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Sample records for promising commercial building

  1. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  2. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  3. Challenges in Commercial Buildings | Buildings | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems Assessing the energy and economic impacts of various technologies, giving priority to those that standardized language for commercial building energy audit data that can be used by software developers to exchange data between audit tools, and can be required by building owners and audit program managers to

  4. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  5. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  6. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  7. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  8. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  9. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  10. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  11. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  12. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  13. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  14. 76 FR 63913 - Commercial Building Workforce Job/Task Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... were developed for the following six job classifications: Commercial Building Energy Auditor.... Workshops were held for each of the following job classifications: Commercial Building Energy Auditor... field (e.g., commercial building energy auditor, commercial building energy modeler, commissioning/retro...

  15. Alq3 nanorods: promising building blocks for optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2008-07-17

    Monodisperse Alq3 nanorods with hexagonal-prism-like morphology are produced via a facile, emulsion based synthesis route. The photoluminescence of individual nanorods differs from the bulk material. These nanorods are promising building blocks for novel optical devices. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  17. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  18. Building the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Araya-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete description of the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile that resulted from the curricular diagnosis of the Licenciatura en Educación Comercial , at the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.  The methodological strategy used relies on the principles of research on education. Upon expert validation, written questionnaires were applied to first-year students, students of the licenciatura, practicing professionals and employers. The objective was to describe a particular education situation. Data was analyzed according to two categories: intentions/principles and scope/development. The findings resulted in the characteristics of the Commercial Education professionals, i.e. characteristics related to the discipline, characteristics related to the administrative management of teaching, specific and general characteristics of education and pedagogy, and characteristics associated to human development. Based on those criteria, on the curricular requirements of the information sources and on the curricular perspectives of the Academic Unit, ideas were put into practice to build the competency profile. The ideas proposed comprise the curricular fundamentals of the educational project on which the profile is set out, which include the subject of the study program, the global competency or training goal, the generic competencies as cross-cutting approaches, as well as the –pedagogical and disciplinary− specific competencies. The specific competencies of the discipline are focused on four competency areas: document production, organizational support, technological resources and information management. (1 Translator’s Note: One-year post-Bachelor study program in Commercial Education.

  19. Commercial building energy use in six cities in Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Shen, Pengyuan; Ma, Xiaowen; Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Qiaolin; Jiang, Han; Xiang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With China’s continuing economic growth, the percentage of government offices and large commercial buildings has increased tremendously; thus, the impact of their energy usage has grown drastically. In this survey, a database with more than 400 buildings was created and analyzed. We researched energy consumption by region, building type, building size and vintage, and we determined the total energy use and performed end use breakdowns of typical buildings in six cities in southern China. The statistical analysis shows that, on average, the annual building electricity use ranged from 50 to 100 kW h/m 2 for office buildings, 120 to 250 kW h/m 2 for shopping malls and hotels, and below 40 kW h/m 2 for education facilities. Building size has no direct correlation with building energy intensity. Although modern commercial buildings built in the 1990s and 2000s did not use more energy on average than buildings built previously, the highest electricity intensive modern buildings used much more energy than those built prior to 1990. Commercial buildings in China used less energy than buildings in equivalent weather locations in the US and about the same amount of energy as buildings in India. However, commercial buildings in China provide comparatively less thermal comfort than buildings in comparable US climates. - Highlights: ► The worst modern buildings use more energy than the worst old buildings. ► Government office buildings did not use more energy than private office buildings. ► Commercial buildings in China use less energy than buildings in the US. ► Modern commercial buildings don't use more energy than old buildings.

  20. Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Hui, Y.V.; Lam, Y. Miu

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking energy-efficiency is an important tool to promote the efficient use of energy in commercial buildings. Benchmarking models are mostly constructed in a simple benchmark table (percentile table) of energy use, which is normalized with floor area and temperature. This paper describes a benchmarking process for energy efficiency by means of multiple regression analysis, where the relationship between energy-use intensities (EUIs) and the explanatory factors (e.g., operating hours) is developed. Using the resulting regression model, these EUIs are then normalized by removing the effect of deviance in the significant explanatory factors. The empirical cumulative distribution of the normalized EUI gives a benchmark table (or percentile table of EUI) for benchmarking an observed EUI. The advantage of this approach is that the benchmark table represents a normalized distribution of EUI, taking into account all the significant explanatory factors that affect energy consumption. An application to supermarkets is presented to illustrate the development and the use of the benchmarking method

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  2. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database

  3. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  4. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  5. Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  7. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  8. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  9. ISO 50001 for US Commercial Buildings - Current Status and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingjing; Sheaffer, Paul

    2017-12-01

    ''ISO 50001: 2011 Energy management systems – Requirements with guidance for use'' is a voluntary International Standard which provides organizations a proven framework to manage energy and continuously improve their energy performance. Implementing ISO 50001 in the commercial building sector has its unique opportunities and challenges in comparison with the industrial sector. The energy footprint of a portfolio of commercial buildings can be just as significant as a large industrial facility in comparison. There are many energy-saving opportunities in commercial buildings that can be addressed without capital investments, and the perceived risks for making energy improvements can be lower than in the industrial sector. In addition, the energy-consuming systems in commercial buildings are limited in types and have many similarities across buildings, which makes it much easier to standardize many ISO 50001 required processes, 5 procedures and documents to simplify implementation. There are also some sector-unique challenges, such as less familiar with ISO systems and the certification process. Another challenge arises from the complexity in some buildings’ ownership, tenancy, and O&M responsibilities. This whitepaper discusses these opportunities and issues in detail. The paper also recommends the characteristics of organizations in the commercial building sector that can benefit the most from adopting the ISO 50001 standard – namely the “suitable market”. Eight segments (education, food sales, retail, inpatient health care, hospitality, office buildings, laboratories and data centers) within the commercial building sector are highlighted.

  10. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  11. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  12. Recovery Act: Training Program Development for Commercial Building Equipment Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leah Glameyer

    2012-07-12

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop curricula, certification requirements, and accreditation standards for training on energy efficient practices and technologies for commercial building technicians. These training products will advance industry expertise towards net-zero energy commercial building goals and will result in a substantial reduction in energy use. The ultimate objective is to develop a workforce that can bring existing commercial buildings up to their energy performance potential and ensure that new commercial buildings do not fall below their expected optimal level of performance. Commercial building equipment technicians participating in this training program will learn how to best operate commercial buildings to ensure they reach their expected energy performance level. The training is a combination of classroom, online and on-site lessons. The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) developed curricula using subject matter and adult learning experts to ensure the training meets certification requirements and accreditation standards for training these technicians. The training targets a specific climate zone to meets the needs, specialized expertise, and perspectives of the commercial building equipment technicians in that zone. The combination of efficient operations and advanced design will improve the internal built environment of a commercial building by increasing comfort and safety, while reducing energy use and environmental impact. Properly trained technicians will ensure equipment operates at design specifications. A second impact is a more highly trained workforce that is better equipped to obtain employment. Organizations that contributed to the development of the training program include TEEX and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) (both members of The Texas A&M University System). TEES is also a member of the Building Commissioning Association. This report includes a description of the project

  13. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  14. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    through an Ethernet connection. The sampling interval is 5 minutes. The data then is transferred to the Postgre structured query language (SQL...and how corrective actions should be prioritized. BACnet Interface EnergyPlus Interface EnergyPlus Building Model Matlab Data Diagnostics Postgre

  15. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Glenn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  16. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  17. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  18. Promising Practices: Building the Next Generation of School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jennifer Edic; Escalante, Karen; Selva, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    This study applies transformational leadership theory practices to examine the purposeful ways in which principals work to build the next generation of teacher leaders in response to the shortage of K-12 principals. Given the impact principals have on student development and the shortage of those applying for the principalship, the purpose of this…

  19. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  20. Establishing a commercial building energy data framework for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Mathew, Sangeeta [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, Inc. (India)

    2018-04-18

    Buildings account for over 40% of the world’s energy consumption and are therefore a key contributor to a country’s energy as well as carbon budget. Understanding how buildings use energy is critical to understanding how related policies may impact energy use. Data enables decision making, and good quality data arms consumers with the tools to compare their energy performance to their peers, allowing them to differentiate their buildings in the real estate market on the basis of their energy footprint. Good quality data are also essential for policy makers to prioritize their energy saving strategies and track implementation. The United States’ Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is an example of a successful data framework that is highly useful for governmental and nongovernmental initiatives related to benchmarking energy forecasting, rating systems and metrics, and more. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in India developed the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) and launched the Star Labeling program for a few energy-intensive building segments as a significant first step. However, a data driven policy framework for systematically targeting energy efficiency in both new construction and existing buildings has largely been missing. There is no quantifiable mechanism currently in place to track the impact of code adoption through regular reporting/survey of energy consumption in the commercial building stock. In this paper we present findings from our study that explored use cases and approaches for establishing a commercial buildings data framework for India.

  1. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  2. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  3. Commercial Building Energy Saver: An energy retrofit analysis toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Chen, Yixing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Zhang, Rongpeng; Sun, Kaiyu; Price, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Building Energy Saver is a powerful toolkit for energy retrofit analysis. • CBES provides benchmarking, load shape analysis, and model-based retrofit assessment. • CBES covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • CBES includes a web app, API, and a database of energy efficiency performance. • CBES API can be extended and integrated with third party energy software tools. - Abstract: Small commercial buildings in the United States consume 47% of the total primary energy of the buildings sector. Retrofitting small and medium commercial buildings poses a huge challenge for owners because they usually lack the expertise and resources to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy retrofit strategies. This paper presents the Commercial Building Energy Saver (CBES), an energy retrofit analysis toolkit, which calculates the energy use of a building, identifies and evaluates retrofit measures in terms of energy savings, energy cost savings and payback. The CBES Toolkit includes a web app (APP) for end users and the CBES Application Programming Interface (API) for integrating CBES with other energy software tools. The toolkit provides a rich set of features including: (1) Energy Benchmarking providing an Energy Star score, (2) Load Shape Analysis to identify potential building operation improvements, (3) Preliminary Retrofit Analysis which uses a custom developed pre-simulated database and, (4) Detailed Retrofit Analysis which utilizes real-time EnergyPlus simulations. CBES includes 100 configurable energy conservation measures (ECMs) that encompass IAQ, technical performance and cost data, for assessing 7 different prototype buildings in 16 climate zones in California and 6 vintages. A case study of a small office building demonstrates the use of the toolkit for retrofit analysis. The development of CBES provides a new contribution to the field by providing a straightforward and uncomplicated decision

  4. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  5. Trends in energy use in commercial buildings -- Sixteen years of EIA's commercial buildings energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Swenson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects basic statistical information on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of commercial buildings in the US. The first CBECS was conducted in 1979 and the most recent was completed in 1995. Over that period, the number of commercial bindings and total amount of floorspace increased, total consumption remained flat, and total energy intensity declined. By 1995, there were 4.6 million commercial buildings and 58.8 billion square feet of floorspace. The buildings consumed a total of 5.3 quadrillion Btu (site energy), with a total intensity of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity consumption exceeded natural gas consumption (2.6 quadrillion and 1.9 quadrillion Btu, respectively). In 1995, the two major users of energy were space heating (1.7 quadrillion Btu) and lighting (1.2 quadrillion Btu). Over the period 1979 to 1995, natural gas intensity declined from 71.4 thousand to 51.0 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity intensity did not show a similar decline (44.2 thousand Btu per square foot in 1979 and 45.7 thousand Btu per square foot in 1995). Two types of commercial buildings, office buildings and mercantile and service buildings, were the largest consumers of energy in 1995 (2.0 quadrillion Btu, 38% of total consumption). Three building types, health care, food service, and food sales, had significantly higher energy intensities. Buildings constructed since 1970 accounted for half of total consumption and a majority (59%) of total electricity consumption.

  6. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  7. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  8. Development of a Training Program for Commercial Building Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinholm, Rod

    2013-05-31

    This project focused on developing and deploying a comprehensive program of 22 training modules, including certification requirements, and accreditation standards for commercial building technicians, to help achieve the full savings potential of energy efficient buildings, equipment, and systems. This curriculum extended the currently available commercial building technician programs -- training a labor force in a growing market area focused on energy efficiency. The program helps to remove a major market impediment to low energy/zero energy commercial building system acceptance, namely a lack of operating personnel capable of handling more complex high efficiency systems. The project developed a training curriculum for commercial building technicians, with particular focus on high-efficiency building technology, and systems. In Phase 1, the project team worked collaboratively in developing a draft training syllabus to address project objectives. The team identified energy efficiency knowledge gaps in existing programs and plans and plans to address the gaps with either modified or new curricula. In Phase 2, appropriate training materials were developed to meet project objectives. This material was developed for alternative modes of delivery, including classroom lecture materials, e-learning elements, video segments, exercises, and hands-on training elements. A Certification and Accreditation Plan and a Commercialization and Sustainability Plan were also investigated and developed. The Project Management Plan was updated quarterly and provided direction on the management approaches used to accomplish the expected project objectives. GTI project management practices tightly coordinate project activities using management controls to deliver optimal customer value. The project management practices include clear scope definition, schedule/budget tracking, risk/issue resolution and team coordination.

  9. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  10. Accuracy of CO2 sensors in commercial buildings: a pilotstudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2006-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air supply. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above code requirements, but to also to save energy by avoiding over ventilation relative to code requirements. However, there have been many anecdotal reports of poor CO{sub 2} sensor performance in actual commercial building applications. This study evaluated the accuracy of 44 CO{sub 2} sensors located in nine commercial buildings to determine if CO{sub 2} sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. CO{sub 2} measurement errors varied widely and were sometimes hundreds of parts per million. Despite its small size, this study provides a strong indication that the accuracy of CO{sub 2} sensors used in commercial buildings is frequently less than is needed to measure peak indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration differences with less than a 20% error. Thus, we conclude that there is a need for more accurate CO{sub 2} sensors and/or better sensor maintenance or calibration procedures.

  11. An Overview of Metallic Nanowire Networks, Promising Building Blocks for Next Generation Transparent Conductors: Emergence, Fundamentals and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsalami, Sedigheh; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Daneshmanesh, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductors (TCs) have a wide range of applications in numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices. This review provides an overview of the emergence of metallic nanowire networks (MNNs) as promising building blocks for the next generation transparent conductors. The fundamental aspects, structure-property relations, fabrication techniques and the corresponding challenges are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental researches suggest that nanowires with smaller diameter, longer length and higher aspect ratio have higher performance. Yet, the development of an efficient synthesis technique for the production of MNNs has remained a challenge. The synthesis method is also crucial to the scalability and the commercial potential of these emerging TCs. The most promising techniques for the synthesis together with their advantages, limitations and the recent findings are here discussed. Finally, we will try to show the promising future research trends in MNNs to have an approach to design the next generation TCs.

  12. BEPS redesign of 168 commercial buildings: summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L.; Deringer, J.J.; Moreno, S.; Misuriello, H.P.

    1984-05-01

    The objective of this report is to present, in usable form, summary data from the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) Phase II commercial buildings energy research conducted in 1978-1979. Summary data presented were obtained from two major research efforts: the BEPS Phase II Redesign experiment; and the related research on ASHRAE Standard 90-75R. The bulk of this report consists of data tabulations of key energy parameters for the 168 sample buildings, which were tabulated from computer-stored files of the 1978-1979 data. Two kinds of tabulations are included: numerical tabulations that extracted information from the computer-stored data base for the 168 sample buildings; and graphic presentations of the computer-generated data, plus data extracted from other sources. The intent is to provide a single data compendium of key energy-related factors from the 1978 redesign experiment and the associated 1978-1979 ASHRAE Standard 90-75R research. This report also supplements the information for which there was not space in the magazine articles. Thus, for some building types, additional analysis, comments, and data tabulations are included that could not be included in the articles because space was limited. These additional analysis items are not consistent across building types because both the energy conservation opportunities and the design strategies applied by the building designers varied considerably by building type. The chapters have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  13. Regulation proposal for voluntary energy efficiency labelling of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Goulart, Solange; Carlo, Joyce; Westphal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Despite of Brazil not being between the major world energy consumers, the consumption of electricity has significantly increased in the late years. The National Energy Balance of 2005, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Energy, showed an increasing of the participation of electricity in the final energy consumption of 15.7% in 2002 to 16.2% in 2004. Initially, a brief review of the initiatives taken by Brazilian Government aiming to limit and control the energy consumption in buildings is presented. Then, the regulation proposal containing the technical requirements to classify the energy efficiency level of buildings is shown. The purpose of this voluntary regulation is to provide conditions to certify the energy efficiency level of Brazilian buildings (commercial and public). It specifies the methods for energy efficiency rating of buildings and includes requirements to attend energy conservation measures in three main issues: lighting system; air conditioning system and envelope. The regulation applies to large buildings (minimum total area of 500 m 2 or when the energy demand is greater than or equal to 2,3 kV, including: Conditioned buildings; Partially conditioned buildings and Naturally ventilated buildings. (author)

  14. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  15. Maintenance and Safety Practices of Escalator in Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afida Isnaini Janipha, Nurul; Nur Aina Syed Alwee, Sharifah; Ariff, Raihan Mohd; Ismail, Faridah

    2018-02-01

    The escalator is very crucial to transport a person from one place to another. Nevertheless, there are many cases recorded the accidents in relation to escalator. These may occur due to lack of maintenance which leads to systems breakdown, poor safety practices, wear and tear, users’ negligence and others. Thus, proper maintenance systems need to be improvised to prevent and reduce escalator accident in future. This research was aimed to determine the escalator maintenance activities and safety practices in a commercial building. Three case studies were selected within Selangor area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for collecting data from these three case studies. To achieve the aim of this research, the study was carried out on the maintenance activities, safety practices and cost related to escalator maintenance. As one of the important means of access in building, it is very crucial to increase effectiveness of escalator particularly in commercial building. It is expected that readers will get clear information on the maintenance activities and safety practices of escalator in commercial building.

  16. Commercial Buildings Partnerships - Overview of Higher education projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems – including some considered too costly or technologically challenging – and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions. CBP design goals aimed to achieve 50 percent energy savings compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2004 for new construction, while retrofits are designed to consume at least 30 percent less energy than either Standard 90.1-2004 or current consumption. After construction and commissioning of the project, laboratory staff continued to work with partners to collect and analyze data for verification of the actual energy reduction. CBP projects represent diverse building types in commercial real estate, including lodging, grocery, retail, higher education, office, and warehouse/storage facilities. Partners also commit to replicating low-energy technologies and strategies from their CBP projects throughout their building portfolios. As a result of CBP projects, five sector overviews (Lodging, Food Sales, General Merchandise, Higher Education, Offices) were created to capture successful strategies and recommended energy efficiency measures that could broadly be applied across these sectors. These overviews are supplemented with individual case studies providing specific details on the decision criteria, modeling results, and lessons learned on specific projects. Sector overviews and CBP case studies will also be updated to reflect verified data and replication strategies as they become available.

  17. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  18. Energy retrofit of commercial buildings. Case study and applied methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aste, N.; Del Pero, C. [Department of Building Environment Science and Technology (BEST), Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi 3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Commercial buildings are responsible for a significant share of the energy requirements of European Union countries. Related consumptions due to heating, cooling, and lighting appear, in most cases, very high and expensive. Since the real estate is renewed with a very small percentage each year and current trends suggest reusing the old structures, strategies for improving energy efficiency and sustainability should focus not only on new buildings, but also and especially on existing ones. Architectural renovation of existing buildings could provide an opportunity to enhance their energy efficiency, by working on the improvement of envelopes and energy supply systems. It has also to be noted that the measures aimed to improve the energy performance of buildings should pay particular attention to the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. In general, there is a lack of well-established methods for retrofitting, but if a case study achieves effective results, the adopted strategies and methodologies can be successfully replicated for similar kinds of buildings. In this paper, an iterative methodology for energy retrofit of commercial buildings is presented, together with a specific application on an existing office building. The case study is particularly significant as it is placed in an urban climatic context characterized by cold winters and hot summers; consequently, HVAC energy consumption is considerable throughout the year. The analysis and simulations of energy performance before and after the intervention, along with measured data on real energy performance, demonstrate the validity of the applied approach. The specifically developed design and refurbishment methodology, presented in this work, could be also assumed as a reference in similar operations.

  19. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  20. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  1. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability

    2016-01-21

    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  2. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  3. Regression Tree-Based Methodology for Customizing Building Energy Benchmarks to Individual Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskhedikar, Apoorva Prakash

    According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, commercial buildings represent about 40% of the United State's energy consumption of which office buildings consume a major portion. Gauging the extent to which an individual building consumes energy in excess of its peers is the first step in initiating energy efficiency improvement. Energy Benchmarking offers initial building energy performance assessment without rigorous evaluation. Energy benchmarking tools based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database are investigated in this thesis. This study proposes a new benchmarking methodology based on decision trees, where a relationship between the energy use intensities (EUI) and building parameters (continuous and categorical) is developed for different building types. This methodology was applied to medium office and school building types contained in the CBECS database. The Random Forest technique was used to find the most influential parameters that impact building energy use intensities. Subsequently, correlations which were significant were identified between EUIs and CBECS variables. Other than floor area, some of the important variables were number of workers, location, number of PCs and main cooling equipment. The coefficient of variation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the new model. The customization technique proposed in this thesis was compared with another benchmarking model that is widely used by building owners and designers namely, the ENERGY STAR's Portfolio Manager. This tool relies on the standard Linear Regression methods which is only able to handle continuous variables. The model proposed uses data mining technique and was found to perform slightly better than the Portfolio Manager. The broader impacts of the new benchmarking methodology proposed is that it allows for identifying important categorical variables, and then incorporating them in a local, as against a global, model framework for EUI

  4. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  5. Promising fast reactor systems in the feasibility study on commercialized FR cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Kotake, S.; Enuma, Y.; Sagayama, Y.; Nishikawa, A.; Ando, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Systems is under way in order to propose prominent FR cycle systems that will respond to the diverse needs of society in the future. The design studies on various FR system concepts have been achieved and then the evaluations of potential to achieve the development targets have been carried out. Crucial issues have been found out for each FR system concept and their development plans for the key technologies are summarized as the roadmap. The characteristics and the differences in performances have been investigated. The crucial issues and the development periods have been clarified. Further investigation is now in progress. The promising concept will be proposed based on result of comparative evaluation at the end of the Phase II study. (authors)

  6. Energy savings potential from improved building controls for the US commercial building sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Xie, Yulong; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) sponsored a study to determine the potential national savings achievable in the commercial building sector through widespread deployment of best practice controls, elimination of system and component faults, and use of better sensing. Detailed characterization of potential savings was one source of input to set research, development, and deployment (RD&D) goals in the field of building sensors and controls. DOE’s building energy simulation software, EnergyPlus, was employed to estimate the potential savings from 34 measures in 9 building types and across 16 climates representing almost 57% of commercial building sector energy consumption. In addition to estimating savings from individual measures, three packages of measures were created to estimate savings from the packages. These packages represented an 1) efficient building, 2) typical building, and 3) inefficient building. To scale the results from individual measures or a package to the national scale, building weights by building type and climate locations from the Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) were used. The results showed significant potential for energy savings across all building types and climates. The total site potential savings from individual measures by building type and climate location ranged between 0% and 25%. The total site potential savings by building type aggregated across all climates (using the CBECS building weights) for each measure varied between 0% and 16%. The total site potential savings aggregated across all building types and climates for each measure varied between 0% and 11%. Some individual measures had negative savings because correcting underlying operational problems (e.g., inadequate ventilation) resulted in increased energy consumption. When combined into packages, the overall national savings potential is estimated to be 29

  7. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  9. Building energy, building leadership : recommendations for the adoption, development, and implementation of a commercial building energy code in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstream, T. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Allard, K. [City of Thompson, Thompson, MB (Canada); Anderson, N.; Beacham, D. [Manitoba Office of the Fire Commissioner, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Andrich, R. [The Forks North Portage Partnership, MB (Canada); Auger, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Downs, R.G. [Shindico Realty Inc., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Eastwood, R. [Number Ten Architectural Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Hewitt, C. [SMS Engineering Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Joshi, D. [City of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Klassen, K. [Manitoba Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Phillips, B. [Unies Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Wiebe, R. [Ben Wiebe Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Woelk, D. [Bockstael Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Ziemski, S. [CREIT Management LLP, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    This report presented a strategy and a set of recommendations for the adoption, development and implementation of an energy code for new commercial construction in Manitoba. The report was compiled by an advisory committee comprised of industry representatives and government agency representatives. Recommendations were divided into 4 categories: (1) advisory committee recommendations; (2) code adoption recommendations; (3) code development recommendations; and (4) code implementation recommendations. It was suggested that Manitoba should adopt an amended version of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (1997) as a regulation under the Buildings and Mobile Homes Act. Participation in a national initiative to update the Model National Energy Code for Buildings was also advised. It was suggested that the energy code should be considered as the first step in a longer-term process towards a sustainable commercial building code. However, the code should be adopted within the context of a complete market transformation approach. Other recommendations included: the establishment of a multi-stakeholder energy code task group; the provision of information and technical resources to help build industry capacity; the establishment of a process for energy code compliance; and an ongoing review of the energy code to assess impacts and progress. Supplemental recommendations for future discussion included the need for integrated design by building design teams in Manitoba; the development of a program to provide technical assistance to building design teams; and collaboration between post-secondary institutions to develop and deliver courses on integrated building design to students and professionals. 17 refs.

