Hideki; Mamun, Mahabub Hasan; Wasita, Brian; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been expected to become useful gene delivery vehicles against human malignant gliomas when coupled with an appropriate vector system, because they migrate towards the lesion. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are non-integrating vectors with several advantages for gene therapy, namely, no limitations on the size and number of genes that can be inserted. We investigated the migration of human immortalized MSCs bearing a HAC vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HAC-tk-hiMSCs) towards malignant gliomas in vivo. Red fluorescence protein-labeled human glioblastoma HTB14 cells were implanted into a subcortical region in nude mice. Four days later, green fluorescence protein-labeled HAC-tk-hiMSCs were injected into a contralateral subcortical region (the HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injection model). Tropism to the glioma mass and the route of migration were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. HAC-tk-hiMSCs began to migrate toward the HTB14 glioma area via the corpus callosum on day 4, and gathered around the HTB14 glioma mass on day 7. To test whether the delivered gene could effectively treat glioblastoma in vivo, HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injected mice were treated with ganciclovir (GCV) or PBS. The HTB14 glioma mass was significantly reduced by GCV treatment in mice injected with HAC-tk-hiMSCs. It was confirmed that gene delivery by our HAC-hiMSC system was effective after migration of MSCs to the glioma mass in vivo. Therefore, MSCs containing HACs carrying an anticancer gene or genes may provide a new tool for the treatment of malignant gliomas and possibly of other tumor types.

  2. Polymorphism of regulatory region of GHRL gene (-2531C>T) as a promising predictive factor for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head neck cancer.

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    Brzozowska, Anna; Homa-Mlak, Iwona; Mlak, Radosław; Gołębiowski, Paweł; Mazurek, Marcin; Ciesielka, Marzanna; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs1629816) in the regulatory region (c.-2531C>T) of the ghrelin (GHRL) gene and the occurrence and severity of oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. Oral mucositis in 65 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent irradiation were assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scale. The DNA from patients with head and neck cancer was isolated from whole blood. The genotypes were determined using the minisequencing method (SNaPshot PCR). The frequency of occurrence of the GHRL gene (c.-2531C>T, rs1629816) genotypes were as follows: AA = 21.5%; GA = 40%; and GG = 38.5%. In case of AA genotype, there was a 7-fold decrease of the risk of occurrence of oral mucositis (of grades 2 and 3) in the sixth week of RT (AA vs GA or GG, respectively: 17.9% vs 82.1% patients; odds ratio [OR] 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.98; P = .0481). No statistically significant differences were observed between the volume of oral cavity contours (V30, V40, and V50) depending on the GHRL genotype in patients with head and neck cancer. The study results have demonstrated an association between the AA genotype of the GHRL gene and the risk of more severe oral mucositis attributed to RT in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Efficient systemic DNA delivery to the tumor by self-assembled nanoparticle

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    Tang, Hailin; Xie, Xinhua; Guo, Jiaoli; Wei, Weidong; Wu, Minqing; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Yang, Lu; Hung, Mien-Chie; Xie, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    There are few delivery agents that could deliver gene with high efficiency and low toxicity, especially for animal experiments. Therefore, creating vectors with good delivery efficiency and safety profile is a meaningful work. We have developed a self-assembled gene delivery system (XM001), which can more efficiently deliver DNA to multiple cell lines and breast tumor, as compared to commercial delivery agents. In addition, systemically administrated XM001-BikDD (BikDD is a mutant form of proapoptotic gene Bik) significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells and prolonged the life span in implanted nude mice. This study demonstrates that XM001 is an efficient and widespread transfection agent, which could be a promising tumor delivery vector for cancer targeted therapy.

  4. Activation of Fetal γ-globin Gene Expression via Direct Protein Delivery of Synthetic Zinc-finger DNA-Binding Domains

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    Mir A Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of γ-globin expression has been shown to ameliorate disease phenotypes associated with mutations in the adult β-globin gene, including sickle cell disease. Specific mutations in the promoter of the γ-globin genes are known to prevent repression of the genes in the adult and thus lead to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. One such hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin is associated with a sequence located 567 bp upstream of the Gγ-globin gene which assembles a GATA-containing repressor complex. We generated two synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding domains (ZF-DBDs targeting this sequence. The -567Gγ ZF-DBDs associated with high affinity and specificity with the target site in the γ-globin gene promoter. We delivered the -567Gγ ZF-DBDs directly to primary erythroid cells. Exposure of these cells to the recombinant -567Gγ ZF-DBDs led to increased expression of the γ-globin gene. Direct protein delivery of ZF-DBDs that compete with transcription regulatory proteins will have broad implications for modulating gene expression in analytical or therapeutic settings.

  5. Gene therapy in animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

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    Rossmiller, Brian; Mao, Haoyu

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy for dominantly inherited genetic disease is more difficult than gene-based therapy for recessive disorders, which can be treated with gene supplementation. Treatment of dominant disease may require gene supplementation partnered with suppression of the expression of the mutant gene either at the DNA level, by gene repair, or at the RNA level by RNA interference or transcriptional repression. In this review, we examine some of the gene delivery approaches used to treat animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, focusing on those models associated with mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. We conclude that combinatorial approaches have the greatest promise for success. PMID:23077406

  6. Facile synthesis of semi-library of low charge density cationic polyesters from poly(alkylene maleate)s for efficient local gene delivery.