  10. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. Using EMIS to Identify Top Opportunities for Commercial Building Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guanjing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singla, Rupam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Energy Management and Information Systems (EMIS) comprise a broad family of tools and services to manage commercial building energy use. These technologies offer a mix of capabilities to store, display, and analyze energy use and system data, and in some cases, provide control. EMIS technologies enable 10–20 percent site energy savings in best practice implementations. Energy Information System (EIS) and Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) systems are two key technologies in the EMIS family. Energy Information Systems are broadly defined as the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to analyze and display building energy performance. At a minimum, an EIS provides daily, hourly or sub-hourly interval meter data at the whole-building level, with graphical and analytical capability. Fault Detection and Diagnosis systems automatically identify heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system or equipment-level performances issues, and in some cases are able to isolate the root causes of the problem. They use computer algorithms to continuously analyze system-level operational data to detect faults and diagnose their causes. Many FDD tools integrate the trend log data from a Building Automation System (BAS) but otherwise are stand-alone software packages; other types of FDD tools are implemented as “on-board” equipment-embedded diagnostics. (This document focuses on the former.) Analysis approaches adopted in FDD technologies span a variety of techniques from rule-based methods to process history-based approaches. FDD tools automate investigations that can be conducted via manual data inspection by someone with expert knowledge, thereby expanding accessibility and breath of analysis opportunity, and also reducing complexity.

  12. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  13. Peak reduction for commercial buildings using energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Morris, S.

    2017-11-01

    Battery-based energy storage has emerged as a cost-effective solution for peak reduction due to the decrement of battery’s price. In this study, a battery-based energy storage system is developed and implemented to achieve an optimal peak reduction for commercial customers with the limited energy capacity of the energy storage. The energy storage system is formed by three bi-directional power converter rated at 5 kVA and a battery bank with capacity of 64 kWh. Three control algorithms, namely fixed-threshold, adaptive-threshold, and fuzzy-based control algorithms have been developed and implemented into the energy storage system in a campus building. The control algorithms are evaluated and compared under different load conditions. The overall experimental results show that the fuzzy-based controller is the most effective algorithm among the three controllers in peak reduction. The fuzzy-based control algorithm is capable of incorporating a priori qualitative knowledge and expertise about the load characteristic of the buildings as well as the useable energy without over-discharging the batteries.

  14. Quantification protocol for energy efficiency in commercial and institutional buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Alberta Environment has developed an approved methodology that can be used to quantify the reduction of direct and indirect greenhouse gas emission observed after the implementation of energy efficiency measures in commercial and institutional buildings. This methodology concerns energy conservation measures that target the heating system, the ventilation, the air conditioning and lightning systems, but also includes building envelope, tap water heating, elevators, occupant small electrical equipment, outdoor lighting, swimming pool pumping or heating. Calculation methodologies for energy conservation proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization were adapted by Alberta Environment. The protocol detailed in this document is based on the fact that emissions reductions are represented by the difference between the energy use in the project condition and a baseline. This approach proposes simple and advanced calculation methodologies that allow project developers to use one or the other, depending on the availability of data and on the limitations of the project, to maximize the greenhouse gas emissions reductions quantified. 14 refs., 11 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  16. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Matsumoto, Steven W.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool is a web-based system that is designed to allow building owners, managers, and operators to more accurately assess the energy performance of their commercial buildings. This document provide a step-by-step instruction on how to use the tool.

  17. An Examination of the Performance Based Building Code on the Design of a Commercial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greenwood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Code of Australia (BCA is the principal code under which building approvals in Australia are assessed. The BCA adopted performance-based solutions for building approvals in 1996. Performance-based codes are based upon a set of explicit objectives, stated in terms of a hierarchy of requirements beginning with key general objectives. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to analyse the impact of the introduction of the performance-based code within Western Australia to gauge the effect and usefulness of alternative design solutions in commercial construction using a case study project. The research revealed that there are several advantages to the use of alternative designs and that all parties, in general, are in favour of the performance-based building code of Australia. It is suggested that change in the assessment process to streamline the alternative design path is needed for the greater use of the performance-based alternative. With appropriate quality control measures, minor variations to the deemed-to-satisfy provisions could easily be managed by the current and future building surveying profession.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  19. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of

  20. Small Commercial Building Re-tuning: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    To help building owners and managers address issues related to energy-efficient operation of small buildings, DOE has developed a Small Building Re-tuning training curriculum. This "primer" provides additional background information to understand some of the concepts presented in the Small Building Re-tuning training. The intent is that those who are less familiar with the buidling energy concepts will review this material before taking the building re-tuning training class.

  1. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  2. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  3. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  4. 40 CFR 745.228 - Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved] 745.228 Section 745.228... Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved] ...

  5. Building evaluation capacity in Ontario's public health units: promising practices and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, I; Simmons, L; Buetti, D

    2018-03-26

    This article presents the findings of a project focusing on building evaluation capacity in 10 Ontario public health units. The study sought to identify effective strategies that lead to increased evaluation capacity in the participating organizations. This study used a qualitative, multiple case research design. An action research methodology was used to design customized evaluation capacity building (ECB) strategies for each participating organization, based on its specific context and needs. This methodological approach also enabled monitoring and assessment of each strategy, based on a common set of reporting templates. A multiple case study was used to analyze the findings from the 10 participating organizations and derive higher level findings. The main findings of the study show that most of the strategies used to increase evaluation capacity in public health units are promising, especially those focusing on developing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of health unit staff and managers. Facilitators to ECB strategies were the engagement of all staff members, the support of leadership, and the existence of organizational tools and infrastructure to support evaluation. It is also essential to recognize that ECB takes time and resources to be successful. The design and implementation of ECB strategies should be based on organizational needs. These can be assessed using a standardized instrument, as well as interviews and staff surveys. The implementation of a multicomponent approach (i.e. several strategies implemented simultaneously) is also linked to better ECB outcomes in organizations. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  7. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  8. Lost opportunities: Modeling commercial building energy code adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Hal T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper models the adoption of commercial building energy codes in the US between 1977 and 2006. Energy code adoption typically results in an increase in aggregate social welfare by cost effectively reducing energy expenditures. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, I test if relative state funding, a new, objective, multivariate regression-derived measure of government capacity, as well as a vector of control variables commonly used in comparative state research, predict commercial building energy code adoption. The research shows little political influence over historical commercial building energy code adoption in the sample. Colder climates and higher electricity prices also do not predict more frequent code adoptions. I do find evidence of high government capacity states being 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt commercial building energy codes in the following year. Wealthier states are also more likely to adopt commercial codes. Policy recommendations to increase building code adoption include increasing access to low cost capital for the private sector and providing noncompetitive block grants to the states from the federal government. - Highlights: ► Model the adoption of commercial building energy codes from 1977–2006 in the US. ► Little political influence over historical building energy code adoption. ► High capacity states are over 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt codes. ► Wealthier states are more likely to adopt commercial codes. ► Access to capital and technical assistance is critical to increase code adoption.

  9. A review study of maintenance and management issues in Malaysian commercial building towards sustainable future practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Faizal; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah; Riazi, Salman Riazi Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Good management of the building will be able to influence the quality of the buildings that remain long, safe and beautiful without any damage and problems. This research paper aims to explore the issue of maintenance and management that appear in managing the commercial building in Malaysian construction and property industry. The data in this research has been gathered through the reviewing process of secondary data such as journals, proceeding, thesis etc. in the area that related to maintenance and management issue in commercial building. As highlighted by previous study, building a good management can ensure that the facilities available in the building are well and meet the standard. Thus, exposure to the problems and needs in the management of the building would be able to improve the quality of building management systems to be more effective and fulfil the client needs and features.

  10. 76 FR 48152 - Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... European Union, although the meaning of each grade could be very different across regions. A series of.... Year built. Climate zone. Building type. Year rating is issued. Report serial number (for tracking...

  11. An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The data base is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1986. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, type of building, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings

  12. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  13. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  14. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  15. Accuracy of automated measurement and verification (M&V) techniques for energy savings in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael D.; Jump, David; Fernandes, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A testing procedure and metrics to asses the performance of whole-building M&V methods is presented. • The accuracy of ten baseline models is evaluated on measured data from 537 commercial buildings. • The impact of reducing the training period from 12-months to shorter time horizon is examined. - Abstract: Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming manual data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost, with comparable or improved accuracy. These meter- and software-based approaches, increasingly referred to as “M&V 2.0”, are the subject of surging industry interest, particularly in the context of utility energy efficiency programs. Program administrators, evaluators, and regulators are asking how M&V 2.0 compares with more traditional methods, how proprietary software can be transparently performance tested, how these techniques can be integrated into the next generation of whole-building focused efficiency programs. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel M&V 2.0 modeling approaches that are used in commercial technologies, as well as approaches that are documented in the literature, and/or developed by the academic building research community. We present a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of whole-building M&V methods. We then illustrate the test procedure

  16. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  17. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Gianasi

    Full Text Available The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality. The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days. Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d. Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects.

  18. The analysis of energy consumption of a commercial building in Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    According to statistics and field investigation, the energy consumption situation and reality of commercial building is described in this paper. As the first step of large-scale public building energy efficiency supervision system encouraged by central government of China, the energy consumption of several typical commercial buildings and public buildings was analyzed in detail. The main contents of investigation are as follows: basic information of building, operational record of energy consumption equipment, energy consumption of indoor equipments, energy-efficiency assessment of energy consumption systems and equipments, investigation of behavior energy saving, etc. On this basis further analysis and diagnosis including indoor thermal and humid environment, operation state of air-conditioning water system, operation state of air-conditioning duct system and operation management of air-conditioning system were implemented. The results show that the most energy consumption of buildings in this city is commercial buildings, which can reach to about 240 W/m 2 per year. Further analysis tells that air conditioning systems play the major role of building energy consumption, and building energy saving has great potential in this city. In this paper, the ways of diagnosis work for building energy consumption are also described and discussed. Reasonable test, diagnosis and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management.

  19. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  20. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  1. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Goel, Supriya; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2013-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a voluntary national scoring system for commercial buildings to help building owners and managers assess a building’s energy-related systems independent of operations. The goal of the score is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system, known as the Commercial Building Energy Asset Score, will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrades over time. The system will also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building investors, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset scoring tool. The alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach are described in the Program Overview and Technical Protocol Version 1.0.

  2. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  3. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes background research for preparation of a plan for development of whole-building energy targets for new commercial buildings. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued.

  4. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  5. Solar-Energy System for a Commercial Building--Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Report describes a solar-energy system for space heating, cooling and domestic hot water at a 5,600 square-foot (520-square-meter) Topeka, Kansas, commercial building. System is expected to provide 74% of annual cooling load, 47% of heating load, and 95% of domestic hot-water load. System was included in building design to maximize energy conservation.

  6. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property construction. Sales of building materials to a contractor or speculative builder for the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  7. SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PEAK REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WHILE MAINTAINING COMFORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory control strategy for limiting peak power demand by small and medium commercial buildings while still meeting the business needs of the occupants. This control strategy has two features that make it relevant to new and existing buildings. First, it is designed to operate with building equipment, such as air conditioning and refrigeration systems, as they are presently installed in most small and medium commercial buildings. Because of this, the supervisory control could be realized as a software-only retrofit to existing building management systems. Second, the proposed control acts as a supervisory management layer over existing control systems, rather than replacing them outright. The primary idea of this approach is that the controls for individual building equipment request energy resources for a control action and the supervisory control examines the requests and decides which control actions to allow while satisfying a limit on peak power demand.

  8. Valuation of Green Commercial Office Building: A Preliminary Study of Malaysian Valuers' Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati Jasimin; Hishamuddin Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia's green building development is gaining momentum and green buildings have become a key focus area, especially within the commercial sector with the encouragement of government legislation and policy. Due to the emerging awareness among the market players' views of the benefits associated with the ownership of green buildings in Malaysia, there is a need for valuers to incorporate consideration of sustainability into their assessments of property market value to e...

  9. Evaluation of a energy consumption index for commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Correa Santana; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: jose.edu@gmail.com, ahneto@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The present paper proposes a energy consumption index for commercial buildings located in four different Brazilian climates. For such evaluations, the building simulation tool EnergyPlus was used and a sensitivity analysis was made for some of the main parameters of an air-conditioned building. The analysis showed that the electrical power and lighting density as well as the COP of the air conditioning system promotes the higher variations on the proposed energy index. (author)

  10. India Commercial Buildings Data Framework: A Summary of Potential Use Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Sangeeta [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report details a potential set of use cases for India’s Commercial Buildings Data Framework. The use cases are aimed at enabling data-driven, evidence-based policy making and at transforming the market for energy efficiency in the building sector by facilitating the adoption of (1) superior energy-efficient building design and operation and maintenance practices, and (2) better specification and procurement of end-use equipment and systems.

  11. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  12. Energy Code Compliance in a Detailed Commercial Building Sample: The Effects of Missing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, Rahul K.; Richman, Eric E.

    2003-09-30

    Most commercial buildings in the U.S. are required by State or local jurisdiction to meet energy standards. The enforcement of these standards is not well known and building practice without them on a national scale is also little understood. To provide an understanding of these issues, a database has been developed at PNNL that includes detailed energy related building characteristics of 162 commercial buildings from across the country. For this analysis, the COMcheck? compliance software (developed at PNNL) was used to assess compliance with energy codes among these buildings. Data from the database for each building provided the program input with percentage energy compliance to the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 energy as the output. During the data input process it was discovered that some essential data for showing compliance of the building envelope was missed and defaults had to be developed to provide complete compliance information. This need for defaults for some data inputs raised the question of what the effect on documenting compliance could be due to missing data. To help answer this question a data collection effort was completed to assess potential differences. Using the program Dodge View, as much of the missing envelope data as possible was collected from the building plans and the database input was again run through COMcheck?. The outputs of both compliance runs were compared to see if the missing data would have adversely affected the results. Both of these results provided a percentage compliance of each building in the envelope and lighting categories, showing by how large a percentage each building either met or fell short of the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 energy code. The results of the compliance runs showed that 57.7 % of the buildings met or exceeded envelope requirements with defaults and that 68 % met or exceeded envelope requirements with the actual data. Also, 53.6 % of the buildings met or surpassed the lighting requirements

  13. Job/Task Analysis: Enhancing the Commercial Building Workforce Through the Development of Foundational Materials; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Kemkar, S.

    2012-09-01

    For many commercial building operation job categories, industry consensus has not been reached on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that practitioners should possess. The goal of this guidance is to help streamline the minimum competencies taught or tested by organizations catering to building operations and maintenance personnel while providing a basis for developing and comparing new and existing training programs in the commercial building sector. The developed JTAs will help individuals identify opportunities to enhance their professional skills, enable industry to identify an appropriately skilled workforce, and allow training providers to ensure that they are providing the highest quality product possible.

  14. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  15. Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2009-04-03

    This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

  16. Comparative study of commercial building energy-efficiency retrofit policies in four pilot cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jing; Liu, Yisheng; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of existing commercial buildings is more challenging to regulate and improve than the energy efficiency of new constructions. In 2011 and 2012, the Chinese Government selected four cities- Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Chongqing- to implement pilot commercial building energy efficiency retrofit program. Based on site surveys and expert interviews in these pilot cities, this research conducted a comparative analysis on incentive policies of local city level. The analysis results show that policy designs of existing commercial buildings should be further improved. The aspects that influence the implementation effect in the future, such as subsidy level, installments, and business model promotion, should be specified in the policy clauses. Referring to the technical solution and cost-benefit in Chongqing, we found that lighting system is the most common retrofit objects while envelope system is the least common one. And the subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings, followed by office buildings. In the end, we further discussed the problems and obstacles in commercial building retrofit market, and provided a series of recommendations. - Highlights: • Data and information were collected through site surveys to the four pilot cities. • Policy design and effectiveness in four cities were comparatively analyzed. • Well-designed policy increases market response, energy savings and EMC adoption. • Lighting is the most common retrofit while envelope is the least common one. • Subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings due to the utility tariff.

  17. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions for Buildings in 2016 and Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Field-Macumber, Kristin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, noted in Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Notices 2006-52 (IRS 2006), 2008-40 (IRS 2008) and 2012-26 (IRS 2012), and updated by the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act of 2015. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); and service hot water (SHW) systems. This document applies to buildings placed in service on or after January 1, 2016.

  18. Radon concentrations inside public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Kulwicki, D R; Warner, Jr, K R; Grassi, C L

    1984-09-01

    Radon concentrations in ambient air from numerous schools, stores and other public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh, PA, area were measured by grab sampling. This is more appropriate than using long-term integrating monitors because of the correlation between times of occupancy and Rn levels. Results indicate that Rn concentrations in these buildings are nearly an order of magnitude less than in homes, and not much higher than outdoors. Variations among sites is also much less than for homes, probably because there is less variability in ventilation and building maintenance practices. Colleges and universities have somewhat higher Rn levels and a larger degree of variability than commercial buildings or hospitals. There was no indication of higher Rn levels in cold weather than in warm weather, or of correlations with the age of the building.

  19. Radon concentrations inside public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B L; Kulwicki, D R; Warner, K R; Grassi, C L

    1984-09-01

    Radon concentrations in ambient air from numerous schools, stores and other public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh, PA, area were measured by grab sampling. This is more appropriate than using long-term integrating monitors because of the correlation between times of occupancy and Rn levels. Results indicate that Rn concentrations in these buildings are nearly an order of magnitude less than in homes, and not much higher than outdoors. Variations among sites is also much less than for homes, probably because there is less variability in ventilation and building maintenance practices. Colleges and universities have somewhat higher Rn levels and a larger degree of variability than commercial buildings or hospitals. There was no indication of higher Rn levels in cold weather than in warm weather, or of correlations with the age of the building.

  20. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  1. Load shape development for Swedish commercial and public buildings - methodologies and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1999-06-01

    The knowledge concerning electricity consumption, and especially load demand, in Swedish commercial buildings is very limited. The current study deals with methods for electricity consumption indicator development and application of the different methodologies on measured data. Typical load shapes and consumption indicators are developed for four different types of commercial buildings: schools, hotels, grocery stores and department stores. Two different methodologies for consumption indicator development are presented and discussed. The influence on load demand from different factors such as, installations, outdoor temperature and building activities is studied. It is suggested that building floor area is not an accurate determinant of building electricity consumption and it is necessary to consider other factors as those just mentioned to understand commercial building electricity consumption. The application of the two methodologies on measured data shows that typical load shapes can be developed with reasonable accuracy. For most of the categories it is possible to use the typical load shapes for approximation of whole-building load shapes with error rates about 10-25% depending on day-type and building type. Comparisons of the developed load shapes with measured data show good agreement 49 refs, 22 figs, 3 tabs

  2. End-use energy consumption estimates for U.S. commercial buildings, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs of the US Department of Energy, utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1992 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type. The nonlinear SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption (based upon utility billing information). End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 6,751 buildings in the 1992 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for 11 separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock. 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  4. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Project Management Plan/Progress Report UT/GTKS Training Program Development for Commercial Building Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-03-31

    Universidad del Turabo (UT), in a collaborative effort with Global Turn Key Services, Inc. (GTKS), proposed to develop a training program and a commercialization plan for the development of Commercial Building Operators (CBOs). The CBOs will operate energy efficient buildings to help maintain existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance level, and ensure that net-zero-energy buildings continuously operate at design specifications, thus helping achieve progress towards meeting BTP Strategic Goals of creating technologies and design approaches that enable net-zero-energy buildings at low incremental costs by 2025. The proposed objectives were then: (1) Develop a Commercial Building Operator (CBO) training program and accreditation that will in turn provide a certification to participants recognized by Accreditation Boards such as the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Designs (LEED). (2) Develop and implement a commercialization and sustainability plan that details marketing, deployment, financial characterization, job placement, and other goals required for long-term sustainability of the project after the funding period. (3) After program development and deployment, provide potential candidates with the knowledge and skill sets to obtain employment in the commercial building green energy (net-zero-energy building) job market. The developed CBO training program will focus on providing skills for participants, such as displaced and unemployed workers, to enter the commercial building green energy (net-zeroenergy building) job market. This course was designed to allow a participant with minimal to no experience in commercial building green technology to obtain the required skill sets to enter the job market in as little as 12 weeks of intensive multi-faceted learning. After completion of the course, the CBO staff concluded the participant will meet minimum established accreditation

  6. Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D H; Fisk, W; Apte, M G; Wu, X; Trout, A; Faulkner, D; Sullivan, D

    2012-08-01

    This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-29

    This report summarizes the screening procedure and its results for selecting contaminants of concern (COC), whose concentrations are affected by ventilation in commercial buildings. Many pollutants comprising criteria pollutants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and biological contaminants are found in commercial buildings. In this report, we focus primarily on identifying potential volatile organic COC, which are impacted by ventilation. In the future we plan to extend this effort to inorganic gases and particles. Our screening considers compounds detected frequently in indoor air and compares the concentrations to health-guidelines and thresholds. However, given the range of buildings under consideration, the contaminant sources and their concentrations will vary depending on the activity and use of the buildings. We used a literature review to identify a large list of chemicals found in commercial-building indoor air. The VOCs selected were subject to a two stage screening process, and the compounds of greater interest are included in priority List A. Other VOCs that have been detected in commercial buildings are included in priority List B. The compounds in List B, were further classified into groups B1, B2, B3, B4 in order of decreasing interest.

  8. Energy retrofit analysis toolkits for commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofit analysis toolkits can be used to optimize energy or cost savings from retrofit strategies, accelerating the adoption of ECMs (energy conservation measures) in buildings. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the features and capabilities of 18 energy retrofit toolkits, including ECMs and the calculation engines. The fidelity of the calculation techniques, a driving component of retrofit toolkits, were evaluated. An evaluation of the issues that hinder effective retrofit analysis in terms of accessibility, usability, data requirement, and the application of efficiency measures, provides valuable insights into advancing the field forward. Following this review the general concepts were determined: (1) toolkits developed primarily in the private sector use empirically data-driven methods or benchmarking to provide ease of use, (2) almost all of the toolkits which used EnergyPlus or DOE-2 were freely accessible, but suffered from complexity, longer data input and simulation run time, (3) in general, there appeared to be a fine line between having too much detail resulting in a long analysis time or too little detail which sacrificed modeling fidelity. These insights provide an opportunity to enhance the design and development of existing and new retrofit toolkits in the future. - Highlights: • Retrofit analysis toolkits can accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency measures. • A comprehensive review of 19 retrofit analysis toolkits was conducted. • Retrofit toolkits have diverse features, data requirement and computing methods. • Empirical data-driven, normative and detailed energy modeling methods are used. • Identified immediate areas for improvement for retrofit analysis toolkits

  9. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  10. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  12. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  13. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the Canadian commercial building sector: A stochastic frontier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Young, D.

    2007-01-01

    The achievement of energy efficiency in commercial buildings is a function of the activities undertaken, the technology in place, and the extent to which those technologies are used efficiently. We study the factors that affect efficient energy use in the Canadian commercial sector by applying a stochastic frontier approach to a cross-section of Canadian commercial buildings included in the Commercial and Institutional Building Energy Use Survey (CIBEUS). Structural and climate-control features of the buildings as well as climatic conditions are assumed to determine the location of the frontier, while management-related variables including such factors as ownership type and activities govern whether or not the maximally attainable efficiency along the frontier is achieved. Our results indicate that although, on average, buildings appear to be fairly efficient, certain types of operations are more likely than others to exhibit energy efficiencies that are significantly worse than average. These results, along with those related to the effects of physical characteristics on the stochastic efficiency frontier, suggest that there is scope for focused policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency in this sector

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  15. Analysis of variables that influence electric energy consumption in commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.M.Q. [Technical Drawing Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, A.C.M. [Program for Graduate Studies in Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Air conditioning systems in commercial buildings in Brazil are responsible for about 70% share of their energy consumption. According to BEN 2009 (The Brazilian Energy Balance), energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectors, where most buildings are found, represents 9.3% of the final energy consumption in Brazil. This paper aims to examine design factors that could contribute to greater reductions of electric energy consumption in commercial buildings, with emphasis on air conditioning. Simulations were carried out using shades and different types of glass, walls, flooring and roofing. The VisualDOE 2.61 was used as a simulation tool for calculating energy consumption of the analyzed building. This paper shows that the energy performance of the building is considerably influenced by the facade protection and shows, through tables, the impact that decisions related to the top-level and facades have on the energy consumption of the building. The authors concluded that the results confirm the importance of taking energy use into account in the very first design stages of the project, since appropriate choices of types of glass, external shading and envelope materials have a significant impact on energy consumption. (author)

  16. Building Blocks of Psychology: on Remaking the Unkept Promises of Early Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G; Deng, Wei Sophia

    2018-03-01

    The appeal and popularity of "building blocks", i.e., simple and dissociable elements of behavior and experience, persists in psychological research. We begin our assessment of this research strategy with an historical review of structuralism (as espoused by E. B. Titchener) and behaviorism (espoused by J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner), two movements that held the assumption in their attempts to provide a systematic and unified discipline. We point out the ways in which the elementism of the two schools selected, framed, and excluded topics of study. After the historical review, we turn to contemporary literature and highlight the persistence of research into building blocks and the associated framing and exclusions in psychological research. The assumption that complex categories of human psychology can be understood in terms of their elementary components and simplest forms seems indefensible. In specific cases, therefore, reliance on the assumption requires justification. Finally, we review alternative strategies that bypass the commitment to building blocks.

  17. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  18. Accelerating the energy retrofit of commercial buildings using a database of energy efficiency performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Sawaya, Geof; Chen, Yixing; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium-sized commercial buildings can be retrofitted to significantly reduce their energy use, however it is a huge challenge as owners usually lack of the expertise and resources to conduct detailed on-site energy audit to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy technologies. This study presents a DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) that provides a direct resource for quick retrofit analysis of commercial buildings. DEEP, compiled from the results of about ten million EnergyPlus simulations, enables an easy screening of ECMs (energy conservation measures) and retrofit analysis. The simulations utilize prototype models representative of small and mid-size offices and retails in California climates. In the formulation of DEEP, large scale EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on high performance computing clusters to evaluate hundreds of individual and packaged ECMs covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plug-loads, and service hot water. The architecture and simulation environment to create DEEP is flexible and can expand to cover additional building types, additional climates, and new ECMs. In this study DEEP is integrated into a web-based retrofit toolkit, the Commercial Building Energy Saver, which provides a platform for energy retrofit decision making by querying DEEP and unearthing recommended ECMs, their estimated energy savings and financial payback. - Highlights: • A DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) supports building retrofit. • DEEP is an SQL database with pre-simulated results from 10 million EnergyPlus runs. • DEEP covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • DEEP accelerates retrofit of small commercial buildings to save energy use and cost. • DEEP can be expanded and integrated with third-party energy software tools.

  19. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 2, Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-08-01

    This is the second volume of the Phase 1 report and discusses the 10 tasks performed in Phase 1. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for setting energy design targets to provide voluntary guidelines for the buildings industry. The whole-building energy targets project is being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage the construction of energy-efficient buildings by informing designers and owners about cost-effective goals for energy use in new commercial buildings. The outcome of this research will be a flexible methodology for setting such targets. The tasks are listed and discussed in this report as follows: Task 1 - Develop Detailed Project Goals and Objectives; Task 2 - Establish Buildings-Industry Liaison; Task 3 - Develop Approaches to the Energy Targets Model, Building Operations, and Climate; Task 4 - Develop an Approach for Treating Economic Considerations; Task 5 - Develop an Approach for Treating Energy Sources; Task 6 - Collect Energy-Use Data; Task 7 - Survey Energy Expert Opinion; Task 8 - Evaluation Procedure Specification and Integration; Task 9 - Phase 1 Report Development; and Task 10 - Phase 1 Review Planning.

  20. Identifying Critical Factors in the Cost-Effectiveness of Solar and Battery Storage in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This analysis elucidates the emerging market for distributed solar paired with battery energy storage in commercial buildings across the United States. It provides insight into the near-term and future solar and solar-plus-storage market opportunities as well as the variables that impact the expected savings from installing behind-the-meter systems.

  1. Sources of indoor air contamination on the ground floor of a high-rise commercial building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebzadeh, A.; Cragg-Elkouh, S.; Rancy, R.; Dufresne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a subject of growing concern in the developed world. Many sources of indoor air contamination in commercial and office buildings are recognised and have been investigated. In addition to the usual internal sources of air contaminants, other external sources from attached facilities can find their way into the building. This report presents the results of an indoor air quality survey in a high-rise office building which demonstrated an obvious seasonal change in regard to the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Furthermore, a complementary survey in the same building was carried out to identify the relevant sources of air contamination in the building and the results indicated that an attached train station and the nearby street traffic had a significant impact on indoor air quality. (author)

  2. Enabling VOLTTRON: Energy Management of Commercial Buildings at the University of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebhojiaye, Itohan Omisi

    Buildings waste approximately 30% of energy they consume due to inefficient HVAC and lighting operation. Building Automation Systems (BAS) can aid in reducing such wasted energy, but 90% of U.S. commercial buildings lack a BAS due to their high capital costs. This thesis demonstrates how VOLTTRON, an open source operating system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was used to disable the mechanical cooling of a rooftop unit (RTU) during unoccupied hours, on a building without a BAS. With cooling off, the RTU's electricity dropped from 18 kW to 7kW. These results indicate 450 to 550 can be saved on the monthly electric bill of the building during the summer, compared to when the RTU operated in cooling mode continuously. The installation cost of the equipment that enabled the RTU to be controlled via VOLTTRON was $6,400, thus the project has a payback period of 13 months.

  3. Lux level enhancement and reduction in electricity cost in commercial buildings by retrofitting with PMR luminaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariun, N.; Mohibullah; Jasni, J.; Lam, S.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the existing commercial buildings are illuminated by luminaries systems during broad daylight and night which is provided by the renowned lighting industry. However, back in 1980s, the installed luminaries within the office compound were limited in choice of luminaire selection and cost factor impact. Some of the old commercial building are still using prismatic acrylic lens diffuser luminaries in order to brighten up the building for their business activities and a large number of luminaries are needed to illuminate equivalent illumination level as per requirement of the building bye-laws code. With the advancement in luminaries technology, the lighting industries have offered better solution to reduce energy costs by 50% or more, also able to improve the quality of light and reducing the quantity of luminaries requirement by introducing the parabolic mirror reflector (PMR) luminaries system. The selected commercial building as a case study to support this luminaries retrofitting program by comparing the existing luminaries with the retrofit luminaries in terms of the lux measurement and energy cost saving calculation is presented in this paper. Nevertheless, some general lighting design principle rules are also discussed

  4. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  5. Implementation of life cycle costing for a commercial building: case of a residential apartment at Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaming Peter F

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of a design process is very important in controlling the initial costs and future costs in possession of an investment project such as commercial building. Therefore, it should be wise to perform a life cycle cost analysis to determine the cost of any category contained in future cost of the building. The analysis also provide information to see how much the total cost incurred by a development project from initial to the future cost by implementing BS ISO 15686 part 5: 2008, regarding life cycle costing. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost proportion and make long-term plans of a commercial building in term of its life cycle costing from a case of a residential apartment in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Results of the study show that there are three groups that make up the life cycle cost: the cost of development of the building, the operating costs, and the cost of maintenance and replacement. For a long-term plan the life cycle cost for 25 years the percentage obtained as follows, initial development cost of 42%, operational costs 39%, maintenance and replacement costs 19%. The results would also make comparison with other existing commercial buildings.

  6. Using the fuzzy linear regression method to benchmark the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fuzzy linear regression method is used for developing benchmarking systems. ► The systems can be used to benchmark energy efficiency of commercial buildings. ► The resulting benchmarking model can be used by public users. ► The resulting benchmarking model can capture the fuzzy nature of input–output data. -- Abstract: Benchmarking systems from a sample of reference buildings need to be developed to conduct benchmarking processes for the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. However, not all benchmarking systems can be adopted by public users (i.e., other non-reference building owners) because of the different methods in developing such systems. An approach for benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings using statistical regression analysis to normalize other factors, such as management performance, was developed in a previous work. However, the field data given by experts can be regarded as a distribution of possibility. Thus, the previous work may not be adequate to handle such fuzzy input–output data. Consequently, a number of fuzzy structures cannot be fully captured by statistical regression analysis. This present paper proposes the use of fuzzy linear regression analysis to develop a benchmarking process, the resulting model of which can be used by public users. An illustrative example is given as well.

  7. Indoor particle levels in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Bennett, Deborah H

    2012-11-20

    This study monitored indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in 37 small and medium commercial buildings (SMCBs) in California with three buildings sampled on two occasions, resulting in 40 sampling days. Sampled buildings included offices, retail establishments, restaurants, dental offices, and hair salons, among others. Continuous measurements were made for both ultrafine and fine particulate matter as well as black carbon inside and outside of the building. Integrated PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM(10) samples were also collected inside and outside the building. The majority of the buildings had indoor/outdoor (I/O) particle concentration ratios less than 1.0, indicating that contributions from indoor sources are less than removal of outdoor particles. However, some of the buildings had I/O ratios greater than 1, indicating significant indoor particle sources. This was particularly true of restaurants, hair salons, and dental offices. The infiltration factor was estimated from a regression analysis of indoor and outdoor concentrations for each particle size fraction, finding lower values for ultrafine and coarse particles than for submicrometer particles, as expected. The I/O ratio of black carbon was used as a relative measure of the infiltration factor of particles among buildings, with a geometric mean of 0.62. The contribution of indoor sources to indoor particle levels was estimated for each building.

  8. Hybrid Model-Based and Data-Driven Fault Detection and Diagnostics for Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Stephen; Heaney, Michael; Jin, Xin; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Elmore, Ryan; Henze, Gregor

    2016-08-01

    Commercial buildings often experience faults that produce undesirable behavior in building systems. Building faults waste energy, decrease occupants' comfort, and increase operating costs. Automated fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) tools for buildings help building owners discover and identify the root causes of faults in building systems, equipment, and controls. Proper implementation of FDD has the potential to simultaneously improve comfort, reduce energy use, and narrow the gap between actual and optimal building performance. However, conventional rule-based FDD requires expensive instrumentation and valuable engineering labor, which limit deployment opportunities. This paper presents a hybrid, automated FDD approach that combines building energy models and statistical learning tools to detect and diagnose faults noninvasively, using minimal sensors, with little customization. We compare and contrast the performance of several hybrid FDD algorithms for a small security building. Our results indicate that the algorithms can detect and diagnose several common faults, but more work is required to reduce false positive rates and improve diagnosis accuracy.

  9. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2013-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.

  10. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  11. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  12. π-Extended Isoindigo-Based Derivative: A Promising Electron-Deficient Building Block for Polymer Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Mingchao; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Jian; Yi, Zhengran; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-11-22

    The exploration of novel electron-deficient building blocks is a key task for developing high-performance polymer semiconductors in organic thin-film transistors. In view of the situation of the lack of strong electron-deficient building blocks, we designed two novel π-extended isoindigo-based electron-deficient building blocks, IVI and F 4 IVI. Owing to the strong electron-deficient nature and the extended π-conjugated system of the two acceptor units, their copolymers, PIVI2T and PF 4 IVI2T, containing 2,2'-bithiophene donor units, are endowed with deep-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels and strong intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PIVI2T, the fluorinated PF 4 IVI2T exhibits stronger intra- and intermolecular interactions, lower HOMO/LUMO energy levels up to -5.74/-4.17 eV, and more ordered molecular packing with a smaller π-π stacking distance of up to 3.53 Å, resulting in an excellent ambipolar transporting behavior and a promising application in logic circuits for PF 4 IVI2T in ambient with hole and electron mobilities of up to 1.03 and 1.82 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. The results reveal that F 4 IVI is a promising and strong electron-deficient building unit to construct high-performance semiconducting polymers, which provides an insight into the structure-property relationships for the exploration and molecular engineering of excellent electron-deficient building blocks in the field of organic electronics.

  13. Results and Lessons Learned From the DOE Commercial Building Partnerships: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Deru, M.; Langner, R.; Stark, G.; Doebber, I.; Scheib, J.; Sheppy, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Livingood, B.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of 5 years, NREL worked with commercial building owners and their design teams in the DOE Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to cut energy consumption by 50% in new construction (versus code) and by 30% in existing building pilot projects (versus code or pre-retrofit operational energy use depending on the preference of the Partner) using strategies that could be replicated across their building portfolios. A number of different building types were addressed, including supermarket, retail merchandise, combination big box (general merchandise and food sales), high rise office space, and warehouse. The projects began in pre-design and included a year of measurement data to evaluate performance against design expectations. Focused attention was required throughout the entire process to achieve a design with the potential to hit the energy performance target and to operate the resulting building to reach this potential. This paper will report quantitative results and cover both the technical and the human sides of CBP, including the elements that were required to succeed and where stumbling blocks were encountered. It will also address the impact of energy performance goals and intensive energy modeling on the design process innovations and best practices.

  14. Energy Performance and CO2 Emissions of HVAC Systems in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Al-Waked

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy performance of buildings has attracted much attention among building physicists and engineers worldwide. The effects of building heating; ventilation; and air conditioning (HVAC systems’ design upgrade on the building energy performance are the focus of the current study. The adopted HVAC system consisted of chilled ceiling and chilled beam systems served by a centrifugal water chiller. An energy simulation study was undertaken in accordance with the national Australian built environment rating system-rules for collecting and using data. A three-dimensional simulation study was carried out utilizing the virtual environment-integrated environmental solutions software. Results from the current study have shown the importance of utilizing energy-efficient HVAC systems and HVAC strategies for achieving a high building energy star rating. Recommended strategies in order to achieve the nominated star rating; as predicted by the simulation analysis; were presented. Moreover; the effects of solar radiation inside the building atrium were significant; which cannot be overcome by simply installing a low shading coefficient glazing type at the atrium skylight. In addition to providing chilled ceiling technology; a high efficiency chiller and low energy lighting; it is recommended that the building be well tuned during the commissioning period. The current approach could be extended to accommodate higher energy ratings of commercial buildings at different locations worldwide.

  15. In-Depth Analysis of Energy Efficiency Related Factors in Commercial Buildings Using Data Cube and Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongjoon Noh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of energy are consumed in the commercial building sector, resulting in various adverse environmental issues. To reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings, it is necessary to develop effective methods for analyzing building energy use. In this study, we propose a data cube model combined with association rule mining for more flexible and detailed analysis of building energy consumption profiles using the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS dataset, which has accumulated over 6700 existing commercial buildings across the U.S.A. Based on the data cube model, a multidimensional commercial sector building energy analysis was performed based upon on-line analytical processing (OLAP operations to assess the energy efficiency according to building factors with various levels of abstraction. Furthermore, the proposed analysis system provided useful information that represented a set of energy efficient combinations by applying the association rule mining method. We validated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed analysis model by structuring a building energy analysis system and applying it to different building types, weather conditions, composite materials, and heating/cooling systems of the multitude of commercial buildings classified in the CBECS dataset.

  16. Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial

  17. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  18. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  19. Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

    2004-07-01

    Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

  20. Building communities and social potential: Between and beyond organizations and individuals in commercial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janda, Kathryn B.

    2014-01-01

    Axon et al., (2012) argue that maximizing the potential for energy efficiency and demand reduction in tenanted commercial properties requires a “building communities” approach. This paper develops and extends Axon et al.′s proposed framework in two ways. First, by extending its applicability from tenanted to owner-occupied properties. Second, by situating it within the literature related to organizational culture, occupant behaviours, and technology adoption. The paper begins with a brief review of the existing research on people, energy and commercial buildings. This literature tends to address either organizational choices, or occupant behavior, but it rarely crosses the analytical boundaries between these two groups. The paper then explores these different levels of analysis within a 3Cs – “concern, capacity, and conditions” – framework, which was developed to describe and distinguish organizational responses to an energy crisis. The combination of the “building communities” and 3Cs frames reveals gaps and grey areas between organizational culture, occupant behaviour, and technology adoption where further conservation opportunities may lie. These understudied areas suggest that there may be “social potential” for change that is between and beyond the frames used by previous research in the field. - Highlights: • We discuss literature on occupant behaviour and organisational factors in commercial buildings. • We introduce two frameworks drawn from previous research: “3Cs” (concern, capacity, and conditions) and “building communities”. • Gaps in the literature call for a “building communities” approach to the 3Cs, which we recommend for near-term research. • We introduce the concept of “social potential” as a counterpoint to technical potential for longer-term research

  1. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances (2015 Update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Chung, Greg [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned a technology characterization and assessment of appliances used in commercial buildings for cooking, cleaning, water heating, and other end-uses. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development, and demonstration opportunities to improve energy efficiency in each end-use. This report serves as an update to a 2009 report of the same name by incorporating updated data and sources where possible and updating the available technology options that provide opportunities for efficiency improvements.

  2. Saving energy by using underfloor-air-distribution (UFAD) system in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajmi, Ali; El-Amer, Wid

    2010-01-01

    The number of attempts by researchers to reduce building energy consumption has increased, ever since global warming became a serious issue. In this trend, a relatively new approach of air distribution, underfloor-air-distribution system (UFAD), has been widely used in new commercial buildings. This technique is simply accomplished by supplying air through a raised floor using different types of distribution configurations and outlets. In UFAD, the air is directly supplied to the occupants' area (occupied zone) causing occupants plumes and zone heat load stratify to the upper layer of the zone (unoccupied zone), which are later extracted from return points at high level. This flow pattern gives UFAD the advantage of using less energy than a conventional air-distribution system, ceiling-based air distribution (CBAD) due to lower pressure drop and lower air flow rate. This paper investigates the effectiveness of UFAD systems in commercial buildings for various types of application and at different air supply temperatures in a hot climate (The State of Kuwait). The findings show that UFAD has a significant saving of energy compared to CBAD (∼30%); in particular with high ceiling building types, as well as providing satisfactory comfort conditions for the occupants. Ultimately, more investigations should be done on conventional building heights (offices) to optimize the utilization of thermal stratification at design and operation stages.

  3. Field Experience with and Potential for Multi-time Scale Grid Transactions from Responsive Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-08-01

    The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast load responsiveness in commercial buildings. We present a sector wide analysis of flexible loads in commercial buildings, which was conducted to improve resource planning and determine which loads to evaluate in future demonstrations. These systems provide important capabilities for future transactional systems. The field analysis is based on results from California, plus projects in the northwest and east coast. End-uses considered include heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. The timescales of control include day-ahead, as well as day-of, 10-minute ahead and even faster response. This technology can provide DR signals on different times scales to interact with responsive building loads. We describe the latency of the control systems in the building and the round trip communications with the wholesale grid operators.

  4. Opportunities for low carbon sustainability in large commercial buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ping; Keith Tovey, N.

    2009-01-01

    China's building sector consumes one quarter of total energy consumption in the country and plays an important role in long-term ability of the country to achieve sustainable development. This paper discusses a comprehensive approach to achieving low carbon sustainability in large commercial buildings in China incorporating both energy and carbon-reduction strategies. The approach concentrates primarily on three complementary aspects: (a) the introduction of an effective energy management system; (b) the incorporation of relevant advanced energy saving technologies and measures and (c) the promotion of awareness among occupants to make changes in their behaviour towards a more environmental-friendly behaviour. However, reference is also made to the role that renewable energy and offsetting may have in the effective management and environmental performance of buildings. Nine examples of large commercial buildings in Beijing and Shanghai were studied and the average electricity consumption of around 153 kWh/m 2 per annum is about 5 times higher than average electricity use in residential buildings. At the same time the associated green house gas (GHG) emissions are around 158 kg/m 2 per annum.

  5. Correlation between temperature satisfaction and unsolicited complaint rates in commercial buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Federspiel, C C; Arens, E

    2005-02-01

    This paper analyzes the relation between temperature satisfaction ratings expressed on a questionnaire and unsolicited complaint rates recorded in a maintenance database. The key findings are as follows: (i) the satisfaction ratings and complaint rates are negatively correlated with a moderate magnitude (r(s) = -0.31 to -0.36), and the correlation is statistically significant (P = 0.01-0.005), and (ii) the percent dissatisfied with temperature and the complaint rate are positively correlated with moderate magnitude (r(s) = 0.31-0.36), and the correlation is statistically significant (P = 0.01-0.004). Both data sets contain 'real-world' measures of temperature satisfaction, with the complaints contributing directly to the cost of operations and maintenance. The relationship between two validates a new method of assessing the economic cost of thermal discomfort in commercial buildings. Complaints in commercial buildings indicate occupants' dissatisfaction to their environments. It not only deteriorates occupants' performance and organization productivity, but also increases building maintenance and operating cost. Nailing economic consequences of complaints will enable monetary comparison of discomfort cost with building and operating costs. This comparison may be desirable for building owners and tenants to make well-informed decisions on construction, rental, and retrofit. It may also be used to evaluate complaint diagnostic and eliminating techniques.

  6. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of Commercial Building Electrical Loads for Demand Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardino, Jonathan

    In recent years there has been a push in the electric power industry for more customer involvement in the electricity markets. Traditionally the end user has played a passive role in the planning and operation of the power grid. However, many energy markets have begun opening up opportunities to consumers who wish to commit a certain amount of their electrical load under various demand side management programs. The potential benefits of more demand participation include reduced operating costs and new revenue opportunities for the consumer, as well as more reliable and secure operations for the utilities. The management of these load resources creates challenges and opportunities to the end user that were not present in previous market structures. This work examines the behavior of commercial-type building electrical loads and their capacity for supporting demand side management actions. This work is motivated by the need for accurate and dynamic tools to aid in the advancement of demand side operations. A dynamic load model is proposed for capturing the response of controllable building loads. Building-specific load forecasting techniques are developed, with particular focus paid to the integration of building management system (BMS) information. These approaches are tested using Drexel University building data. The application of building-specific load forecasts and dynamic load modeling to the optimal scheduling of multi-building systems in the energy market is proposed. Sources of potential load uncertainty are introduced in the proposed energy management problem formulation in order to investigate the impact on the resulting load schedule.

  8. LEARNING FROM COMMERCIAL VERNACULAR BUILDING TYPES: A NORTH AMERICAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Verderber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial literature exists on commercial vernacular architecture in North America. This literature has examined everyday places and iconic building types including suburbia, roadside motels, vintage diners, fast food franchises, residential trailer parks, signage, unique commercial establishments, and shopping malls. These places and buildings are generally classified as expressions of folk vernacular culture. In response, Attention Restoration Theory, an environmental cognition perspective based in human information processing research, provided the foundation for an investigation of the food truck/ trailer and its immediate installation context within a North American case study context. Visual documentation, interviews, and archival fieldwork provided the basis for the articulation of a typology. These structures were found to express automaticity, as satisfying the timeless human preference for association with nature, a sense of psychological respite, and as a physical setting visually distinct from its larger urban environment context. Directions for future research on this topic are outlined together with insights for application by architects and urban planners.

  9. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  10. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  11. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  12. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  14. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  15. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-02-28

    Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

  16. Review of California and National Methods for Energy PerformanceBenchmarking of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance E.; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-05

    This benchmarking review has been developed to support benchmarking planning and tool development under discussion by the California Energy Commission (CEC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and others in response to the Governor's Executive Order S-20-04 (2004). The Executive Order sets a goal of benchmarking and improving the energy efficiency of California's existing commercial building stock. The Executive Order requires the CEC to propose ''a simple building efficiency benchmarking system for all commercial buildings in the state''. This report summarizes and compares two currently available commercial building energy-benchmarking tools. One tool is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star National Energy Performance Rating System, which is a national regression-based benchmarking model (referred to in this report as Energy Star). The second is Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Cal-Arch, which is a California-based distributional model (referred to as Cal-Arch). Prior to the time Cal-Arch was developed in 2002, there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers but none that were based solely on California data. The Energy Star and Cal-Arch benchmarking tools both provide California with unique and useful methods to benchmark the energy performance of California's buildings. Rather than determine which model is ''better'', the purpose of this report is to understand and compare the underlying data, information systems, assumptions, and outcomes of each model.