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    Yan, Huijie; Zhu, Dingcheng; Zhou, Zhuxian; Liu, Xin; Piao, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Xiangrui; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing

    2018-03-30

    Cationic polymers are one of the main non-viral vectors for gene therapy, but their applications are hindered by the toxicity and inefficient transfection, particularly in the presence of serum or other biological fluids. While rational design based on the current understanding of gene delivery process has produced various cationic polymers with improved overall transfection, high-throughput parallel synthesis of libraries of cationic polymers seems a more effective strategy to screen out efficacious polymers. Herein, we demonstrate a novel platform for parallel synthesis of low cationic charge-density polyesters for efficient gene delivery. Unsaturated polyester poly(alkylene maleate) (PAM) readily underwent Michael-addition reactions with various mercaptamines to produce polyester backbones with pendant amine groups, poly(alkylene maleate mercaptamine)s (PAMAs). Variations of the alkylenes in the backbone and the mercaptamines on the side chain produced PAMAs with tunable hydrophobicity and DNA-condensation ability, the key parameters dominating transfection efficiency of the resulting polymer/DNA complexes (polyplexes). A semi-library of such PAMAs was exampled from 7 alkylenes and 18 mercaptamines, from which a lead PAMA, G-1, synthesized from poly(1,4-phenylene bis(methylene) maleate) and N,N-dimethylcysteamine, showed remarkable transfection efficiency even in the presence of serum, owing to its efficient lysosome-circumventing cellular uptake. Furthermore, G-1 polyplexes efficiently delivered the suicide gene pTRAIL to intraperitoneal tumors and elicited effective anticancer activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual AAV/IL-10 Plus STAT3 Anti-Inflammatory Gene Delivery Lowers Atherosclerosis in LDLR KO Mice, but without Increased Benefit

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    Maohua Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both IL-10 and STAT3 are in the same signal transduction pathway, with IL-10-bound IL10 receptor (R acting through STAT3 for anti-inflammatory effect. To investigate possible therapeutic synergism, we delivered both full-length wild-type human (h STAT3 and hIL-10 genes by separate adenoassociated virus type 8 (AAV8 tail vein injection into LDLR KO on HCD. Compared to control Neo gene-treated animals, individual hSTAT3 and hIL-10 delivery resulted in significant reduction in atherogenesis, as determined by larger aortic lumen size, thinner aortic wall thickness, and lower blood velocity (all statistically significant. However, dual hSTAT3/hIL-10 delivery offered no improvement in therapeutic effect. Plasma cholesterol levels in dual hSTAT3/hIL-10-treated animals were statistically higher compared to hIL-10 alone. While no advantage was seen in this case, we consider that the dual gene approach has intrinsic merit, but properly chosen partnered genes must be used.

  8. Part II: Functional delivery of a neurotherapeutic gene to neural stem cells using minicircle DNA and nanoparticles: Translational advantages for regenerative neurology.

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    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries. Current genetic engineering approaches almost exclusively employ viral vectors for gene delivery to NSCs though safety and scalability pose major concerns for clinical translation and applicability. Magnetofection, a non-viral gene transfer approach deploying magnetic nanoparticles and DNA with magnetic fields offers a safe alternative but significant improvements are required to enhance its clinical application for delivery of large sized therapeutic plasmids. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using minicircles with magnetofection technology to safely engineer NSCs to overexpress BDNF. Primary mouse NSCs overexpressing BDNF generated increased daughter neuronal cell numbers post-differentiation, with accelerated maturation over a four-week period. Based on our findings we highlight the clinical potential of minicircle/magnetofection technology for therapeutic delivery of key neurotrophic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonviral Technologies for Gene Therapy in Cardiovascular Research

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    Cheng-Huang Su

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy, which is still at an experimental stage, is a technique that attempts to correct or prevent a disease by delivering genes into an individual's cells and tissues. In gene delivery, a vector is a vehicle for transferring genetic material into cells and tissues. Synthetic vectors are considered to be prerequisites for gene delivery, because viral vectors have fundamental problems in relation to safety issues as well as large-scale production. Among the physical approaches, ultrasound with its associated bioeffects such as acoustic cavitation, especially inertial cavitation, can increase the permeability of cell membranes to macromolecules such as plasmid DNA. Microbubbles or ultrasound contrast agents lower the threshold for cavitation by ultrasound energy. Furthermore, ultrasound-enhanced gene delivery using polymers or other nonviral vectors may hold much promise for the future but is currently at the preclinical stage. We all know aging is cruel and inevitable. Currently, among the promising areas for gene therapy in acquired diseases, the incidences of cancer and ischemic cardiovascular diseases are strongly correlated with the aging process. As a result, gene therapy technology may play important roles in these diseases in the future. This brief review focuses on understanding the barriers to gene transfer as well as describing the useful nonviral vectors or tools that are applied to gene delivery and introducing feasible models in terms of ultrasound-based gene delivery.

  10. Receptor-Targeted Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Improve Cell-Type Selective Gene Delivery and Reveal a Preference for Membrane-Proximal Cell Attachment.

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    Ruben R Bender

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance. Then, they were flexible in receptor usage as demonstrated by successful targeting of EpCAM, CD20, and CD8, and as selective as LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the current standard for cell-type specific gene delivery. Remarkably, NiV-LVs could be produced at up to two orders of magnitude higher titers compared to their MV-based counterparts and were at least 10,000-fold less effectively neutralized than MV glycoprotein pseudotyped LVs by pooled human intravenous immunoglobulin. An important finding for NiV-LVs targeted to Her2/neu was an about 100-fold higher gene transfer activity when particles were targeted to membrane-proximal regions as compared to particles binding to a more membrane-distal epitope. Likewise, the low gene transfer activity mediated by NiV-LV particles bound to the membrane distal domains of CD117 or the glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4 was substantially enhanced by reducing receptor size to below 100 Å. Overall, the data suggest that the NiV glycoproteins are optimally suited for cell-type specific gene delivery with LVs and, in addition, for the first time define which parts of a cell surface protein should be targeted to achieve optimal gene transfer rates with receptor-targeted LVs.

  11. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

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    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tob