  17. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  18. Experience implementing energy standards for commercial buildings and its lessons for the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Deringer, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    Energy efficiency standards for buildings have been adopted in over forty countries. This policy mechanism is pursued by governments as a means of increasing energy efficiency in the buildings sector, which typically accounts for about a third of most nations' energy consumption and half of their electricity consumption. This study reports on experience with implementation of energy standards for commercial buildings in a number of countries and U.S. states. It is conducted from the perspective of providing useful input to the Government of the Philippines' (GOP) current effort at implementing their building energy standard. While the impetus for this work is technical assistance to the Philippines, the intent is to shed light on the broader issues attending implementation of building energy standards that would be applicable there and elsewhere. The background on the GOP building energy standard is presented, followed by the objectives for the study, the approach used to collect and analyze information about other jurisdictions' implementation experience, results, and conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Economic analysis of solar assisted absorption chiller for a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyraj, Gnananesan

    Dwindling fossil fuels coupled with changes in global climate intensified the drive to make use of renewable energy resources that have negligible impact on the environment. In this attempt, the industrial community produced various devices and systems to make use of solar energy for heating and cooling of building space as well as generate electric power. The most common components employed for collection of solar energy are the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors that produce hot water that can be employed for heating the building space. In order to cool the building, the absorption chiller is commonly employed that requires hot water at high temperatures for its operation. This thesis deals with economic analysis of solar collector and absorption cooling system to meet the building loads of a commercial building located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Computer simulations are employed to predict the hourly building loads and performance of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using the hourly weather data. The key variables affecting the economic evaluation of such system are identified and the influence of these parameters is presented. The results of this investigation show that the flat plate solar collectors yield lower payback period compared to the evacuated tube collectors and economic incentives offered by the local and federal agencies play a major role in lowering the payback period.

  20. Peak load shifting control using different cold thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu; Gao, Diance

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Little study reviews the load shifting control using different facilities. • This study reviews load shifting control using building thermal mass. • This study reviews load shifting control using thermal energy storage systems. • This study reviews load shifting control using phase change material. • Efforts for developing more applicable load shifting control are addressed. - Abstract: For decades, load shifting control, one of most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted increasing attentions from both researchers and engineers. Different load shifting control strategies have been developed when diverse cold thermal energy storage facilities are used in commercial buildings. The facilities include building thermal mass (BTM), thermal energy storage system (TES) and phase change material (PCM). Little study has systematically reviewed these load shifting control strategies and therefore this study presents a comprehensive review of peak load shifting control strategies using these thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings. The research and applications of the load shifting control strategies are presented and discussed. The further efforts needed for developing more applicable load shifting control strategies using the facilities are also addressed

  1. Energy optimization methodology of multi-chiller plant in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Myat, Aung; Khambadkone, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the potential energy savings in commercial buildings through optimized operation of a multi-chiller plant. The cooling load contributes 45–60% of total power consumption in commercial and office buildings, especially at tropics. The chiller plant operation is not optimal in most of the existing buildings because the chiller plant is either operated at design condition irrespective of the cooling load or optimized locally due to lack of overall chiller plant behavior. In this study, an overall energy model of chiller plant is developed to capture the thermal behavior of all systems and their interactions including the power consumption. An energy optimization methodology is proposed to derive optimized operation decisions for chiller plant at regular intervals based on building thermal load and weather condition. The benefits of proposed energy optimization methodology are examined using case study problems covering different chiller plant configurations. The case studies result confirmed the energy savings achieved through optimized operations is up to 40% for moderate size chiller plant and around 20% for small chiller plant which consequently reduces the energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • Energy optimization methodology improves the performance of multi-chiller plant. • Overall energy model of chiller plant accounts all equipment and the interactions. • Operation decisions are derived at regular interval based on time-varying factors. • Three case studies confirmed 20 to 40% of energy savings than conventional method.

  2. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  3. The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jun-young

    Agent-based systems for energy conservation are now a growing area of research in multiagent systems, with applications ranging from energy management and control on the smart grid, to energy conservation in residential buildings, to energy generation and dynamic negotiations in distributed rural communities. Contributing to this area, my thesis presents new agent-based models and algorithms aiming to conserve energy in commercial buildings. More specifically, my thesis provides three sets of algorithmic contributions. First, I provide online predictive scheduling algorithms to handle massive numbers of meeting/event scheduling requests considering flexibility , which is a novel concept for capturing generic user constraints while optimizing the desired objective. Second, I present a novel BM-MDP ( Bounded-parameter Multi-objective Markov Decision Problem) model and robust algorithms for multi-objective optimization under uncertainty both at the planning and execution time. The BM-MDP model and its robust algorithms are useful in (re)scheduling events to achieve energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty over user's preferences. Third, when multiple users contribute to energy savings, fair division of credit for such savings to incentivize users for their energy saving activities arises as an important question. I appeal to cooperative game theory and specifically to the concept of Shapley value for this fair division. Unfortunately, scaling up this Shapley value computation is a major hindrance in practice. Therefore, I present novel approximation algorithms to efficiently compute the Shapley value based on sampling and partitions and to speed up the characteristic function computation. These new models have not only advanced the state of the art in multiagent algorithms, but have actually been successfully integrated within agents dedicated to energy efficiency: SAVES, TESLA and THINC. SAVES focuses on the day-to-day energy consumption of individuals and

  4. Pilot project for a commercial buildings Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    Commercial energy use costs businesses around $70 billion annually. Many of these businesses are small and medium sized organizations that do not have the resources to help themselves, or to pay for professional engineering services to help reduce their energy costs and improve their economic competitiveness. Energy cost reduction actions with payback times of around two years could save the commercial sector 15--20%, or $10--$15 billion per year. This project was initially intended to evaluate the feasibility of performing commercial energy audits as an adjunct to the industrial audit program run by the US Department of Energy Industrial Office. This program is housed in 30 universities throughout the United States. Formerly known as Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC`s), the university programs are now called Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC`s) to reflect their expansion from energy use analyses to include waste and productivity analyses. The success of the EADC/IAC program in helping the manufacturing sector provides an excellent model for a similar program in the commercial buildings sector. This project has investigated using the EADC/IAC approach to performing energy audits for the commercial sector, and has determined that such an approach is feasible and cost effective.

  5. Start point to savings - Better load demand analysis in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas; Pyrko, Jurek [Lund Univ., Dept of Energy Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Existing installations and energy systems in most commercial buildings could be used in a more efficient way to provide savings - both in terms of energy and load demand. The key for effective operation is a thorough and detailed analysis of energy use patterns that creates essential baseline for energy savings and the development of demand response (DR) strategies. The knowledge of energy demand variations is still very limited and the use of methods to analyse the load demand is rare. Many utilities have recently installed interval (hourly) metering even for smaller commercial users and households. This is a big step forward; however, experience shows that the data is being used only to a limited extent, mostly for billing purposes only. This paper reports about a study conducted with the objective of developing a detailed load demand analysis for commercial buildings. The study results should provide essential information for the formation and evaluation of future DR and energy efficiency strategies. This study was performed in collaboration with IKEA and E.ON and contributes to an ongoing IKEA energy efficiency programme. Two sample department stores in Sweden were selected and analysed within this project. The demand data analysis covers almost 3 years period, 2004-2006.This study contributes to new knowledge of energy use patterns (load demand) in commercial buildings. It proposes solutions of load-related problems, evaluates energy and load savings potential, identifies and analyses the needs, motives and barriers for participation in DR programmes. The study provides recommendations for ongoing and future efficiency and DR strategies and discusses the potential economic benefits from the DR measures.

  6. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  7. Commercial mitigation techniques used in remediating a 2200 pCi/L public building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on commercial mitigation techniques used in remediating a 2200 pCi/L public building. In March of 1989 EPA and Pa. DER officials were amazed to discover a school in Pennsylvania with levels in its library of 2200 pCi/L. The library was a 30 year old, three story slab-on-grade structure more like a commercial building than a typical school structure. It had three separate and complex HVAC systems. Initial diagnostics indicated radon levels under the slab at over 80,000 pCi/L. Further investigations revealed major entry routes and a HVAC system terribly out of balance. Remediation consisted of installing a complex sub-slab depressurization system with an exterior commercial fan unit, major entry route sealing, and working closely with a mechanical contractor to bring the HVAC systems back into balance. Initial post remediation testing showed a 99% drop in radon levels. Refinements to the system are still in progress

  8. Analysis of impact of large commercial aircraft on a prestressed containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoungsoo, E-mail: kylee@pvamu.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie view, TX, 77446 (United States); Han, Sang Eul, E-mail: hsang@inha.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, School of Architecture, Inha University, 253 Yonghyundong Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseon-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses are performed using the missile–target interaction method. • A large commercial B747 aircraft is considered with erosion effect. • The rigid wall impact test shows the validity of the developed aircraft model. • The parametric studies on the fictitious containment building are performed. • The plastic failure of the target is governed by the impulse of aircraft at the first momentum peak. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of nonlinear dynamic analyses of a concrete containment building under extreme loads are presented. The impact of a large commercial B747 airliner is investigated as the extreme load, and a rigid wall impact test is performed using commercial nonlinear finite element codes. The impact forces exerted by the aircraft are verified compared with the time-dependent impact force provided by OECD/NEA (2002), which was calculated based on the so-called Riera method. The rigid wall impact analysis shows that the finite element model of a B747 is appropriate for the purpose of the aircraft crash analysis exposed to the external hazard of “Beyond Design-Basis Events” defined by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Finally, the applicability of this methodology is further studied and verified by conducting parametric studies on the critical infrastructures of nuclear power plant containment structures.

  9. Analysis of impact of large commercial aircraft on a prestressed containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoungsoo; Han, Sang Eul; Hong, Jung-Wuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses are performed using the missile–target interaction method. • A large commercial B747 aircraft is considered with erosion effect. • The rigid wall impact test shows the validity of the developed aircraft model. • The parametric studies on the fictitious containment building are performed. • The plastic failure of the target is governed by the impulse of aircraft at the first momentum peak. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of nonlinear dynamic analyses of a concrete containment building under extreme loads are presented. The impact of a large commercial B747 airliner is investigated as the extreme load, and a rigid wall impact test is performed using commercial nonlinear finite element codes. The impact forces exerted by the aircraft are verified compared with the time-dependent impact force provided by OECD/NEA (2002), which was calculated based on the so-called Riera method. The rigid wall impact analysis shows that the finite element model of a B747 is appropriate for the purpose of the aircraft crash analysis exposed to the external hazard of “Beyond Design-Basis Events” defined by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Finally, the applicability of this methodology is further studied and verified by conducting parametric studies on the critical infrastructures of nuclear power plant containment structures

  10. A cash flow model of development activity and the scope for energy savings. [Commercial office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, D [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (AU). Dept. of Architecture

    1991-01-01

    When proposing energy saving measures to the developers of large commercial office projects, it is necessary to appreciate what the developers' goals and perceptions are. This paper looks at a simple cash-flow model of development activity, and illustrates the potential for energy savings with reference to some data from two major Australian cities. This data was collected between July and November 1989 by surveys which were carried out on the basic design of 26 of the tallest Brisbane commercial office buildings. This survey followed an extensive investigation into the premises needs of modern office building tenants in Brisbane, in which over 200 CBD tenants were questioned. This investigation showed that there was an increasing need for air conditioning capacity and electrical power; greater tendencies for ''after hours'' office work; a desire for larger floor-plates to cater for expanding tenant organizations, and the emergence of ''professional tenants''. These observations have been documented elsewhere in the orbit reports amongst others. The buildings surveyed represent 60% of the estimated Brisbane central business district (CBD) office stock of area 1,256,000 m{sup 2}. (author).

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling for Commercial buildings in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthalagappan Narayanan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Space cooling and heating always tends to be a major part of the primary energy usage. By using fossil fuel electricity for these purposes, the situation becomes even worse. One of the major electricity consumptions in India is air conditioning. There are a lot of different technologies and few researchers have come up with a debate between solar absorption cooling and PV electric cooling. In a previous paper, PV electric cooling was studied and now as a continuation, this paper focuses on solar thermal absorption cooling systems and their application in commercial/office buildings in India. A typical Indian commercial building is taken for the simulation in TRNSYS. Through this simulation, the feasibility and operational strategy of the system is analysed, after which parametric study and economic analysis of the system is done. When compared with the expenses for a traditional air conditioner unit, this solar absorption cooling will take 13.6 years to pay back and will take 15.5 years to payback the price of itself and there after all the extra money are savings or profit.  Although the place chosen for this study is one of the typical tropical place in India, this payback might vary with different places, climate and the cooling demand. Article History: Received May 12th 2017; Received in revised form August 15th 2017; Accepted 1st Sept 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Narayanan, M. (2017. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling for Commercial Buildings in India.  International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 253-262. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.253-262

  12. ISO 50001 for Commercial Buildings: Lessons Learned From U.S. DOE Pilot Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Punjabi, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S., the ISO 50001 Standard, which establishes energy management systems (EnMSs) and processes, has shown uptake primarily in the industrial sector. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a pilot program to explore ISO 50001 implementation in commercial buildings. Eight organizations participated as pilots, with technical assistance provided by DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). This paper shares important lessons learned from the pilot. Staff time was the most critical resource required to establish effective EnMSs in commercial buildings. The pilot also revealed that technical support and template/example materials were essential inputs. Crucial activities included evaluating performance, identifying goals, making connections, communicating operational controls, and tracking/reviewing progress. Benefits realized included enhanced intra-organizational connections, greater energy awareness, increased process efficiencies, and improved ability to make business cases. Incremental benefits for ISO 50001 certification were greater accountability, assurance of best practices, public relations opportunities, and potential to unlock verified savings credits or incentive money. Incremental certification costs included more staff/consultant time, money for certification, and a tendency to limit EnMS scope in order to ensure favorable audit results. Five best practices were identified - utilizing expert technical assistance, training, and other resources; focusing on implementation over documentation; keeping top management involved; considering organizational structure when selecting EnMS scope; and matching the implementation level to an EnMS's scope and scale. The last two practices are particularly relevant to the commercial buildings sector.

  13. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each

  14. Enabling Energy Efficiency in South Africa's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    South Africa is leading a number of efforts to support a thriving economy while also reducing energy use. Increasing energy demand coupled with a highly energy intensive economy and energy inefficient industries provide the backdrop for strong government action underway in South Africa. This brochure details how the Clean Energy Solutions Center supported development of the Regulations on Allowance for the Energy Efficiency Savings legislation designed to provide a framework for effective energy efficiency regulation, incentives and energy reduction targets for South Africa's commercial buildings sector.

  15. The role of grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaic generation in commercial building energy and power loads in a warm and sunny climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ruether, R.

    2010-01-01

    For large commercial buildings, power load delivery limits are contracted with the local electricity distribution utility, and are usually fixed at one or more levels over the year, according to the seasonal building loads, and depending on the specific country regulations. Especially in warm and sunny climates, solar electricity generation using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can assist in reducing commercial building loads, offering peak-shaving (power) benefits on top of the on-site generation of electricity (energy). This on-site power delivery capability gives these consumers the possibility of renegotiating demand contracts with their distribution utility. Commercial buildings that operate during daytime quite often have an energy consumption profile that is well matched by solar radiation availability, and depending on the building's available surface areas, BIPV can generate considerable portions of the energy requirements. In this work we present the role of grid-connected BIPV in reducing the load demands of a large and urban commercial building located in a warm climate in Brazil. The building and adjacent car parking lots can accommodate a 1 MWp BIPV generator, which closely matches the building's typical maximum power demands. Based on real solar radiation data and simultaneous building electricity demands for the year 2007, simulation of the annual solar generation profile of this on-site generator showed that the 1 MWp BIPV system could account for around 30% of the total building's energy consumption. In addition to the energy benefit, maximum power demands were reduced due to a good match between midday air-conditioning cooling loads and solar radiation availability on both a daily and seasonal basis. Furthermore, we have simulated the effect of this considerably large urban-sited generator on the local distribution network load, and have shown that the 1 MWp BIPV installation can also offer considerable benefits to the local utility in

  16. Evaluating the benefits of commercial building energy codes and improving federal incentives for code adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2014-12-16

    The federal government has the goal of decreasing commercial building energy consumption and pollutant emissions by incentivizing the adoption of commercial building energy codes. Quantitative estimates of code benefits at the state level that can inform the size and allocation of these incentives are not available. We estimate the state-level climate, environmental, and health benefits (i.e., social benefits) and reductions in energy bills (private benefits) of a more stringent code (ASHRAE 90.1-2010) relative to a baseline code (ASHRAE 90.1-2007). We find that reductions in site energy use intensity range from 93 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (California) to 270 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (North Dakota). Total annual benefits from more stringent codes total $506 million for all states, where $372 million are from reductions in energy bills, and $134 million are from social benefits. These total benefits range from $0.6 million in Wyoming to $49 million in Texas. Private benefits range from $0.38 per square meter in Washington State to $1.06 per square meter in New Hampshire. Social benefits range from $0.2 per square meter annually in California to $2.5 per square meter in Ohio. Reductions in human/environmental damages and future climate damages account for nearly equal shares of social benefits.

  17. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  18. Improving the accuracy of energy baseline models for commercial buildings with occupancy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xin; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated several baseline models predicting energy use in buildings. • Including occupancy data improved accuracy of baseline model prediction. • Occupancy is highly correlated with energy use in buildings. • This simple approach can be used in decision makings of energy retrofit projects. - Abstract: More than 80% of energy is consumed during operation phase of a building’s life cycle, so energy efficiency retrofit for existing buildings is considered a promising way to reduce energy use in buildings. The investment strategies of retrofit depend on the ability to quantify energy savings by “measurement and verification” (M&V), which compares actual energy consumption to how much energy would have been used without retrofit (called the “baseline” of energy use). Although numerous models exist for predicting baseline of energy use, a critical limitation is that occupancy has not been included as a variable. However, occupancy rate is essential for energy consumption and was emphasized by previous studies. This study develops a new baseline model which is built upon the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) model but includes the use of building occupancy data. The study also proposes metrics to quantify the accuracy of prediction and the impacts of variables. However, the results show that including occupancy data does not significantly improve the accuracy of the baseline model, especially for HVAC load. The reasons are discussed further. In addition, sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of parameters in baseline models. The results from this study can help us understand the influence of occupancy on energy use, improve energy baseline prediction by including the occupancy factor, reduce risks of M&V and facilitate investment strategies of energy efficiency retrofit.

  19. BizWatts: A modular socio-technical energy management system for empowering commercial building occupants to conserve energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbinas, R.; Jain, R.K.; Taylor, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a socio-technical commercial building energy management system. • It was designed for directly engaging and connecting building occupants via feedback. • We collected an array of clickstream data for internal design validation. • A pilot study validated its ability to drive energy savings in commercial buildings. - Abstract: Commercial buildings represent a significant portion of energy consumption and environmental emissions worldwide. To help mitigate the environmental impact of building operations, building energy management systems and behavior-based campaigns designed to reduce energy consumption are becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we describe the development of a modular socio-technical energy management system, BizWatts, which combines the two approaches by providing real-time, appliance-level power management and socially contextualized energy consumption feedback. We describe in detail the physical and virtual architecture of the system, which simultaneously engages building occupants and facility managers, as well as the main principles behind the interface design and component functionalities. A discussion about how the data collection capabilities of the system enable insightful commercial building energy efficiency studies and quantitative network analysis is also included. We conclude by commenting on the validation of the system, identifying current system limitations and introducing new research avenues that the development and deployment of BizWatts enables

  20. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  1. The use of energy management and control systems to monitor the energy performance of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, Kristin Elizabeth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    1994-12-01

    Monitored data play a very important part in the implementation and evaluation of energy conservation technologies and programs. However, these data can be expensive to collect, so there is a need for lower-cost alternatives. In many situations, using the computerized Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs)--already installed in many buildings--to collect these commercial building performance data has advantages over more conventional methods. This method provides data without installing incremental hardware, and the large amounts of available operational data can be a very rich resource for understanding building performance. This dissertation addresses several of these issues. One specific objective is to describe a monitoring-project planning process that includes definition of objectives, constraints, resources and approaches for the monitoring. The choice of tools is an important part of this process. The dissertation goes on to demonstrate, through eight case studies, that EMCS monitoring is possible, and to identify and categorize the problems and issues that can be encountered. These issues lead to the creation, use, and testing of a set of methods for evaluation of EMCS monitoring, in the form of guidelines. Finally, EMCS monitoring is demonstrated and compared with conventional monitoring more methodically in a detailed case study.

  2. Comparison of Actual Costs to Integrate Commercial Buildings with the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Black, Doug [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-01

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This paper discusses the impact factors that contribute to the costs of automated DR systems, with a focus on OpenADR 1.0 and 2.0 systems. In addition, this report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. In summary, median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude greater or less than median. Costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total such costs.

  3. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  4. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  5. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA)); Hall, J.D. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)) (comps.)

    1990-09-01

    The Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the project is to develop a flexible methodology for setting energy performance guidelines with which architects, engineers, planners, and owners can assess energy efficiency in commercial building design. This volume, the third in the four-volume report on the Targets project concept stage, contains the minutes of the workshops as well as summaries of the expert's written comments prepared at the close of each workshop. In Section 2, the building energy simulation workshop is summarized. Section 3 provides a summary of the building cost workshop.

  6. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  7. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  8. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Tejedor, J. García [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Martina, S. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Universitá degli Studi di Torino, Turin (Italy); Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N. [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  9. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  10. Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R.; Osborne, A.; Woodard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 106 spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292°F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process. PMID:17012597

  11. Destruction of spores on building decontamination residue in a commercial autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 10(6) spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292 degrees F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process.

  12. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicholls, Andrew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  13. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Aleksander; Kalinina, Olga; Levina, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  14. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  15. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  16. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  17. Demand side management for commercial buildings using an in line heat pump water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, Riaan; Rousseau, Pieter G.; Eldik, Martin van

    2004-01-01

    Most of the sanitary hot water used in South African buildings is heated by means of direct electrical resistance heaters. This is one of the major contributors to the undesirably high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. For this reason, water heating continues to be of concern to the electricity supplier, ESCOM. Previous studies, conducted by the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in South Africa, indicated that extensive application of the so called inline heat pump water heating methodology in commercial buildings could result in significant demand side management savings to ESKOM. Furthermore, impressive paybacks can be obtained by building owners who choose to implement the design methodology on existing or new systems. Currently, a few examples exist where the design methodology has been successfully implemented. These installations are monitored with a fully web centric monitoring system that allows 24 h access to data from each installation. Based on these preliminary results, a total peak demand reduction of 108 MW can be achieved, which represents 18% of the peak load reduction target set by ESKOM until the year 2015. This represents an avoided cost of approximately MR324 (ZAR) [Int J Energy Res 25(4) (1999) 2000]. Results based on actual data from the monitored installations shows a significant peak demand reduction for each installation. In one installation, a hotel with an occupancy of 220 people, the peak demand contribution of the hot water installation was reduced by 86%, realizing a 36% reduction in peak demand for the whole building. The savings incurred by the building owner also included significant energy consumption savings due to the superior energy efficiency of the heat pump water heater. The combined savings result in a conservatively calculated straight payback period of 12.5 months, with an internal rate of return of 98%. The actual cost of water heating is studied by

  18. Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul; Haves, Philip

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.

  19. Energy Management in Small Commercial Buildings: A Look at How HVAC Contractors Can Deliver Energy Efficiency to this Segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin; Granderson, Jessica; Mathew, Paul

    2014-07-01

    While buildings smaller than 50,000 sq ft account for nearly half of the energy used in US commercial buildings, energy efficiency programs to-date have primarily focused on larger buildings. Interviews with stakeholders and a review of the literature indicate interest in energy efficiency from the small commercial building sector, provided solutions are simple and low-cost. An approach to deliver energy management to small commercial buildings via HVAC contractors and preliminary demonstration findings are presented. The energy management package (EMP) developed includes five technical elements: benchmarking and analysis of monthly energy use; analysis of interval electricity data (if available), a one-hour onsite walkthrough, communication with the building owner, and checking of results. This data-driven approach tracks performance and identifies low-cost opportunities, using guidelines and worksheets for each element to streamline the delivery process and minimize the formal training required. This energy management approach is unique from, but often complementary to conventional quality maintenance or retrofit-focused programs targeting the small commercial segment. Because HVAC contractors already serve these clients, the transaction cost to market and deliver energy management services can be reduced to the order of hundreds of dollars per year. This business model, outlined briefly in this report, enables the offering to benefit the contractor and client even at the modest expected energy savings in small buildings. Results from a small-scale pilot of this approach validated that the EMP could be delivered by contractors in 4-8 hours per building per year, and that energy savings of 3-5percent are feasible through this approach.

  20. What drives the carbon mitigation in Chinese commercial building sector? Evidence from decomposing an extended Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minda; Cai, Weiguang

    2018-09-01

    Energy efficiency in the building sector is expected to contribute >50% to the nationwide carbon mitigation efforts for achieving China's carbon emission peak in 2030, and carbon mitigation in Chinese commercial buildings (CMCCB) is an indicator of this effort. However, the CMCCB assessment has faced the challenge of ineffective and inadequate approaches; therefore, we have followed a different approach. Using the China Database of Building Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions as our data source, our study is the first to employ the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) to decompose five driving forces from the Kaya identity of Chinese commercial building carbon emissions (CCBCE) to assess the CMCCB values in 2001-2015. The results of our study indicated that: (1) Only two driving forces (i.e., the reciprocal of GDP per capita of Tertiary Industry in China and the CCBCE intensity) contributed negatively re m i to CCBCE during 2001-2015, and the quantified negative contributions denoted the CMCCB values. Specifically, the CMCCB values in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 were 123.96, 252.83, and 249.07 MtCO 2 , respectively. (2) The data quality control involving the CMCCB values proved the reliability of our CMCCB assessment model, and the universal applicability of this model was also confirmed. (3) The substantial achievements of the energy efficiency project in the Chinese commercial building sector were the root cause of the rapidly growing CMCCB. Overall, we believe that our model successfully bridges the research gap of the nationwide CMCCB assessment and that the proposed model is also suitable either at the provincial level or in different building climate zones in China. Meanwhile, a global-level assessment of the carbon mitigation in the commercial building sector is feasible through applying our model. Furthermore, we consider our contribution as constituting significant guidance for developing the building energy efficiency strategy in China in the

  1. Progress on Enabling an Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants and Their Building To Improve Comfort and Energy Efficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, M.; Scheib, J.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Benne, K.; Brackney, L.

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have reported energy savings after installing a dashboard, but dashboards provide neither individual feedback to the occupant nor the ability to report individual comfort. The Building Agent (BA) provides an interface to engage the occupant in a conversation with the building control system and the building engineer. Preliminary outcomes of the BA-enabled feedback loop are presented, and the effectiveness of the three display modes will be compared to other dashboard studies to baseline energy savings in future research.

  2. Walmart - Saving Energy, Saving Money Through Comprehensive Retrofits, Commercial Building Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet); Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Walmart partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 to develop and demonstrate energy retrofits for existing buildings. The goal was to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, as part of DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. The project presented here, the retrofit of a 213,000 square foot store in Centennial, Colorado, withefficiency measures across multiple building systems, is part of Walmart's ongoing environmental sustainability program, which originated in 2005.

  3. Understanding the potential of facilities managers to be advocates for energy efficiency retrofits in mid-tier commercial office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Jim; Walton, Andrea; Dodd, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Realising energy efficiency opportunities in new commercial office buildings is an easier task than retrofitting older, mid-tier building stock. As a result, a number of government programs aim to support retrofits by offering grants, upgrades, and energy audits to facilitate energy efficiency opportunities. This study reports on a state government program in Victoria, Australia, where the uptake of such offerings was lower than expected, prompting the program team to consider whether targeting facilities managers (FMs), rather than building owners, might be a better way of delivering the program. The influences and practices of FMs that impact on their ability to be advocates for energy efficiency were explored. The results revealed that complex building ownership arrangements, poor communication skills, isolation from key decision making processes, a lack of credible business cases and information, split incentives, and the prospect of business disruptions can all impact on FMs’ ability to drive organizational change. Future program efforts should continue to interrogate the social context of retrofits in mid-tier buildings, including other influences and influencers beyond FMs, and adapt accordingly. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency retrofits of older commercial buildings can be a challenge. • Government support for retrofits is not always taken up by building owners. • Targeting facilities managers (FMs) to encourage retrofits is proposed. • FMs’ ability to be advocates for energy efficiency is constrained. • Government offerings need to better fit with the realities of the problem.

  4. Control of disturbing loads in residential and commercial buildings via geometric algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Manuel-V

    2013-01-01

    Many definitions have been formulated to represent nonactive power for distorted voltages and currents in electronic and electrical systems. Unfortunately, no single universally suitable representation has been accepted as a prototype for this power component. This paper defines a nonactive power multivector from the most advanced multivectorial power theory based on the geometric algebra (GA). The new concept can have more importance on harmonic loads compensation, identification, and metering, between other applications. Likewise, this paper is concerned with a pioneering method for the compensation of disturbing loads. In this way, we propose a multivectorial relative quality index δ(~) associated with the power multivector. It can be assumed as a new index for power quality evaluation, harmonic sources detection, and power factor improvement in residential and commercial buildings. The proposed method consists of a single-point strategy based of a comparison among different relative quality index multivectors, which may be measured at the different loads on the same metering point. The comparison can give pieces of information with magnitude, direction, and sense on the presence of disturbing loads. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested approach.

  5. Capability and deficiency of the simplified model for energy calculation of commercial buildings in the Brazilian regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, A.P.; Lamberts, R.; Costola, D.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment on the accuracy of the Brazilian regulation simplified model for commercial buildings. The first step was to compare its results with BESTEST. The study presents a straightforward approach to apply the BESTEST in other climates than the original one

  6. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic System Design as Specifically Applied to Commercial Buildings in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Blackledge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the viability of installing photovoltaic (PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Dublin. Data collected from previously installed photovoltaic systems at the Dublin Institute of Technology was analysed in order to determine the potential solar resource available in Ireland. A 1.1 kWp photovoltaic system installed in Dublin can produce over 900 kWh of electricity in a given year depending on the available solar resource for that year. A feasibility study was conducted in Dublin city centre in order to evaluate the technical, financial and environmental aspects of integrating a PV system into an existing building. The intention is that the results from this work will help in demonstrating the benefits and challenges associated with installing PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Ireland.

  7. Natural radioactivity in different commercial ceramic samples used in Yemeni buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Sahar A.; Naji, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    In this work we calculated the radioactivity concentrations of the natural radioactive nuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K for 10 commercial samples collected from 10 different companies which are used in the construction of Yemeni buildings. Gamma ray spectroscopy was used to analyze the samples and the concentrations of radioisotopes were determined using a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector in Bq/kg dry-weight. The average concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K were found to be 131.4, 83.55, 131.88 and 400.7 Bq/kg respectively. Different hazard indices were also determined. The results showed that the average radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the absorbed dose rate (D r ), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the external hazard index (H ex ) and representation level index (I γ ) were: 307.52 Bq/kg, 139.31 nGy/h, 1.40 mSv/yr, 0.83 and 2.15 respectively. The mean value of (Ra eq ) obtained in this study is in good agreement with that of the international value while the mean values of the other indices are found to be higher than the international reference values. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclide were compared with the reported data obtained from similar materials used in other countries. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of the natural radioactive nuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K were measured. ► Ten samples collected from 10 different companies have been analyzed. ► Gamma ray spectroscopy is used to analyze the samples. ► Concentrations in Bq/kg were determined using a HPGe detector. ► Different hazard indices (Ra eq ), (D r ), (AEDE), (H ex ) and (I γ ) were also determined

  8. Implementing LCFF: Building Capacity to Realize the Promises of California's New Funding System. Policy and Practice Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    California's Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) has introduced changes that alter the conditions under which educators, administrators, and community leaders approach their roles in the K-12 education system. Consequently, leaders at all levels may need to build the capacity--both the knowledge and skills and the resources--that they need to…

  9. Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Promising Potato Clones and Commercial Cultivars Using the GGE Bi-plot and AMMI Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D HassanPanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics and stability of marketable tuber yield of 13 promising potato clones, along with three commercial cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Lady Rosetta as checks, an experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil during 2011 and 2012. During the growing period and after harvest, attributes like number of main stem per plant, plant height, tuber number and weight per plant, total and marketable tuber yield, dry matter percentage, baking type, hollow heart, tuber inner ring and discoloration of raw tuber flesh after 24 hours were measured. Combined ANONA for quantitative traits showed that there were significant differences among promising clones as to total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, mean tuber weight, number of main stem per plant and dry matter percentage and their interactions with year in total and marketable tuber yield and tuber number and weight per plant. The clones 396151-7, 397008-5, 397015-8, 397008-2 and 994001-4 were found to have higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant and mean tuber weight. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, yellow skin color, yellow and white flesh color, oval round and round tuber shape, mid and shallow eyes, with no hollow heart, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry matter percentage as compared with control and other clones. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot and AMMI models were found to be proper methods for selection of 397008-2, 397008-5 and 994001-4 as being high marketable and stable yielding clones.

  10. Establishing a Commercial Buildings Energy Data Framework for India: A Comprehensive Look at Data Collection Approaches, Use Cases and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States); Mathew, Sangeeta [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing energy efficiency of the commercial building stock is an important aspect of any national energy policy. Understanding how buildings use energy is critical to formulating any new policy that may impact energy use, underscoring the importance of credible data. Data enables informed decision making and good quality data is essential for policy makers to prioritize energy saving strategies and track implementation. Given the uniqueness of the buildings sector and challenges to collecting relevant energy data, this study characterizes various elements involved in pertinent data collection and management, with the specific focus on well-defined data requirements, appropriate methodologies and processes, feasible data collection mechanisms, and approaches to institutionalizing the collection process. This report starts with a comprehensive review of available examples of energy data collection frameworks for buildings across different countries. The review covers the U.S. experience in the commercial buildings sector, the European experience in the buildings sector and other data collection initiatives in Singapore and China to capture the more systematic efforts in Asia in the commercial sector. To provide context, the review includes a summary and status of disparate efforts in India to collect and use commercial building energy data. Using this review as a key input, the study developed a data collection framework for India with specific consideration to relevant use cases. Continuing with the framework for data collection, this study outlines the key performance indicators applicable to the use cases and their collection feasibility, as well as immediate priorities of the participating stakeholders. It also discusses potential considerations for data collection and the possible approaches for survey design. With the specific purpose of laying out the possible ways to structure and organize data collection institutionally, the study collates existing

  11. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  12. Estimating energy impacts of residential and commercial building development. A manual for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-22

    This energy-impact manual presents information on energy implications of new building design and operation, providing a reasonably accurate means of assessing the total energy impact of new construction in the commercial and residential sectors. While developed specifically for the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, much of the data used are national averages; the procedures described are applicable to other regions of the nation, with appropriate adjustments for climatic differences. The manual is organized into three parts, each covering one aspect of the energy impacts of building development. Part I addresses the energy impact of erecting the building(s). This includes the energy cost of grading and excavating and other site preparation. It also takes into account the energy embodied in the fabrication of materials used in building construction, as well as the energy cost of transporting materials to the site and assembling them. Part II focuses on the end use of energy during normal building operation, i.e., the energy consumed for space heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, etc. A simplified calculation sequence is provided which allows the user to estimate the consumption of most combinations of building orientation, characteristics, and operating conditions. Part III examines the relationship of land use to energy consumption, principally the transportation energy impact of various land-development patterns, the embodied energy impacts of infrastructure requirements, and the impacts of various orientation and siting schemes. (MCW)

  13. Evaluating the Cost of Line Capacity Limitations in Aggregations of Commercial Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziras, Charalampos; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Kazempour, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    -ahead optimization strategy to assess the cost of imposing capacity limitations in the total consumption of individual buildings, as well as aggregations of buildings. We show that such capacity limitations lead to an increase for the buildings operational costs, which can be interpreted as the value...... of these limitations. Based on such calculations, the aggregator can value capacity-limitation services to the distribution system operator. Moreover, the value of aggregation is also highlighted, since it leads to lower costs than imposing the same total capacity limitation on individual buildings....

  14. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  15. Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  16. Computer simulations for state-of-the-art engineering design of a commercial building in Prague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.; Schwarzer, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the computer simulation work, which was carried out to support the engineering design team of the Luxembourg Plaza building development in Prague. The simulations for this study were based on (1) energy balance models covering the whole building for heating and cooling load

  17. A cross-sectional study of the temporal evolution of electricity consumption of six commercial buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan M Pickering

    Full Text Available Current approaches to building efficiency diagnoses include conventional energy audit techniques that can be expensive and time consuming. In contrast, virtual energy audits of readily available 15-minute-interval building electricity consumption are being explored to provide quick, inexpensive, and useful insights into building operation characteristics. A cross sectional analysis of six buildings in two different climate zones provides methods for data cleaning, population-based building comparisons, and relationships (correlations of weather and electricity consumption. Data cleaning methods have been developed to categorize and appropriately filter or correct anomalous data including outliers, missing data, and erroneous values (resulting in < 0.5% anomalies. The utility of a cross-sectional analysis of a sample set of building's electricity consumption is found through comparisons of baseload, daily consumption variance, and energy use intensity. Correlations of weather and electricity consumption 15-minute interval datasets show important relationships for the heating and cooling seasons using computed correlations of a Time-Specific-Averaged-Ordered Variable (exterior temperature and corresponding averaged variables (electricity consumption(TSAOV method. The TSAOV method is unique as it introduces time of day as a third variable while also minimizing randomness in both correlated variables through averaging. This study found that many of the pair-wise linear correlation analyses lacked strong relationships, prompting the development of the new TSAOV method to uncover the causal relationship between electricity and weather. We conclude that a combination of varied HVAC system operations, building thermal mass, plug load use, and building set point temperatures are likely responsible for the poor correlations in the prior studies, while the correlation of time-specific-averaged-ordered temperature and corresponding averaged variables method

  18. SAME4HPC: A Promising Approach in Building a Scalable and Mobile Environment for High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an architecture for building Scalable And Mobile Environment For High-Performance Computing with spatial capabilities called SAME4HPC is described using cutting-edge technologies and standards such as Node.js, HTML5, ECMAScript 6, and PostgreSQL 9.4. Mobile devices are increasingly becoming powerful enough to run high-performance apps. At the same time, there exist a significant number of low-end and older devices that rely heavily on the server or the cloud infrastructure to do the heavy lifting. Our architecture aims to support both of these types of devices to provide high-performance and rich user experience. A cloud infrastructure consisting of OpenStack with Ubuntu, GeoServer, and high-performance JavaScript frameworks are some of the key open-source and industry standard practices that has been adopted in this architecture.

  19. Building integrated PV for commercial and institutional structures, a sourcebook for architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiffert, P.; Kiss, G.

    2000-02-14

    This sourcebook on building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is intended for architects and designers interested in learning more about today's sustainable solar buildings. The booklet includes 16 design briefs describing actual structures; they illustrate how electricity-generating BIPV products (such as special roofing systems, vertical-wall systems, skylights, and awnings, all of which contain PV cells, modules, and films) can be integrated successfully into many different kinds of buildings. It also contains basic information about BIPV technologies, an overview of US product development activities and development programs, descriptions of major software design tools, and a bibliography.

  20. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public Buildings (EPA 402-F-13053)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled "Moisture Control Guida...

  1. An open-source automated continuous condition-based maintenance platform for commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Gowri, Krishnan; Hernandez, George

    2016-09-09

    This paper describes one such reference process that can be deployed to provide continuous automated conditioned-based maintenance management for buildings that have BIM, a building automation system (BAS) and a computerized maintenance management software (CMMS) systems. The process can be deployed using an open source transactional network platform, VOLTTRON™, designed for distributed sensing and controls and supports both energy efficiency and grid services.

  2. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-09-01

    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  3. Methods of modeling TCO residential real estate in the life cycles of buildings as a promising energy efficiency management tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and developing an affordable housing market is a huge challenge for Russia’s national economy. Today, the housing construction industry finds itself in a situation torn by a conflict caused by the simultaneous needs to minimize the housing construction costs in order to make housing more affordable for Russians and to increase the energy efficiency of the housing projects, which is associated with additional costs for developers. To find solutions to this contradictory situation, one needs new theoretical and practical approaches and economic tools. The global economic trend of managing goods and services on the basis of the value of goods and services over the life cycle is also manifested in the construction industry in Russia. The problem of forming a new economic thinking in the housing sector predetermines the perception of the value of housing not only as the price of purchased real estate, but as the equivalent of the total cost of ownership of real estate throughout its life cycle. This approach allows to compensate the initial rise in the cost of construction resulting from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies by savings in the operational phase of the life cycle of the property. In this regard, management of the total cost of real estate ownership based on energy modeling is of high research and practical relevance.

  4. The analysis of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a large-scale commercial building in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable test, diagnosis, and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of a large-scale commercial building are described in this article. Basic information about energy consumption equipment is included in the investigation. Further diagnoses about the operational state of air-conditioning water systems, and ducted systems were implemented. Energy consumption decreased 200 kWh/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009 after energy-saving reconstruction in 2006. Next, a carbon audit was carried out; this comprised CO2 emission statistics associated with the energy use and categorization and structural analysis (categorization refers to energy categorization and structural analysis means the composition and its proportion relationship of all kinds of primary energy and secondary energy in energy production or consumption. Greenhouse gas emissions could be less than 150 kg/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of the correlation between CO2 emissions, building gross domestic product, and energy efficiency is also presented. This article makes an analysis on the energy utilization and energy-saving reconstruction of a public commercial building in Shanghai and then makes an analysis of carbon audit about greenhouse gas emissions related to energy utilization (it analyzes the status of building’s energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions, to have a more comprehensive understanding on the internal relationship between energy consumption and its greenhouse gas emissions and provide researchful reference data for the development with reduction strategies of greenhouse gas emission in future building.

  5. Life cycle cost analysis of commercial buildings with energy efficient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Kale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In any construction project, cost effectiveness plays a crucial role. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis provides a method of determining entire cost of a structure over its expected life along with operational and maintenance cost. LCC can be improved by adopting alternative modern techniques without much alteration in the building. LCC effectiveness can be calculated at various stages of entire span of the building. Moreover this provides decision makers with the financial information necessary for maintaining, improving, and constructing facilities. Financial benefits associated with energy use can also be calculated using LCC analysis. In the present work, case study of two educational buildings has been considered. The LCC of these buildings has been calculated with existing condition and with proposed energy efficient approach (EEA using net present value method. A solar panel having minimum capacity as well as solar panel with desired capacity as per the requirements of the building has been suggested. The comparison of LCC of existing structure with proposed solar panel system shows that 4% of cost can be reduced in case of minimum capacity solar panel and 54% cost can be reduced for desired capacity solar panel system, along with other added advantages of solar energy.

  6. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-03-10

    Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and

  8. NLOS mitigation and ranging accuracy for building indoor positioning system in UWB using commercial radio modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsudani, Ahlam

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning system (IPS) plays a very important role in several environments such as hospitals, airports, males, Etc. It is used to locate mobile stations such as human and robots inside buildings. Some of IPSs applications are: locating an elder or child needed for an urgent help in hospitals, emergency situations such as locating firefighters inside building on fire or policemen fitting terrorists inside building by a commander to help for expedite evacuation in case one of them need for help. In indoor positioning applications, the accuracy should be high as can as possible, in another word; the error should be less than 1 meter. The indoor environment is the major challenging to obtain such accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to identify the line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) channels and improve the positioning accuracy using ultra-wideband (UWB) technology implementing DW1000 devices.

  9. Commercialization strategy for the Department of Energy's Solar Buildings Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts reported include: conducting a survey of existing commercial demonstration projects, categorizing these projects, determining criteria for evaluating the feasibility of continuing/aborting demonstration projects, and applying the criteria and making recommendations for which projects to continue and abort. It is recommended to refurbish 114 of the projects examined and to abandon 41. (LEW)

  10. What a New Energy Efficiency Measure for Commercial Buildings Means to You

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-12-19

    This article describes a new path for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016. The new approach will lead to increased flexibility for designers, multiple uses for the same building energy models, increased recognition of energy saving design strategies, and lower energy modeling costs.

  11. Indoor radon levels in Columbus and Franklin county, Ohio residences, commercial buildings, and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper data is presented for 2 residential radon surveys, one survey of city-owned buildings, and survey of Columbus Public Schools. The first residential survey used volunteer participants and employed a 48 hour activated carbon measurement: 4425 measurements in the data. The second survey consisted of 120 randomly selected residences in which alpha track detectors were placed for from 60 to 120 days. A survey of 52 city-owned buildings in which screening measurements were obtained using activated carbon, alpha track, and E-PERM radon detectors is included in the data. Also a survey of 25 Columbus Public Schools in which E-PERM radon monitors were used to obtain measurements is detailed in the data. More than 72% of the volunteer survey residences showed screening measurements of 4.0 pCi/L or greater while the random survey revealed 92% of the residences with radon levels of 4.0 pCi/L or higher. Schools tested in the survey also showed elevated radon levels with 20% of the tested structures with an average radon level of 4.0 pCi/L. Work is still in progress on city-owned buildings and Columbus Schools. The authors conclude that any owner or lessor of occupied buildings in Franklin County, Ohio should perform screening measurements and should be prepared to also perform follow-up measurements

  12. 75 FR 24848 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... a leadership role for the Federal government in building the infrastructure necessary to achieve... to remove paint. Of particular interest was the impact of using specific work practices that..., 24). Children in poverty and black, non-Hispanic children have notably higher blood lead levels than...

  13. Alliance for Sustainable Colorado Renovation Raises Its Energy Performance to New Heights, Commercial Building Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet); Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Alliance for Sustainable Colorado (The Alliance) is a nonprofit organization aiming to transform sustainability from vision to reality. Part of its mission is to change the operating paradigms of commercial building design to make them more sustainable. Toward that end The Alliance uses its headquarters, The Alliance Center at 1536 Wynkoop Street in Denver, as a living laboratory, conductingpilot studies of innovative commercial-building-design solutions for using and generating energy.

  14. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  15. Small Business Voucher CRADA Report: Natural Gas Powered HVAC System for Commercial and Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Daniel [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mudiraj, Shyam [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Tilghman, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Graham, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Be Power Tech is commercializing BeCool, the first integrated electricity-producing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system using a non-vapor compression cycle (VCC), packaged rooftop HVAC unit that also produces base-load electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. BeCool is a distributed energy resource with energy storage that eliminates the tremendous peak electricity demand associated with commonly used electricity-powered vapor compression air conditioning systems.

  16. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  17. Predicting the hurricane damage ratio of commercial buildings by claim payout from Hurricane Ike

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Kim; P. K. Woods; Y. J. Park; T. H. Kim; J. S. Choi; K. Son

    2013-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of natural disaster events and related damages have led to a growing demand for models that predict financial loss. Although considerable research has studied the financial losses related to natural disaster events, and has found significant predictors, there has not yet been a comprehensive study that addresses the relationship among the vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and economic losses of the individual buildings. This study...

  18. Distributed Flexibility Characterization and Resource Allocation Strategies for Multi-zone Commercial Buildings in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-15

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning) system of commercial buildings is a complex system with a large number of dynamically interacting components. In particular, the thermal dynamics of each zone are coupled with those of the neighboring zones. In this paper, we study a multi-agent based approach to model and control commercial building HVAC system for providing grid services. In the multi-agent system (MAS), individual zones are modeled as agents that can communicate, interact, and negotiate with one another to achieve a common objective. We first propose a distributed characterization method on the aggregated airflow (and thus fan power) flexibility that the HVAC system can provide to the ancillary service market. Then, we propose a Nash-bargaining based airflow allocation strategy to track a dispatch signal (that is within the offered flexibility limit) while respecting the preference and flexibility of individual zones. Moreover, we devise a distributed algorithm to obtain the Nash bargaining solution via dual decomposition and average consensus. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed distributed protocols are much more scalable than the centralized approaches especially when the system becomes larger and more complex.

  19. General Electric Company proposed test and evaluation plan, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The general requirements and methods for instrumenting, testing, and evaluating solar HVAC systems forming a part of ERDA's ''Commercial Demonstration Program'' commensurate with ERDA 23A and the Proposed Management Plan 75SDS4270 are defined. Design requirements are specified for the performance of components and subsystems comprising the instrumentation and data gathering system, as well as the support functions required to perform the diagnostic measurements, collection and processing of data, and documentation of reports on solar HVAC system performance, including economic and societal evaluations.

  20. How to Estimate Demand Charge Savings from PV on Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems are compensated through retail electricity tariffs - and for commercial and industrial customers, these are typically comprised of three components: a fixed monthly charge, energy charges, and demand charges. Of these, PV's ability to reduce demand charges has traditionally been the most difficult to estimate. In this fact sheet we explain the basics of demand charges, and provide a new method that a potential customer or PV developer can use to estimate a range of potential demand charge savings for a proposed PV system. These savings can then be added to other project cash flows, in assessing the project's financial performance.

  1. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  2. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  3. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  4. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  5. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  6. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  7. Practical application of a commercial CFD package in a design/build environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkoe, J; Krag, P; Rayner, C; Imrie, W [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Some examples of how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to solve problems in the design of metallurgical plants, were presented. CFD has been used to optimize equipment for several unit operations at Bechtel Mining and Metals, and also in developing technologies to improve environmental conditions in several facilities. Some examples included mixing in a copper refining furnace, flow in copper solvent extraction settlers, the ventilation of electrowinning tank houses, and the capture of fugitive emissions from Peirce-Smith converters. Cost effective use of CFD on such projects requires substantial investment in high-end computing equipment, versatile commercial CFD software and advanced data visualization, however, in the hands of a sophisticated analyst the results are well worth the expense. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Intertechnology Corporation proposed test and evaluation plan, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-09-01

    This report has three major parts. The first of these derives the requirements for the Test and Evaluation plan from the System Level Plan which is summarized in Section II. The second part contains the proposed plan to fill these requirements and includes hardware and software recommendations as well as procedures and management considerations. Primary emphasis has been given to the remote site because this is the area in which the commercial part of the demonstration is most unique. Finally, some pre-demonstration activities are described. The pilot program is intended to resolve a number of issues which arose in the course of the T and E plan. These relate to choice of scan frequencies, compression algorithms, etc. It is also intended to confirm performance and cost effectiveness of the site data collection package. The base line measurements of attitudes, etc. provide a reference mark against which one can measure the non-technical effectiveness of the demonstration program. (WDM)

  9. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of an Academy panel formed to look into the major institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major areas examined by the Panel were: (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program; and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system

  10. New design-tools for energy efficient commercial buildings. Neue Planungsinstrumente fuer energiegerechte Verwaltungsgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhorn, H [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Szerman, M [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1993-03-01

    Aim of SHC-Task 12 is to develop and hand out design tools to designers, architects and engineers for the integrated evaluation of daylighting and heating/cooling concepts on an early stage of the actual design process. Concerning the software for the lighting and daylighting evaluation, the following international validated programmes are used: SUPERLITE (Radiosity); RADIANCE (Raytracing); SUPERLINK (linkage between daylighting an energy analysis). The thermal and energetic behaviour of buildings can be analysed with the simulation tools: - SUNCODE; - TRNSYS; - tsbi. The input of the programmes is handled by a common CAD programme and special converters. The software package is produced in international collaboration and will be distributed in 1993. (orig./BWI)

  11. Participation through Automation: Fully Automated Critical PeakPricing in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote,Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-06-20

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak prices (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a tariff design to promote demand response. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows: Manual Demand Response involves a potentially labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. They refer to this as Auto-DR. This paper describes the development, testing, and results from automated CPP (Auto-CPP) as part of a utility project in California. The paper presents the project description and test methodology. This is followed by a discussion of Auto-DR strategies used in the field test buildings. They present a sample Auto-CPP load shape case study, and a selection of the Auto-CPP response data from September 29, 2005. If all twelve sites reached their maximum saving simultaneously, a total of approximately 2 MW of DR is available from these twelve sites that represent about two million ft{sup 2}. The average DR was about half that value, at about 1 MW. These savings translate to about 0.5 to 1.0 W/ft{sup 2} of demand reduction. They are continuing field demonstrations and economic evaluations to pursue increasing penetrations of automated DR that has demonstrated ability to provide a valuable DR resource for California.

  12. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  13. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  14. Construction cost impact analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy mandatory performance standards for new federal commercial and multi-family, high-rise residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Massa, F.V.; Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.

    1993-12-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted a project to demonstrate use of its Energy Conservation Voluntary Performance Standards for Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings; Mandatory for New Federal Buildings; Interim Rule (referred to in this report as DOE-1993). A key requisite of the legislation requires DOE to develop commercial building energy standards that are cost effective. During the demonstration project, DOE specifically addressed this issue by assessing the impacts of the standards on (1) construction costs, (2) builders (and especially small builders) of multi-family, high-rise buildings, and (3) the ability of low-to moderate-income persons to purchase or rent units in such buildings. This document reports on this project

  15. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-05-01

    In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program.

  16. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program

  17. The Feasibility of Utilizing Wind Energy in Commercial Buildings With Special Reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim Saeed, Saeed

    2017-11-01

    This article shall investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy for commercial buildings with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Bahrain World Trade Center which was built in 2008, is located in the city of Manama. The fifty-story complex contains identical twin towers that rise over 240 meters in height. The towers are connected by three bridges which hold three turbines each 29 meters long. The three turbines were originally design to provide electric energy required for lighting. The Bahrain World Trade Center was selected as a case study to investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy technologies in skyscrapers with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. It is hoped that the findings and conclusion of the study shall be of some value for future utilization of wind energy in the GCC countries and the world at large.

  18. Predicting the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association claim payout of commercial buildings from Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. M.; Woods, P. K.; Park, Y. J.; Son, K.

    2013-08-01

    Following growing public awareness of the danger from hurricanes and tremendous demands for analysis of loss, many researchers have conducted studies to develop hurricane damage analysis methods. Although researchers have identified the significant indicators, there currently is no comprehensive research for identifying the relationship among the vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and economic losses associated with individual buildings. To address this lack of research, this study will identify vulnerabilities and hurricane indicators, develop metrics to measure the influence of economic losses from hurricanes, and visualize the spatial distribution of vulnerability to evaluate overall hurricane damage. This paper has utilized the Geographic Information System to facilitate collecting and managing data, and has combined vulnerability factors to assess the financial losses suffered by Texas coastal counties. A multiple linear regression method has been applied to develop hurricane economic damage predicting models. To reflect the pecuniary loss, insured loss payment was used as the dependent variable to predict the actual financial damage. Geographical vulnerability indicators, built environment vulnerability indicators, and hurricane indicators were all used as independent variables. Accordingly, the models and findings may possibly provide vital references for government agencies, emergency planners, and insurance companies hoping to predict hurricane damage.

  19. An economic analysis of used electric vehicle batteries integrated into commercial building microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Sebastian; Dallinger, David [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems; Gomez, Tomas; Momber, Ilan [Madrid Univ. (Spain); Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Current policies in the U.S. and other countries are trying to stimulate electric transportation deployment. Consequently, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption will presumably spread among vehicle users. With the increased diffusion of PEVs, lithium-ion batteries will also enter the market on a broad scale. However, their costs are still high and ways are needed to optimally deploy vehicle batteries in order to account for the higher initial outlay. This study analyzed the possibility of extending the lifecycle of PEV batteries to a secondary, stationary application. Battery usage can be optimized by installing used battery packs in buildings' microgrids. Employed as decentralized storage, batteries can be used for a microgrid's power supply and provide ancillary services (A/S). This scenario has been modeled with the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which identifies optimal equipment combinations to meet microgrid requirements at minimum cost, carbon footprint, or other criteria. Results show that used PEV batteries can create significant monetary value if subsequently used for stationary applications. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity in various commercial tiles used for building purposes in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, E S; Maxwell, O; Adewoyin, O O; Ehi-Eromosele, C O; Embong, Z; Oyawoye, F

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the activity concentration of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) for fifteen (15) different brands of tile samples used for building purposes in Nigeria. The tile samples were analyzed using High purity Germanium gamma detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were observed to be 61.1 ± 5.5 Bq/kg, 70.2 ± 6.08 Bq/kg and 514.7 ± 59.8 Bq/kg respectively. Various hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, external and internal hazard index, annual effective dose rate, Gamma activity Index (Iγ) and Alpha Index (Iα) were calculated. The obtained results showed that the mean radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), external and internal hazard index, the annual effective dose (AEDR) equivalent, Gamma activity Index (Iγ) and Alpha Index (Iα) were: 204.42 Bq/kg, 177.61 nGyh -1 , 0.55, 0.77, 0.96 mSvyr -1 , 0.74 and 0.32 respectively. The average value of radium equivalent obtained in this study is less than that of the recommended value of 370 Bq/kg but the average values of the other radiological hazards for some samples are found to be slightly above international recommended values except H ex , H in and AEDE which are within the international reference value of unity. The measured concentrations of these radioactive materials were correlated with other previous result obtained from similar tile materials used in other countries and found to be in good agreement with the international standard, however, the tiles are recommended for decoration purposes in Nigeria.

  1. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    as narrative material to communicate self-identity. Finally, (c) we propose that brands deliver fuzzy experiential promises through effectively motivating consumers to adopt and play a social role implicitly suggested and facilitated by the brand. A promise is an inherently ethical concept and the article...... concludes with an in-depth discussion of fuzzy brand promises as two-way ethical commitments that put requirements on both brands and consumers....

  2. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  3. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  4. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  5. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  6. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  8. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  9. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  10. Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael; Addy, Nathan; Jump, David

    2013-09-01

    The overarching goal of this work is to advance the capabilities of technology evaluators in evaluating the building-level baseline modeling capabilities of Energy Management and Information System (EMIS) software. Through their customer engagement platforms and products, EMIS software products have the potential to produce whole-building energy savings through multiple strategies: building system operation improvements, equipment efficiency upgrades and replacements, and inducement of behavioral change among the occupants and operations personnel. Some offerings may also automate the quantification of whole-building energy savings, relative to a baseline period, using empirical models that relate energy consumption to key influencing parameters, such as ambient weather conditions and building operation schedule. These automated baseline models can be used to streamline the whole-building measurement and verification (M&V) process, and therefore are of critical importance in the context of multi-measure whole-building focused utility efficiency programs. This report documents the findings of a study that was conducted to begin answering critical questions regarding quantification of savings at the whole-building level, and the use of automated and commercial software tools. To evaluate the modeling capabilities of EMIS software particular to the use case of whole-building savings estimation, four research questions were addressed: 1. What is a general methodology that can be used to evaluate baseline model performance, both in terms of a) overall robustness, and b) relative to other models? 2. How can that general methodology be applied to evaluate proprietary models that are embedded in commercial EMIS tools? How might one handle practical issues associated with data security, intellectual property, appropriate testing ‘blinds’, and large data sets? 3. How can buildings be pre-screened to identify those that are the most model-predictable, and therefore those

  11. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development Concept Stage Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, H.N. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, NY (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)); Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Hall, J.D. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report documents eight tasks performed as part of the Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project, in which detailed conceptual approaches were produced for each element of the proposed Targets model. The eight task reports together describe the important modules proposed for inclusion in the Targets model: input module, energy module, characteristic development moduel, building cost module, analysis control module, energy cost module, search routines module, and economic analysis module. 16 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Commercial Buildings: An Elicitation Study of U.S. Building Professionals’ Beliefs on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kientzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs have become increasingly popular around the world to address energy efficiency issues that mandatory building codes have not been able to tackle. Even though the utility of voluntary schemes is widely debated, they have become a de facto reality for many professionals in the building and construction sector. One topic that is neglected, however, in both academic and policy discussions, relates to how professionals (architects, engineers, real estate developers, etc. perceive the rise of voluntary rating schemes. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study investigates beliefs underlying adoption behavior regarding one of the most prominent voluntary assessment and certification programs in the U.S. building industry, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED scheme. In this paper, an elicitation study, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with building professionals in the North East of the United States, was conducted to analyze this question. Building on the Reasoned Action Approach, this paper shows that, in addition to more conventional factors such as financial calculations and marketing aspects, the understanding of beliefs held by building professionals offers important insights into their decisions to work with Voluntary Environmental Assessment and Rating Programs.

  13. Commercialization of IGCC technology looks promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a major focus of the latest round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program was three large-scale, high-efficiency electricity generating projects which will rely on coal gasification rather than burning the coal directly. The three projects are: Toms Creek integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration project. The aim of the project is to demonstrate improved coal-to-power efficiencies in an integrated gasification combined-cycle process. According to the DOE, the Toms Creek project will show that significant reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions can be accomplished through the use of IGCC technology. On completion of the project, 107 MW of electric capacity will be added to the grid. Pinon Pine IGCC power project. The project's aim is to demonstrate that IGCC plants can be constructed at significantly lower capital costs, and with higher thermal efficiencies, than conventional power generation technologies. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of hot gas cleanup for low-sulfur western coals. Wasbash River coal gasification repowering project

  14. Promising More Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  15. SPECIAL COLLOQUIUM : Building a Commercial Space Launch System and the Role of Space Tourism in the Future (exceptionally on Tuesday)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk will explore a little of the history of space launch systems and rocketry, will explain why commercial space tourism did not take off after Apollo, and what is happening right now with commercial space systems such as Virgin's, utilising advances in aerospace technology not exploited by conventional ground-based rocket systems. I will then explain the Virgin Galactic technology, its business plan as a US-regulated space tourism company, and the nature of its applications. I will then go on to say a little of how our system can be utilised for sub-orbital space science based on a commercial business plan

  16. Future comfort cooling in domestic and commercial buildings in Sweden; Naesta generations klimatkyla i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Rolfsman, Lennart; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    This report presents results from a national project on future potential for comfort cooling in the built sector. Results from an interview study are presented. Future changes in energy demand for comfort cooling in different building types based on scenarios are also presented and discussed. It is clear from the simulated results that the future need for comfort cooling will decrease due to a number of factors, including user behavior, regulations and new building codes

  17. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Ariadna; Prytkova, Oksana O.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.). The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  18. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.. The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  19. Solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization report: options and strategies. Part A. Volume II. Technical report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The national and regional perspectives for SHACOB are presented. An overview is given of the participants in SHACOB commercialization. Economic, institutional, legal, and other barriers constraining commercialization are discussed. Various analytical models are examined which project the future extent of SHACOB use or market penetration and future SHACOB to US energy supplies under alternative government policies. The results for the baseline case (no further government action, of several market penetration models are presented. Possible ways to overcome each of the barriers are presented. Qualitative analyses are given for the various incentives. Each incentive is examined to assess its impact on barriers to SHACOB commercialization and its impact on various income and interest groups. Individual incentives are compared and combined into alternative policy strategies and options. (MHR)

  20. ECO-WALL SYSTEMS: USING RECYCLED MATERIAL IN THE DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL INTERIOR WALL SYSTEMS FOR BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposal describes an interdisciplinary project involving students from several academic departments at Miami University in the design of commercial wall systems to be manufactured from recycled materials. The goal of Phase I of the project is to develop and conduct prelimi...

  1. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  2. Are trinuclear superhalogens promising candidates for building blocks of novel magnetic materials? A theoretical prospect from combined broken-symmetry density functional theory and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Chen; Yin, Bing; Li, Jian-Li; Huang, Yuan-He; Wen, Zhen-Yi; Jiang, Zhen-Yi

    2013-08-07

    The structures, relative stabilities, vertical electron detachment energies, and magnetic properties of a series of trinuclear clusters are explored via combined broken-symmetry density functional theory and ab initio study. Several exchange-correlation functionals are utilized to investigate the effects of different halogen elements and central atoms on the properties of the clusters. These clusters are shown to possess stronger superhalogen properties than previously reported dinuclear superhalogens. The calculated exchange coupling constants indicate the antiferromagnetic coupling between the transition metal ions. Spin density analysis demonstrates the importance of spin delocalization in determining the strengths of various couplings. Spin frustration is shown to occur in some of the trinuclear superhalogens. The coexistence of strong superhalogen properties and spin frustration implies the possibility of trinuclear superhalogens working as the building block of new materials of novel magnetic properties.

  3. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wardell, Bob [Infosys Technologies Limited; Deshpande, Manoj [Infosys Technologies Limited; Ugarkar, Jayraj [Infosys Technologies Limited

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of a collaborative research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) project that aims to address energy efficiency of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads (MELs) (referred to as plug loads interchangeably in this report) using load monitoring and control devices. The goal s of this project are to identify and provide energy efficiency and building technologies to exemplary information technology (IT) office buildings, and to assist in transforming markets via technical assistance and engagement of Indian and U.S. stakeholders. This report describes the results of technology evaluation and United States – India collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Infosys Technologies Limited (India), and Smartenit, Inc. (U.S.) to address plug - load efficiency. The conclusions and recommendations focus on the larger benefits of such technologies and their impacts on both U.S. and Indian stakeholders.

  4. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova; Alexander M. Uzdin; Tatiana M. Chirkst

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thu...

  5. Radon and radon daughters in public, private and commercial buildings in communities associated with uranium mining and processing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The elevated indoor radon levels in certain communities in Canada have been studied. An overview of the investigational and remedial action programs are presented in this paper. It is suggested that radon daughter concentrations can be controlled by: (a) removing source; (b) placing a barrier between the source and the living space; (c) diverting the radon before it enters a building: (d) increasing the ventilation rate. All methods have been proven but no one technique is the most cost effective because of widely varying conditions found in older housing

  6. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings. Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cool roofs - roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission - lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes - new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980) - were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m 2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m 2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m 2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m 2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m 2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m 2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from USD 0.126/m 2 in West Virginia to USD 1.14/m 2 in Arizona (USD 0.356/m 2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m 2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m 2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m 2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m 2 in New York to 11.7 g/m 2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m 2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m 2 in California to 26.1 g/m 2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m 2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m 2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m 2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m 2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2

  7. Building a CAR Garage: Preparing for the Delivery of Commercial CAR T Cell Products at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perica, Karlo; Curran, Kevin J; Brentjens, Renier J; Giralt, Sergio A

    2018-03-01

    Two commercial chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies for CD19-expressing B cell malignancies, Kymriah and Yescarta, have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The administration of CAR T cells is a complex endeavor involving cell manufacture, tracking and shipping of apheresis products, and management of novel and severe toxicities. At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we have identified 8 essential tasks that define the CAR T cell workflow. In this review, we discuss practical aspects of CAR T cell program development, including clinical, administrative, and regulatory challenges for successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation and testing of a fault detection software tool for improving control system performance in a large commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury, T.I.; Diamond, R.C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a model-based, feedforward control scheme that can detect faults in the controlled process and improve control performance over traditional PID control. The tool uses static simulation models of the system under control to generate feed-forward control action, which acts as a reference of correct operation. Faults that occur in the system cause discrepancies between the feedforward models and the controlled process. The scheme facilitates detection of faults by monitoring the level of these discrepancies. We present results from the first phase of tests on a dual-duct air-handling unit installed in a large office building in San Francisco. We demonstrate the ability of the tool to detect a number of preexisting faults in the system and discuss practical issues related to implementation.

  9. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Soo Shen; Mak, Joon Wah; Chen, Donald K F; Ambu, Stephen

    2017-02-07

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants' complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants' sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system.

  10. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  11. Integrating a work-flow engine within a commercial SCADA to build end users applications in a scientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounsy, M.; Pierre-Joseph Zephir, S.; Saintin, K.; Abeille, G.; Ley, E. de

    2012-01-01

    To build integrated high-level applications, SOLEIL is using an original component-oriented approach based on GlobalSCREEN, an industrial Java SCADA. The aim of this integrated development environment is to give SOLEIL's scientific and technical staff a way to develop GUI (Graphical User Interface) applications for external users of beamlines. These GUI applications must address the two following needs: monitoring and supervision of a control system and development and execution of automated processes (as beamline alignment, data collection and on-line data analysis). The first need is now completely answered through a rich set of Java graphical components based on the COMETE library and providing a high level of service for data logging, scanning and so on. To reach the same quality of service for process automation, a big effort has been made for more seamless integration of PASSERELLE, a work-flow engine with dedicated user-friendly interfaces for end users, packaged as JavaBeans in GlobalSCREEN components library. Starting with brief descriptions of software architecture of the PASSERELLE and GlobalSCREEN environments, we will then present the overall system integration design as well as the current status of deployment on SOLEIL beamlines. (authors)

  12. Technical-financial evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in commercial buildings-case ase studies from Sonae Sierra in Portugal and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vitor; Silva, Cristina Matos; Meireles, Inês C

    2017-11-10

    Water is an essential and increasingly scarce resource that should be preserved. The evolution of the human population and communities has contributed to the global decrease of potable water availability and the reduction of its consumption is now compulsory. Rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS) are emerging as a viable alternative source for water consumption in non-potable uses. The present study aims to contribute to the promotion of water efficiency, focusing on the application of rainwater harvesting systems in commercial buildings, and comprises four stages: (i) development of a technical evaluation tool to aid the design of RWHS and support their financial evaluation; (ii) validation of the tool using operational data from an existing RWHS installed at Colombo Shopping Center, in Lisbon, Portugal; (iii) assessment of the sensibility of the technical evaluation tool results to the variation of the inputs, namely the precipitation and consumption, through a parametric analysis for the Colombo Shopping Center; and (iv) comparison of the performance and financial feasibility of hypothetical RWHS in two existing commercial buildings. The technical tool was applied to two Sonae Sierra's shopping centers, one in Portugal and one in Brazil. The installation of a 200-m 3 tank is advised for the first case study, allowing non-potable water savings of 60% but a payback period of about 19 years. In the Brazilian shopping, the implementation of a tank with a capacity ranging from 100 to 400 m 3 leads to non-potable savings between 20 and 50%, but with smaller payback period, under 2 years, due to the relatively lower investment costs and higher water fees.

  13. Prismatic louver active façades for natural illumination and thermal energy gain in high-rise and commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, A.; Volkmann, C.; Madamopoulos, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-rise and commercial buildings in urban centers present a great challenge in terms of their energy consumption. Due to maximization of rentable square footage, the preferred urban façade system over the past 50 years has been the "curtain wall", only a few inches thick and comprised of modular steel or aluminum framing and predominant glass infills. The perceived Achilles heel of these modern glass façade systems is their thermal inefficiency: They are inadequate thermal barriers and exhibit excessive solar gain. The excessive solar gain has a negative impact on lighting and cooling loads of the entire building. This negative impact will be further exacerbated with rising energy costs. However, rather than view the glass façade's uncontrolled solar gain merely as a weakness contributing to higher energy consumption, the condition could indeed be considered as related to an energy solution. These glass façades can be retrofitted to operate as a provider of daylight and energy for the rest of the building, taking advantage of the overexposure to the sun. With today's technology, the sun's abundant renewable energy can be the driving force for the energy transition of these building envelopes. Illumination, thermal energy, and electricity production can be directly supplied from the sun, and when correctly and efficiently managed, they can lead to a significantly less energy-intensive building stock. We propose a multi-purpose, prismatic, louver-based façade to perform both daylight and thermal energy harvesting with a goal of offering a better daylight environment for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building. While decentralized air-conditioning units are commonly accepted as façade "plug-ins", such decentralization could be utilized with more benefits by passively managing the interior space conditions, without using any extra power. Just as living organisms respond and adapt to the environmental changes in

  14. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  15. Trki ptic v stekleno pročelje poslovne stavbe v Ljubljani (osrednja Slovenija jeseni 2012/ Bird collisions with glass façade of a commercial building in Ljubljana (central Slovenia in autumn 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumrada Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From 28 Sep to 7 Oct 2012, bird collisions with the glass façade of a commercial building in the centre of Ljubljana were monitored. The observations lasted 45-60 minutes in the morning (7.00-10.00 hrs, around midday (11.00-14.00 hrs and in the afternoon (15.00-18.00 hrs. Behaviour of all birds and scavengers, which could potentially be looking for bird carcasses in the vicinity of the building, was noted. In 27.25 hours of observation, 16 collisions (3 resulting in death, 13 cases with birds flying away seemingly unharmed and 19 near collisions, when birds avoided the building at the last moment before collision, were recorded. The total collision rate was 0.59 collisions per hour of observation. All birds that collided with the building, except Feral Pigeon Columba livia f. domestica, were passerines, among which tits Paridae predominated (62.5% of birds that collided with the building. The glass façade functioned as a mirror, reflecting tree crowns from across the street. Data show that most collisions occurred in the middle part of the building during the morning. Among potential scavengers, domestic cat Felis domesticus and Hooded Crow Corvus cornix were observed. The latter regularly flew around the building during the observation period, possibly looking for bird carcasses.

  16. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  17. Weighting Factors for the Commercial Building Prototypes Used in the Development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.

    2010-01-21

    Detailed construction data from the McGraw Hill Construction Database was used to develop construction weights by climate zones for use with DOE Benchmark Buildings and for the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 development. These construction weights were applied to energy savings estimates from simulation of the benchmark buildings to establish weighted national energy savings.

  18. BIM: Promises and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetel Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The building information modeling - BIM is a technology developed toward creation of computer based information model that encompasses whole building lifecycle. Toward that goal a number of information technology standards have been developed that enable different professions in AEC to cooperatively develop electronic building model. The paper gives overview of essential technologies, discusses their intended purpose, and gives outline of the currently achieved functionality.

  19. Keeping the Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  20. Building a commercial enterprise : FY01-05 financial plan update : investing in the future of passenger rail : long-term capital plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, the nations transportation system is at a crossroads. After : building highway and aviation networks that are the envy of the world, increasing gridlock threatens to undermine the success of those investments and the ...

  1. Energy efficient direct current distribution in commercially used buildings with smart power link to the AC distribution grid; Energieeffiziente Gleichstromverteilung in kommerziell genutzten Gebaeuden mit intelligenter Kopplung zum Niederspannungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Roland [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Boeke, Ulrich [Philips Group Innovation-Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maurer, Wilhelm [Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg (Germany); Zeltner, Stefan [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie (IISB), Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint undertaking ''Direct Current Components and Grid'' (DCC+G) takes on the strategic challenge to reduce energy consumption and thus the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission caused by commercially used buildings through research in the fields of Direct Current distribution at a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. The major energy consumers in commercially used buildings, ready for the ''net-zero-energy'' goal of the European Union, are heat pumps for heating, ventilation systems, air conditioning units, cooling units (HVAC), lighting systems and information technology. All these components and subsystems have in common, that the most efficient versions would benefit from a direct current supply. Additionally the local producers of electric energy like photovoltaic systems usually generate DC-current. A Direct Current distribution grid within buildings would avoid the repeating conversion from DC and AC an vice versa and therefore reduce conversion losses. Important components of a direct current distribution grid are central, smart, high efficient, bidirectional rectifiers replacing the large number of small, less efficient rectifiers used today. Such large central rectifiers units could additionally be used to actively improve the power quality of the smart local AC distribution grid. One major part of the described activities is to show energy savings of about 5 % of electrical energy with a 2-phase direct current distribution grid using a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. (orig.)

  2. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  3. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  4. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  5. The promising opportunity of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering, mechanics and waste conditioning companies are thriving around the market of nuclear facilities dismantlement which is promised to a huge development in the coming decade. This paper presents a map of the opportunities of the dismantlement market throughout Europe (research and power reactors, fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants) and a cost estimation of a given dismantling work with respect to the different steps of the work. In France a small core of about twenty companies is involved in nuclear dismantlement but the French market is also looking towards foreign specialists of this activity. The British market is also targeted by the French companies but for all the actors the technological or commercial advance gained today will be determining for the future markets. (J.S.)

  6. Good organization is essential for success. Pt. 1. Energy management for commercial buildings.; Eine gute Organisation ist Voraussetzung fuer den Erfolg. T. 1. Energiemanagement fuer die Gebaeudetechnik.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Michael [CentraLine c/o Honeywell, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Energy costs caused by heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and lighting systems, represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a building. continuously rising prices of gas, oil and electricity increase the cost pressure on the building operators and users: energy efficiency is becoming a major factor for the competitiveness of a company. In the manufacturing sector, trade and hotel the energy costs have a direct impact on the company's margins. Thus, the willingness to invest in energy saving measures increased. [German] Energiekosten, verursacht durch Heizungs-, Lueftungs-, Klima- und Beleuchtungsanlagen, stellen einen signifikanten Anteil der Gesamtbetriebskosten eines Gebaeudes dar. Kontinuierlich steigende Preise fuer Gas, Oel und Elektrizitaet erhoehen den Kostendruck auf die Gebaeudebetreiber und -nutzer: Energieeffizienz wird zu einem bestimmenden Faktor fuer die Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit eines Unternehmens. Im produzierenden Gewerbe, im Handel und im Hotelgewerbe haben Energiekosten einen direkten Einfluss auf die Margen des Unternehmens. Dadurch erhoeht sich die Bereitschaft, in Energiesparmassnahmen zu investieren.

  7. Turing promise into performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the genesis and realization of the PT Kaltim Prima Coal Company's project to develop coal resources in East Kalimantan. It also presents ideas on the major challenges confronting KPC and the Indonesian coal industry. KPC has already begun commissioning the coal project at Sangatta, and on September 1, the Tangung Bora Coal Terminal will begin operating on a commercial basis

  8. "Smart Pills" Promising, Problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    An explosion in the variety and availability of cognitive-enhancing drugs, from prescriptions like Ritalin to commercial drinks like NeuroFuel, raises concerns for scientists and educators alike--not just over the potential for abuse, but also over what educators and researchers consider, and how they approach, normal achievement. Evidence is…

  9. Commercial effectiveness assessment of implementation the energy efficiency raising of the building project due to introduction of automatic heat consumption control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonareva Yu.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the automated metering stations and regulation (AUU located directly in the heated building besides creation of comfortable conditions indoors leads to decrease in consumption of thermal energy. The annual expected effect of realization of the offered actions (installation of metering stations and automatic control can make up to 22% consumed and that isn–t less important, the paid thermal energy. In general, efficiency of implementation of the project on introduction of AUU can be characterized by considerable decrease in heat consumption of the building and, respectively, reduction of a payment for the consumed energy resources. In this paper we evaluated the effectiveness of implementation of increase of energy efficiency of the building investment project (hereinafter SP. We calculated the ratio of expenses and the results considered actions for inhabitants of an apartment house located in Kazan after installation of a weather-dependent regulation. As a result of calculation of the imitating model created on the basis of basic data and the investment project plan the main results of determination of economic efficiency of the Project have been received. For the analysis and increase of reliability of a settlement assessment of efficiency of the investment project calculations at different options of a set of basic data are executed.

  10. Plan of Using Modern Agriculture High-New Information Technology for Building Stable Nation Commercial Grain and Green Agriculture Base of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The North-East China is nation commercial grain base of China. It provides important grain supply for other areas of the country every year. The nation and modern farmers are looking for advanced technological solutions to increase production and preserve environment. Considering of this aim,this paper introduce a new planning that using 3S technology to develop precision farming, explaining its technology frame, operation steps and advantages. On the other hand,this paper also introduce the concept of precision farming and discusses the role of 3S technology as a data collection,management and analysis tool.

  11. Product and market study for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building resources for technology commercialization: The SciBus Analytical, Inc. paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The study project was undertaken to investigate how entrepreneurial small businesses with technology licenses can develop product and market strategies sufficiently persuasive to attract resources and exploit commercialization opportunities. The study attempts to answer two primary questions: (1) What key business development strategies are likely to make technology transfers successful, and (2) How should the plan best be presented in order to attract resources (e.g., personnel, funding, channels of distribution)? In the opinion of the investigator, Calidex Corporation, if the business strategies later prove to be successful, then the plan model has relevance for any technology licensee attempting to accumulate resources and bridge from technology resident in government laboratories to the commercial marketplace. The study utilized SciBus Analytical, Inc. (SciBus), a Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA participant, as the paradigm small business technology licensee. The investigator concluded that the optimum value of the study lay in the preparation of an actual business development plan for SciBus that might then have, hopefully, broader relevance and merit for other private sector technology transfer licensees working with various Government agencies.

  12. Impact of future urban form on the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from residential, commercial and public buildings in Utsunomiya, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Tabushi, Shoichi; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    Energy-saving technologies' applicability to making cities more environmentally sustainable can be strongly influenced by the city's form, building uses and their density pattern. Technological developments have clearly shown specific urban forms to be more conducive to installing certain mitigation technologies. In this study, the capacity for implementation and impacts on energy savings and subsequent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential of mitigation technologies such as photovoltaic cells (PV) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies were analysed with respect to three potential urban forms (high density centralised, medium density averaged and low density de-centralized) for Utsunomiya City, Japan. Given current building use patterns, scenarios for 2030 and 2050, showed the medium density averaged form, which benefits from both PV and CHP technologies, to outperform the other forms, resulting in an energy savings and GHG reduction potential of 27.6% in 2030 and 67.6% in 2050. Interestingly, GHG reduction in 2050 was primarily attributable to PV, while CHP technology had the greater influence in 2030. Despite the limitation of the analysis, the study provides a useful insight, highlighting the relationship between urban forms and GHG reduction potential by two energy-saving technologies.

  13. Utilizing Commercial Real Estate Owner and Investor Data to Analyze the Financial Performance of Energy Efficient, High-Performance Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutier, Deborah [JDM Associates, Falls Church, VA (United States); Hosseini, Farshid [JDM Associates, Falls Church, VA (United States); White, Andrew [JDM Associates, Falls Church, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Evidence has shown that owning and operating energy-efficient, high-performance, “green” properties results in multiple benefits including lower utility bills, higher rents, improved occupancy, and greater net operating income. However, it is difficult to isolate and control moderating factors to identify the specific drivers behind improved financial performance and value to investors that results from sustainability in real estate. DOE is interested in facilitating deeper investigation of the correlation between energy efficiency and financial performance, reducing data acquisition and matching challenges, and developing a stronger understanding of how sustainable design and energy efficiency impact value. DOE commissioned this pilot study to test the logistical and empirical procedures required to establish a Commercial Real Estate Data Aggregation & Trends Analysis lab, determine the potential benefits available through the lab, and contribute to the existing body of evidence in this field.

  14. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central......, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night...

  15. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  16. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  17. Promising change, delivering continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Sungusia, Eliezeri; Mabele, Mathew Bukhi

    2017-01-01

    REDD+ is an ambition to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the Global South. This ambition has generated unprecedented commitment of political support and financial funds for the forest-development sector. Many academics and people-centered advocacy organizations...... have conceptualized REDD+ as an example of ‘‘green grabbing” and have voiced fears of a potential global rush for land and trees. In this paper we argue that, in practice and up until now, REDD+ resembles longstanding dynamics of the development and conservation industry, where the promise of change...... becomes a discursive commodity that is constantly reproduced and used to generate value and appropriate financial resources. We thus argue for a re-conceptualization of REDD+ as a conservation fad within the broader political economy of development and conservation. We derive this argument from a study...

  18. Self-Synchronization: Splendid Promise or Dangerous Delusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatter, Steven

    2000-01-01

    ... with extraordinary efficiency and precision. Proponents of Network-Centric Warfare build upon the optimism in JV 2010 by offering a war-fighting paradigm that promises "an information superiority enabled concept of operations that generates...

  19. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  20. The path to fulfilling the promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, J. [Canadian Nuclear Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:'Countries work together to develop effective governance and regulation. Canada has made big investments in these areas and it carries a premium for us. The rapid build-out of nuclear technology around the Pacific Rim holds vast promise for our populations in better climate, better air, affordable and reliable electricity, and longer lives. The biggest risk is not another accident: rather, it is the risk of failing to fulfill that promise to our people. Every country that wants the benefits of nuclear must also want to be sure that those benefits are realized and sustained by good governance and regulation. Canada has the people, laws, organizations, public institutions, and relationships that can help our partners fulfill the whole and lasting promise of nuclear technology. (author)

  1. Cast iron promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    During the Victorian era, a fiercely competitive industry emerged to build and operate Britain's railways. Many of the design and construction skills required were still fairly rudimentary, and were typically developed through practical experience. The resulting mix of entrepreneurship and new technology reshaped the landscape, but often in ways which proved hazardous for passengers. Minor accidents were commonplace, and a number of major failures occurred, one such being the collapse of the Tay Bridge, in 1879. Events in the ten years prior to this disaster still have some resonance today. Ambitions to exploit new technology are not always matched by foresight in the planning, financing or management of projects. Contracts may be based on wrong assumptions, and prove difficult to enforce. Once a project has gathered momentum, those working on it may fear that any attempt to draw attention to risks or defects will be seen as disloyal. When work is completed, it cannot be assumed that formal inspections will reveal potential flaws, or that those using the technology will appreciate the need to follow the procedures laid down for them. Some possible parallels with recent experiences in NHS computing are noted.

  2. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  3. Estimated potential of energy saving and reduction of the demand commercial buildings illumination; Potencial estimado de ahorro de energia y reduccion de la demanda en iluminacion de edificios comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Gomez, Victor Hugo; Morillon Galvez, David [Posgrado en Energetica de la DEPFI-UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the estimated energy saving potential in illumination, the energy end use and the technology used in commercial buildings of different use is analyzed. Estimation that departs from information of the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) demonstrative cases, presents the energy saving and the demand reduction in a sample of 29 buildings, among which are shopping malls, hospitals, schools, hotels, restaurants and public buildings in which energy saving programs have been carried out, with measures such as the cleaning of the luminaries and its replacement for more efficient ones. The average saving obtained is of 21.81%, in the following areas: illumination, air conditioning and others. In addition, in a sample of 4 buildings, it was observed that before applying the energy saving programs, two of them did not fulfill with the norm NOM-007-1995 (electric power density in interior lighting systems W/m{sup 2}) and later did fulfill the values and criteria of the norm. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se analiza el potencial estimado de ahorro de energia en iluminacion, el uso final de la energia y la tecnologia empleada en edificios comerciales de uso distinto. Estimacion que parte de la informacion de los casos demostrativos del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE), se presenta el ahorro y reduccion de la demanda en una muestra de 29 edificios, entre los que se tienen centros comerciales, hospitales, escuelas, hoteles, restaurantes y edificios publicos en los cuales se ha llevado a cabo programas de ahorro de energia, con medidas como la limpieza de las luminarias y su remplazo por otros mas eficientes. El ahorro promedio obtenido es de 21.81%, en las siguientes areas: iluminacion, aire acondicionado y otros. Ademas, en una muestra de 4 edificios, se observo que antes de aplicar los programas de ahorro de energia, dos no cumplian con la norma NOM-007-ENER-1995 (densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado interior W/m{sup 2}) y

  4. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  5. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  6. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  7. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  8. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  9. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  10. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  11. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  12. Ventilation in Commercial and Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    A number of areas have to be considered in connection with indoor air quality and ventilation. The selection of ventilation principle and components in the ventilation system will have influence on the indoor air quality and this subject will be discussed on the following pages. The main object o...

  13. Commercial Building Motor Protection Response Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Daniel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kueck, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-17

    When voltages recover, motors may immediately reenergize and reaccelerate, or delay for a few minutes, or stay stalled. The estimated motor response is given for both the voltage sag magnitude and voltage sag duration. These response estimates are based on experience and available test data. Good data is available for voltage sag response for many components such as relays and contactors, but little data is available for both voltage sag and recovery response. The tables in Appendix A include data from recent voltage sag and recovery tests performed by SCE and BPA on air conditioners and energy management systems. The response of the motor can vary greatly depending on the type of protection and control. The time duration for the voltage sag consists of those times that are of interest for bulk power system modelers.

  14. Arjunolic acid: A promising new building block for nanochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: kgp bgopal@rediffmail.com ... Inverted vials containing the ... Compound 3 formed transparent gels in various alcohols and mixed solvents (table. 1). ... electron microscopy (SEM) after drying in vacuum. The SEM images revealed a.

  15. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... method for proposals on package solutions for sustainable renovation was described. The method consists of four steps, going from investigation of the house to proposal for sustainable renovation, detailed planning and commissioning after renovation. It could be used by teams of consultants...... of the building envelope and the electricity required to run the system. Positive impact on the indoor environment can be expected. Thermal comfort will be improved by insulation and air-tightness measures that will increase surface temperatures and reduce draught from e.g. badly insulated windows. A ventilation...

  16. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  17. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  18. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  19. Political Reputations and Campaign Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aragones, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which candidates' reputations may affect voters' beliefs over what policy will be implemented by the winning candidate of an election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. We analyze an equilibrium in which voters' strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates who renege on their campaign promises and in which all campaign promises are believed by voters and honored by candidates....

  20. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  1. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  2. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  4. Credit risk assessment model for Jordanian commercial banks: Neural scoring approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ali Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in the number of non-performing loans and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use data mining tools to support credit decisions. Artificial neural networks represent a new family of statistical techniques and promising data mining tools that have been used successfully in classification problems in many domains. This paper proposes two credit scoring models using data mining techniques to support loan decisions for the Jordanian commercial banks. Loan application evaluation would improve credit decision effectiveness and control loan office tasks, as well as save analysis time and cost. Both accepted and rejected loan applications, from different Jordanian commercial banks, were used to build the credit scoring models. The results indicate that the logistic regression model performed slightly better than the radial basis function model in terms of the overall accuracy rate. However, the radial basis function was superior in identifying those customers who may default.

  5. BUILDING MECHATRONICS SIMULATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    HUSI Géza; SZÁSZ Csaba; HASHIMOTO Hideki; NIITSUMA Mihoko

    2014-01-01

    In international references a net zero-energy building (NZEB) is defined as a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. According to this general term definition, the essence of the concept is that by using low-cost and locally available nonpolluting sources, they generate energy onsite, in a quantity equal or greater than the total amo...

  6. Mastering JavaScript promises

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Muzzamil

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all the software and web engineers wanting to apply the promises paradigm to their next project and get the best outcome from it. This book also acts as a reference for the engineers who are already using promises in their projects and want to improve their current knowledge to reach the next level. To get the most benefit from this book, you should know basic programming concepts, have a familiarity with JavaScript, and a good understanding of HTML.

  7. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  8. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  9. California Commercial End-Use Survey - CEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency in Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Program Contacts Financing Opportunities Home Energy Rebates and Incentives Energy Efficiency Financing Energy Innovations Small Grant (EISG) EPIC Funding commercial building type categories. Download the CEUS Project Final Report. Publication # CEC-400-2006-005

  10. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  11. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  12. Nuclear energy: obstacles and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy has distinctive merits (sustainable resources, low costs, no greenhouse gases) but its development must overcome serious hurdles (fear of accidents, radio-phobia, waste management). The large unit size of present-day reactors is compatible only with large electrical grids, and involves a high capital cost. Taking into account these different factors, the paper outlines how nuclear energy may contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, and which are the most promising developments. (author)

  13. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  14. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Cogeneration offers promise - politics permitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprowski, Gene

    1996-12-01

    India`s Prime Minister H D Deve Gowda and the environmental activist Maneka Gandhi clashed recently over a US1.06 billion cogeneration power plant. Gandhi accused Gowda of moving too fast in giving the plant environmental clearance two days after assuming office. The argument, which delayed the start of a new thermal power plant by US-based Cogenetrix, illustrates the hazards of building such projects in Asia. (author)

  16. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  17. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  18. Building Air Quality Guide: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Building Air Quality, developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings.

  19. Transnational Degree Program Franchising and the Challenge of Commercial Franchisees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, Katariina; Rensimer, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelationship of branding practices and legitimacy-building of commercial degree program franchising within transnational higher education (TNHE). It aims to understand how commercial franchisees' branding practices employ discursive and symbolic strategies for building legitimacy, and how…

  20. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  1. MFTF-progress and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been in construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 3 years, and most of the major subsystems are nearing completion. Recently, the scope of this project was expanded to meet new objectives, principally to reach plasma conditions corresponding to energy break-even. To fulfill this promise, the single-cell minimum-B mirror configuration will be replaced with a tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B). The facility must accordingly be expanded to accomodate the new geometry. This paper briefly discusses the status of the major MFTF subsystems and describes how most of the technological objectives of MFTF will be demonstrated before we install the additional systems necessary to make the tandem. It also summarizes the major features of the expanded facility

  2. Distributed generation: a promising future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) refers to the location of small-scale power generation units at, or near, the site of end-users. DG units cover a wide range of exciting technologies, such as gas engines, fuel cells and microturbines. These technologies can generate as little as 5 KW of electricity, which is sufficient for the average home, and 50 KW or more for factories. Natural gas is the logical fuel for DG . At present, most existing DG technologies (such as gas engines for cogeneration) rely on natural gas, and microturbines and fuel cells currently being developed for the industrial, commercial and residential markets are likely to be operated on natural gas. At this stage, the best prospects appears to be with existing DG technologies, especially those used for cogeneration. It is estimated that DG can reduce Australia's greenhouse gas emissions by more than 50 percent

  3. A Study on the Revitalizing of technology commercialization in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. I.; Jang, S. K.; Hong, G. P.; Lee, E. S.

    2009-02-01

    The TEC training program should be implemented for researches who want to commercialize their own technologies. To build creative organization culture is essential for technology commercialization. Collaboration strategy is related to analyze how KAERI is catching up their technological capabilities in nuclear technology, and what the success factors of KAERI in technology commercialization are.

  4. The promise and the peril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D

    1998-04-01

    The medicare population represents the most important group of covered lives to most providers. Medicare is now pushing seniors to join risk-based plans, and is encouraging providers to form PSOs to contract directly with Medicare for risk-based contracts. By eliminating the commercial HMOs as the middlemen, PSOs can not only control their own destiny as providers, they can retain the risk 'profit' in the community for enhanced services or higher payments to providers. To be successful, however, PSOs must have in place the key elements to manage the organization in a managed care environment. While the task of creating a PSO can appear daunting and the risk can be real and substantial, every provider organization should examine the potential of starting or joining a PSO. The greatest risk could be the risk of doing nothing, which could lead to loss of control of the Medicare population, decreased utilization, declining payment for services, the loss of patients being directed to other providers, and the loss of the risk premium from Medicare capitation.

  5. A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed

  6. Copenhagen's climate finance promise: six key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Stadelmann, Martin [University of Zurich (Switzerland); Huq, Saleemul

    2010-02-15

    One clear promise emerged from the confusion of the 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen. This was to provide short- and long-term 'climate finance' to help developing countries – especially the most vulnerable – adapt to climate impacts. The promise seemed simple enough: wealthier nations would pledge US$10 billion a year from 2010-2012, ramping up to US$100 billion a year starting in 2020. This was also touted as a way to help developing countries avoid high-carbon pathways of development by adopting lower-emitting power sources such as solar or natural gas. But a closer look at the Copenhagen promise unearths at least six big questions – any one of which could seriously challenge the trust these funds were designed to build.

  7. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  8. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  9. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyeva Irina Petrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.

  10. Sustainable hemp-based composites for the building industry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Stevulova, Nadezda; Junak, Jozef; Hospodarova, Viola

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability goals are essential driving principles for the development of innovative materials in the building industry. Natural plant (e.g. hemp) fibers represent an attractive alternative as reinforcing material due to its good properties and sustainability prerequisites. In this study, hemp-based composite materials, designed for building application as non-load bearing material, providing both thermal insulation and physico-mechanical properties, are presented. Composite materials were produced by bonding hemp hurds with a novel inorganic binder (MgO-based cement) and then were characterized in terms of physical properties (bulk density, water absorption), thermal properties (thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength). The composites exhibited promising physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, generally comparable to commercially available products. In addition, the hemp-based composites have the advantage of a significantly low environmental impact (thanks to the nature of both the dispersed and the binding phase) and no negative effects on human health. All things considered, the composite materials seem like very promising materials for the building industry application.

  11. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  12. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  13. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  14. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  15. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  16. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  17. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  18. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  19. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  20. Market development study for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Promising market opportunities for the sale of Active Solar Thermal Systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy were examined in an effort to identify the main factors for success and the barriers to development of the ASTS market. This report described some of the action plans which could help Natural Resources Canada and the industry to develop these markets. It was noted that a promising ASTS application should have a substantial market. Some of the promising applications for ASTS include air heating applications such as: (1) make-up air to an industrial facility, particularly one that requires a high rate of air flow or air layer destratification, such as in welding operations, paint shops or vehicle maintenance facilities, (2) ventilation to a high-walled commercial or institutional building that requires high air flow such as in schools, recreational facilities, multi-residential or retail buildings, and (3) slow drying applications for crops, lumber or other materials. Promising water heating applications include: (1) high volume low temperature rise applications such as in swimming pools, (2) domestic hot water to high density accommodations such as in hotels, multi-unit dwellings, college residences and military barracks, (3) domestic hot water to an isolated location such as campgrounds or lodges, and (4) process hot water used for water washing in industry, restaurants, farms and car washes. This study concluded that there are many opportunities for sales of ASTS to the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors, but combined efforts are needed by committed members of the community to take advantage of these opportunities. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs., 4 append.

  1. Pulse-width modulation for small heat pump installations - Phase 2: implementation in a commercial controller and tests in a residential building; Pulsbreitenmodulation fuer Kleinwaermepumpenanlagen. Phase 2: Implementierung in handelsuebliche Regler und Erprobung in einem Wohnhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabathuler, H.R.; Mayer, H. [Gabathuler AG, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Shafai, E.; Wimmer, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Institut fuer Mess- und Regeltechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Frei, R. [Satag Thermotechnik AG, Arbon (Switzerland); Illi, B.; Sidler, F. [Siemens Building Technologies AG, Zug (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project in which a new type of controller for small heat pumps used to heat single-family houses was developed. Instead of the two-point controller normally used to control flow or return temperatures in the heating system, three new approaches are described that deliver the heating energy required for a whole day in portions according to prevailing weather conditions and the thermal characteristics of the house and the heat pump. Electricity tariffs are also taken into account and peak-rate periods avoided. The results of the investigations show that all three variants can be implemented using commercially available controllers. Further investigations, including a complete and representative comparison of the three concepts and a conventional control system are foreseen in phase 3 of the project.

  2. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  3. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  4. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  5. Innovative Commercialization Efforts Underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheesbrough, Kate; Bader, Meghan

    2016-08-26

    New clean energy and energy efficiency technology solutions hold the promise of significant reductions in energy consumption. However, proven barriers for these technologies, including the technological and commercialization valleys of death, result in promising technologies falling to the wayside. To address these gaps, NREL's Innovation & Entrepreneurship Center designs and manages advanced programs aimed at supporting the development and commercialization of early stage clean energy technologies with the goal of accelerating new technologies to market. These include: Innovation Incubator (IN2) in partnership with Wells Fargo: this technology incubator supports energy efficiency building-related startups to overcome market gaps by providing access to technical support at NREL; Small Business Voucher Pilot: this program offers paid vouchers for applicants to access a unique skill, capability, or facility at any of the 17 DOE National Laboratories to bring next-generation clean energy technologies to market; Energy Innovation Portal: NREL designed and developed the Energy Innovation Portal, providing access to EERE focused intellectual property available for licensing from all of the DOE National Laboratories; Lab-Corps: Lab-Corps aims to better train and empower national lab researchers to understand market drivers and successfully transition their discoveries into high-impact, real world technologies in the private sector; Incubatenergy Network: the Network provides nationwide coordination of clean energy business incubators, share best practices, support clean energy entrepreneurs, and help facilitate a smoother transition to a more sustainable clean energy economy; Industry Growth Forum: the Forum is the perfect venue for clean energy innovators to maximize their exposure to receptive capital and strategic partners. Since 2003, presenting companies have collectively raised more than $5 billion in growth financing.

  6. Technology for Building Systems Integration and Optimization – Landscape Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goetzler, Matt Guernsey, Youssef Bargach

    2018-01-31

    BTO's Commercial Building Integration (CBI) program helps advance a range of innovative building integration and optimization technologies and solutions, paving the way for high-performing buildings that could use 50-70% less energy than typical buildings. CBI’s work focuses on early stage technology innovation, with an emphasis on how components and systems work together and how whole buildings are integrated and optimized. This landscape study outlines the current body of knowledge, capabilities, and the broader array of solutions supporting integration and optimization in commercial buildings. CBI seeks to support solutions for both existing buildings and new construction, which often present very different challenges.

  7. A Review of the Dutch Ecosystem for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osseweijer, Floor J W; Van Den Hurk, Linda B P; Teunissen, Erik J H M; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M

    2017-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is one of the most promising solutions to generate renewable electricity in the built environment. BIPV applications can replace regular building components into prefab integrated components that at the same time generate electricity, contributing to the

  8. Maintenance considerations of the STARFIRE commercial tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trachsel, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.; Field, R.E.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the maintenance approach, the commercial tokamak design features that enhance maintenance and preliminary repair time and required mean-time-between-failures for major subsystems. Reactor hall building and maintenance equipment requirements including hot cells, coil rewinding, and cranes are discussed

  9. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Luminescent solar concentrators for building-integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Bruni, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The transition to fully energetically sustainable architecture through the realization of so-called net zero-energy buildings is currently in progress in areas with low population density. However, this is not yet true in cities, where the cost of land for the installation of ground photovoltaic (PV) is prohibitively high and the rooftop space is too scarce to accommodate the PV modules necessary for sustaining the electrical requirements of tall buildings. Thus, new technologies are being investigated to integrate solar-harvesting devices into building façades in the form of PV windows or envelope elements. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the most promising technology for semi-transparent, electrodeless PV glazing systems that can be integrated 'invisibly' into the built environment without detrimental effects to the aesthetics of the building or the quality of life of the inhabitants. After 40 years of research, recent breakthroughs in the realization of reabsorption-free emitters with broadband absorption have boosted the performance of LSCs to such a degree that they might be commercialized in the near future. In this Perspective, we explore the successful strategies that have allowed this change of pace, examining and comparing the different types of chromophores and waveguide materials, and discuss the issues that remain to be investigated for further progress.

  11. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  12. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  13. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  14. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  15. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: BetterBuildings Lowell Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslin, Thomas

    2014-01-31

    The City of Lowell set four goals at the beginning of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: 1. Improve the Downtown Historic Park District’s Carbon Footprint 2. Develop a sustainable and replicable model for energy efficiency in historic buildings 3. Create and retain jobs 4. Promote multi-stakeholder partnerships The City of Lowell, MA was awarded $5 million in May 2010 to conduct energy efficiency retrofits within the downtown National Historical Park (NHP). The City’s target was to complete retrofits in 200,000 square feet of commercial space and create 280 jobs, while adhering to the strict historical preservation regulations that govern the NHP. The development of a model for energy efficiency in historic buildings was successfully accomplished. BetterBuildings Lowell’s success in energy efficiency in historic buildings was due to the simplicity of the program. We relied strongly on the replacement of antiquated HVAC systems and air sealing and a handful of talented energy auditors and contractors. BetterBuildings Lowell was unique for the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program because it was the only program that focused solely on commercial properties. BetterBuildings Lowell did target multi-family properties, which were reported as commercial, but the majority of the building types and uses were commercial. Property types targeted were restaurants, office buildings, museums, sections of larger buildings, mixed use buildings, and multifamily buildings. This unique fabric of building type and use allows for a deeper understanding to how different properties use energy. Because of the National Historical Park designation of downtown Lowell, being able to implement energy efficiency projects within a highly regulated historical district also provided valuable research and precedent proving energy efficiency projects can be successfully completed in historical districts and historical buildings. Our program was very successful in working with the local

  17. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  18. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  19. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies.

  20. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  1. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Simulated Building Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report describes a methodology developed for assessing the performance of no touch building audit tools and presents results for an available tool. Building audits are conducted in many commercial buildings to reduce building energy costs and improve building operation. Because the audits typically require significant input obtained by building engineers, they are usually only affordable for larger commercial building owners. In an effort to help small building and business owners gain the benefits of an audit at a lower cost, no touch building audit tools have been developed to remotely analyze a building's energy consumption.

  2. Bibliography for the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  3. Links Related to the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  4. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  5. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  6. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  7. Building Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  8. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  9. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Akkerman, I.; Koulman, A.; Kamermans, P.; Reith, H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sipkema, D.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  10. Tennessee Promise: A Response to Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlepage, Ben; Clark, Teresa; Wilson, Randal; Stout, Logan

    2018-01-01

    Community colleges in Tennessee, either directly or indirectly, experienced unprecedented change as a result of Tennessee Promise. The present study explored how student support service administrators at three community colleges responded to organizational change as a result of the Tennessee Promise legislation. Investigators selected community…

  11. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  12. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, N.; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, P.

    2007-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation was evaluated by analysing climatic data, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night-time ventilative cooling over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, a series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night-time ventilation alone might not be sufficient to guarantee thermal comfort

  13. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  14. Building and using binoscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on both homemade and commercial products, this book provides the reader with simple and straightforward information about the modelling and building of binoscopes. Binoscopes can be thought of as binoculars enlarged to the size of telescopes: essentially, a combination of the two. Constructing a binoscope is easier than most people think, but it still demands attention to detail and proper background knowledge. The author goes on to provide additional information about how to understand the products currently on the market, should the reader choose to purchase a binoscope instead of building one. Lastly, the book also compares binoscopes with telescopes in great detail, outlining the differences the reader can expect to see in the night sky from using both. The celestial views obtained with a binoscope, compared to a single telescope of the same aperture, are a very different experience and well worth the effort.

  15. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  16. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Петровна Савельева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-4

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  2. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  3. Toward a virtual building laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M.

    1999-03-01

    In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research.

  4. Hopes for commercial use of MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is the study of the motion of fluids and gases in magnetic fields. After 25 years of theoretical and experimental work, it seems commercially promising for a new type of power station, where heat would be converted directly into electricity by generators without moving parts. Nuclear reactors would be well suited as the heat sources. At an Agency symposium in Warsaw in July it was felt that international cooperation is essential to develop the technique for industrial use. (author)

  5. Financial Technology: The Promise of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Markus; Demary, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Digitization affects all sectors of the economy. A new and possibly disruptive digital technology is the blockchain, a decentralized ledger, which seems to offer great promise for many financial and business applications.

  6. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  7. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system......‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...

  8. Commercial facilities in future cities and urban redevelopment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    The future trends of commercial facilities were clarified by interviewing the people concerned in the commercial facilities with large floor area and relatively large energy consumption per unit area such as office building, hospital, hotel, department store, restaurant, educational facilities, sports facilities and urban redevelopment. Since an intelligent building will basically employ the office automation, it is estimated that most of the commercial buildings constructed for the future redevelopment will be intelligent buildings. Hospitals will require the system maintaining the quality of life of individual patient. It is expected that high quality hotels focusing on a touch of high class will be constructed. Department stores will aim at the daily living industry. Future restaurants will need a definite concept. Universities will have to increase new sections according to new students and change in social conditions. It is expected that high quality businesses districts and living quarters in business-centered cities will be planned for urban redevelopment. (4 figs. 3 tabs.)

  9. Study on commercial FBR concepts by combining innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kuroha, M.; Hida, T.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on future prospects of FBR commercialization. Targets of further improving safety and economy were set to make commercial power plants that would be superior to future LWRs. Promising innovative technologies studied domestically and overseas were extracted by evaluating prospects for commercialization, effect, and plant applicability. Several commercial plants were conceptualized by introducing such technology to large-scale and oxide-fuel reactors. Estimates of construction cost, etc., proved that the targets could be achieved. A concept of long-term technological development was synthesized. (author)

  10. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Weintraub, Daniel [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.

  11. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  13. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  14. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  15. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  16. Methodology for classification of commercial edification and of service according to the regulation for voluntary tagging of the energy efficiency level of commercial, services and public buildings - economic evaluation of the simulated and classified models; Metodologia para classificacao de edificacao comercial e de servico conforme a regulamentacao para etiquetagem voluntaria do nivel de eficiencia energetica de edificios comerciais, de servicos e publicos - avaliacao economica dos modelos simulados e classificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Norma do Nascimento; Rovere, Emilio Lebre La [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: normabaptista@ppe.ufrj.br, e-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the methodology developed for determination of energy performance and the classification in accordance with the Regulation for the Voluntary Tagging of the Efficiency Level of commercial, services and public edifications. The methodology applies to commercial and service edification, specifically for offices and schools purposes.

  17. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  18. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  19. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  20. 4 CFR 25.11 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.11 Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Photographs may be taken in the GAO Building only with the approval or authorization of...

  1. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  2. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  3. Strategic collective system building to commercialize sustainability innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planko, J.; Cramer, J.M.; Chappin, M.M.H.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of innovative sustainability technologies often requires far-reaching changes of the macro environment in which the innovating firms operate. Strategic management literature demonstrates that the chances of a successful diffusion and adoption of an innovative technology in society

  4. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs

  5. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  6. Commercial breaks: building the market for PV in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, M.

    2001-01-01

    The article focuses on the huge potential market for off-grid photovoltaics in Africa, in the sub-Saharan region in particular. However, so far the potential market remains largely untapped and several multimillion-dollar projects aimed at developing the market have been disappointing. The result has been a reduction in the activities of PV companies in Africa. The article seeks reasons for the lack of success and offers suggestions for improving the situation

  7. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  8. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Soares, T.; Santos, A.M.A.; Aguiar, J.G.; Frasca, M.H.B.O.; Brage, J.A.P.; Uzeda, D.; Mangia, L.; Facure, A.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples

  9. Advanced LWR technology for commercial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) are now being deployed and commercialized around the world. In Japan, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is building the world's first ALWRs, two 1300 MWe Advanced BWRs (ABWRs). In the United States, the Department of Energy, utilities and suppliers are undertaking a cooperative program called First of a Kind Engineering (FOAKE). The purpose of FOAKE is to perform the detailed engineering of ALWRs to that they will be commercially available to U.S. utilities in the mid-1990s. The U.S. industry is in the second year of its strategic plan to have an ALWR in commercial operation by the year 2000. Elsewhere, the Taiwan Power Company has issued a Request for Proposal for two ALWRs so be built at its Lungmen site, with commercial operation of the first unit to be in the year 2000. Korea is formulating plans for an ALWR and other countries, such as Indonesia and Mexico, are looking into the feasibility of building ALWRs

  10. Personalised Medicine and the Economy of Biotechnological Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Rather than seek to distinguish hype from legitimate promise, it may be more helpful to think about personalised medicine as embodying a promissory economy which serves both to mobilize resources for research and - partly at least - to determine the ends to which that research is directed. Personalised medicine is a development of the larger promissory economy of medical biotechnology. As such, it systematically conflates public benefit with the pursuit of commercial and especially pharmaceutical interests. Consequently, research and development in personalised medicine tends to favour the production of expensive new treatments over unprofitable forms of prevention or more effective use of older therapies. A rebalancing of research priorities is needed to favour the pursuit of public benefit, even when it does not deliver private profits. This will in turn require sustained reflection, self-criticism and often self-denial on the part of public research funders and the scientists they support.

  11. Promising Compilation to ARMv8 POP

    OpenAIRE

    Podkopaev, Anton; Lahav, Ori; Vafeiadis, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    We prove the correctness of compilation of relaxed memory accesses and release-acquire fences from the "promising" semantics of [Kang et al. POPL'17] to the ARMv8 POP machine of [Flur et al. POPL'16]. The proof is highly non-trivial because both the ARMv8 POP and the promising semantics provide some extremely weak consistency guarantees for normal memory accesses; however, they do so in rather different ways. Our proof of compilation correctness to ARMv8 POP strengthens the results of the Kan...

  12. 1998 ACEEE summer study on energy efficiency in buildings: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    These proceedings are contained in the following 10 volumes: (1) Residential buildings--Technologies, design and performance analysis; (2) Residential buildings--Program design, implementation and evaluation; (3) Commercial buildings--Technologies, design and performance analysis; (4) Commercial buildings--Program design, implementation and evaluation; (5) International collaborations and global market issues; (6) Deregulation of the utility industry and role of energy services companies; (7) Market transformation; (8) Information technologies, consumer behavior, and non-energy benefits; (9) Sustainable development, climate change, energy planning, and policy; and (10) Building industry trends. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  14. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  15. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  16. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  17. META 2f: Probabilistic, Compositional, Multi-dimension Model-Based Verification (PROMISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    TTTech Computertechnik AG, and Vanderbilt University. PROMISE builds on the team’s unique expertise that combines a long history of successful...e.g. 0x800 for IPV4 , 0x806 for ARP, etc.) or as length field (value < 0x600), which indicates the actual length of the Ethernet data payload (46

  18. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  19. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Seaweed: Promising plant of the millennium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweeds, one of the important marine living resources could be termed as the futuristically promising plants. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine in the orient as well as in the west, since ancient times. Although, seaweeds...

  1. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  2. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  3. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... comprehensive education reforms that are linked to improved educational outcomes for children and youth in... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  4. Innovation in the U.S. building sector: An assessment of patent citations in building energy control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altwies, Joy E.; Nemet, Gregory F.

    2013-01-01

    Buildings are crucial to addressing energy problems because they are large consumers of end-use energy, and potential exists to dramatically improve their efficiencies. However, the pace of innovation in buildings is generally characterized as inadequate, despite the implementation of an array of policy instruments aimed at promoting efficiency. The literature on innovation in the building industry provides several explanations including: fragmented decision-making, principal agent problems, inadequate information, and limited learning across heterogeneous projects. We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. with a case study of patenting in energy management control systems (EMCS) for commercial buildings and programmable thermostats (PT) for residential buildings. Using U.S. patent data, we find that: (1) patenting activity peaked around 1980, subsequently declined, and then increased considerably in the past decade; (2) commercial, rather than residential, buildings account for the recent increase; and (3) building control technologies have benefitted from inventions originating outside the industry, notably from electronics and computers, with a shift toward the latter in recent years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. using patents. ► We use commercial and residential building controls technology as a case study. ► Patenting peaked around 1980, declined, and then increased in the past decade. ► Commercial building control patents account for most of the recent increase. ► Inventions in electronics and computers have led to innovation in building controls.

  5. Duplex-imprinted nano well arrays for promising nanoparticle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Manz, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    A large area nano-duplex-imprint technique is presented in this contribution using natural cicada wings as stamps. The glassy wings of the cicada, which are abundant in nature, exhibit strikingly interesting nanopillar structures over their membrane. This technique, with excellent performance despite the nonplanar surface of the wings, combines both top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques. It transitions micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to the bench. Two different materials, dicing tape with an acrylic layer and a UV optical adhesive, are used to make replications at the same time, thus achieving duplex imprinting. The promise of a large volume of commercial manufacturing of these nanostructure elements can be envisaged through this contribution to speeding up the fabrication process and achieving a higher throughput. The contact angle of the replicated nanowell arrays before and after oxygen plasma was measured. Gold nanoparticles (50 nm) were used to test how the nanoparticles behaved on the untreated and plasma-treated replica surface. The experiments show that promising nanoparticle self-assembly can be obtained.

  6. Investigation Into Informational Compatibility Of Building Information Modelling And Building Performance Analysis Software Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, S.; Marjanovic-Halburd, L.; Raslan, R.

    2015-01-01

    There are significant opportunities for Building Information Modelling (BIM) to address issues related to sustainable and energy efficient building design. While the potential benefits associated with the integration of BIM and BPA (Building Performance Analysis) have been recognised, its specifications and formats remain in their early infancy and often fail to live up to the promise of seamless interoperability at various stages of design process. This paper conducts a case study to investi...

  7. VIP A B C. Vacuum Insulation Panels Applied in Building Constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenpierik, M.J.

    2010-02-01

    Due to sustainability and due to international treaties, it is desired and required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. One contributor to these emissions is the burning of fossil fuels for generating power and electricity to be used in and for buildings. Buildings and building-related processes are responsible for about 40% of the primary energy consumption in the European Union. More than half of this energy is applied for heating systems in dwellings and commercial buildings. The European Union therefore has laid down new energy performance requirements for buildings in the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. Moreover, a reduction of energy losses of buildings during their occupational phase is important for facilitating the implementation of sustainable energy sources in the built environment. Increasing the insulation value of the envelope of buildings may contribute to this reduction of primary energy use. Two strategies can be followed. The first strategy is to increase the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Until recently, this strategy has primarily been adopted. If, however, German or Swiss Passivhaus standard is applied, the thickness of this insulation layer would increase to beyond 30 cm, resulting in very thick building enclosures. The second, more innovative, strategy for reducing energy losses through the building skin would be the application of more effective thermal insulators. One such more effective thermal insulator is a vacuum insulation panel, abbreviated as VIP. A VIP consists of an open-celled core material which is evacuated and then tightly sealed into a barrier envelope to maintain this vacuum. The vacuum inside the pores of the core material reduces the thermal conductivity of the product significantly, as a result of which the thickness of the insulation layer can be reduced to obtain a certain performance. This reduction of thickness is among the most promising features for large

  8. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  9. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  10. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  11. The Promise of AP World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  12. The Promise of Small and Medium Enterprises

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On Learning, Innovation and Competence Building in India's SMEs: The Challenges Ahead .... Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service .... How can policies be best designed to enable SMEs to fulfil their role in development? .... several common characteristics and challenges, and the learning potential they offer ...

  13. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  14. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  15. Radiometric analysis of Chinese commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.; Lingqing, W.; Xiaodan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of granites as building and ornamental materials, measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activities in commercial granites have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer with a matrix-inversion-based spectral stripping technique. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Chinese commercial granite range from 14.5 to 204.7 Bq x kg -1 , 16.7 to 186.7 Bq x kg -1 and 185.7 to 1745.6 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in red and pink commercial granites are all higher than those in black and gray commercial ones. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the external hazard index (H ex ), the internal hazard index (H in ) and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. Six types of red commercial granites (CBR, MLR, QXR, PBR, JXR, LQR, YDR and TSR) of China do not satisfy the universal standards. (author)

  16. Service Users perspectives in PROMISE and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Since its inception in 2013, PROMISE (PROactive Management of Integrated Services and Environments) has been supporting service users and staff at the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) on a journey to reduce reliance on force. The author's own personal experiences led to the founding of PROMISE and illustrates how individual experiences can influence a patient to lead change. Coproduction is actively embedded in PROMISE. Patients have been meaningfully involved because they are innovators and problem solvers who bring an alternative viewpoint by the very nature of their condition. A patient is more than just a person who needs to be 'fixed' they are individuals with untapped skills and added insight. There have been 2 separate Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) since the project was first established. The first Patient Advisory Group was recruited to work with the PROMISE researchers on a study which used a participatory qualitative approach. Drawing on their lived experience and different perspectives the PAG was instrumental in shaping the qualitative study, including the research questions. Their active involvement helped to ensure that that the study was sensitively designed, methodologically robust and ethically sound. The 2 nd PAG was formed in 2016 to give the project an overall steer. Patients in this group contributed to the work on the 'No' Audit and reviewed several CPFT policies such as the Seclusion and Segregation policy which has impacted on frontline practice. They also made a significant contribution to the study design for a funding application that was submitted by the PROMISE team to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Both PAGs were supported by funding from East of England Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC EoE) and were influential in different ways. An evaluation of the 2 nd PAG which was conducted in June 2017 showed very high satisfaction levels. The free text

  17. Sport Commercialism and its Impact on Sponsorship Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Trachsler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sport commercialism has increased tremendously over the past twenty years. Major sporting events and organizations are at the point where most cannot survive without outside sponsor- ship revenue. This study on American attitudes towards sport sponsorships analyzes the increased sport commercialism’s impact on sport fans. Previous studies on sport sponsorship and commercialism showed that increased sport commercial- ism leads to a negative purchase intent although a younger fan may be resistant to the negative influence of over-commercial- ism. This study builds upon such research by comparing gen- der, age, type of sport (professional versus amateur and fan- avidity. Perhaps paradoxically, this research suggests there is no correlation between over-commercialism and sport interest across numerous demographic categories. This data of corporate influence on sport commercialism may provide insights for sport sponsors as they best position their brands to the sport avid consumer.

  18. Review of Building Data Frameworks across Countries: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Sangeeta [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Satish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, LLC, New Delhi (India)

    2017-07-31

    The report outlines the initial explorations carried out by LBNL on available examples of energy data collection frameworks for buildings. Specifically, this monograph deals with European experience in the buildings sector, the US experience in the commercial buildings sector, and examples of data collection effort in Singapore and China to capture the Asian experience in the commercial sector. The review also provides a summary of the past efforts in India to collect and use commercial building energy data and its strengths and weaknesses. The overall aim of this activity is to help understand the use cases that drive the granularity of data being collected and the range of methodologies adopted for the data collection effort. This review is a key input and reference for developing a data collection framework for India, and also clarifies general thinking on the institutional structure that may be amenable for data collection effort to match the needs and requirements of commercial building sector in India.

  19. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA

  20. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics