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Sample records for promiscuous females mate

  1. Female economic dependence and the morality of promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E; Pound, Nicholas; Scott, Isabel M

    2014-10-01

    In environments in which female economic dependence on a male mate is higher, male parental investment is more essential. In such environments, therefore, both sexes should value paternity certainty more and thus object more to promiscuity (because promiscuity undermines paternity certainty). We tested this theory of anti-promiscuity morality in two studies (N = 656 and N = 4,626) using U.S. samples. In both, we examined whether opposition to promiscuity was higher among people who perceived greater female economic dependence in their social network. In Study 2, we also tested whether economic indicators of female economic dependence (e.g., female income, welfare availability) predicted anti-promiscuity morality at the state level. Results from both studies supported the proposed theory. At the individual level, perceived female economic dependence explained significant variance in anti-promiscuity morality, even after controlling for variance explained by age, sex, religiosity, political conservatism, and the anti-promiscuity views of geographical neighbors. At the state level, median female income was strongly negatively related to anti-promiscuity morality and this relationship was fully mediated by perceived female economic dependence. These results were consistent with the view that anti-promiscuity beliefs may function to promote paternity certainty in circumstances where male parental investment is particularly important.

  2. Promiscuous mating in the harem-roosting fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Doss D, Paramanatha Swami; A K, Vinoth Kumar; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Observations on mating behaviours and strategies guide our understanding of mating systems and variance in reproductive success. However, the presence of cryptic strategies often results in situations where social mating system is not reflective of genetic mating system. We present such a study of the genetic mating system of a harem-forming bat Cynopterus sphinx where harems may not be true indicators of male reproductive success. This temporal study using data from six seasons on paternity reveals that social harem assemblages do not play a role in the mating system, and variance in male reproductive success is lower than expected assuming polygynous mating. Further, simulations reveal that the genetic mating system is statistically indistinguishable from promiscuity. Our results are in contrast to an earlier study that demonstrated high variance in male reproductive success. Although an outcome of behavioural mating patterns, standardized variance in male reproductive success (I(m)) affects the opportunity for sexual selection. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuity for mammals in general, we compared our estimates of I(m) and total opportunity for sexual selection (I(m) /I(f), where I(f) is standardized variance in female reproductive success) with those of other known promiscuous species. We observed a broad range of I(m) /I(f) values across known promiscuous species, indicating our poor understanding of the evolutionary implications of promiscuous mating. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  4. sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates in tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    female undergraduates, the causes and effects of such unhealthy behaviour on healthy living. Hence ... larger scale what they started in secondary schools. Again ... 1, 2010. 103 mostly under the influence of “psychotropic drugs” that put them in a ... the respondents on issues relating to sexual promiscuity and its attendant.

  5. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate

    OpenAIRE

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I.; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas ‘convenience polyandry’ might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of s...

  6. Z linkage of female promiscuity genes in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix: support for the sexy-sperm hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Vikram K; Reeve, Hudson K

    2010-05-01

    Female preference genes for large males in the highly promiscuous moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) have previously been shown to be mostly Z-linked, in accordance with the hypothesis that ZZ-ZW sex chromosome systems should facilitate Fisherian sexual selection. We determined the heritability of both female and male promiscuity in the highly promiscuous moth U. ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) through parent-offspring and grandparent-offspring regression analyses. Our data show that male promiscuity is not sex-limited and either autosomal or sex-linked whereas female promiscuity is primarily determined by sex-limited, Z-linked genes. These data are consistent with the "sexy-sperm hypothesis," which posits that multiple-mating and sperm competitiveness coevolve through a Fisherian-like process in which female promiscuity is a kind of mate choice in which sperm-competitiveness is the trait favored in males. Such a Fisherian process should also be more potent when female preferences are Z-linked and sex-limited than when autosomal or not limited.

  7. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be

  8. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  9. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  10. Choosy but not chaste: multiple mating in human females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelza, Brooke A

    2013-01-01

    When Charles Darwin set out to relate his theory of evolution by natural selection to humans he discovered that a complementary explanation was needed to properly understand the great variation seen in human behavior. The resulting work, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, laid out the defining principles and evidence of sexual selection. In brief, this work is best known for illuminating the typically male strategy of intrasexual competition and the typically female response of intersexual choice. While these sexual stereotypes were first laid out by Darwin, they grew in importance when, years later, A. J. Bateman, in a careful study of Drosophila mating strategies, noted that multiple mating appeared to provide great benefit to male reproductive success, but to have no such effect on females. As a result, female choice soon became synonymous with being coy, and only males were thought to gain from promiscuous behavior. However, the last thirty years of research have served to question much of the traditional wisdom about sex differences proposed by Darwin and Bateman, illuminating the many ways that women (and females more generally) can and do engage in multiple mating. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Male mate choice and female response in relation to mating status and time since mating

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass H. Morse

    2010-01-01

    Models of sperm allocation predict that male mating behavior will vary with a female's reproductive condition and with information about her present and likely future status available to a male. Tests across a wide taxonomic range have shown that males allocate more sperm to previously mated females than to virgins but that in a minority of instances this allocation pattern is reversed. To investigate the basis for this discrepancy I ran sequential pairings of the crab spider Misumena vatia (...

  12. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that...

  13. Varying levels of female promiscuity in four Apodemus mice species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Mošanský, L.; Stanko, M.; Stopka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2008), s. 251-260 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB090802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating systems * multiple paternity * wood mice * testis size Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.917, year: 2008

  14. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-12-07

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that female crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) mark males with their own unique chemical signatures during mating, enabling females to recognize prior mates in subsequent encounters and to avoid remating with them. Because self-referent chemosensory cues provide females with a simple, but reliable mechanism of identifying individuals with whom they have mated without requiring any special cognitive ability, they may be a widespread means by which females across a broad range of animal mating systems maximize the genetic benefits of polyandry.

  15. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  16. ClbM is a versatile, cation-promiscuous MATE transporter found in the colibactin biosynthetic gene cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Jarrod J.; Newsome, Rachel C.; Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian; Bruner, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug transporters play key roles in cellular drug resistance to toxic molecules, yet these transporters are also involved in natural product transport as part of biosynthetic clusters in bacteria and fungi. The genotoxic molecule colibactin is produced by strains of virulent and pathobiont Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the biosynthetic cluster is a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein (MATE) proposed to transport the prodrug molecule precolibactin across the cytoplasmic membrane, for subsequent cleavage by the peptidase ClbP and cellular export. We recently determined the X-ray structure of ClbM, and showed preliminary data suggesting its specific role in precolibactin transport. Here, we define a functional role of ClbM by examining transport capabilities under various biochemical conditions. Our data indicate ClbM responds to sodium, potassium, and rubidium ion gradients, while also having substantial transport activity in the absence of alkali cations. - Highlights: • ClbM is a cation promiscuous MATE multidrug transporter. • The role of key residues were identified in both the cation and proton binding. • The biologically relevant substrate for ClbM is the natural product precolibactin.

  17. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  18. Males and females gain differentially from sociality in a promiscuous fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika M Garg

    Full Text Available Sociality emerges when the benefits of group living outweigh its costs. While both males and females are capable of strong social ties, the evolutionary drivers for sociality and the benefits accrued maybe different for each sex. In this study, we investigate the differential reproductive success benefits of group membership that males and females might obtain in the promiscuous fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Individuals of this species live in flexible social groups called colonies. These colonies are labile and there is high turnover of individuals. However, colony males sire more offspring within the colony suggesting that being part of a colony may result in reproductive benefits for males. This also raises the possibility that long-term loyalty towards the colony may confer additional advantage in terms of higher reproductive success. We used ten seasons of genetic parentage data to estimate reproductive success and relatedness of individuals in the colony. We used recapture data to identify long and short-term residents in the colony as well as to obtain rates of recapture for males and females. Our results reveal that males have a significantly higher chance of becoming long-term residents (than females, and these long-term resident males gain twice the reproductive success compared to short-term resident males. We also observed that long-term resident females are related to each other and also achieve higher reproductive success than short-term resident females. In contrast, long-term resident males do not differ from short-term resident males in their levels of relatedness. Our results re-iterate the benefits of sociality even in species that are promiscuous and socially labile and possible benefits of maintaining a colony.

  19. Males and females gain differentially from sociality in a promiscuous fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Swami Doss, D P; Kumar, A K Vinoth; Kandula, Sripathi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Sociality emerges when the benefits of group living outweigh its costs. While both males and females are capable of strong social ties, the evolutionary drivers for sociality and the benefits accrued maybe different for each sex. In this study, we investigate the differential reproductive success benefits of group membership that males and females might obtain in the promiscuous fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Individuals of this species live in flexible social groups called colonies. These colonies are labile and there is high turnover of individuals. However, colony males sire more offspring within the colony suggesting that being part of a colony may result in reproductive benefits for males. This also raises the possibility that long-term loyalty towards the colony may confer additional advantage in terms of higher reproductive success. We used ten seasons of genetic parentage data to estimate reproductive success and relatedness of individuals in the colony. We used recapture data to identify long and short-term residents in the colony as well as to obtain rates of recapture for males and females. Our results reveal that males have a significantly higher chance of becoming long-term residents (than females), and these long-term resident males gain twice the reproductive success compared to short-term resident males. We also observed that long-term resident females are related to each other and also achieve higher reproductive success than short-term resident females. In contrast, long-term resident males do not differ from short-term resident males in their levels of relatedness. Our results re-iterate the benefits of sociality even in species that are promiscuous and socially labile and possible benefits of maintaining a colony.

  20. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  1. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ubiquitous: evidence from sperm competition in laboratory populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. B. Shruthi S. R. Ramesh. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 ...

  2. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  3. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  4. Promiscuity, sexual selection, and genetic diversity: a reply to Spurgin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Gohli, Jostein; Johnsen, Arild

    2013-10-01

    We recently reported a positive association between female promiscuity and genetic diversity across passerine birds, and launched the hypothesis that female promiscuity acts as a balancing selection, pressure maintaining genetic diversity in populations (Gohli et al.2013). Spurgin (2013) questions both our analyses and interpretations. While we agree that the hypothesis needs more comprehensive empirical testing, we find his specific points of criticism unjustified. In a more general perspective, we call for a more explicit recognition of female mating preferences as mechanisms of selection in population genetics theory. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...... the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking...

  6. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DST Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India .... using SPSS software (ver. 16.0). Results ... Proportions of first male and second male progeny of doubly mated female and the results of paired-sample t-test carried out independently for ...

  7. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  8. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Emily R.; Dyer, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced discrimination and its consequences for sexual isolation within species. We find that selection has fixed rejection of D. recens males in sympatry, while significant genetic variation in this behavior occurs within allopatric populations. In conspecific matings sexual isolation is also asymmetric and stronger in populations that are sympatric with D. recens. The clines in behavioral discrimination within and between species are similar in shape and are maintained by strong selection in the face of gene flow, and we show that some of their genetic basis may be either shared or linked. Thus, while reinforcement can drive extremely strong phenotypic divergence, the long-term consequences for incipient speciation depend on gene flow, genetic linkage of discrimination traits, and the cost of these behaviors in allopatry. PMID:25163510

  9. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  10. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic monogamy despite social promiscuity in the pot-bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A B; Martin-Smith, K M

    2007-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts a positive correlation between relative parental investment and mate choice. In syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish), males brood offspring in specialized brooding structures. While female-female mating competition has been demonstrated in some pipefishes, all seahorses (genus Hippocampus) studied to date have been found to have conventional sex roles with greater male-male competition for access to mates despite possessing the most complex brood structures in the family. Although multiple mating is common in pipefish, seahorses are again exceptional, exhibiting strict genetic monogamy. Both demographic and behavioural explanations have been offered to explain the lack of multiple mating in seahorse species, but these hypotheses have not yet been explicitly addressed. We investigated mating systems and brood parentage of the pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, a temperate-water species that is socially promiscuous with conventional sex roles in laboratory populations. We observed promiscuous courtship behaviour and sex-role reversal in high density, female-biased field populations of H. abdominalis. We hypothesize that sex roles are plastic in H. abdominalis, depending on local population density and sex ratio. Despite promiscuous courtship behaviour, all assayed male seahorses were genetically monogamous in both laboratory and wild populations. Physiological limitations associated with embryo incubation may explain the absence of multiple mating in seahorses and may have played an important role in the development of the unique reproductive behaviour typical in these species.

  12. ClbM is a versatile, cation-promiscuous MATE transporter found in the colibactin biosynthetic gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Jarrod J; Newsome, Rachel C; Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian; Bruner, Steven D

    2017-01-22

    Multidrug transporters play key roles in cellular drug resistance to toxic molecules, yet these transporters are also involved in natural product transport as part of biosynthetic clusters in bacteria and fungi. The genotoxic molecule colibactin is produced by strains of virulent and pathobiont Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the biosynthetic cluster is a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein (MATE) proposed to transport the prodrug molecule precolibactin across the cytoplasmic membrane, for subsequent cleavage by the peptidase ClbP and cellular export. We recently determined the X-ray structure of ClbM, and showed preliminary data suggesting its specific role in precolibactin transport. Here, we define a functional role of ClbM by examining transport capabilities under various biochemical conditions. Our data indicate ClbM responds to sodium, potassium, and rubidium ion gradients, while also having substantial transport activity in the absence of alkali cations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Roles of Female and Male Genotype in Post-Mating Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbare, Sofie Y N; Chow, Clement Y; Wolfner, Mariana F; Clark, Andrew G

    2017-10-30

    Mating induces a multitude of changes in female behavior, physiology, and gene expression. Interactions between female and male genotype lead to variation in post-mating phenotypes and reproductive success. So far, few female molecules responsible for these interactions have been identified. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster from 5 geographically dispersed populations to investigate such female × male genotypic interactions at the female transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Females from each line were singly-mated to males from the same 5 lines, for a total of 25 combinations. Reproductive output and refractoriness to re-mating were assayed in females from the 25 mating combinations. Female × male genotypic interactions resulted in significant differences in these post-mating phenotypes. To assess whether female × male genotypic interactions affect the female post-mating transcriptome, next-generation RNA sequencing was performed on virgin and mated females at 5 to 6 h post-mating. Seventy-seven genes showed strong variation in mating-induced expression changes in a female × male genotype-dependent manner. These genes were enriched for immune response and odorant-binding functions, and for expression exclusively in the head. Strikingly, variation in post-mating transcript levels of a gene encoding a spermathecal endopeptidase was correlated with short-term egg production. The transcriptional variation found in specific functional classes of genes might be a read-out of female × male compatibility at a molecular level. Understanding the roles these genes play in the female post-mating response will be crucial to better understand the evolution of post-mating responses and related conflicts between the sexes. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mating opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna females: Costs and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Duran, Linda C.; Fajardo Medina, Gonzalo E.; Fuentes Quinter, Luz S.; Martin, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. Resumen En la naturaleza, hembras de varios taxa animal muestran una variación considerable en su sistema de apareamiento, esta variación involucra diferentes costos (energéticos, reproductivos, etc) y beneficios (aumento de la tasa reproductiva neta de la hembra, mayor longevidad, entre otros). En años recientes, muchos estudios se han enfocado en descubrir las potenciales ventajas y desventajas que las hembras podrían tener al aumentar su número de cópulas y las posibles consecuencias evolutivas que podrían resultar. Las mariposas y polillas son un sistema de estudio ideal, dada la facilidad para determinar y manipular experimentalmente su frecuencia de

  15. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb induced by paced mating in the female rat is opioid dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo

    Full Text Available The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NX could reduce the increase in neurogenesis in the AOB induced by paced mating. Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided in 5 different groups: 1 Control (not mated treated with saline, 2 control (not mated treated with naloxone, 3 females that mated without controlling the sexual interaction (no-pacing, 4 females injected with saline before pacing the sexual interaction and 5 females injected with NX before a paced mating session. We found, as previously described, that paced mating induced a higher number of new cells in the granular layer of the AOB. The administration of NX before paced mating, blocked the increase in the number of newborn cells and prevented these cells from differentiating into neurons. These data suggest that opioid peptides play a fundamental role in the neurogenesis induced by paced mating in female rats.

  16. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined...

  17. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  18. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  19. Optimal numbers of matings: the conditional balance between benefits and costs of mating for females of a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, S; Albo, M J

    2015-02-01

    In species where females gain a nutritious nuptial gift during mating, the balance between benefits and costs of mating may depend on access to food. This means that there is not one optimal number of matings for the female but a range of optimal mating numbers. With increasing food availability, the optimal number of matings for a female should vary from the number necessary only for fertilization of her eggs to the number needed also for producing these eggs. In three experimental series, the average number of matings for females of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis before egg sac construction varied from 2 to 16 with food-limited females generally accepting more matings than well-fed females. Minimal level of optimal mating number for females at satiation feeding conditions was predicted to be 2-3; in an experimental test, the median number was 2 (range 0-4). Multiple mating gave benefits in terms of increased fecundity and increased egg hatching success up to the third mating, and it had costs in terms of reduced fecundity, reduced egg hatching success after the third mating, and lower offspring size. The level of polyandry seems to vary with the female optimum, regulated by a satiation-dependent resistance to mating, potentially leaving satiated females in lifelong virginity. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Experimental evolution under hyper-promiscuity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer C; Joag, Richa; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina; Radwan, Jacek; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-16

    The number of partners that individuals mate with over their lifetime is a defining feature of mating systems, and variation in mate number is thought to be a major driver of sexual evolution. Although previous research has investigated the evolutionary consequences of reductions in the number of mates, we know little about the costs and benefits of increased numbers of mates. Here, we use a genetic manipulation of mating frequency in Drosophila melanogaster to create a novel, highly promiscuous mating system. We generated D. melanogaster populations in which flies were deficient for the sex peptide receptor (SPR) gene - resulting in SPR- females that mated more frequently - and genetically-matched control populations, and allowed them to evolve for 55 generations. At several time-points during this experimental evolution, we assayed behavioural, morphological and transcriptional reproductive phenotypes expected to evolve in response to increased population mating frequencies. We found that males from the high mating frequency SPR- populations evolved decreased ability to inhibit the receptivity of their mates and decreased copulation duration, in line with predictions of decreased per-mating investment with increased sperm competition. Unexpectedly, SPR- population males also evolved weakly increased sex peptide (SP) gene expression. Males from SPR- populations initially (i.e., before experimental evolution) exhibited more frequent courtship and faster time until mating relative to controls, but over evolutionary time these differences diminished or reversed. In response to experimentally increased mating frequency, SPR- males evolved behavioural responses consistent with decreased male post-copulatory investment at each mating and decreased overall pre-copulatory performance. The trend towards increased SP gene expression might plausibly relate to functional differences in the two domains of the SP protein. Our study highlights the utility of genetic

  1. Female behaviour and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Genetic Coupling of Female Mate Choice with Polygenic Ecological Divergence Facilitates Stickleback Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Arnegard, Matthew E; Conte, Gina L; Best, Jacob; Bedford, Nicole L; McCann, Shaugnessy R; Dubin, Matthew E; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C; Kingsley, David M; Schluter, Dolph; Peichel, Catherine L

    2017-11-06

    Ecological speciation with gene flow is widespread in nature [1], but it presents a conundrum: how are associations between traits under divergent natural selection and traits that contribute to assortative mating maintained? Theoretical models suggest that genetic mechanisms inhibiting free recombination between loci underlying these two types of traits (hereafter, "genetic coupling") can facilitate speciation [2-4]. Here, we perform a direct test for genetic coupling by mapping both divergent traits and female mate choice in a classic model of ecological speciation: sympatric benthic and limnetic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). By measuring mate choice in F2 hybrid females, we allowed for recombination between loci underlying assortative mating and those under divergent ecological selection. In semi-natural mating arenas in which females had access to both benthic and limnetic males, we found that F2 females mated with males similar to themselves in body size and shape. In addition, we found two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with female mate choice that also predicted female morphology along the benthic-limnetic trait axis. Furthermore, a polygenic genetic model that explains adaptation to contrasting benthic and limnetic feeding niches [5] also predicted F2 female mate choice. Together, these results provide empirical evidence that genetic coupling of assortative mating with traits under divergent ecological selection helps maintain species in the face of gene flow, despite a polygenic basis for adaptation to divergent environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Lin-Jun; Gomes-Silva, Guilherme; Sommer-Trembo, Carolin; Plath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability. Additionally, each focal individual was tested in two different dichotomous mate choice tests in which it could choose between computer-animated stimulus fish of the opposite sex that differed in body size and activity levels, respectively. Personality had different effects on female and male mate choice: females that were larger than average showed stronger preferences for large-bodied males with increasing levels of boldness/activity (i.e., towards more proactive personality types). Males that were larger than average and had higher shoaling tendencies showed stronger preferences for actively swimming females. Size-dependent effects of personality on the strength of preferences for distinct phenotypes of potential mating partners may reflect effects of age/experience (especially in females) and social dominance (especially in males). Previous studies found evidence for assortative mate choice based on personality types or hypothesized the existence of behavioral syndromes of individuals' choosiness across mate choice criteria, possibly including other personality traits. Our present study exemplifies that far more complex patterns of personality-dependent mate choice can emerge in natural systems.

  4. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  5. Vocal neighbour-mate discrimination in female great tits despite high song similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouring...... males, however, raises the question of whether females are also able to perceive differences between songs shared by their mate and a neighbour. The great tit is a socially monogamous, hole-nesting species with biparental care. Pair bond maintenance and coordination of the pair's reproductive efforts...... are important, and the female's ability to recognize her mate's song should therefore be adaptive. In a neighbour-mate discrimination playback experiment, we presented 13 incubating great tit females situated inside nestboxes with a song of their mate and the same song type from a neighbour. Each female...

  6. Sharing mates and nest boxes is associated with female "friendship" in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Bourguet, Cécile; Coulon, Marion; Aubry, Christine; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-02-01

    Breeding decisions in birds involve both mate and nest choice, and there is increasing evidence that social influences may modulate individual choices. Female preferences may be affected by other females' preferences and mutual choice cannot always be excluded, which makes the whole pattern more complex than assumed by most sexual selection models. Social transmission may be facilitated by particular social bonds, therefore prebreeding social networks may influence later mate choices. The other case where females share mate or resources is polygyny, generally viewed to only benefit males. If mutual benefits may arise then mechanisms should evolve to reduce the reproductive cost for females such as to reduce the cost of aggression by sharing their mate with a preferred same-sex social partner. We tested the hypothesis that females' mating decisions may be influenced by the prebreeding social network and that social partner relations established prior to breeding may share decisions (mate/sites) in a facultatively polygynous species, the European starling. Two experiments were designed to test the relative importance of male or nest by following the whole dynamics of the breeding cycle from the prebreeding period until mate and nest selection. In both cases socially isolated females tended to be excluded from breeding, while prebreeding social partners tended to share mates and to nest in close proximity, mate copying leading in some case to polygyny. The final pattern resulted both from female "likes and dislikes" and male preferences for some females. Aggressive interactions between females were rare. Vocal sharing between females may have been a clue for males as to the degree of social integration of these females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  8. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, James M.; Sidari, Morgan J.; Harris, Emily Ann; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates.Ob...

  9. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  10. Azadirachtin impact on mate choice, female sexual receptivity and male activity in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribi, N; Oulhaci, M C; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Sandoz, J C; Kaiser, L; Denis, B; Joly, D

    2017-11-01

    Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD 50 (0.63μg) on the day of adult emergence and its effect was evaluated on several traits of reproductive behavior: mate choice, male activity, female sexual receptivity, sperm storage and female sterility. In choice and no choice conditions, only male treatment reduced mating probability. Female treatment impaired mating probability only when males had the choice. Males' mating ability may have been impaired by an effect of the treatment on their mobility. Such an effect was observed in the actimeter, which revealed that treated males were less active than untreated ones, and this effect persisted over 8days. Azadirachtin treatment had, however, no effect on the nycthemeral rhythm of those males. Even when mating occurred, Azadirachtin treatment impaired post-mating responses especially when females or both sexes were treated: remating probability increases and female fertility (presence of larvae) decreases. No impairment was observed on the efficiency of mating, evaluated by the presence of sperm in the spermatheca or the ventral receptacle. Male treatment only had no significant effect on these post-mating responses. These findings provide clear evidence that Azadirachtin alters the reproductive behavior of both sexes in D. melanogaster via mating and post-mating processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, BCVK Campus, ... observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the .... Materials and methods .... that mated with the three types of males within each block.

  12. Direct observation of female mating frequency using time-lapse photography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Bram; Morrow, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    One basic condition of postmating sexual selection is that females mate more than once before fertilizing their ova. Knowledge of the frequency and extent of multiple mating in a given population or species is therefore important in order to fully understand the potential for sexual selection, in

  13. Mating rate influences female reproductive investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, J.N.A.; Schwegler, D.; Ellers, J.; Koene, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple mating often imposes direct fitness costs on females but can provide indirect benefits such as enhanced genetic diversity and offspring quality. The costs and benefits of multiple mating have been investigated extensively in separate-sex species but less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites,

  14. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  16. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  17. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres, E-mail: paltesor@fq.edu.u, E-mail: mparcia@fq.edu.u, E-mail: crossini@fq.edu.u, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.u [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Quimica. Lab. de Ecologia Quimica; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G., E-mail: vanusa@quimica.ufpr.b, E-mail: pzarbin@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Semioquimicos

    2010-06-15

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  18. Differences in Mating Propensity Between Immature Female Color Morphs in the Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Insecta : Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Ana Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa; Van Gossum, Hans

    Female-limited color polymorphisms occur in a variety of animal taxa where excessive male sexual harassment may explain the coexistence of multiple female color morphs. In the color polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans, mature and immature female color morphs coexist at the mating site where males

  19. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  20. Male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Malin

    2009-02-01

    Chemical signals are common in most crustacean social interactions and are often perceived via chemosensory (olfactory) organs on the first antenna. Intermolt courtship behaviors and mating were investigated in size-matched pairs of intermolt European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) where the olfactory receptors of either the male or the female were lesioned with distilled water (olfactory ablation) or seawater (control). Matings or advanced male courtship behaviors (mounting and turning) were common in seawater controls and olfactory-ablated females. In contrast, when male olfaction was ablated with distilled water, there was not a single mating, and the only male courtship behaviors seen were a few very brief and unsuccessful mounting attempts. Individual females mated up to 5 times with different males, showing that previously inseminated females were still attractive to males. Thus, male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in H. gammarus, indicating the presence of a female sex pheromone during the entire female molt cycle, not only at the time of molting. Female sex discrimination may be based on other cues from the male in combination with typical male behaviors.

  1. Mate Preference of Female Blue Tits Varies with Experimental Photoperiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reparaz, L.B.; Van Oers, K.; Naguib, M.; Doutrelant, C.; Visser, M.E.; Caro, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is

  2. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reparaz, L.B.; Oers, van K.; Naguib, M.; Doutrelant, C.; Visser, M.E.; Caro, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is

  3. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in conditioned mate guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Bellevue, Shannon; Vosberg, Daniel; Wenzel, Kerstin; Roorda, Sieger; Pfaus, James G

    2015-05-15

    We have shown previously that female rats given their first copulatory experiences with the same male rat display mate guarding behavior in the presence of that male provided a female competitor is also present. Females given access to the familiar male show more Fos induction within regions of the brain that contain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) cell bodies, notably the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) relative to females given sexual experience with different males. The present experiments examined whether the Fos induction we previously observed within the SON and PVN occurred within OT and/or AVP neurons, and whether exogenous administration of OT or AVP prior to female rats first sexual experience could potentiate the acquisition of mate guarding behavior. Female rats that display conditioned mate guarding had significantly more double-labeled Fos/OT neurons in both SON and PVN, and significantly more Fos/AVP neurons in the PVN. Peripheral administration of OT or AVP prior to their first sexual experience with the familiar male facilitated different aspects of mate guarding: OT augmented affiliative behaviors and presenting responses whereas AVP augmented interference behavior. These results indicate that female rats' first experiences with sexual reward when paired with the same male induce changes to bonding networks in the brain. Moreover peripheral administration of OT or AVP during their first sexual experience can augment different aspects of mate guarding behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of female status on sex differentiated mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Fhionna R.

    2007-01-01

    Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....

  5. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shane Wright

    Full Text Available Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  6. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  7. Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Konečná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 366-376 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : female mating preference * good genes * olfactory cues * mate choice * MHC * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  8. MATE CHOICE IN AIDABLENNIUS-SPHYNX (TELEOSTEI, BLENNIIDAE) - FEMALES PREFER NESTS CONTAINING MORE EGGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; VIDELER, JJ

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for female mate choice were investigated in a natural population of a Mediterranean blenny, Aidablennius sphynx. Removable test tubes in concrete blocks were offered as nests. Each tube was guarded by a male and females laid eggs in the tubes. Nests with larger broods received significantly

  9. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  10. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa L Parrott

    Full Text Available Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.

  11. Female mate choice and the potential for ornament evolution in túngara frogs Physalaemus pustulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. RYAN, Ximena E. BERNA, A. Stanley RAND

    2010-01-01

    The potential for ornament evolution in response to sexual selection rests on the interaction between the permissiveness or selectivity of female preferences and the constraints on male development of signaling related traits. We investigate the former by determining how latent female preferences either exaggerate the magnitude of current traits (i.e. elaborations) or favor novel traits (i.e. innovations). In túngara frogs, females prefer complex mating calls (whine-chucks) to simple calls (...

  12. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... color, but that males which were trained with sexually receptive females of a given eye color showed a preference for that color during a standard binary choice experiment. The learned cue was indeed likely to be truly visual, since the preference disappeared when the binary choice phase...

  13. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  14. Females paired with new and heavy mates reduce intra-clutch differences in resource allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Reproductive investment affects both offspring and parental fitness and influences the evolution of life histories. Females may vary their overall primary reproductive effort in relation to the phenotypic characteristics of their mate. However, the effects of male quality on differential resource allocation within clutches have been largely neglected despite the potential implications for mate choice and population dynamics, especially in species exhibiting biparental care and brood reduction. Female southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome paired with heavy mates reduced intra-clutch variation in egg and albumen masses. Females paired with new mates also reduced intra-clutch variation in yolk androgen levels. Since both an increased mass and increased androgen concentrations positively influence chick survival under sibling competition, the chances of fledging the whole clutch are likely to be higher for newly formed pairs with heavy males than for previously formed pairs with light males. Interestingly, total clutch provisioning did not vary with male quality. We show for the first time that females vary intra-clutch variation in resource allocation according to male quality. In species with brood reduction, it may be more adaptive for females to modulate the distribution of resources within the clutch according to breeding conditions, than to change their total clutch provisioning.

  15. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indy Jeane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

  17. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, James M; Sidari, Morgan J; Harris, Emily Ann; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. We aimed to determine (1) whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2) whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3) whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1) the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2) the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3) the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  18. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D; Mank, Judith E; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-03-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice.

  19. Sensory Biology: How Female Treefrogs Pick Mates at a Noisy Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan C

    2017-03-06

    A recent study has found that, despite strong acoustic masking from background noise, female treefrogs are able to select among individual males advertising for mates by taking advantage of small, periodic decreases in the overall noise structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus . Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis ; medium level in N. californicus ). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus , consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  1. Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa Ana; Hammers, Martijn; Hansson, Bengt; Van Gossum, Hans; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Galicia Mendoza, Dalia Ivette; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous

  2. The evolution of sex differences in mate searching when females benefit: new theory and a comparative test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J; Kokko, H; Heller, K-G; Gwynne, D T

    2012-03-22

    Sexual selection is thought to have led to searching as a profitable, but risky way of males obtaining mates. While there is great variation in which sex searches, previous theory has not considered search evolution when both males and females benefit from multiple mating. We present new theory and link it with data to bridge this gap. Two different search protocols exist between species in the bush-cricket genus Poecilimon (Orthoptera): females search for calling males, or males search for calling females. Poecilimon males also transfer a costly nuptial food gift to their mates during mating. We relate variations in searching protocols to variation in nuptial gift size among 32 Poecilimon taxa. As predicted, taxa where females search produce significantly larger nuptial gifts than those where males search. Our model and results show that search roles can reverse when multiple mating brings about sufficiently strong material benefits to females.

  3. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, E.B.; McInnis, D.O.; Lance, D.R.; Carvalho, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  4. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullmann Harald

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles.

  5. Females' sampling strategy to comparatively evaluate prospective mates in the peacock blenny Salaria pavo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Rasotto, Maria B.

    2017-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the occurrence of comparative decision-making processes in mate choice, questioning the traditional idea of female choice based on rules of absolute preference. In such a scenario, females are expected to use a typical best-of- n sampling strategy, being able to recall previous sampled males based on memory of their quality and location. Accordingly, the quality of preferred mate is expected to be unrelated to both the number and the sequence of female visits. We found support for these predictions in the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, a fish where females have the opportunity to evaluate the attractiveness of many males in a short time period and in a restricted spatial range. Indeed, even considering the variability in preference among females, most of them returned to previous sampled males for further evaluations; thus, the preferred male did not represent the last one in the sequence of visited males. Moreover, there was no relationship between the attractiveness of the preferred male and the number of further visits assigned to the other males. Our results suggest the occurrence of a best-of- n mate sampling strategy in the peacock blenny.

  6. Female mating preferences determine system-level evolution in a gene network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierst, Janna L

    2013-06-01

    Environmental patterns of directional, stabilizing and fluctuating selection can influence the evolution of system-level properties like evolvability and mutational robustness. Intersexual selection produces strong phenotypic selection and these dynamics may also affect the response to mutation and the potential for future adaptation. In order to to assess the influence of mating preferences on these evolutionary properties, I modeled a male trait and female preference determined by separate gene regulatory networks. I studied three sexual selection scenarios: sexual conflict, a Gaussian model of the Fisher process described in Lande (in Proc Natl Acad Sci 78(6):3721-3725, 1981) and a good genes model in which the male trait signalled his mutational condition. I measured the effects these mating preferences had on the potential for traits and preferences to evolve towards new states, and mutational robustness of both the phenotype and the individual's overall viability. All types of sexual selection increased male phenotypic robustness relative to a randomly mating population. The Fisher model also reduced male evolvability and mutational robustness for viability. Under good genes sexual selection, males evolved an increased mutational robustness for viability. Females choosing their mates is a scenario that is sufficient to create selective forces that impact genetic evolution and shape the evolutionary response to mutation and environmental selection. These dynamics will inevitably develop in any population where sexual selection is operating, and affect the potential for future adaptation.

  7. A noninvasive method for in situ determination of mating success in female American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

    2014-02-07

    Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations.

  8. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality.

  9. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  10. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, a new insect pest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  11. Does foraging behaviour affect female mate preferences and pair formation in captive zebra finches?

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    Neeltje J Boogert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful foraging is essential for survival and reproductive success. In many bird species, foraging is a learned behaviour. To cope with environmental change and survive periods in which regular foods are scarce, the ability to solve novel foraging problems by learning new foraging techniques can be crucial. Although females have been shown to prefer more efficient foragers, the effect of males' foraging techniques on female mate choice has never been studied. We tested whether females would prefer males showing the same learned foraging technique as they had been exposed to as juveniles, or whether females would prefer males that showed a complementary foraging technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first trained juvenile male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to obtain a significant proportion of their food by one of two foraging techniques. We then tested whether females showed a preference for males with the same or the alternative technique. We found that neither a male's foraging technique nor his foraging performance affected the time females spent in his proximity in the mate-choice apparatus. We then released flocks of these finches into an aviary to investigate whether assortative pairing would be facilitated by birds taught the same technique exploiting the same habitat. Zebra finches trained as juveniles in a specific foraging technique maintained their foraging specialisation in the aviary as adults. However, pair formation and nest location were random with regard to foraging technique. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that zebra finches can be successfully trained to be foraging specialists. However, the robust negative results of the conditions tested here suggest that learned foraging specializations do not affect mate choice or pair formation in our experimental context.

  12. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours

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    James M. Sherlock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. Objective: We aimed to determine (1 whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2 whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3 whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. Design: We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1 the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2 the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3 the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Results: Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Conclusions: Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  13. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E; Christiansen, P

    2015-09-01

    Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.

  14. Paternity of offspring in multiply-mated, female crickets: the effect of nuptial food gifts and the advantage of mating first

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calos, J. B.; Sakaluk, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    The spermatophore transferred by male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) includes a large gelatinous mass, the spermatophylax, that is consumed by the female after mating. This nuptial gift preoccupies the female while sperm are discharged from the remaining portion of the spermatophore, the sperm ampulla, into her reproductive tract. There is considerable variation in the mass of the spermatophylax, and about half of all males produce spermatophylaxes that are too small to ensure complete sperm transfer. We tested two hypotheses concerning the maintenance of this variation: (i) males trade-off investment in spermatophylaxes against copulation frequency; and (ii) males synthesize the largest spermatophylaxes of which they are physiologically capable. Males synthesizing large and small food gifts were permitted multiple mating opportunities with the same females, and allozyme markers were used to establish the paternity of offspring. There was a significant advantage to those males that mated first irrespective of gift size. This advantage probably arose, in part, because the sperm of first males would have had exclusive access to females' eggs during the first 24 hours of oviposition, and underscores the benefits of matings with virgin females. The paternity of 'small-gift' males increased with gift mass, but there was no such increase in 'large-gift' males. This difference probably stems from the relationship between gift mass and sperm transfer: most of the gifts of the large-gift males would have been above the threshold needed to achieve complete inseminations, whereas those of small-gift males would have been below the threshold. Within mating-order positions, there was no significant difference in the paternity of large-gift and small-gift males, a result seemingly consistent with the 'trade-off' hypothesis. However, there was no correlation between spermatophylax mass and male mating frequency, so that the mechanism by which small-gift males offset

  15. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

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    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  16. Mating Frequency and Effects on Sex Ratio in Female Parasitoids of xanthopimpla Stemmator (Thunberg). Implications in biological control Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitau, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed

  17. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  18. The strength of direct selection against female promiscuity is associated with rates of extrapair fertilizations in socially monogamous songbirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Kreisinger, J.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 5 (2006), s. 739-744 ISSN 0003-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : comparative analysis * female infidelity * passerines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.660, year: 2006

  19. Neuropeptides affecting the transfer of juvenile hormones from males to females during mating in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Intisar T E; Grötzner, Manuela; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2014-07-01

    In the polyandric moth, Spodopterafrugiperda, juvenile hormone (JH) is transferred from the male accessory reproductive glands (AG) to the female bursa copulatrix (BC) during copulation (see Hassanien et al., 2014). Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the role of allatoregulating neuropeptides in controlling the synthesis and transfer of JH during mating. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin C (Spofr-AS type C) in freshly emerged males leads to an accumulation of JH in the AG beyond that in the control and mating results in a higher transport of JH I and JH II into the female BC. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatotropin 2 (Spofr-AT2) significantly reduces the amount of JH in the AG as well as its transfer into the female BC during copulation. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin A (Spofr-AS type A) and S. frugiperda allatotropin (Spofr-AT; Hassanien et al., 2014) only slightly affects the accumulation of JH in the AG and its transfer from the male to the female. We conclude that Spofr-AS type C and Spofr-AT2 act as true allatostatin and true allatotropin, respectively, on the synthesis of JH I and JH II in the male AG. Moreover, both peptides seem to control the synthesis of JH III in the corpora allata of adult males and its release into the hemolymph. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  1. Female Drosophila melanogaster gene expression and mate choice: the X chromosome harbours candidate genes underlying sexual isolation.

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    Richard I Bailey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of female choice mechanisms favouring males of their own kind is considered a crucial step during the early stages of speciation. However, although the genomics of mate choice may influence both the likelihood and speed of speciation, the identity and location of genes underlying assortative mating remain largely unknown.We used mate choice experiments and gene expression analysis of female Drosophila melanogaster to examine three key components influencing speciation. We show that the 1,498 genes in Zimbabwean female D. melanogaster whose expression levels differ when mating with more (Zimbabwean versus less (Cosmopolitan strain preferred males include many with high expression in the central nervous system and ovaries, are disproportionately X-linked and form a number of clusters with low recombination distance. Significant involvement of the brain and ovaries is consistent with the action of a combination of pre- and postcopulatory female choice mechanisms, while sex linkage and clustering of genes lead to high potential evolutionary rate and sheltering against the homogenizing effects of gene exchange between populations.Taken together our results imply favourable genomic conditions for the evolution of reproductive isolation through mate choice in Zimbabwean D. melanogaster and suggest that mate choice may, in general, act as an even more important engine of speciation than previously realized.

  2. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A

    2014-06-01

    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

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    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  4. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

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    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  5. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  6. Variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?

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    Megan T Wyman

    Full Text Available Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection.

  7. Mate call as reward: Acoustic communication signals can acquire positive reinforcing values during adulthood in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra M; Perez, Emilie C; Mulard, Hervé; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2016-02-01

    Social stimuli can have rewarding properties and promote learning. In birds, conspecific vocalizations like song can act as a reinforcer, and specific song variants can acquire particular rewarding values during early life exposure. Here we ask if, during adulthood, an acoustic signal simpler and shorter than song can become a reward for a female songbird because of its particular social value. Using an operant choice apparatus, we showed that female zebra finches display a preferential response toward their mate's calls. This reinforcing value of mate's calls could be involved in the maintenance of the monogamous pair-bond of the zebra finch. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D

    2010-01-07

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

  9. Another Look at Sex Differences in Preferred Mate Characteristics: The Effects of Endorsing the Traditional Female Gender Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C.; Eagly, Alice H.

    2002-01-01

    This research used an individual differences approach to test Eagly and Wood's (1999) claim that sex differences in the characteristics that people prefer in mates reflect the tendency for men and women to occupy different social roles in a society. The study related the extent to which participants endorsed the traditional female gender role to…

  10. Yes, I am ready now: differential effects of paced versus unpaced mating on anxiety and central oxytocin release in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Sexual activity and partner intimacy results in several positive consequences in the context of stress-coping, both in males and females, such as reduced state anxiety in male rats after successful mating. However, in female rats, mating is a rewarding experience only when the estrous female is able to control sexual interactions, i.e., under paced-mating conditions. Here, we demonstrate that sex-steroid priming required for female mating is anxiolytic; subsequent sexual activity under paced mating conditions did not disrupt this anxiolytic priming effect, whereas mating under unpaced conditions increased anxiety-related behavior. In primed females, the release of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was found to be elevated and to further increase during paced, but not unpaced mating. Central administration of an OT receptor antagonist partly prevented priming/mating-induced anxiolysis indicating the involvement of brain OT in the anxiolysis triggered by priming and/or sexual activity.These findings reveal that the positive consequences of mating in females are dependent on her ability to control sexual interactions, and that brain OT release is at least in part the underlying neurobiological correlate.

  11. The Post-mating Switch in the Pheromone Response of Nasonia Females Is Mediated by Dopamine and Can Be Reversed by Appetitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lenschow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory sense is of crucial importance for animals, but their response to chemical stimuli is plastic and depends on their physiological state and prior experience. In many insect species, mating status influences the response to sex pheromones, but the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. After mating, females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis are no longer attracted to the male sex pheromone. Here we show that this post-mating behavioral switch is mediated by dopamine (DA. Females fed a DA-receptor antagonist prior to mating maintained their attraction to the male pheromone after mating while virgin females injected with DA became unresponsive. However, the switch is reversible as mated females regained their pheromone preference after appetitive learning. Feeding mated N. vitripennis females with antagonists of either octopamine- (OA or DA-receptors prevented relearning of the pheromone preference suggesting that both receptors are involved in appetitive learning. Moreover, DA injection into mated females was sufficient to mimic the oviposition reward during odor conditioning with the male pheromone. Our data indicate that DA plays a key role in the plastic pheromone response of N. vitripennis females and reveal some striking parallels between insects and mammals in the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity.

  12. Evasive mating behaviour by female nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788, in an equatorial insular breeding ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S. Afonso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mating events and aggregations of vulnerable nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum were recorded in the insular protected area of Fernando de Noronha (FEN, Brazil, between April and August 2015. Female sharks were observed clustering in groups of up to 14 individuals in shallow water adjacent to the shore. Several evasive mating behaviours in the presence of males were noticed, including shoreward movement, positioning ventral side up at the sea surface with emerged pectoral and pelvic fins, body rolling and caudal fin thrashing. Fresh bite marks indicative of male courtship and coupling attempts were visible in female's pectoral and caudal fins. Altogether, the observed behaviours match previous reports of non-cooperative female nurse sharks during mating opportunities. An extended mating season coupled with a persistent use of inshore habitats result in nurse sharks being particularly vulnerable to human pressure during a most sensitive stage of their life cycle. The effective conservation of nurse shark populations from the western South Atlantic may thus depend on the protection of critical habitats where this species aggregates to reproduce. Explicitly addressing environmental requirements by vulnerable species in local management strategies is indispensable to ensure that human pressure, including ecotourism development, does not collide with stipulated conservation aims.

  13. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...

  14. Genetic analysis of female mating recognition between Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila pallidosa: application of interspecific mosaic genome lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Zhi, Hua; Setoguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Miyo, Takahiro; Matsuda, Muneo; Oguma, Yuzuru

    2008-06-01

    Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila pallidosa are closely related species that can produce viable and fertile hybrids of both sexes, although strong sexual isolation exists between the two species. Females are thought to discriminate conspecific from heterospecific males based on their courtship songs. The genetic basis of female discrimination behavior was analyzed using isogenic females from interspecific mosaic genome lines that carry homozygous recombinant chromosomes. Multiple regression analysis indicated a highly significant effect of the left arm of chromosome 2 (2L) on the willingness of females to mate with D. ananassae males. Not only 2L but also the left arm of chromosome X (XL) and the right arm of chromosome 3 (3R) had significant effects on the females' willingness to mate with D. pallidosa males. All regions with strong effects on mate choice have chromosome arrangements characterized by species-specific inversions. Heterospecific combinations of 2L and 3R have previously been suggested to cause postzygotic reproductive isolation. Thus, genes involved in premating as well as postmating isolation are located in or near chromosomal inversions. This conclusion is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that "speciation genes" accumulate at a higher rate in non-recombining genome regions when species divergence occurs in the presence of gene flow.

  15. Analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] spatio-temporal distribution in relation to sex and female mating status for precision IPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Andrea; Tabilio, Maria Rosaria; Lampazzi, Elena; Ceccaroli, Claudio; Colacci, Marco; Trematerra, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. Efficient control and eradication efforts require adequate information regarding C. capitata adults in relation to environmental and physiological cues. This would allow effective characterisation of the population spatio-temporal dynamic of the C. capitata population at both the orchard level and the area-wide landscape. The aim of this study was to analyse population patterns of adult medflies caught using two trapping systems in a peach orchard located in central Italy. They were differentiated by adult sex (males or females) and mating status of females (unmated or mated females) to determine the spatio-temporal dynamic and evaluate the effect of cultivar and chemical treatments on trap catches. Female mating status was assessed by spermathecal dissection and a blind test was carried out to evaluate the reliability of the technique. Geostatistical methods, variogram and kriging, were used to produce distributional maps. Results showed a strong correlation between the distribution of males and unmated females, whereas males versus mated females and unmated females versus mated females showed a lower correlation. Both cultivar and chemical treatments had significant effects on trap catches, showing associations with sex and female mating status. Medfly adults showed aggregated distributions in the experimental field, but hot spots locations varied. The spatial pattern of unmated females reflected that of males, whereas mated females were largely distributed around ripening or ripe fruit. The results give relevant insights into pest management. Mated females may be distributed differently to unmated females and the identification of male hot spots through monitoring would allow localisation of virgin

  16. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

    2012-02-22

    Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  17. Reproductive traits and number of matings in males and females of Cerambyx welensii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) an emergent pest of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M; Mendiola-Diaz, F J; Conejo-Rodríguez, Y; Sánchez-González, Á

    2016-06-01

    The longhorn beetle Cerambyx welensii is an emerging pest involved in oak decline episodes, whose damage is increasingly reported in dehesa open woodlands. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of C. welensii is a crucial goal due to its new pest status. In this study, we assess the reproductive traits of both sexes in the laboratory (25°C and 60% relative humidity ). In females, body length was 44.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SE), fecundity 132 ± 12 eggs, fertility 70 ± 1 %, longevity 70 ± 3 days, preoviposition period 2 ± 0.2 days, oviposition period 44 ± 3 days and postoviposition period 19 ± 3 days. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.0 ± 0.2 eggs/day and showed a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 4.24 ± 0.01 mm and egg volume 8.14 ± 0.04 mm3. Egg size was correlated with female size but the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.9 ± 0.1 days and hatching did not depend on egg size. Neonate size was positively correlated with egg length. Females were polyandrous (more than 20 lifetime matings) but multiple mating did not increase fecundity, fertility or longevity. In males, body length was 43.7 ± 0.6 mm and longevity 52 ± 3 days. Unlike with females, longevity was positively correlated with male size. Males were polygynous (up to 30 lifetime matings) but mating history did not affect male longevity. Rather to the contrary, long-lived males mated more times because they had more mating chances. Lastly, C. welensii reproductive traits were compared with those other Cerambycidae species and discussed from an adaptive perspective. Our data will be useful to improve management of C. welensii in order to prevent or mitigate its impact in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.

  18. How parasitoid females produce sexy sons: a causal link between oviposition preference, dietary lipids and mate choice in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaul, Birgit; Ruther, Joachim

    2011-11-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that phenotypic traits used to choose a mate should reflect honestly the quality of the sender and thus, are often costly. Physiological costs arise if a signal depends on limited nutritional resources. Hence, the nutritional condition of an organism should determine both its quality as a potential mate and its ability to advertise this quality to the choosing sex. In insects, the quality of the offspring's nutrition is often determined by the ovipositing female. A causal connection, however, between the oviposition decisions of the mother and the mating chances of her offspring has never been shown. Here, we demonstrate that females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis prefer those hosts for oviposition that have been experimentally enriched in linoleic acid (LA). We show by (13)C-labelling that LA from the host diet is a precursor of the male sex pheromone. Consequently, males from LA-rich hosts produce and release higher amounts of the pheromone and attract more virgin females than males from LA-poor hosts. Finally, males from LA-rich hosts possess three times as many spermatozoa as those from LA-poor hosts. Hence, females making the right oviposition decisions may increase both the fertility and the sexual attractiveness of their sons.

  19. Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Chantal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females’ preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird’s performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males’ problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.

  20. Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, A.P.; Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population; a 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter

  1. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double pitfall olfactometer, while a bucket pitfall trap was ... baited trap. The response of the weevils to the pheromone was not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by its previous density. Key Words: Cosmopolites sordidus, mating status, ...... evolutionary ecological perspective.

  2. Mating System Evolution under Strong Pollen Limitation: Evidence of Disruptive Selection through Male and Female Fitness in Clarkia xantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Geber, Monica A; Pickett-Leonard, Michael; Moeller, David A

    2017-05-01

    Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong. We detected selection through both female and male fitness with reinforcing or noninterfering patterns of selection through the two sex functions. For female fitness, selection favored reduced herkogamy and protandry, traits that promote increased autonomous selfing. For male fitness, selection on petal area was disruptive, with higher trait values conferring greater pollinator attraction and outcross siring success and smaller trait values leading to higher selfed siring success. Combining both female and male fitness, selection on petal area and protandry was disruptive because intermediate phenotypes were less successful as both males and females. Finally, functional relationships among male and female fertility components indicated that selfing resulted in seed discounting and pollen discounting. Under these functional relationships, the evolutionarily stable selfing rate can be intermediate or predominantly selfing or outcrossing, depending on the segregating load of deleterious mutations.

  3. Sexual promiscuity: knowledge of dangers in institutions of higher learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, R D

    1994-06-01

    Knowledge of dangers of sexual promiscuity was assessed in 2 institutions of higher learning. The objectives were to find out the knowledge of medical and social consequences as well as the factors responsible for sexual promiscuity among Nigerian youths. The study also assessed the discrepancies in societal concept of sex norms for males and females. The result was used as an index to determine the need for sex education for Nigerian youths. A total of 200 students (100 from each school) was assessed by random selection and use of a questionnaire. The result showed that students had a fair knowledge of sexual promiscuity, although in terms of medical consequences the knowledge was low for both groups. On social consequences, the knowledge was fair for both groups. Students agreed that lack of financial support and of supervision from parents and teachers were among the causes of sexual promiscuity. Recommendations were made for Health Education in these areas in institutions of higher learning. Also, recommendations were made for parental education on how to bring up, and care for, their adolescents to reduce the problems of sexual promiscuity. It was also recommended that a compulsory course on sexual promiscuity should be included in the syllabus in institutions of higher learning.

  4. Mate choice in the eye and ear of the beholder? Female multimodal sensory configuration influences her preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Kelly L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2018-05-16

    A common assumption in sexual selection studies is that receivers decode signal information similarly. However, receivers may vary in how they rank signallers if signal perception varies with an individual's sensory configuration. Furthermore, receivers may vary in their weighting of different elements of multimodal signals based on their sensory configuration. This could lead to complex levels of selection on signalling traits. We tested whether multimodal sensory configuration could affect preferences for multimodal signals. We used brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater ) females to examine how auditory sensitivity and auditory filters, which influence auditory spectral and temporal resolution, affect song preferences, and how visual spatial resolution and visual temporal resolution, which influence resolution of a moving visual signal, affect visual display preferences. Our results show that multimodal sensory configuration significantly affects preferences for male displays: females with better auditory temporal resolution preferred songs that were shorter, with lower Wiener entropy, and higher frequency; and females with better visual temporal resolution preferred males with less intense visual displays. Our findings provide new insights into mate-choice decisions and receiver signal processing. Furthermore, our results challenge a long-standing assumption in animal communication which can affect how we address honest signalling, assortative mating and sensory drive. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Female detection of the synthetic sex pheromone contributes to the efficacy of mating disruption of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Steinitz, Hadass

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the mechanisms by which mating-disruption techniques control insect pest populations have traditionally focused on the effects of the species-specific sex pheromone on the male moths, while neglecting possible direct effects of the pheromone on females. Here, the effects of exposure to synthetic species-specific sex-pheromone on Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) females were tested. Females in vineyards that were treated with mating-disruption pheromone burst into short bouts of flying more frequently, but called significantly less frequently than females in untreated plots. Reduced calling caused by exposure to the species-specific sex-pheromone may increase the age at which females mate and thereby reduce female fecundity. Females that called in a pheromone-saturated environment experienced a decrease in number of oviposited eggs. A further decrease in reproductive success may occur if females delay oviposition when exposed to access of the synthetic pheromone. In addition to reducing the ability of males to locate females, the mating-disruption technique can suppress pest numbers as a consequence of its direct effects on females. The two mechanisms probably act synergistically. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].

  7. Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera, Grylloidea: mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first three cases in which male crickets monopolize females by means of mating plugs. The origin of the plugs vary among the cases (i.e., they are not homologous. Female monogamy is assured by the permanent presence of the plug attached to their genitalia after first mating, while males are potentially polygamous. The presence of an additional clasping structure and the occurrence of forced copulation are also described.Este trabalho descreve os primeiros três casos em que grilos machos monopolizam suas fêmeas através de plugues de acasalamento. A origem dessas estruturas varia entre os casos (i.e., não há homologia entre as mesmas. A monogamia feminina é assegurada pela presença permanente do plugue de acasalamento aderido a sua genitália após a primeira cópula, enquanto que os machos são potencialmente poligâmicos. Descrevem-se ainda a presença de clásper adicional e a ocorrência de cópulas forçadas.

  8. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  9. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrunn Eliassen

    Full Text Available A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  10. Variation in female morph frequencies and mating frequencies : random, frequency-dependent harassment or male mimicry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Van Gossum, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Female-limited colour polymorphisms occur in a variety of species, where often one female morph (androchrome) resembles the body coloration of the conspecific male, whereas the other (gynochrome) does not. We tested predictions of two frequency-dependent hypotheses that are commonly invoked to

  11. Mating competitiveness of irradiated males and females of the indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    One-day-old adults of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), were irradiated (I) with either 35 krad (a partially sterilizing dose) or 50 krad (a sterilizing dose) and combined with untreated (U) adults at numbers of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 25 treated males or females per pair of untreated adults. At 25 males per pair, egg hatch was reduced to 4.8 and 22.2% at 35 and 50 krad, respectively. The calculated degree of competitiveness showed that both males and females were more competitive after treatment with 35 krad than after treatment with 50 krad and that treated females were more competitive (based on percentage egg hatch) at both doses than corresponding males. Irradiated females were fully competitive at most release ratios, but I males were not fully competitive even at the higher release ratios, although the decreases were not large enough to seriously affect their use for field control. (author)

  12. Sperm depletion in singly mated females of the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Mexican fruit flies, or mexflies, have the capacity to produce more than a thousand eggs over their lifetime but fertility of the eggs will depend on the female’s capacity to store semen and/or to replenish semen through remating. The two parameters are interrelated in that sexual receptivity...

  13. Mutual mate choice in sticklebacks : attractive males choose big females, which lay big eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, SBM; Bakker, TCM

    1998-01-01

    Brighter red three-spined stickleback, Gasterostetus aculeatus, males have been shown to be preferred by females in the laboratory but in the field, these males did not receive more eggs. Instead, they had heavier eggs in their brood. We investigated the hypothesis that sexual selection for red

  14. Infectious speciation revisited: impact of symbiont-depletion on female fitness and mating behavior of Drosophila paulistorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang J Miller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical Drosophila paulistorum superspecies, consisting of at least six geographically overlapping but reproductively isolated semispecies, has been the object of extensive research since at least 1955, when it was initially trapped mid-evolution in flagrant statu nascendi. In this classic system females express strong premating isolation patterns against mates belonging to any other semispecies, and yet uncharacterized microbial reproductive tract symbionts were described triggering hybrid inviability and male sterility. Based on theoretical models and limited experimental data, prime candidates fostering symbiont-driven speciation in arthropods are intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Wolbachia. They are maternally inherited symbionts of many arthropods capable of manipulating host reproductive biology for their own benefits. However, it is an ongoing debate as to whether or not reproductive symbionts are capable of driving host speciation in nature and if so, to what extent. Here we have reevaluated this classic case of infectious speciation by means of present day molecular approaches and artificial symbiont depletion experiments. We have isolated the α-proteobacteria Wolbachia as the maternally transmitted core endosymbionts of all D. paulistorum semispecies that have coevolved towards obligate mutualism with their respective native hosts. In hybrids, however, these mutualists transform into pathogens by overreplication causing embryonic inviability and male sterility. We show that experimental reduction in native Wolbachia titer causes alterations in sex ratio, fecundity, and mate discrimination. Our results indicate that formerly designated Mycoplasma-like organisms are most likely Wolbachia that have evolved by becoming essential mutualistic symbionts in their respective natural hosts; they have the potential to trigger pre- and postmating isolation. Furthermore, in light of our new findings, we revisit the concept of

  15. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulard, Hervé; Danchin, E.; Talbot, S.L.; Ramey, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.; White, J.F.; Helfenstein, F.; Wagner, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results. Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i) genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii) offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion. These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure. ?? 2009 Mulard et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramey Andrew M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.

  17. Female preference for male color is necessary and sufficient for assortative mating in 2 cichlid sister species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, Oliver M.; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Maan, Martine E.; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A critical step for speciation in the face of gene flow is the origination of reproductive isolation. The evolution of assortative mating greatly facilitates this process. Assortative mating can be mediated by one or multiple cues across an array of sensory modalities. We here explore possible cues

  18. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  19. Unattractive, promiscuous and heavy drinkers: perceptions of women with tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    This study examined social and physical perceptions of blonde and brunette women with different degrees of tattooing. Eighty-four female and 76 male undergraduates rated a series of 16 female line drawings that varied in 2 levels of hair colour and 8 levels of tattooing. Ratings were made for physical attractiveness and sexual promiscuity, as well as estimates of the number of alcohol units consumed on a typical night out. Results showed that tattooed women were rated as less physically attractive, more sexually promiscuous and heavier drinkers than untattooed women, with more negative ratings with increasing number of tattoos. There were also weak interactions between body art and hair colour, with blonde women in general rated more negatively than brunettes. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes about women who have tattoos and the effects of such stereotypes on well-being.

  20. Nosology, ontology and promiscuous realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Medics may consider worrying about their metaphysics and ontology to be a waste of time. I will argue here that this is not the case. Promiscuous realism is a metaphysical position which holds that multiple, equally valid, classification schemes should be applied to objects (such as patients) to capture different aspects of their complex and heterogeneous nature. As medics at the bedside may need to capture different aspects of their patients' problems, they may need to use multiple classification schemes (multiple nosologies), and thus consider adopting a different metaphysics to the one commonly in use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mate choice screening in captive solitary carnivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production ...

  2. When the ball is in the female's court: How the scramble-competition mating system of the North American red squirrel has shaped male physiology and testosterone dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Dušek, Adam; Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan

    2017-10-01

    Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system. Using an ACTH hormonal challenge protocol as a proxy for competitive interactions, we compared the testosterone dynamics in breeding males in late winter with that in nonbreeding males in late spring in the Yukon. To gain an integrated picture of their physiological state, we also assessed changes in their stress response, body mass, energy mobilization, and indices of immune function. Testosterone levels at the base bleed were high in breeding males (2.72ng/mL) and virtually absent in non-breeding males (0.04ng/mL). Breeding males were in better condition (heavier body mass, higher hematocrit, and higher erythrocytes), had higher indices of immune function (neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio), but a similar ability to mobilize energy (glucose) compared with non-breeding males. Though total cortisol was higher in non-breeding males, free cortisol was twice as high in breeding males as their corticosteroid binding globulin levels were half as high. In response to the ACTH challenge, testosterone levels in breeding males declined 49% over the first hour and increased 36% over the next hour; in non-breeding males levels showed no change. Free cortisol increased only modestly (26% in breeding males; 23% in non-breeding males). Glucose levels changed similarly in breeding and nonbreeding males, declining for the first 30min and then increasing for the next 60min. Thus

  3. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-06-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

  4. An ESS treatment of the pattern of female arrival at the mating site in the yellow dung fly scathophaga stercoraria (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter; Ward; Blanckenhorn

    1998-12-07

    In most previous work on the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.), as on other species, adaptive explanations have been sought for male behaviour whereas female behaviour has not been examined in similar detail. Here, the arrival of females at the mating site, fresh cattle droppings, is investigated. While almost all males are present shortly after pat deposition females arrive at a low, decreasing rate over an interval of about 5 hours. We propose that the distribution of female arrival times represents a mixed Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS), formed by different trade-offs between costs and benefits of early and late arrival. Early arrival could be favoured by advantages due to better conditions for oviposition, faster egg development of reduced larval competition. Late arrival could be favoured by negative effects on females of male-male competition being weaker later after deposition. Computer simulations with distributions of arrival times deviating from the natural one were performed to "measure" the costs for females arriving at different times. These costs were compared with estimated benefits corresponding to the females' arrival times. This procedure revealed that females coming to the pat later in a population of females arriving shortly after deposition would be favoured. In a population arriving according to a uniform distribution, early females would have fitness advantages. Thus, evolution should lead to an intermediate distribution of arrival times, as in nature, i.e. female arrival behaviour is probably adaptive. The simulations also revealed that the intensity of sexual selection though male-male competition is highest with the natural pattern of female arrival. Therefore, natural selection generating this pattern amplifies the intensity of male-male interaction as a by-product. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  5. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  6. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high cholesterol who are also taking statin drugs. Obesity. Early research shows that taking yerba mate by mouth might cause weight loss when used in combination with guarana and damiana. Osteoporosis. Drinking a traditional yerba mate tea daily might ...

  7. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  8. Socio-sexual behavior of female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Carla B; Young, Robert J; Mendes, Sergio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-07-01

    Female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) are known to engage in frequent copulations with multiple partners, a pattern that in other primates has been attributed to various functions such as confusing paternity, reducing male aggression, or ensuring fertilization. However, in some female primates, promiscuity is restricted to times when conceptions are unlikely. We investigated whether female northern muriquis might exhibit a similarly mixed strategy by examining their mating, social, and activity patterns during their conception cycles versus other times. Systematic behavioral data were collected during an 18-month period between August 2001 and February 2003 on 13 adult females in a well-studied group at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Females mated on an average of 12.5+/-7.9 days during the study period, and spent significantly less time resting and engaging in non-sexual social behaviors, and significantly more time in sexual behaviors on days that they copulated than on days they did not. Three of the eight females for which sufficient data were available copulated significantly more often with their spatially closest non-kin associates, and four of five females that could be analyzed copulated significantly more often with their most frequent non-kin embrace partners. Comparisons between conception and non-conception periods revealed no differences in female activity budgets or in either the number of copulations or the number of different mating partners per female. Our results suggest that some females mate preferentially with close associates and social partners, but there is no indication that females alter their behavior during the cycles in which they conceive.

  9. A test of the critical assumption of the sensory bias model for the evolution of female mating preference using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rebecca C

    2009-07-01

    The sensory bias model for the evolution of mating preferences states that mating preferences evolve as correlated responses to selection on nonmating behaviors sharing a common sensory system. The critical assumption is that pleiotropy creates genetic correlations that affect the response to selection. I simulated selection on populations of neural networks to test this. First, I selected for various combinations of foraging and mating preferences. Sensory bias predicts that populations with preferences for like-colored objects (red food and red mates) should evolve more readily than preferences for differently colored objects (red food and blue mates). Here, I found no evidence for sensory bias. The responses to selection on foraging and mating preferences were independent of one another. Second, I selected on foraging preferences alone and asked whether there were correlated responses for increased mating preferences for like-colored mates. Here, I found modest evidence for sensory bias. Selection for a particular foraging preference resulted in increased mating preference for similarly colored mates. However, the correlated responses were small and inconsistent. Selection on foraging preferences alone may affect initial levels of mating preferences, but these correlations did not constrain the joint evolution of foraging and mating preferences in these simulations.

  10. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  11. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.; El-Sayed, A.I.; Nada, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17β (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 β levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 β at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found

  13. Determination of mating frequency by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Miah, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radioisotope ( 32 P) was used to study the frequency of mating of an insect. The radioactivity counts correlated positively with the number of matings. Radioactivity was also detected from the eggs and excised embryos. This work suggests that radioisotope like ( 32 P) may be conveninently used to detect virginity and mating frequency of female insects without killing them. (author)

  14. Coding Military Command as a Promiscuous Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashcraft, Karen Lee; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2018-01-01

    by translating the vague promise of queering leadership into a tangible method distinguished by specific habits. The article formulates this analytical practice out of empirical provocations encountered by the authors: namely, a striking mismatch between their experiences in military fields and the dominant......Despite abundant scholarship addressed to gender equity in leadership, much leadership literature remains invested in gender binaries. Metaphors of leadership are especially dependent on gender oppositions, and this article treats the scholarly practice of coding leadership through gendered...... metaphor as a consequential practice of leadership unto itself. Drawing on queer theory, the article develops a mode of analysis, called ‘promiscuous coding’, conducive to disrupting the gender divisions that currently anchor most leadership metaphors. Promiscuous coding can assist leadership scholars...

  15. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.

  16. Honey bee queens do not count mates to assess their mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mating system of honey bees (genus Apis) is extremely polyandrous, where reproductive females (queens) typically mate with 12 or more males (drones) during their mating flight(s). The evolutionary implications for hyperpolyandry have been subject to considerable debate and empirical testing beca...

  17. Self-Perceived Mate Value, Facial Attractiveness, and Mate Preferences: Do Desirable Men Want It All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men's facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.

  18. A hybrid approach for predicting promiscuous MHC class I restricted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-15

    Sep 15, 2006 ... with existing MHC binder prediction methods for alleles studied by both ... in locating the promiscuous MHC binding regions from antigen sequence. ... Artificial neural network; MHC class I alleles; promiscuous binders; ... this problem by developing methods for prediction for ... In case equal number of.

  19. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  20. The impact of mating systems and dispersal on fine-scale genetic structure at maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robyn E; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod

    2018-01-01

    For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer scale (tens-hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system on fine-scale genetic structure at autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers. Using genetic spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that dispersal was the major driver of fine-scale genetic structure across maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markers. However, when dispersal was restricted (mean distance = 100 m), variation in mating behaviour created strong differences in the comparative level of structure detected at maternally and paternally inherited markers. Promiscuity reduced spatial genetic structure at Y chromosome loci (relative to monogamy), whereas structure increased under polygyny. In contrast, mitochondrial and autosomal markers were robust to differences in the specific mating system, although genetic structure increased across all markers when reproductive success was skewed towards fewer individuals. Comparing males and females at Y chromosome vs. mitochondrial markers, respectively, revealed that some mating systems can generate similar patterns to those expected under sex-biased dispersal. This demonstrates the need for caution when inferring ecological and behavioural processes from genetic results. Comparing patterns between the sexes, across a range of marker types, may help us tease apart the processes shaping fine-scale genetic structure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thünken Timo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i one (usually the female or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, in which mate choice is mutual. Results In mate choice experiments, both sexes preferred large mates irrespective of own body size suggesting mating preferences are not size-assortative. Especially males were highly selective for large females, probably because female body size signals direct fitness benefits. However, when potential mates were able to interact and assess each other mutually they showed size-assortative mating patterns, i.e. the likelihood to mate was higher in pairs with low size differences between mates. Conclusion Due to variation in body size, general preferences for large mating partners result in a sexual conflict: small, lower quality individuals who prefer themselves large partners are unacceptable for larger individuals. Relative size mismatches between mates translate into a lower likelihood to mate, suggesting that the threshold to accept mates depends on own body size. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of assortment in P. taeniatus is mutual mate choice resolving the sexual conflict over mates, rather than preference for mates of similar size.

  2. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Chirault

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  3. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude; Bressac, Christophe; Lécureuil, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  4. Promiscuity is related to masculine and feminine body traits in both men and women: evidence from Brazilian and Czech samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Pereira, Kamila Janaina; Bussab, Vera Silvia Raad

    2014-11-01

    One of the possible explanations for human within-sex variation in promiscuity stems from conditional strategies dependent on the level of body sex-dimorphism. There is some evidence that masculine men and feminine women are more promiscuous than their sex-atypical counterparts, although mixed results persist. Moreover, another line of evidence shows that more promiscuous women are rather sex-atypical. We tested whether diverse sex-dimorphic body measures (2D:4D, WHR/WSR, handgrip strength, and height and weight) influence sociosexual desires, attitudes, promiscuous behavior, and age of first intercourse in a sex-typical or sex-atypical direction. Participants were 185 young adults, 51 men and 54 women from Brazil, and 40 men and 40 women from the Czech Republic. In men stronger handgrip and more feminine 2D:4D predicted higher sociosexual behaviors, desires, and lower age of the first sexual intercourse. While in women, sociosexual desires were predicted by lower handgrip strength and more feminine 2D:4D. It thus seems that it is rather a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in men, and feminine traits in women that increase their sociosexuality. Masculine traits (height) predicting female promiscuous behavior were specific for only one population. In conclusion, a mosaic combination of sex-typical but also sex-atypical independent body traits can lead to higher promiscuity, particularly in men. Limitations, implications, and future directions for research are considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred

  6. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  7. Interacciones macho-hembra del pulpo rojo patagónico Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae durante el comportamiento de apareamiento Male-female interactions of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae during mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranferi Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa, en condiciones de laboratorio, el comportamiento de apareamiento de ocho parejas de Enteroctopus megalocyathus mediante videograbaciones durante 24 h. El comportamiento precopulatorio (CP se caracterizó por presentar tres eventos (natación, exhibición y contacto y el comportamiento copulatorio (CC se caracterizó por mostrar un solo evento (cópula. Del tiempo total de interacción de las parejas, el 34,4% correspondió al CP y el 65,6% correspondió al CC. Entre los tiempos de machos y hembras no hubo diferencias significativas por evento. Al compararse todos los eventos entre sí en relación al tiempo de duración, se presentó el siguiente orden: cópula > contacto > exhibición > natación. Se observó una tendencia a periodos de apareamiento más largos donde el peso de la hembra fue superior al macho, sugiriendo que el peso de la hembra es un factor determinante en la duración de los encuentros de apareamiento.The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact and copulatory behavior (CC was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation. Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact > exhibition > swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters.

  8. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...

  9. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  10. 'A mate or a meal' – Pre-gravid behaviour of female Anopheles gambiae from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Conceicao

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria prevalence differs between the two islands that comprise the archipelago of São Tomé and Príncipe. This may be due to differences in the biology of local Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the islands. Survival rate and feeding frequency are two factors influencing vectorial capacity. Anophelines generally feed just once per gonotrophic (oviposition cycle. Newly emerged insects, however, may feed two or more times during their first oviposition cycle thus increasing the likelihood of becoming infected. The reasons for multiple feeding are not clearly understood and it is still uncertain whether the behaviour is facultative or obligatory. We, therefore, determined survival and sporozoite rates, and examined the behaviour of An. gambiae from the two islands during their first gonotrophic cycle. Methods The wing size of 1,410, abdominal condition of 687, gonotrophic age and mated status of 7,264 female M form An. gambiae collected by light-trap, landing catch, resting outdoors or in copula, was determined from four sites in the archipelago. Sporozoite rates assessed by ELISA in 15,533 females from São Tomé and 2,111 from Príncipe were determined. Results Estimated survival rates ranged between 0.834–0.849 per day in São Tomé and 0.801–0.818 per day in Príncipe. Sporozoite rates of 0.63% in São Tomé were significantly higher than the 0.24% from Príncipe. Overall 49% of females mated on the second night after emergence before feeding, and 51% on the third night and thus fed before mating. The likelihood of mating before feeding increased with wing size. None of the 3,776 parous insects collected showed evidence of recent mating. All but two of the 198 females collected in copula had undeveloped ovaries. Mean wing sizes and the number of insects collected in a sentinel light-trap varied but the proportion of newly emerged insects in the collection did not. The estimated survival rate of the smallest

  11. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  12. Efficient, crosswise catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mark F; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The observation that one enzyme can accelerate several chemically distinct reactions was at one time surprising because the enormous efficiency of catalysis was often seen as inextricably linked to specialization for one reaction. Originally underreported, and considered a quirk rather than a fundamental property, enzyme promiscuity is now understood to be important as a springboard for adaptive evolution. Owing to the large number of promiscuous enzymes that have been identified over the last decade, and the increased appreciation for promiscuity's evolutionary importance, the focus of research has shifted to developing a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for promiscuity and the origins of tolerant or restrictive specificity. We review the evidence for widespread crosswise promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer, including several members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, where large rate accelerations between 10(6) and 10(17) are observed for both native and multiple promiscuous reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were ...

  14. Evolution of monogamy, paternal investment, and female life history in Peromyscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Bailey, Drew H; Crossland, Janet P; Dawson, Wallace D; Szalai, Gabor; Ellersieck, Mark R; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    The timing of reproductive development and associated trade-offs in quantity versus quality of offspring produced across the life span are well documented in a wide range of species. The relation of these aspects of maternal life history to monogamy and paternal investment in offspring is not well studied in mammals, due in part to the rarity of the latter. By using five large, captive-bred populations of Peromyscus species that range from promiscuous mating with little paternal investment (P. maniculatus bairdii) to social and genetic monogamy with substantial paternal investment (P. californicus insignis), we modeled the interaction between monogamy and female life history. Monogamy and high paternal investment were associated with smaller litter size, delayed maternal reproduction that extended over a longer reproductive life span, and larger, higher quality offspring. The results suggest monogamy and paternal investment can alter the evolution of female life-history trajectories in mammals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  16. Galactokinase promiscuity: a question of flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Megan; Kristiansson, Helena; Huang, Meilan; Pey, Angel L; Timson, David J

    2016-02-01

    Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of the Leloir pathway, i.e. the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of α-D-galactose at C1-OH. Reduced galactokinase activity results in the inherited metabolic disease type II galactosaemia. However, inhibition of galactokinase is considered a viable approach to treating more severe forms of galactosaemia (types I and III). Considerable progress has been made in the identification of high affinity, selective inhibitors. Although the structure of galactokinase from a variety of species is known, its catalytic mechanism remains uncertain. Although the bulk of evidence suggests that the reaction proceeds via an active site base mechanism, some experimental and theoretical studies contradict this. The enzyme has potential as a biocatalyst in the production of sugar 1-phosphates. This potential is limited by its high specificity. A variety of approaches have been taken to identify galactokinase variants which are more promiscuous. These have broadened galactokinase's specificity to include a wide range of D- and L-sugars. Initial studies suggest that some of these alterations result in increased flexibility at the active site. It is suggested that modulation of protein flexibility is at least as important as structural modifications in determining the success or failure of enzyme engineering. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Nest-mate recognition in Manuelia postica (Apidae: Xylocopinae): an eusocial trait is present in a solitary bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Aguilera-Olivares, Daniel; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2008-02-07

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, females are more tolerant towards nest-mate than towards non-nest-mate females. In solitary Hymenoptera, females are generally aggressive towards any conspecific female. Field observations of the nest biology of Manuelia postica suggested nest-mate recognition. Experiments were performed involving two live interacting females or one live female interacting with a dead female. Live females from different nests were more intolerant to each other than females from the same nest. Females were more intolerant towards non-nest-mate than towards nest-mate dead females. When dead females were washed with pentane, no differences in tolerant and intolerant behaviours were detected between non-nest-mate and nest-mate females. Females were more intolerant towards nest-mate female carcasses coated with the cuticular extract from a non-nest-mate than towards non-nest-mate female carcasses coated with the cuticular extract from a nest-mate. The compositions of the cuticular extracts was more similar between females from the same nest than between females from different nests. The results demonstrate for the first time nest-mate recognition mediated by cuticular chemicals in a largely solitary species of Apidae. The position of Manuelia at the base of the Apidae phylogeny suggests that nest-mate recognition in eusocial species apical to Manuelia represents the retention of a primitive capacity in Apidae.

  18. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  19. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Mate-Choice Copying in Single and Coupled Women: The Influence of Mate Acceptance and Mate Rejection Decisions of other Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  1. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  2. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Nest-mate recognition in Manuelia postica (Apidae: Xylocopinae): an eusocial trait is present in a solitary bee

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Aguilera-Olivares, Daniel; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, females are more tolerant towards nest-mate than towards non-nest-mate females. In solitary Hymenoptera, females are generally aggressive towards any conspecific female. Field observations of the nest biology of Manuelia postica suggested nest-mate recognition. Experiments were performed involving two live interacting females or one live female interacting with a dead female. Live females from different nests were more intolerant to each other than females from the sa...

  4. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Jane M

    2010-09-28

    Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in light of a number of functional hypotheses. Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully.

  5. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M Waterman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris in light of a number of functional hypotheses. METHODOLOGY: Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. FINDINGS: Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully.

  6. Exploiting Catalytic Promiscuity for Biocatalysis : Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation by a Proline-Based Tautomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Een belangrijk thema bij het ontwikkelen van nieuwe biokatalysatoren is katalytische promiscuïteit, waarbij een enzym alternatieve reacties katalyseert naast de reactie die biologisch relevant is. Promiscue enzymactiviteiten zijn een veelbelovende bron van synthetisch bruikbare katalytische

  7. Sex allocation predicts mating rate in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    OpenAIRE

    Janicke, Tim; Schärer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection theory for separate-sexed animals predicts that the sexes differ in the benefit they can obtain from multiple mating. Conventional sex roles assume that the relationship between the number of mates and the fitness of an individual is steeper in males compared with females. Under these conditions, males are expected to be more eager to mate, whereas females are expected to be choosier. Here we hypothesize that the sex allocation, i.e. the reproductive investment devoted to the...

  8. Promiscuity and selectivity of bitter molecules and their receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-07-15

    Bitter taste is essential for survival, as it protects against consuming poisonous compounds, which are often bitter. Bitter taste perception is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of TAS2R subtypes is species-dependent, and varies from 3 in chicken to 50 in frog. TAS2Rs present an intriguing case for studying promiscuity: some of the receptors are still orphan, or have few known agonists, while others can be activated by numerous, structurally dissimilar compounds. The ligands also vary in the repertoire of TAS2Rs that they activate: some bitter compounds are selective toward a single TAS2R, while others activate multiple TAS2Rs. Selectivity/promiscuity profile of bitter taste receptors and their compounds was explored by a chemoinformatic approach. TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective bitter molecules were found to differ in chemical features, such as AlogP, E-state, total charge, number of rings, globularity, and heavy atom count. This allowed the prediction of bitter ligand selectivity toward TAS2Rs. Interestingly, while promiscuous TAS2Rs are activated by both TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective compounds, almost all selective TAS2Rs in human are activated by promiscuous compounds, which are recognized by other TAS2Rs anyway. Thus, unique ligands, that may have been the evolutionary driving force for development of selective TAS2Rs, still need to be unraveled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  10. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  11. The response to selection for broad male response to female sex pheromone and its implications for divergence in close-range mating behavior in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droney, David C; Musto, Callie J; Mancuso, Katie; Roelofs, Wendell L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-12-01

    Coordinated sexual communication systems, seen in many species of moths, are hypothesized to be under strong stabilizing natural selection. Stabilized communication systems should be resistant to change, but there are examples of species/populations that show great diversification. A possible solution is that it is directional sexual selection on variation in male response that drives evolution. We tested a component of this model by asking whether 'rare' males (ca. 5 % of all males in a population) of the European corn borer moth (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, that respond to the sex pheromones of both ECB and a different Ostrinia species (O. furnacalis, the Asian corn borer, ACB), might play an important role in diversification. We specifically tested, via artificial selection, whether this broad male response has an evolvable genetic component. We increased the frequency of broad male response from 5 to 70 % in 19 generations, showing that broad-responding males could be important for the evolution of novel communication systems in ECB. We did not find a broader range of mating acceptance of broad males by females of the base population, however, suggesting that broad response would be unlikely to increase in frequency without the involvement of other factors. However, we found that ECB selection-line females accepted a broader range of courting males, including those of ACB, than did females of the base population. Thus, a genetic correlation exists between broad, long-range response to female sex pheromone and the breadth of female acceptance of males at close range. These results are discussed in the context of evolution of novel communication systems in Ostrinia.

  12. Male mating biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  13. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art. PMID:22059085

  14. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  15. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  16. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  17. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  18. Much More than Power: The Pedagogy of Promiscuous Black Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores promiscuous black feminism by juxtaposing black feminism, Foucualt's poststructuralism, and my grandmother. The tensions created by these juxtapositions illuminate the ways black feminism and poststructuralism are resources and challenges to each other, and how both offer understandings of the relations at play that shape…

  19. Mate-choice copying, social information processing, and the roles of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, Martin; Matta, Richard; Choleris, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Social and sexual behaviors, including that of mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice can be modified by prior and ongoing social factors and experience. The mate choice decisions of one individual can be influenced by either the actual or potential mate choice of another female or male. Such non-independent mate choice, where individuals gain social information and socially learn about and recognizes potential mates by observing the choices of another female or male, has been termed "mate-choice copying". Here we first briefly review how, why, and under what circumstances individuals engage in mate-choice copying. Secondly, we review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying. In particular, we consider the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin, in the processing of social information and the expression of mate-choice copying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A unique mating strategy without physical contact during fertilization in Bombay Night Frogs (Nyctibatrachus humayuni) with the description of a new form of amplexus and female call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, Bert; Suyesh, Robin; Garg, Sonali; Giri, Varad B; Bee, Mark A; Biju, S D

    2016-01-01

    Anurans show the highest diversity in reproductive modes of all vertebrate taxa, with a variety of associated breeding behaviours. One striking feature of anuran reproduction is amplexus. During this process, in which the male clasps the female, both individuals' cloacae are juxtaposed to ensure successful external fertilization. Several types of amplexus have evolved with the diversification of anurans, and secondary loss of amplexus has been reported in a few distantly related taxa. Within Nyctibatrachus, a genus endemic to the Western Ghats of India, normal axillary amplexus, a complete loss of amplexus, and intermediate forms of amplexus have all been suggested to occur, but many species remain unstudied. Here, we describe the reproductive behaviour of N. humayuni, including a new type of amplexus. The dorsal straddle, here defined as a loose form of contact in which the male sits on the dorsum of the female prior to oviposition but without clasping her, is previously unreported for anurans. When compared to known amplexus types, it most closely resembles the form of amplexus observed in Mantellinae. Furthermore, we prove that, opposed to the situation in most anurans, male semen release happens before egg deposition. We hypothesize that the male ejaculates on the female's dorsum and that sperm subsequently runs from her back and hind legs before fertilizing the eggs. A second feature characterizing anuran breeding is the advertisement call, mostly produced solely by males. Despite recent descriptions of several new Nyctibatrachus species, few studies have explored their vocal repertoire. We describe both the male advertisement call and a female call for N. humayuni. The presence of a female call has not been reported within Nyctibatrachidae, and has been reported in less than 0.5% of anuran species. Altogether, our results highlight a striking diversity and several unique aspects of Nyctibatrachus breeding behaviour.

  1. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  3. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  4. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  5. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental groups during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  6. Disrupting Mating Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujo, S; Hartman, E; Norton, K; Pregmon, E A; Rohde, B B; Mankin, R W

    2016-12-01

    Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D. citri mating can be disrupted using vibrational signals that compete with and/or mask female replies, courtship bioassays were conducted in citrus trees with or without interference from female reply mimics produced by a vibrating buzzer. Statistically significant reductions occurred in the rates and proportions of mating when the buzzer produced reply mimics within 0.4 s after male courtship calls compared with undisturbed controls. Observations of courtship behaviors in the two bioassays revealed activity patterns that likely contributed to the reductions. In both disruption and control tests, males reciprocated frequently between structural bifurcations and other transition points where signal amplitudes changed. Males in the disruption bioassay had to select among vibrational signals combined from the buzzer and the female at each transition point. They often turned towards the buzzer instead of the female. There was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of males mating if they contacted the buzzer, possibly due to its higher vibration amplitude and duration in comparison with female replies. Potential applications of D. citri mating disruption technology in citrus groves are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. The evolution of polyandry: patterns of genotypic variation in female mating frequency, male fertilization success and a test of the sexy-sperm hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, L W

    2003-07-01

    The sexy-sperm hypothesis predicts that females obtain indirect benefits for their offspring via polyandy, in the form of increased fertilization success for their sons. I use a quantitative genetic approach to test the sexy-sperm hypothesis using the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Previous studies of this species have shown considerable phenotypic variation in fertilization success when two or more males compete. There were high broad-sense heritabilities for both paternity and polyandry. Patterns of genotypic variance were consistent with X-linked inheritance and/or maternal effects on these traits. The genetic architecture therefore precludes the evolution of polyandry via a sexy-sperm process. Thus the positive genetic correlation between paternity in sons and polyandry in daughters predicted by the sexy-sperm hypothesis was absent. There was significant heritable variation in the investment by females in ovaries and by males in the accessory gland. Surprisingly there was a very strong genetic correlation between these two traits. The significance of this genetic correlation for the coevolution of male seminal products and polyandry is discussed.

  8. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  9. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  11. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  12. Modelling the evolution and consequences of mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Tazzyman, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the evolution and the consequences of mate choice across a variety of taxa, using game theoretic, population genetic, and quantitative genetic modelling techniques. Part I is about the evolution of mate choice. In chapter 2, a population genetic model shows that mate choice is even beneficial in self-fertilising species such as Saccharomyces yeast. In chapter 3, a game theoretic model shows that female choice will be strongly dependent upon whether the benefi...

  13. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance....... in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue....... The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium...

  14. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  15. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  16. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  17. Are high-quality mates always attractive? State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources

  18. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    , especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...

  19. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  20. Promiscuous behaviour of the bacterial metallohydrolase DapE : an evolutionary and mechanistic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Uda, Narasimha Rao

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity, defined as functional properties other than those for which they are evolved, is considered a key factor in the evolution of new enzyme functions. Many metalloproteins can be alternatively metallated, which may lead to metal-dependent promiscuity. The mechanisms and evolutionary implications of metal-mediated promiscuity appear to be underexplored, especially considering that approximately one-third of structurally characterized proteins are thought to be metalloproteins. ...

  1. The cost of mating: influences of life history traits and mating strategies on lifespan in two closely related Yponomeuta species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; Campos Louçã, J.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and

  2. Chemical and visual communication during mate searching in rock shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Eliecer R; Thiel, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Mate searching in crustaceans depends on different communicational cues, of which chemical and visual cues are most important. Herein we examined the role of chemical and visual communication during mate searching and assessment in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus. Adult male rock shrimp experience major ontogenetic changes. The terminal molt stages (named "robustus") are dominant and capable of monopolizing females during the mating process. Previous studies had shown that most females preferably mate with robustus males, but how these dominant males and receptive females find each other is uncertain, and is the question we examined herein. In a Y-maze designed to test for the importance of waterborne chemical cues, we observed that females approached the robustus male significantly more often than the typus male. Robustus males, however, were unable to locate receptive females via chemical signals. Using an experimental set-up that allowed testing for the importance of visual cues, we demonstrated that receptive females do not use visual cues to select robustus males, but robustus males use visual cues to find receptive females. Visual cues used by the robustus males were the tumults created by agitated aggregations of subordinate typus males around the receptive females. These results indicate a strong link between sexual communication and the mating system of rock shrimp in which dominant males monopolize receptive females. We found that females and males use different (sex-specific) communicational cues during mate searching and assessment, and that the sexual communication of rock shrimp is similar to that of the American lobster, where females are first attracted to the dominant males by chemical cues emitted by these males. A brief comparison between these two species shows that female behaviors during sexual communication contribute strongly to the outcome of mate searching and assessment.

  3. REINFORCEMENT OF STICKLEBACK MATE PREFERENCES: SYMPATRY BREEDS CONTEMPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Howard D; Schluter, Dolph

    1998-02-01

    Detailed studies of reproductive isolation and how it varies among populations can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of speciation. Here we investigate how the strength of premating isolation varies between sympatric and allopatric populations of threespine sticklebacks to test a prediction of the hypothesis of reinforcement: that interspecific mate discrimination should be stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. In conducting such tests, it is important to control for ecological character displacement between sympatric species because ecological character divergence may strengthen prezygotic isolation as a by-product. We control for ecological character displacement by comparing mate preferences of females from a sympatric population (benthics) with mate preferences of females from two allopatric populations that most closely resemble the sympatric benthic females in ecology and morphology. No-choice mating trials indicate that sympatric benthic females mate less readily with heterospecific (limnetic) than conspecific (benthic) males, whereas two different populations of allopatric females resembling benthics show no such discrimination. These differences demonstrate reproductive character displacement of benthic female mate choice. Previous studies have established that hybridization between sympatric species occurred in the past in the wild and that hybrid offspring have lower fitness than either parental species, thus providing conditions under which natural selection would favor individuals that do not hybridize. Results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that female mate preferences have evolved as a response to reduced hybrid fitness (reinforcement), although direct effects of sympatry or a biased extinction process could also produce the pattern. Males of the other sympatric species (limnetics) showed a preference for smaller females, in contrast to the inferred ancestral preference for larger females, suggesting reproductive character

  4. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  5. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  6. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-11-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys ( Procolobus badius ) and Cape ground squirrels ( Xerus inauris ). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species.

  7. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-09-01

    A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue. The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3, which are sensing L-alpha-amino acids, the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor, the proteolytic degradation product sensor GPR93 (also termed GPR92), and the free fatty acid (FFA) sensing receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. The involvement of the individual receptors in sensing of food intake has been validated to different degrees because of limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice. However, as a group, the receptors represent potential drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance.

  8. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight....... The present review describes the current status of promiscuous L-α-amino acid sensors, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), the GPRC6A receptor, the T1R1/T1R3 receptor and also their molecular pharmacology, expression pattern and physiological significance....

  9. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P 1 and F 1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P 1 or F 1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P 1 and F 1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F 1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  10. Female genital mutilation and its effects: Implications for counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tried to establish if there is any relationship between promiscuity and FGM, if circumcised females suffer depression more than the uncircumcised females and, if circumcised females have less difficulty than their uncircumcised counterparts in becoming sexually aroused and attaining orgasm. Three null ...

  11. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  12. Tailoring Agility: Promiscuous Pair Story Authoring and Value Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendon, Steve

    This chapter describes how a multi-national software organization created a business plan involving business units from eight countries that followed an agile way, after two previously failed attempts with traditional approaches. The case is told by the consultant who initiated implementation of agility into requirements gathering, estimation and planning processes in an international setting. The agile approach was inspired by XP, but then tailored to meet the peculiar requirements. Two innovations were critical. The first innovation was promiscuous pair story authoring, where user stories were written by two people (similarly to pair programming), and the pairing changed very often (as frequently as every 15-20 minutes) to achieve promiscuity and cater for diverse point of views. The second innovation was an economic value evaluation (and not the cost) which was attributed to stories. Continuous recalculation of the financial value of the stories allowed to assess the projects financial return. In this case implementation of agility in the international context allowed the involved team members to reach consensus and unanimity of decisions, vision and purpose.

  13. A parasitic selfish gene that affects host promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Goddard, Matthew R

    2013-11-07

    Selfish genes demonstrate transmission bias and invade sexual populations despite conferring no benefit to their hosts. While the molecular genetics and evolutionary dynamics of selfish genes are reasonably well characterized, their effects on hosts are not. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are one well-studied family of selfish genes that are assumed to be benign. However, we show that carrying HEGs is costly for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that these genetic elements are not necessarily benign but maybe parasitic. We estimate a selective load of approximately 1-2% in 'natural' niches. The second aspect we examine is the ability of HEGs to affect hosts' sexual behaviour. As all selfish genes critically rely on sex for spread, then any selfish gene correlated with increased host sexuality will enjoy a transmission advantage. While classic parasites are known to manipulate host behaviour, we are not aware of any evidence showing a selfish gene is capable of affecting host promiscuity. The data presented here show a selfish element may increase the propensity of its eukaryote host to undergo sex and along with increased rates of non-Mendelian inheritance, this may counterbalance mitotic selective load and promote spread. Demonstration that selfish genes are correlated with increased promiscuity in eukaryotes connects with ideas suggesting that selfish genes promoted the evolution of sex initially.

  14. Promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles (PrATs): a frequent hitting scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Shane M; Mulcair, Mark D; Debono, Cael O; Leung, Eleanor W W; Nissink, J Willem M; Lim, San Sui; Chandrashekaran, Indu R; Vazirani, Mansha; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Simpson, Jamie S; Baell, Jonathan B; Scammells, Peter J; Norton, Raymond S; Scanlon, Martin J

    2015-02-12

    We have identified a class of molecules, known as 2-aminothiazoles (2-ATs), as frequent-hitting fragments in biophysical binding assays. This was exemplified by 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine being identified as a hit in 14/14 screens against a diverse range of protein targets, suggesting that this scaffold is a poor starting point for fragment-based drug discovery. This prompted us to analyze this scaffold in the context of an academic fragment library used for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) and two larger compound libraries used for high-throughput screening (HTS). This analysis revealed that such "promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles" (PrATs) behaved as frequent hitters under both FBDD and HTS settings, although the problem was more pronounced in the fragment-based studies. As 2-ATs are present in known drugs, they cannot necessarily be deemed undesirable, but the combination of their promiscuity and difficulties associated with optimizing them into a lead compound makes them, in our opinion, poor scaffolds for fragment libraries.

  15. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  16. Mating and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Baker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature on sexual selection and the social brain hypothesis suggest that human cognition and communication evolved, in part, for the purpose of displaying desirable cognitive abilities to potential mates. An evolutionary approach to social cognition implies that proximate mating motives may lead people to display desirable mental traits. In signaling such traits, one can increase the likelihood of attracting a potential mate. Two experiments demonstrated that exposure to mating cues—highly attractive opposite-sex faces—led people to display enhancements in declarative memory—a process underlying a variety of abilities such as resource acquisition, intelligence, and creativity. Experiment 1 showed that men (but not women displayed enhanced memory for details of a story that was presented during exposure to highly attractive opposite-sex faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that heightened displays of declarative memory reflect an enhancement in retrieval rather than in encoding. Findings contribute to the literatures on human mating and cognitive performance and provide novel insight into links between social processes and basic cognition.

  17. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  18. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Does polyandry really pay off? The effects ofmultiple mating and number of fathers on morphological traits and survival in clutches of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Jensen, Michael P.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long debate of whether or not multiple mating benefits the offspring, studies still show contradictory results. Multiple mating takes time and energy. Thus, if females fertilize their eggs with a single mating, why to mate more than once? We investigated and inferred paternal identity...

  20. The Possible Role of the Uropygial Gland on Mate Choice in Domestic Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hirao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In avian mating systems, male domestic fowls are polygamous and mate with a number of selected members of the opposite sex. The factors that influence mating preference are considered to be visual cues. However, several studies have indicated that chemosensory cues also affect socio-sexual behavior, including mate choice and individual recognition. The female uropygial gland appears to provide odor for mate choice, as uropygial gland secretions are specific to individual body odor. Chicken olfactory bulbs possess efferent projections to the nucleus taeniae that are involved in copulatory behavior. From various reports, it appears that the uropygial gland has the potential to act as the source of social odor cues that dictate mate choice. In this review, evidence for the possible role of the uropygial gland on mate choice in domestic chickens is presented. However, it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between the uropygial gland and major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate choice.

  1. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  2. Mating with an allopatric male triggers immune response and decreases longevity of ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempf, A; von Wyschetzki, K; Klein, A; Schrader, L; Oettler, J; Heinze, J

    2015-07-01

    In species with lifelong pair bonding, the reproductive interests of the mating partners are aligned, and males and females are expected to jointly maximize their reproductive success. Mating increases both longevity and fecundity of female reproductives (queens) of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, indicating a tight co-evolution of mating partners. Here, we show that mating with a male from their own population increases lifespan and reproductive success of queens more than mating with a male from a different population, with whom they could not co-evolve. A comparison of transcriptomes revealed an increased expression of genes involved in immunity processes in queens, which mated with males from a different population. Increased immune response might be proximately associated with decreased lifespan. Our study suggests a synergistic co-evolution between the sexes and sheds light on the proximate mechanisms underlying the decreased fitness of allopatrically mated queens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus vaccination intentions for young women 18 to 26: religiosity, morality, promiscuity, and cancer worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda M; Jensen, Jakob D; Carcioppolo, Nick; Weaver, Jeremy; Liu, Miao; Guntzviller, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether five psychosocial variables, namely, religiosity, morality, perceived promiscuity, cancer worry frequency, and cancer worry severity, predict young women's intentions to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Female undergraduate students (n=408) completed an online survey. Questions pertaining to hypothesized predictors were analyzed through bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression equations. Regressions examined whether the five psychosocial variables of interest predicted intentions to vaccinate above and beyond controls. Proposed interactions among predictor variables were also tested. Study findings supported cancer worry as a direct predictor of HPV vaccination intention, and religiosity and sexual experience as moderators of the relationship between concerns of promiscuity reputation and intentions to vaccinate. One dimension of cancer worry (severity) emerged as a particularly robust predictor for this population. This study provides support for several important, yet understudied, factors contributing to HPV vaccination intentions among college-aged women: cancer worry severity and religiosity. Future research should continue to assess the predictive contributions of these variables and evaluate how messages and campaigns to increase HPV vaccination uptake can utilize religious involvement and worry about cancer to promote more effectively HPV vaccination as a cancer prevention strategy. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolution of sex roles in mate searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Jennions, Michael; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    Searching for mates is a critical stage in the life cycle of most internally, and many externally, fertilizing species. Males usually invest more in this costly activity than females, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Previous models have shown that female-biased parental investment, including anisogamy, does not by itself select for male-biased mate searching, so it requires additional explanations. Here, we correct and expand upon earlier models, and present two novel hypotheses that might explain the evolution of male-biased mate searching. The "carry-over hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if the associated costs affect other stages of the life cycle, rather than arising only while searching. It is relevant to the evolution of morphological traits that improve searching efficiency but are also expressed in other contexts. The "mating window hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if their life cycle includes intervals during which the exact timing of mating does not matter for the appropriate timing of reproduction (e.g., due to sperm storage or delayed embryo implantation). Such intervals are more likely to exist for females given the general pattern of greater female parental investment. Our models shed new light on classic arguments about sex role evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Personality may confound common measures of mate-choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan David

    Full Text Available The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to exploration tendencies has not been addressed so far. In the present study we assessed the influence of variation in exploration tendencies, a trait closely associated to global personality, on the measurement of female mating preference in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata using the widely used four-chamber choice-apparatus. The number of movements performed within both exploration and mate-choice apparatus was consistent within and across the two contexts. In addition, personality explained variation in selectivity, preference strength and consistency. High-exploratory females showed lower selectivity, lower preference scores and displayed more consistent preference scores. Our results suggest that variation in personality may affect the measurement of female mating preference and may contribute to explain existing inconsistencies across studies.

  6. Mating-induced sexual inhibition in the jumping spider Servaea incana (Araneae: Salticidae: A fast-acting and long-lasting effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Mendez

    Full Text Available Mating-induced sexual inhibition has been studied extensively as an important facet of many insect mating systems but remains little understood in spiders. Once mated, females of many spider species become unreceptive and aggressive toward males, but the speed of onset and persistence of this effect are not known. Addressing this gap, the present study considers (1 mating tendency of virgins, latency to remating, and lifetime mating frequency and (2 how quickly sexual inhibition is expressed after the first mating in female Servaea incana jumping spiders. Encounters between males and females took place in two contexts that simulated locations where mating occurs in nature: in the light away from nests ('in the open' and in low light within the shelter of silken retreats ('at a retreat'. Virgin females exhibited high receptivity levels in both contexts but sexual inhibition was induced immediately after their first copulation. The most common tendency was for just one mating in a lifetime, and few females mated more than twice. Context also had an effect on female mating tendency, as virgin females in the open rejected more males before accepting their first mate than did virgin females in retreats. Considering only those females that did remate, females in the open tended to reject fewer males before remating. Given low levels of female remating, virgin females appear to be at a premium for male reproductive fitness in S. incana jumping spiders and this is a likely explanation for protandry found in nature.

  7. SynchroMate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M

    2005-01-01

    ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  8. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  9. Sexual Cooperation: Mating Increases Longevity in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen; Cremer, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Divergent reproductive interests of males and females often cause sexual conflict [1] and [2] . Males of many species manipulate females by transferring seminal fluids that boost female short-term fecundity while decreasing their life expectancy and future reproductivity [3] and [4] . The life...... history of ants, however, is expected to reduce sexual conflict; whereas most insect females show repeated phases of mating and reproduction, ant queens mate only during a short period early in life and undergo a lifelong commitment to their mates by storing sperm [5] . Furthermore, sexual offspring can...... sterilized male lived considerably longer and started laying eggs earlier than virgin queens. Only queens that received viable sperm from fertile males showed increased fecundity. The lack of a trade-off between fecundity and longevity is unexpected, given evolutionary theories of aging [6] . Our data...

  10. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present......) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring...... production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males....

  11. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies...... is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....

  12. Male resource defense mating system in primates? An experimental test in wild capuchin monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Ecological models of mating systems provide a theoretical framework to predict the effect of the defendability of both breeding resources and mating partners on mating patterns. In resource-based mating systems, male control over breeding resources is tightly linked to female mating preference. To date, few field studies have experimentally investigated the relationship between male resource control and female mating preference in mammals due to difficulties in manipulating ecological factors (e.g., food contestability. We tested the within-group male resource defense hypothesis experimentally in a wild population of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. Sapajus spp. represent an ideal study model as, in contrast to most primates, they have been previously argued to be characterized by female mate choice and a resource-based mating system in which within-group resource monopolization by high-ranking males drives female mating preference for those males. Here, we examined whether females (N = 12 showed a weaker preference for alpha males during mating seasons in which food distribution was experimentally manipulated to be less defendable relative to those in which it was highly defendable. Results did not support the within-group male resource defense hypothesis, as female sexual preferences for alpha males did not vary based on food defendability. We discuss possible reasons for our results, including the possibility of other direct and indirect benefits females receive in exercising mate choice, the potential lack of tolerance over food directed towards females by alpha males, and phylogenetic constraints.

  13. Asymmetric dominance and asymmetric mate choice oppose premating isolation after allopatric divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Steinwender, Bernd; Brindl, Hanna; Zimmermann, Holger; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Postl, Lisbeth; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Assortative mating promotes reproductive isolation and allows allopatric speciation processes to continue in secondary contact. As mating patterns are determined by mate preferences and intrasexual competition, we investigated male-male competition and behavioral isolation in simulated secondary contact among allopatric populations. Three allopatric color morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus were tested against each other. Dyadic male-male contests revealed dominance of red males over bluish and yellow-blotch males. Reproductive isolation in the presence of male-male competition was assessed from genetic parentage in experimental ponds and was highly asymmetric among pairs of color morphs. Red females mated only with red males, whereas the other females performed variable degrees of heteromorphic mating. Discrepancies between mating patterns in ponds and female preferences in a competition-free, two-way choice paradigm suggested that the dominance of red males interfered with positive assortative mating of females of the subordinate morphs and provoked asymmetric hybridization. Between the nonred morphs, a significant excess of negative assortative mating by yellow-blotch females with bluish males did not coincide with asymmetric dominance among males. Hence, both negative assortative mating preferences and interference of male-male competition with positive assortative preferences forestall premating isolation, the latter especially in environments unsupportive of competition-driven spatial segregation.

  14. Statistical Profiling of One Promiscuous Protein Binding Site: Illustrated by Urokinase Catalytic Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisier, Natacha; Regad, Leslie; Triki, Dhoha; Petitjean, Michel; Flatters, Delphine; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2017-10-01

    While recent literature focuses on drug promiscuity, the characterization of promiscuous binding sites (ability to bind several ligands) remains to be explored. Here, we present a proteochemometric modeling approach to analyze diverse ligands and corresponding multiple binding sub-pockets associated with one promiscuous binding site to characterize protein-ligand recognition. We analyze both geometrical and physicochemical profile correspondences. This approach was applied to examine the well-studied druggable urokinase catalytic domain inhibitor binding site, which results in a large number of complex structures bound to various ligands. This approach emphasizes the importance of jointly characterizing pocket and ligand spaces to explore the impact of ligand diversity on sub-pocket properties and to establish their main profile correspondences. This work supports an interest in mining available 3D holo structures associated with a promiscuous binding site to explore its main protein-ligand recognition tendency. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Probing the mutational interplay between primary and promiscuous protein functions: a computational-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Seisdedos, Hector; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2012-01-01

    Protein promiscuity is of considerable interest due its role in adaptive metabolic plasticity, its fundamental connection with molecular evolution and also because of its biotechnological applications. Current views on the relation between primary and promiscuous protein activities stem largely from laboratory evolution experiments aimed at increasing promiscuous activity levels. Here, on the other hand, we attempt to assess the main features of the simultaneous modulation of the primary and promiscuous functions during the course of natural evolution. The computational/experimental approach we propose for this task involves the following steps: a function-targeted, statistical coupling analysis of evolutionary data is used to determine a set of positions likely linked to the recruitment of a promiscuous activity for a new function; a combinatorial library of mutations on this set of positions is prepared and screened for both, the primary and the promiscuous activities; a partial-least-squares reconstruction of the full combinatorial space is carried out; finally, an approximation to the Pareto set of variants with optimal primary/promiscuous activities is derived. Application of the approach to the emergence of folding catalysis in thioredoxin scaffolds reveals an unanticipated scenario: diverse patterns of primary/promiscuous activity modulation are possible, including a moderate (but likely significant in a biological context) simultaneous enhancement of both activities. We show that this scenario can be most simply explained on the basis of the conformational diversity hypothesis, although alternative interpretations cannot be ruled out. Overall, the results reported may help clarify the mechanisms of the evolution of new functions. From a different viewpoint, the partial-least-squares-reconstruction/Pareto-set-prediction approach we have introduced provides the computational basis for an efficient directed-evolution protocol aimed at the simultaneous

  16. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  17. Experimental removal and elevation of sexual selection: does sexual selection generate manipulative males and resistant females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudgington, Helen S; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brüstle, Lena; Green, Kathleen; Snook, Rhonda R

    2005-05-01

    Sexual conflict over reproduction can occur between males and females. In several naturally promiscuous insect species, experimental evolution studies that have enforced monogamy found evidence for sexual conflict. Here, we subjected the naturally promiscuous, sperm-heteromorphic fruit fly Drosophila pseudoobscura to enforced monogamy, standard levels of promiscuity, and elevated opportunities for promiscuity in four replicate lines. We examined the effect of male and female selection history and the proximate effect of variation in male density on female fitness parameters. We found that male density rather than male selection history explained a greater degree of female fecundity, egg hatching success, and productivity. Additionally, females selected under elevated promiscuity had greater fecundity and hatching success than did enforced monogamy females. Selection line males do not differ in their capacity to coerce females to remate, suggesting no divergence in precopulatory manipulative ability. However, these males did vary in their ability to suppress female remating, suggesting postcopulatory manipulation. These results indicate that sexual conflict can be manifested through both the proximate effects of male density and the historical levels of sexual selection and that the sexes respond differentially to these factors and further stress the multifarious channels of sexual communication that contribute to fitness.

  18. Social structure affects mating competition in a damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond

    2017-12-01

    The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.

  19. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  20. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke T Barrett

    Full Text Available Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection. Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size.

  1. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  2. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

    2000-12-19

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy.

  3. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing'e; Guo Qingliang; Chen Jiahua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137 Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P > 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33 ± 12.55 and the mean value was 6.88 ± 0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non-ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were 44.67 ± 2.40% and 22.00 ± 2.31% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  4. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing'e; Guo Qingliang; Chen Jiaye

    2012-01-01

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137 Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  5. Highly Promiscuous Oxidases Discovered in the Bovine Rumen Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ufarté

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The bovine rumen hosts a diverse microbiota, which is highly specialized in the degradation of lignocellulose. Ruminal bacteria, in particular, are well equipped to deconstruct plant cell wall polysaccharides. Nevertheless, their potential role in the breakdown of the lignin network has never been investigated. In this study, we used functional metagenomics to identify bacterial redox enzymes acting on polyaromatic compounds. A new methodology was developed to explore the potential of uncultured microbes to degrade lignin derivatives, namely kraft lignin and lignosulfonate. From a fosmid library covering 0.7 Gb of metagenomic DNA, three hit clones were identified, producing enzymes able to oxidize a wide variety of polyaromatic compounds without the need for the addition of copper, manganese, or mediators. These promiscuous redox enzymes could thus be of potential interest both in plant biomass refining and dye remediation. The enzymes were derived from uncultured Clostridia, and belong to complex gene clusters involving proteins of different functional types, including hemicellulases, which likely work in synergy to produce substrate degradation.

  6. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding.

  7. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrade Lira Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein, climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior, and urbanization (and thus heavy metals. This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  8. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their

  9. Sexual Dimorphism and Mating Behavior in Anomala testaceipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis . Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male’s last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  10. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madlen ZIEGE; Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ; Frauke MUECKSCH; David BIERBACH; Ralph TIEDEMANN; Bruno STREIT; Martin PLATH

    2012-01-01

    Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior.Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented.This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk:interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions.In line with this hypothesis,a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice,but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests.Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs,but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior.Thus,we createl five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males' mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping) and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting).Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured,while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior.The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male's behavior.A reduction in the strength of focal males' preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male's preferred mate.In comparison,the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior.While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male's motivational state is reflected but also females' behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1):84-94,2012].

  11. The role of ego-identity status in mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Papini, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999) theories. Ego-identity and the sex of the participant accounted for a significant amount of variance in the number of sexual partners desired and the penchant for short-term mating. The sex of the participant was the lone predictor of the importance placed on the mate characteristics of physical attractiveness and earning capacity with females placing more emphasis on the former and males placing more emphasis on the latter characteristic.

  12. The Dynamics of Male Brooding, Mating Patterns, ad Sex Roles in Pipefishes and Seahorses (Family Syngnathidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Anthony Bruce; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto speci...

  13. Sterility and mating competitiveness of male ceratitis capitata as affected by gamma radiation and di methane insecticide. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M; Fadel, A M; El-Akhdar, E A [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Helmy, N M [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of pupal gamma-irradiation (50, 70, 90 Gy), or adult treatment with dimethoate insecticide (0.93 ppm) on the male sterility and mating competitiveness of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were studied. Results indicated that treatment of the adult medfly with dimethoate had no clear effect on male fertility whether this male mated with treated or normal females. However, gamma irradiation drastically decreased hatch ability of eggs laid by normal or treated (dimethoate) females, when mated with irradiated males all gamma doses. This reduction in egg hatch ability increased increased with increasing gamma dose. Irradiated females did not lay eggs at any of the gamma doses used. At all mating combinations, the male mating competitiveness was decreased especially when irradiated males were confined with treated males for mating with normal or treated females. Results are indicated and discussed in the text. 4 figs.

  14. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate–ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as ‘treatment’ social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

  16. Substrate interactions and promiscuity in a viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aathavan, K; Politzer, Adam T; Kaplan, Ariel; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Chemla, Yann R; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Anderson, Dwight L; Bustamante, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The ASCE (additional strand, conserved E) superfamily of proteins consists of structurally similar ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities involving metabolism and transport of proteins and nucleic acids in all forms of life. A subset of these enzymes consists of multimeric ringed pumps responsible for DNA transport in processes including genome packaging in adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses and tailed bacteriophages. Although their mechanism of mechanochemical conversion is beginning to be understood, little is known about how these motors engage their nucleic acid substrates. Questions remain as to whether the motors contact a single DNA element, such as a phosphate or a base, or whether contacts are distributed over several parts of the DNA. Furthermore, the role of these contacts in the mechanochemical cycle is unknown. Here we use the genome packaging motor of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage varphi29 (ref. 4) to address these questions. The full mechanochemical cycle of the motor, in which the ATPase is a pentameric-ring of gene product 16 (gp16), involves two phases-an ATP-loading dwell followed by a translocation burst of four 2.5-base-pair (bp) steps triggered by hydrolysis product release. By challenging the motor with a variety of modified DNA substrates, we show that during the dwell phase important contacts are made with adjacent phosphates every 10-bp on the 5'-3' strand in the direction of packaging. As well as providing stable, long-lived contacts, these phosphate interactions also regulate the chemical cycle. In contrast, during the burst phase, we find that DNA translocation is driven against large forces by extensive contacts, some of which are not specific to the chemical moieties of DNA. Such promiscuous, nonspecific contacts may reflect common translocase-substrate interactions for both the nucleic acid and protein translocases of the ASCE superfamily.

  17. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore

  18. Facultative promiscuity in a presumably monogamous mouse Apodemus microps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Stopka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2005), s. 189-196 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/01/0989; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/01/1316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Apodemus microps * mating system * monogamy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2005 http://acta.zbs.bialowieza.pl/contents/?art=2005-050-2-0189

  19. Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits......, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities...... typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can...

  20. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  1. Primary sex ratio adjustment by ant queens in response to local mate competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Menten, Ludivine; Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, wingless males compete with nestmate males for access to female mating partners, leading to local mate competition (LMC). Queen number varies between colonies, resulting in variation in the strength of LMC. Cremer & Heinze (2002, Proceedings of the Royal Society...

  2. Revisiting telegony : Offspring inherit an acquired characteristic of their mother's previous mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crean, Angela J.; Kopps, Anna M.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered non-genetic mechanisms break the link between genes and inheritance, thereby also raising the possibility that previous mating partners could influence traits in offspring sired by subsequent males that mate with the same female (‘telegony’). In the fly Telostylinus angusticollis,

  3. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  4. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  5. Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-03-01

    Female and male mate choice preferences in humans both vary according to the menstrual cycle. Women prefer more masculine, symmetrical and genetically unrelated men during ovulation compared with other phases of their cycle, and recent evidence suggests that men prefer ovulating women to others. Such monthly shifts in mate preference have been suggested to bring evolutionary benefits in terms of reproductive success. New evidence is now emerging that taking the oral contraceptive pill might significantly alter both female and male mate choice by removing the mid-cycle change in preferences. Here, we review support for such conclusions and speculate on the consequences of pill-induced choice of otherwise less-preferred partners for relationship satisfaction, durability and, ultimately, reproductive outcomes.

  6. Frequency-dependence of mating success in Poeciliopsis monacha (Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes reproductive complex, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Neuza Rejane Wille

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of all-female fishes of the genus Poeciliopsis coexists with their sexual ancestor species in streams of western Mexico. All-females are hybrids that depend on the sperm of paternal species to reproduce. Rare-female advantage is one of several hypotheses that attempt to explain how the diversity of all-female biotypes is maintained within the Poeciliopsis reproductive complexes. According to this hypothesis, the uncommon all-female biotype has a mating advantage over the common ones and has been maintained by a dynamic equilibrium process. In the P. monacha reproductive complex at Arroyo de los Platanos the density of two all-female biotypes (P. 2monacha-lucida I and II varies across pools. The objective of this study was to analyse fecundity and mating success of females from this arroyo to test the hypothesis. Female mating success was inversely correlated to their density, supporting this hypothesis.

  7. Acasalamento entre ovelhas deslanadas e reprodutores especializados para corte: desempenho produtivo até a desmama Hairsheep females mated to specialized meat-type rams: productive performance up to weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Machado

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho produtivo de ovelhas deslanadas do Nordeste do Brasil acasaladas com machos de raças especializadas para corte. Dados de 305 parições oriundas de 134 matrizes dentro de três períodos de monta foram usados para determinar as taxas de desmame e sobrevivência das crias, o peso vivo ao desmame e o peso vivo total desmamado por ovelha acasalada. As fêmeas foram acasaladas, em sistema de rodízio de uso dos machos das raças Santa Inês, Hampshire-Down, Ile-de-France, Suffolk e Texel. O peso das crias ao desmame não diferiu entre genótipos. A taxa de desmame foi mais baixa para crias de Suffolk e de Texel, ao passo que crias de Hampshire-Down e Ile-de-France tiveram as taxas de sobrevivência mais baixas. Houve efeito compensatório entre os pesos ao nascer e ao desmame e as taxas de sobrevivência e desmame, de modo que o peso total de cordeiro desmamado não diferiu entre genótipos, à exceção para o grupo F1 de Hampshire-Down, devido à baixa taxa de sobrevivência dos cordeiros (71,4%, se comparado com as crias de Ile-de-France. Os acasalamentos ocorridos durante a estação chuvosa foram responsáveis pela menor produtividade das ovelhas. O desempenho das crias Santa Inês comparou-se ao das raças especializadas para o corte, podendo ser indicada como raça parental em programas de cruzamento com ovelhas deslanadas do Nordeste do Brasil.This trial was conducted to evaluate production levels of native breed ewes of Northeast Brazil mated to rams of specialized meat-type breeds. A total of 305 lambings from 134 ewes over three periods of mating were used to determine weaning rate, survival rate and live weight at weaning and total weight of weaned lamb. The hairsheep ewes were mated in a rotational scheme of the use of rams from Santa Inês, Hampshire-Down, Ile-de-France, Suffolk and Texel breeds. Live weight at weaning did not differ among lamb genotypes. Weaning rate was

  8. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...

  9. Catalytic promiscuity and heme-dependent redox regulation of H2S synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma

    2017-04-01

    The view of enzymes as punctilious catalysts has been shifting as examples of their promiscuous behavior increase. However, unlike a number of cases where the physiological relevance of breached substrate specificity is questionable, the very synthesis of H 2 S relies on substrate and reaction promiscuity, which presents the enzymes with a multitude of substrate and reaction choices. The transsulfuration pathway, a major source of H 2 S, is inherently substrate-ambiguous. A heme-regulated switch embedded in the first enzyme in the pathway can help avert the stochastic production of cysteine versus H 2 S and control switching between metabolic tracks to meet cellular needs. This review discusses the dominant role of enzyme promiscuity in pathways that double as sulfur catabolic and H 2 S synthetic tracks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cell-Signaling Network Temporally Resolves Specific versus Promiscuous Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Kanshin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available If specific and functional kinase- or phosphatase-substrate interactions are optimized for binding compared to promiscuous interactions, then changes in phosphorylation should occur faster on functional versus promiscuous substrates. To test this hypothesis, we designed a high temporal resolution global phosphoproteomics protocol to study the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method provides accurate, stimulus-specific measurement of phosphoproteome changes, quantitative analysis of phosphodynamics at sub-minute temporal resolution, and detection of more phosphosites. Rates of evolution of dynamic phosphosites were comparable to those of known functional phosphosites and significantly lower than static or longer-time-frame dynamic phosphosites. Kinetic profile analyses indicated that putatively functional kinase- or phosphatase-substrate interactions occur more rapidly, within 60 s, than promiscuous interactions. Finally, we report many changes in phosphorylation of proteins implicated in cytoskeletal and mitotic spindle dynamics that may underlie regulation of cell cycle and morphogenesis.

  11. Friendship as a Relationship Infiltration Tactic during Human Mate Poaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Mogilski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 382 read a vignette that differed by whether the poacher was male/female and whether the poacher and poached were friends/acquaintances. Participants assessed the likelihood of the poacher being successful and incurring costs. They also rated the poacher and poached on several personality and mate characteristics. Results revealed that friendship increased the perceived likelihood of success of a mate poaching attempt and decreased the perceived likelihood of several risks typically associated with mate poaching. However, friend-poachers were rated less favorably than acquaintance-poachers across measures of warmth, nurturance, and friendliness. These findings are interpreted using an evolutionary perspective. This study complements and builds upon previous findings and is the first experimental investigation of tactics poachers may use to mitigate risks inherent in mate poaching.

  12. Catalytic promiscuity of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase : discovery and characterization of C-C bond-forming activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Het verschijnsel katalytische promiscuïteit, waarin een enzym naast zijn natuurlijke activiteit een alternatieve reactie (of reacties) katalyseert, is een krachtig, recent opgekomen concept, dat erg relevant is voor het ontwerpen van nieuwe enzymen. Enzym promiscuïteit is een veelbelovende bron van

  13. Kinetics in Signal Transduction Pathways Involving Promiscuous Oligomerizing Receptors Can Be Determined by Receptor Specificity : Apoptosis Induction by TRAIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegezdi, Eva; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Mahalingam, Devalingam; O'Leary, Lynda; Cool, Robbert H.; Munoz, Ines G.; Montoya, Guillermo; Quax, Wim J.; de Jong, Steven; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis

    Here we show by computer modeling that kinetics and outcome of signal transduction in case of hetero-oligomerizing receptors of a promiscuous ligand largely depend on the relative amounts of its receptors. Promiscuous ligands can trigger the formation of nonproductive receptor complexes, which slows

  14. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers.

  15. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; van Wijk, M.; Ke, G.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Schal, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent

  16. Sexual conflict arising from extrapair matings in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Alexis S; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-01-20

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  18. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Effect of mate size on maternal reproductive effort in the convict cichlid Amatitlania siquia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashley R. ROBART

    2012-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner.In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males' greater ability to raise more offspring to independence.I examined the relationship between mate quality,parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia.The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length.Additionally,as males increased in length relative to their mate,females increased the frequency of chases towards predators,while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators.This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation.The number of offspring was correlated with male,but not female,standard length.These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male,while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided.Additionally,females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates.Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding,which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1):66-72,2012].

  20. Effect of mate size on maternal reproductive effort in the convict cichlid Amatitlania siquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R. ROBART

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner. In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males’ greater ability to raise more offspring to independence. I examined the relationship between mate quality, parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia. The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length. Additionally, as males increased in length relative to their mate, females increased the frequency of chases towards predators, while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators. This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation. The number of offspring was correlated with male, but not female, standard length. These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male, while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided. Additionally, females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates. Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding, which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1: 66–72, 2012].

  1. Effects of social information on life history and mating tactics of males in the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2018-01-01

    Informed mating decisions are often based on social cues providing information about prospective mating opportunities. Social information early in life can trigger developmental modifications and influence later mating decisions. A high adaptive value of such adjustments is particularly obvious in systems where potential mating rates are extremely limited and have to be carried out in a short time window. Males of the sexually cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi can achieve maximally two copulations which they can use for one (monogyny) or two females (bigyny). The choice between these male mating tactics should rely on female availability that males might assess through volatile sex pheromones emitted by virgin females. We predict that in response to those female cues, males of A. bruennichi should mature earlier and at a smaller body size and favor a bigynous mating tactic in comparison with controls. We sampled spiders from two areas close to the Southern and Northern species range to account for differences in mate quality and seasonality. In a fully factorial design, half of the subadult males from both areas obtained silk cues of females, while the other half remained without female exposure. Adult males were subjected to no-choice mating tests and could either monopolize the female or leave her (bigyny). We found that Southern males matured later and at a larger size than Northern males. Regardless of their origin, males also shortened the subadult stage in response to female cues, which, however, had no effects on male body mass. Contrary to our prediction, the frequencies of mating tactics were unaffected by the treatment. We conclude that while social cues during late development elicit adaptive life history adjustments, they are less important for the adjustment of mating decisions. We suggest that male tactics mostly rely on local information at the time of mate search.

  2. Age- and size-dependent mating performance and fertility in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Prepress abstract: In many species, size and age have been shown to be strong determinants of the reproductive success for both sexes. Here we examine age- and size dependent reproductive performance (egg- and sperm production, mating success) in a pelagic copepod. Compared to smaller males, larger...... males produce larger spermatophores containing more spermatozoa, and fertilize a larger fraction of available females. Females mating with large males produce more offspring than those mating with small males. Similarly, large females have higher egg production rates as well as a higher life-time egg...... fertilize females for only about eight days after they mature. The strong size- and age-dependent fertility observed in this species is conducive to the development of sexual selection via mate choice for young and large partners, as has been shown in one other copepod species...

  3. An integrative mating system assessment of a nonmodel, economically important Pacific rockfish (Sebastes melanops) reveals nonterritorial polygamy and conservation implications for a large species flock

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorge, Kurt W.; Wilson, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Characterizing the mating systems of long‐lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity‐assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, a...

  4. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L; Smith, Hilary A; Kubanek, Julia; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2009-09-09

    Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s). We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions, suggests that the

  5. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Li

    Full Text Available Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  6. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  7. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  8. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  9. Predictors of Drug/Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Promiscuity of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeong Sook; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between the individual's purpose in life, existential anxiety, powerlessness and use of alcohol/drugs and the tendency to be sexually promiscuous. The study is rooted in the work of Viktor E. Frankl, which suggested that a lack of meaning and purpose can cause socially deviant behavior and psychological…

  10. Differential active site loop conformations mediate promiscuous activities in the lactonase SsoPox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Hiblot

    Full Text Available Enzymes are proficient catalysts that enable fast rates of Michaelis-complex formation, the chemical step and products release. These different steps may require different conformational states of the active site that have distinct binding properties. Moreover, the conformational flexibility of the active site mediates alternative, promiscuous functions. Here we focused on the lactonase SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SsoPox is a native lactonase endowed with promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. We identified a position in the active site loop (W263 that governs its flexibility, and thereby affects the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We isolated two different sets of substitutions at position 263 that induce two distinct conformational sampling of the active loop and characterized the structural and kinetic effects of these substitutions. These sets of mutations selectively and distinctly mediate the improvement of the promiscuous phosphotriesterase and oxo-lactonase activities of SsoPox by increasing active-site loop flexibility. These observations corroborate the idea that conformational diversity governs enzymatic promiscuity and is a key feature of protein evolvability.

  11. Ervaringen met een solid phase enzyme immunoassay voor het aantonen van gonorroe bij promiscue vrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulsen; J.van*; Michel; M.F.*; Strik; R.van*; Joost; T.H.van*; Stolz; E.*; Eijk; R.V.W.van

    1985-01-01

    De Gonozyme test (Abbott Laboratories), een nieuwe enzyme immunoassay (EIA) voor het aantonen van Neisseria gonorrhoeae werd geevalueerd in een grote groep promiscue vrouwen. Als de EIA werd uitgevoerd met materiaal afkomstig van de cervix, bedroeg de prevalentie van gonorroe 8,2%. Vergeleken

  12. Resistance evolution to Bt crops: predispersal mating of European corn borers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroise Dalecky

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%. However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated, the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%, and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.

  13. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.. We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  14. Reflectance spectra and mating patterns support intraspecific mimicry in the colour polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gossum, Hans; Bots, Jessica; Van Heusden, Jasper; Hammers, Martijn; Huyghe, Katleen; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    Coexistence of female colour morphs in animal populations is often considered the result of sexual conflict, where polymorphic females benefit from reduced male sexual harassment. Mate-searching males easily detect suitable partners when only one type of female is present, but become challenged when

  15. Mate-finding as an overlooked critical determinant of dispersal variation in sexually-reproducing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal is a critically important process in ecology, but robust predictive models of animal dispersal remain elusive. We identify a potentially ubiquitous component of variation in animal dispersal that has been largely overlooked until now: the influence of mate encounters on settlement probability. We use an individual-based model to simulate dispersal in sexually-reproducing organisms that follow a simple set of movement rules based on conspecific encounters, within an environment lacking spatial habitat heterogeneity. We show that dispersal distances vary dramatically with fluctuations in population density in such a model, even in the absence of variation in dispersive traits between individuals. In a simple random-walk model with promiscuous mating, dispersal distributions become increasingly 'fat-tailed' at low population densities due to the increasing scarcity of mates. Similar variation arises in models incorporating territoriality. In a model with polygynous mating, we show that patterns of sex-biased dispersal can even be reversed across a gradient of population density, despite underlying dispersal mechanisms remaining unchanged. We show that some widespread dispersal patterns found in nature (e.g. fat tailed distributions) can arise as a result of demographic variability in the absence of heterogeneity in dispersive traits across the population. This implies that models in which individual dispersal distances are considered to be fixed traits might be unrealistic, as dispersal distances vary widely under a single dispersal mechanism when settlement is influenced by mate encounters. Mechanistic models offer a promising means of advancing our understanding of dispersal in sexually-reproducing organisms.

  16. Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.Behavioural observations and limited nest excavations revealed that R. minuchae does not produce sexuals every year, the number of sexuals is low, and the sex ratio tends to be female biased. Females typically exhibit two distinct activity periods. The first, the mating period, takes place in early afternoon: the ants "call" near the natal nest, mate and then return to their nest. The second, the dispersal period takes place in late afternoon: the mated females exit their nest and fly in search of a new, non-parasitized Proformica longiseta host nest. Males are highly active during the mating period, but will remain inactive in the dispersal period even if experimentally presented with virgin females. It appears that females are monogamous, while males are polygamous. When males are late arriving at the female calling site, the females will frequently congregate presumably calling in chorus. The low reproductive efficiency exhibited by R. minuchae, coupled with the postulated low genetic variation in the population, as sisters may mate with the same male, could result in a low survival rate and risk of eventual extinction. The observed decrease in nest density we observed during the 2004 season may be indicative of such a process.

  17. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Geng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was

  18. Negative Assortative Mating Based on Body Coloration in the Freshwater Platyfish (Poecillidae: Xiphophorus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E. Frankel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of individuals within a population to survive and thrive is highly dependent upon the maintenance of genetic variation and phenotypic diversity, thereby ensuring adaptation to dynamic environments. A fundamental method of maintaining such variation is through a negative assortative mating strategy, in which individuals would be expected to reproductively select members of the opposite sex that exhibit dissimilar phenotypes. Employing three uniform body color morphs, red, yellow and blue, of the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus, this study was designed to investigate whether X. maculatus females would preferentially be attracted to males exhibiting an alternative color, thereby enabling an examination of the effect of male body coloration on mate choice by adult females. Mate choice was determined based on the initial preference of each female, as well as the amount of time females spent associating with each male. Initial preferences were analyzed using a binomial distribution test, and overall preference data using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Red females initially selected for dissimilar colored males, and spent a significantly larger amount of time associating with blue and yellow males, as did yellow females with red and blue males. Blue females initially selected and spent a significantly larger amount of time associating with red males but, interestingly, showed no selective preference between blue and yellow males. In these experimental trials, the overall strong mate selection exhibited by female platyfish for males of dissimilar coloration is suggestive of a negative assortative mating strategy and provides evidence for the maintenance of color polymorphism in nature populations.

  19. Azadirachtin on Oligonychus yothersi in yerba mate Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Angeli Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The red mite Oligonychus yothersi is one of the main pests of yerba mate in Brazil The damage this mite causes leads to leaf drop and decreased production. There are no registered acaricides for use in yerba mate; thus, laboratory and field experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of azadirachtin (Azamax(r, 250mL 100L-1 for the control of the red mite in yerba mate. In the laboratory, azadirachtin was applied to yerba mate leaf disks before (residual contact and after (direct contact infestation with 15 newly emerged red mite adult females. The effect of azadirachtin on mite behavior was evaluated in arenas with treated and untreated yerba mate leaves, and the number of mites in both areas was recorded. Ovicidal action was evaluated by applying azadirachtin to eggs and recording egg hatching. In the field, two applications of the product were performed (1L spray liquid plant-1 with a 7-day interval. The numbers of living mites were evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days following the first application on randomly collected leaves. It was observed 86.6 and 91.4% of mortality following 24h of residual and direct contact, respectively. Repellent (62% of individuals leaving the treated area and ovicidal (98.9% decrease in egg hatching effects were also observed. The mite population in the yerba mate crop field had decreased by 59.6% at 14 days after the first application of azadirachtin. The results show the potential of azadirachtin for the control of O. yothersi in yerba mate in Brazil.

  20. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Why men matter: mating patterns drive evolution of human lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad D Tuljapurkar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory predicts that senescence, a decline in survival rates with age, is the consequence of stronger selection on alleles that affect fertility or mortality earlier rather than later in life. Hamilton quantified this argument by showing that a rare mutation reducing survival is opposed by a selective force that declines with age over reproductive life. He used a female-only demographic model, predicting that female menopause at age ca. 50 yrs should be followed by a sharp increase in mortality, a "wall of death." Human lives obviously do not display such a wall. Explanations of the evolution of lifespan beyond the age of female menopause have proven difficult to describe as explicit genetic models. Here we argue that the inclusion of males and mating patterns extends Hamilton's theory and predicts the pattern of human senescence. We analyze a general two-sex model to show that selection favors survival for as long as men reproduce. Male fertility can only result from matings with fertile females, and we present a range of data showing that males much older than 50 yrs have substantial realized fertility through matings with younger females, a pattern that was likely typical among early humans. Thus old-age male fertility provides a selective force against autosomal deleterious mutations at ages far past female menopause with no sharp upper age limit, eliminating the wall of death. Our findings illustrate the evolutionary importance of males and mating preferences, and show that one-sex demographic models are insufficient to describe the forces that shape human senescence.

  2. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  3. Lack of behavioural evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in a hymenopteran parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, D; Hance, T

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms for inbreeding avoidance should be prevalent in insects that reproduce by arrhenotokous haplodiploidy because of the higher potential production of unviable diploid males in inbred matings. Few studies have focused on mating strategies in insect parasitoids and even less on kinship relationships during mate choice. In this study we tested avoidance of kin as mate in the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using an ethological approach. Key mating parameters, such as male wing fanning, latent period before genitalia contact and duration of copulation were measured. No evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in both A. matricariae males and females was observed in our behaviour (no choice or choice tests) tests. This lack of ethological sib mating avoidance could be due to different factors such as sex determination rule different than the single locus complementary sex determination, making lower the proportion of diploid males in case of sib matings and thus its negative consequence. The existence of other inbreeding avoidance strategies and mechanisms that reduce the probability of 2 receptive relatives meeting in nature may be common, for example, inbred mating may be rare through differential dispersal, delayed maturation, or protandry.

  4. Feral Pigeons (Columba livia Prefer Genetically Similar Mates despite Inbreeding Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaël Jacob

    Full Text Available Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.

  5. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i) assortative mating (r = .18), (ii) the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii) for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men) prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men) prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  6. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Stulp

    Full Text Available Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK and compared the distribution of height difference in actual couples to simulations of random mating to test how established mate preferences map on to actual mating patterns. In line with mate preferences, we found evidence for: (i assortative mating (r = .18, (ii the male-taller norm, and, for the first time, (iii for the male-not-too-tall norm. Couples where the male partner was shorter, or over 25 cm taller than the female partner, occurred at lower frequency in actual couples than expected by chance, but the magnitude of these effects was modest. We also investigated another preference rule, namely that short women (and tall men prefer large height differences with their partner, whereas tall women (and short men prefer small height differences. These patterns were also observed in our population, although the strengths of these associations were weaker than previously reported strength of preferences. We conclude that while preferences for partner height generally translate into actual pairing, they do so only modestly.

  7. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  8. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear.

  9. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate). © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: a 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, David P

    2005-04-01

    The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad 1991) is a self-report measure of individual differences in human mating strategies. Low SOI scores signify that a person is sociosexually restricted, or follows a more monogamous mating strategy. High SOI scores indicate that an individual is unrestricted, or has a more promiscuous mating strategy. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), the SOI was translated from English into 25 additional languages and administered to a total sample of 14,059 people across 48 nations. Responses to the SOI were used to address four main issues. First, the psychometric properties of the SOI were examined in cross-cultural perspective. The SOI possessed adequate reliability and validity both within and across a diverse range of modem cultures. Second, theories concerning the systematic distribution of sociosexuality across cultures were evaluated. Both operational sex ratios and reproductively demanding environments related in evolutionary-predicted ways to national levels of sociosexuality. Third, sex differences in sociosexuality were generally large and demonstrated cross-cultural universality across the 48 nations of the ISDP, confirming several evolutionary theories of human mating. Fourth, sex differences in sociosexuality were significantly larger when reproductive environments were demanding but were reduced to more moderate levels in cultures with more political and economic gender equality. Implications for evolutionary and social role theories of human sexuality are discussed.

  11. The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrahman, Z A; Champion de Crespigny, F; Wedell, N

    2014-01-01

    Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating rate independent of age, this study investigates whether a high mating rate confers an advantage to infected males through restoring their compatibility with uninfected females over and above the effect of age. The impact of Wolbachia infection, male mating rate and age on the number of sperm transferred to females during copulation and how it relates to CI expression was also assessed. As predicted, we found that reproductive compatibility was restored faster in males that mate at higher rate than that of low mating and virgin males, and that the effect of mating history was over and above the effect of male age. Nonvirgin infected males transferred fewer sperm than uninfected males during copulation, and mating at a high rate resulted in the transfer of fewer sperm per mating irrespective of infection status. These results indicate that the advantage to infected males of mating at a high rate is through restoration of reproductive compatibility with uninfected females, whereas uninfected males appear to trade off the number of sperm transferred per mating with female encounter rate and success in sperm competition. This study highlights the importance Wolbachia may play in sexual selection by affecting male reproductive strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  13. Bowhead whale songs sung by females in Disko Bay, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi; Christoffersen, Mads; FØrasier, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    , and more rarely mate attraction. In the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, a closely related species to the bowhead whale, the female produces simple calls during sexual interactions that attract other males to mating groups. We suggest that our results may indicate that the elaborate songs...... of female bowhead whales may function for mate attraction and represent a novel example of partial courtship role reversal in mammals....

  14. Heterospecific mating and partial prezygotic reproductive isolation in the planktonic marine copepods Centropages typicus and Centropages hamatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) video observations in laboratory experiments, I describe interspecific and intergeneric mating behaviors and motility patterns of the common planktonic marine copepods Centropages typicus, Centropages hamatus, and Temora longicornis. These observations are then used...... to estimate heterospecific and conspecific male mate-search volume rates and mate encounter rates in North Sea Centropages populations. Behavioral prezygotic reproductive isolation between Centropages species is incomplete, since males of each species pursued, contacted, captured, and, in rare cases, placed...... a spermatophore on the urosome of heterospecific females. T. longicornis males also detected the diffusible pheromone trail and pursued C. typicus females to the point of mate contact. Male mate-search tracking behavior was equally effective on diffusible pheromone trails of heterospecific and conspecific females...

  15. Female responses to experimental removal of sexual selection components in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Innocenti, Paolo; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the common assumption that multiple mating should in general be favored in males, but not in females, to date there is no consensus on the general impact of multiple mating on female fitness. Notably, very little is known about the genetic and physiological features underlying the female response to sexual selection pressures. By combining an experimental evolution approach with genomic techniques, we investigated the effects of single and multiple matings on female fecundi...

  16. Effects of mating status on copulation investment by male bushcricket Gampsocleis gratiosa (Tettigoniidae, Orthoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yong

    2006-01-01

    Male's copulation investment, including spermatophore and sperm investment were very high in the Chinese bushcricket Gampsocleis gratiosa. The effects of mating status of both males and females on male's copulation investment were examined in this study. The fresh weight of spermatophylax increased positively with the weight of males' body. This indicated that the nutritional investment during copulation depended on male's quality. Spermatophore investment showed insignificant differences in every copulation protocols. This finding supported the paternal investment hypothesis, that is, males contributed to their offspring with little attention to their partners. Sperm releasing per ejaculation varied significantly among the trials. Males decreased 54.19% sperm in second mating than in its first mating, demonsrated that males regarded the first mating highly, and were more prudent in subsequent mating. These males' strategies may contribute to the viability of the offspring.

  17. Variance-based selection may explain general mating patterns in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Johnson, Nels; Rychtár, Jan

    2008-06-23

    Female mating frequency is one of the key parameters of social insect evolution. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain multiple mating and considerable empirical research has led to conflicting results. Building on several earlier analyses, we present a simple general model that links the number of queen matings to variance in colony performance and this variance to average colony fitness. The model predicts selection for multiple mating if the average colony succeeds in a focal task, and selection for single mating if the average colony fails, irrespective of the proximate mechanism that links genetic diversity to colony fitness. Empirical support comes from interspecific comparisons, e.g. between the bee genera Apis and Bombus, and from data on several ant species, but more comprehensive empirical tests are needed.

  18. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  19. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  20. Molecular assessment of mating strategies in a population of Atlantic spotted dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Green

    Full Text Available Similar to other small cetacean species, Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis have been the object of concentrated behavioral study. Although mating and courtship behaviors occur often and the social structure of the population is well-studied, the genetic mating system of the species is unknown. To assess the genetic mating system, we genotyped females and their progeny at ten microsatellite loci. Genotype analysis provided estimates of the minimum number of male sires necessary to account for the allelic diversity observed among the progeny. Using the estimates of male sires, we determined whether females mated with the same or different males during independent estrus events. Using Gerud2.0, a minimum of two males was necessary to account for the genetic variation seen among progeny arrays of all tested females. ML-Relate assigned the most likely relationship between offspring pairs; half or full sibling. Relationship analysis supported the conservative male estimates of Gerud2.0 but in some cases, half or full sibling relationships between offspring could not be fully resolved. Integrating the results from Gerud2.0, ML-Relate with previous observational and paternity data, we constructed two-, three-, and four-male pedigree models for each genotyped female. Because increased genetic diversity of offspring may explain multi-male mating, we assessed the internal genetic relatedness of each offspring's genotype to determine whether parent pairs of offspring were closely related. We found varying levels of internal relatedness ranging from unrelated to closely related (range -0.136-0.321. Because there are several hypothesized explanations for multi-male mating, we assessed our data to determine the most plausible explanation for multi-male mating in our study system. Our study indicated females may benefit from mating with multiple males by passing genes for long-term viability to their young.

  1. Entering the 'big data' era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    The 'big data' concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate.

  2. Entering the ‘big data’ era in medicinal chemistry: molecular promiscuity analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The ‘big data’ concept plays an increasingly important role in many scientific fields. Big data involves more than unprecedentedly large volumes of data that become available. Different criteria characterizing big data must be carefully considered in computational data mining, as we discuss herein focusing on medicinal chemistry. This is a scientific discipline where big data is beginning to emerge and provide new opportunities. For example, the ability of many drugs to specifically interact with multiple targets, termed promiscuity, forms the molecular basis of polypharmacology, a hot topic in drug discovery. Compound promiscuity analysis is an area that is much influenced by big data phenomena. Different results are obtained depending on chosen data selection and confidence criteria, as we also demonstrate. PMID:28670471

  3. Coevolving parasites and population size shape the evolution of mating behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstes Niels AG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coevolution with parasites and population size are both expected to influence the evolution of mating rates. To gain insights into the interaction between these dual selective factors, we used populations from a coevolution experiment with the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei. We maintained each experimental population at two different population sizes. We assayed the mating behaviour of both males and females from coevolved and paired non-coevolved control populations after 24 generations of coevolution with parasites. Results Males from large, coevolved populations (i.e. ancestors were exposed to parasites showed a reduced eagerness to mate compared to males from large, non-coevolved populations. But in small populations, coevolution did not lead to decreased male mating rates. Coevolved females from both large and small populations appeared to be more willing to accept mating than non-coevolved females. Conclusions This study provides unique, experimental insights into the combined roles of coevolving parasites and population size on the evolution of mating rate. Furthermore, we find that males and females respond differently to the same environmental conditions. Our results show that parasites can be key determinants of the sexual behaviour of their hosts.

  4. Testing the prediction from sexual selection of a positive genetic correlation between human mate preferences and corresponding traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Burri, A.V.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection can cause evolution in traits that affect mating success, and it has thus been implicated in the evolution of human physical and behavioural traits that influence attractiveness. We use a large sample of identical and nonidentical female twins to test the prediction from mate choice

  5. Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae (Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch were irradiated with X-ray doses of 4, 8, 24 and 32 krad (which were applied to 0-1 day-old adult virgin males) and tested in mating competition with one-day-old non-irradiated males. A non-significant excess of parental females were mated to the unirradiated males. This consistent trend in favour of females, mated with unirradiated males was highly significant, when the results of all the experiments were bulked. This indicated that radiation impaired the mating competitiveness of males of T. urticae. Aging of irradiated males resulted in a significant decrease of male-mating competitiveness at least within 2 days after irradiation. When 24 krad X-rays irradiated males were tested in mating competition at different ages, with unirradiated males of equal age, it was demonstrated that the reduction in mating competitiveness of aging irradiated males is caused by accelerated aging due to the irradiation treatment

  6. Fitness costs of polygyny in female Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    Variance in mating systems can only be understood if the fitness consequences of the available options are known for both sexes. In Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca it has for long been suggested that females pairing with already mated males pay a fitness cost, and it is still debated why females

  7. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  8. Hormonal changes during the mating and conception seasons of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E

    2003-10-01

    We investigated hormonal and behavioral changes in wild male and female northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a 6-mo period that encompassed the onset of the 1998-1999 mating and conception seasons. Individual females resumed mating with the resumption of ovarian cycling, which was not synchronized among them or related to their cortisol levels. Females experienced two to seven cycles prior to conceiving, and the first conception occurred 2 mo after the onset of the group's mating season. There were no differences in female cortisol levels across their premating, mating, and conception conditions. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in females than in males prior to the conception season, consistent with the prediction that energy reserves may be associated with breeding readiness in females, but not males, in this species. The sustained elevation in male cortisol occurred after the peak in their sexual activity, which resulted in the first conception of the year. Male cortisol levels were positively correlated between years that were similar in rainfall, but differed in the timing of sexual and reproductive events. The timing of cortisol elevations in males appears to be generally regulated by environmental cues, but is responsive to fine-tuning by social and behavioral cues related to the unpredictable timing of reproductive opportunities within their extended mating season. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Experimental evolution reveals trade-offs between mating and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Wedell, Nina; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-08-23

    Immune system maintenance and upregulation is costly. Sexual selection intensity, which increases male investment into reproductive traits, is expected to create trade-offs with immune function. We assayed phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity of individuals from populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which had been evolving under different intensities of sexual selection. We found significant divergence among populations, with males from female-biased populations having lower PO activity than males from balanced sex ratio or male-biased populations. There was no divergence in anti-bacterial lytic activity. Our data suggest that it is the increased male mating demands in female-biased populations that trades-off against immunity, and not the increased investment in sperm transfer per mating that characterizes male-biased populations.

  10. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  11. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  12. Diet-induced mating preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Diet-induced mating preference was initially observed by Dodd (1). Subsequently, we reported that diet-induced mating preference occurred in Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment of the flies with antibiotics abolished the mating preference, suggesting that fly-associated commensal bacteria were responsible for the phenomenon (2). The hypothesis was confirmed when it was shown that colonizing antibiotic-treated flies with Lactobacillus plantarum reestablished mating preference in multiple-choice...

  13. Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinhao, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

  14. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C M; Baldauf, Sebastian A

    2012-08-07

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference.

  15. A Method to Test the Effect of Environmental Cues on Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-17

    An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior. The assay consists of a small mating arena containing food medium and a mating couple. The mating frequency for each couple is continuously monitored for 24 h. Here we present the applicability of this assay to test environmental compounds from an external source through a pressurized air system as well as manipulation of the environmental components directly in the mating arena. The use of a pressurized air system is especially useful to test the effect of very volatile compounds, while manipulating components directly in the mating arena can be of value to ascertain a compound's presence. This assay can be adapted to answer questions about the influence of genetic and environmental cues on mating behavior and fecundity as well as other male and female reproductive behaviors.

  16. Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Charlyn; Boettcher, Anne; Jones, Adam G

    2010-11-01

    Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborate traits occurring in nature, many of which play a vital role in competition over access to mates and individual reproductive fitness. Because expression of these traits is typically regulated by sex-steroids there is a significant potential for their expression to be affected by the presence of certain pollutants, such as endocrine disrupting compounds. Endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter primary sexual traits and impact reproduction, but few studies have investigated how these compounds affect secondary sexual trait expression and how that may, in turn, impact mating dynamics. In this study we examine how short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen impacts secondary sexual trait expression and mating dynamics in the Gulf pipefish, a species displaying sex-role reversal. Our results show that only 10days of exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol results in adult male pipefish developing female-like secondary sexual traits. While these males are capable of reproduction, females discriminate against exposed males in mate choice trials. In natural populations, this type of discrimination would reduce male mating opportunities, thus potentially reducing their long-term reproductive success. Importantly, the effects of these compounds on mating dynamics and mating opportunity would not be observed using the current standard methods of assessing environmental contamination. However, disrupting these processes could have profound effects on the viability of exposed populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejani Sen Majumder

    Full Text Available Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains--an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor'westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs.

  18. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains--an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season) and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor'westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs.

  19. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  20. Discrete two-sex models of population dynamics: On modelling the mating function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Legendre, Stéphane; Clobert, Jean

    2010-09-01

    Although sexual reproduction has long been a central subject of theoretical ecology, until recently its consequences for population dynamics were largely overlooked. This is now changing, and many studies have addressed this issue, showing that when the mating system is taken into account, the population dynamics depends on the relative abundance of males and females, and is non-linear. Moreover, sexual reproduction increases the extinction risk, namely due to the Allee effect. Nevertheless, different studies have identified diverse potential consequences, depending on the choice of mating function. In this study, we investigate the consequences of three alternative mating functions that are frequently used in discrete population models: the minimum; the harmonic mean; and the modified harmonic mean. We consider their consequences at three levels: on the probability that females will breed; on the presence and intensity of the Allee effect; and on the extinction risk. When we consider the harmonic mean, the number of times the individuals of the least abundant sex mate exceeds their mating potential, which implies that with variable sex-ratios the potential reproductive rate is no longer under the modeller's control. Consequently, the female breeding probability exceeds 1 whenever the sex-ratio is male-biased, which constitutes an obvious problem. The use of the harmonic mean is thus only justified if we think that this parameter should be re-defined in order to represent the females' breeding rate and the fact that females may reproduce more than once per breeding season. This phenomenon buffers the Allee effect, and reduces the extinction risk. However, when we consider birth-pulse populations, such a phenomenon is implausible because the number of times females can reproduce per birth season is limited. In general, the minimum or modified harmonic mean mating functions seem to be more suitable for assessing the impact of mating systems on population dynamics.

  1. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  2. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Cory

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young females with females close to oviposition (old. In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  3. Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Gratzer, Marian; Strodl, Markus A

    2017-05-01

    The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.

  4. Mating promotes lactic-acid gut bacteria in a gift-giving insect

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Chad; Mueller, Ulrich; Dietrich, Emma; Smith, C.; Srygley, R.; Dietrich, E.; Mueller, U.; Srygley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction with the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that differ in nuptial gift size, the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex and the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus, with the expectation that larger gifts are more likely to affect the gut microbiome. Surprisi...

  5. Are Women’s Mate Preferences for Altruism Also Influenced by Physical Attractiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Farrelly; Paul Clemson; Melissa Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    Altruism plays a role in mate choice, particularly in women’s preferences, and particularly for long-term relationships. The current study analyzed how these preferences interacted with another important mate choice variable, physical attractiveness. Here, female participants were presented with photographs of men of varying levels of physical attractiveness, alongside descriptions of them behaving either altruistically or not in different scenarios. The results showed women preferred altruis...

  6. Sexually transmitted parasites and host mating behavior in the decorated cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases play a potentially important role in the ecology and evolution of host mating behavior. Here, we use a sexually transmitted nematode-cricket (Mehdinema alii--Gryllodes sigillatus) system to examine the effects of parasitism on host mating activity and female choice. Previous work has shown that infected male crickets produce a significantly smaller nuptial gift (spermatophylax) than uninfected males. This is expected to result in reduced spermatophylax feeding du...

  7. Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2010), s. 1683-1696 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Additive genetic benefit * female mate choice * genetic compatibility * good genes * mate choice * MHC * nonadditive genetic benefit * olfactory cues * Rhodeus ocellatus * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.659, year: 2010

  8. Mating status correlates with dorsal brightness in some but not all poison frog populations

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Corinna E.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Cummings, Molly E.; Pröhl, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sexual signals are important for intraspecific communication and mate selection, but their evolution may be driven by both natural and sexual selection, and stochastic processes. Strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio) show strong color divergence among populations, but coloration also varies among individuals of the same population. The importance of coloration for female mate choice has been studied intensely, and sexual selection seems to affect color divergence in strawberry po...

  9. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized

  10. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite — A life-history perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Rühr, P.T.; Schmitz, H.; Egas, M.; Blanke, A.

    2016-01-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP),

  11. Mate Value Discrepancy and Mate Retention Behaviors of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yael; Mogilski, Justin K; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fink, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2). In Study 1, we documented that individuals with higher self-perceived short-term mate value, and who perceive their partner to have lower (vs. higher) short-term mate value, perform less frequent Benefit-Provisioning mate retention, controlling for the partner's Benefit-Provisioning mate retention. In Study 2, we documented that individuals who perceive that they could less easily replace their partner, and who perceive their partner could more (vs. less) easily replace them, perform more frequent mate retention (Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting), controlling for the partner's mate retention. These results highlight the importance of assessing perceived discrepancies in mate value (notably, regarding the replaceability of self and partner with another long-term mate) and perceived mate retention behaviors of self, relative to partner, between men and women in long-term relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring.

  13. Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Reut; Tuni, Cristina; Lubin, Yael; Smith, Deborah; Bilde, Trine

    2014-02-01

    Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system, high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate within the population, or to a male from a distant population, and fitness traits of F1s were compared. We found reduced hatching success of broods from between-population crosses, suggesting the presence of population divergence at a large geographical scale that may result in population incompatibility. However, a lack of a difference in offspring performance between inbred and outbred crosses indicates little genetic variation between populations, and could suggest recent colonization by a common ancestor. This is consistent with population dynamics of frequent colonizations by single sib-mated females of common origin, and extinctions of populations after few generations. Although drift or single mutations can lead to population divergence at a relatively short time scale, it is possible that dynamic population processes homogenize these effects at longer time scales. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Influence of mating disruption on the reproductive biology of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Muscas, Enrico; Mura, Alessandra; Iodice, Andrea; Savino, Francesco; Lentini, Andrea

    2018-05-08

    Although mating disruption is increasingly being used to control the worldwide grapevine pest vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), its mode of action remains unclear. A three-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of mating disruption on the development and reproduction of the vine mealybug. The influence of mating disruption applied over consecutive years on the pest population density was also evaluated. The percentage of ovipositing females was significantly reduced in disrupted plots by 18.8-66.2%, depending on the year. The absence of ovipositing females in disrupted plots in the autumn of the second and third year indicates the effectiveness of mating disruption throughout the whole growing season. Mating disruption consistently prolonged the pre-oviposition period in all years by up to 12.5 days. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the pheromone-based control of the vine mealybug and indicate that the reduction of the pest population density is due to both a decrease and delay in female mating. In addition, the population density of vine mealybugs under mating disruption decreased over years, indicating that consecutive applications of this control strategy would significantly increase the effectiveness of controlling the vine mealybug by mating disruption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting ligand-gated ion channels in neurology and psychiatry: is pharmacological promiscuity an obstacle or an opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matt T; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J

    2010-03-02

    The traditional emphasis on developing high specificity pharmaceuticals ("magic bullets") for the treatment of Neurological and Psychiatric disorders is being challenged by emerging pathophysiology concepts that view disease states as abnormal interactions within complex networks of molecular and cellular components. So-called network pharmacology focuses on modifying the behavior of entire systems rather than individual components, a therapeutic strategy that would ideally employ single pharmacological agents capable of interacting with multiple targets ("magic shotguns"). For this approach to be successful, however, a framework for understanding pharmacological "promiscuity"--the ability of individual agents to modulate multiple molecular targets--is needed. Pharmacological promiscuity is more often the rule than the exception for drugs that target the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesize that promiscuity is an important contributor to clinical efficacy. Modulation patterns of existing therapeutic agents may provide critical templates for future drug discovery in Neurology and Psychiatry. To demonstrate the extent of pharmacological promiscuity and develop a framework for guiding drug screening, we reviewed the ability of 170 therapeutic agents and endogenous molecules to directly modulate neurotransmitter receptors, a class of historically attractive therapeutic targets in Neurology and Psychiatry. The results are summarized in the form of 1) receptor-centric maps that illustrate the degree of promiscuity for GABA-, glycine-, serotonin-, and acetylcholine-gated ion channels, and 2) drug-centric maps that illustrated how characterization of promiscuity can guide drug development. Developing promiscuity maps of approved neuro-pharmaceuticals will provide therapeutic class-based templates against which candidate compounds can be screened. Importantly, compounds previously rejected in traditional screens due to poor specificity could be reconsidered in this

  16. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  17. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch John B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky. Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating. Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I previously mated females (i in isolation, or (ii paired with a male, and (II unmated (virgin females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1. Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a

  18. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  19. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of

  20. Does predation risk affect mating behavior? An experimental test in dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Franklin

    Full Text Available One of the most important trade-offs for many animals is that between survival and reproduction. This is particularly apparent when mating increases the risk of predation, either by increasing conspicuousness, reducing mobility or inhibiting an individual's ability to detect predators. Individuals may mitigate the risk of predation by altering their reproductive behavior (e.g. increasing anti-predator responses to reduce conspicuousness. The degree to which individuals modulate their reproductive behavior in relation to predation risk is difficult to predict because both the optimal investment in current and future reproduction (due to life-history strategies and level of predation risk may differ between the sexes and among species. Here, we investigate the effect of increased predation risk on the reproductive behavior of dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica.Females, but not males, showed a substantial increase in the number of inks (an anti-predator behavior before mating commenced in the presence of a predator (sand flathead Platycephalus bassensis. However, predation risk did not affect copulation duration, the likelihood of mating, female anti-predator behavior during or after mating or male anti-predator behavior at any time.Inking is a common anti-predator defense in cephalopods, thought to act like a smokescreen, decoy or distraction. Female dumpling squid are probably using this form of defense in response to the increase in predation risk prior to mating. Conversely, males were undeterred by the increase in predation risk. A lack of change in these variables may occur if the benefit of completing mating outweighs the risk of predation. Prioritizing current reproduction, even under predation risk, can occur when the chance of future reproduction is low, there is substantial energetic investment into mating, or the potential fitness payoffs of mating are high.

  1. High costs of female choice in a lekking lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren N Vitousek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of mate choice is an essential component of the evolution and maintenance of sexual selection, the energetic cost of female choice has not previously been assessed directly. Here we report that females can incur high energetic costs as a result of discriminating among potential mates. We used heart rate biologging to quantify energetic expenditure in lek-mating female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Receptive females spent 78.9+/-23.2 kJ of energy on mate choice over a 30-day period, which is equivalent to approximately (3/4 of one day's energy budget. Females that spent more time on the territories of high-quality, high-activity males displayed greater energetic expenditure on mate choice, lost more mass, and showed a trend towards producing smaller follicles. Choosy females also appear to face a reduced probability of survival if El Niño conditions occur in the year following breeding. These findings indicate that female choice can carry significant costs, and suggest that the benefits that lek-mating females gain through mating with a preferred male may be higher than previously predicted.

  2. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  3. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab

    2007-01-01

    by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female's eggsac. In mating experiments we examined whether males exploit the female's foraging motivation or the female's maternal care instinct. We carried out a gift-switching experiment, where males presented an eggsac, a wrapped fly or an unwrapped fly...... as nuptial gifts. Females fed on eggsacs as well as on prey gifts. Mating success was similar for males with both wrapped and unwrapped gifts, indicating that wrapping per se does not increase male mating success. In a food manipulation experiment, we investigated the effect of the female's hunger level...... on male mating success. Hungry females were more likely to accept a gift and copulate; hence the female's hunger state is decisive for male mating success. Our results strongly suggest that the female's foraging motivation is the true context for the maintenance of the nuptial gift....

  4. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units

  5. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Females were not more or less closely related to the males they paired with when considering neutral genetic variation. However, males failed to form breeding pairs when they had too few Mhc alleles and when they were too dissimilar from females at Mhc loci (i.e. had no common alleles). Furthermore, pairs did not form at random as Mhc diversity positively correlated in mating pairs. These results suggest that mate choice evolves in response to (i) benefits in terms of parasite resistance acquired from allelic diversity, and (ii) costs associated with the disruption of co-adapted genes. PMID:16600889

  6. [Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2010-01-01

    As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.

  7. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimullina, Elina [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russian Federation); Li Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K. [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baldwin, William S., E-mail: baldwin@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  8. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  9. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Li Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Baldwin, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  10. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Jorge L; Uy, J Albert C

    2010-12-23

    Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs). Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata), striped (parae), structural-coloured (blue) and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations) by 1) directly monopolizing access to females, and 2) modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct males exhibiting clear differences in their levels of

  11. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uy J Albert C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs. Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata, striped (parae, structural-coloured (blue and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Results Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations by 1 directly monopolizing access to females, and 2 modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Conclusions Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct

  12. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  13. The emerging role of promiscuous 7TM receptors as chemosensors for food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2010-01-01

    review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of nutrient-sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3-sensing L-a-amino acids; the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor; the proteolytic degradation......In recent years, several highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized of which many are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal...

  14. Ancestry dynamics in a South American population: The impact of gene flow and preferential mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    European ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success. Population genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success. Using estimates of autosomal and X-chromosome European ancestry, the amount of male gene flow or mating or reproductive advantage for Europeans, or those with European ancestry, was estimated. In a population from Antioquia, Colombia with an estimated 79% European autosomal ancestry and an estimated 69% European X-chromosome ancestry, about 15% male gene flow from Europe or about 20% mating or reproductive advantage of Europeans over Amerindians resulted in these levels of European ancestry in the contemporary population. Combinations of gene flow and mating advantage were nearly additive in their impact. Gene flow, mating advantage, or a combination of both factors, are consistent with observed levels of European ancestry in a Latin American population. This approach provides a general methodology to determine the levels of gene flow and mating differences that can explain the observed contemporary differences in ancestry from autosomes and X-chromosomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mating performance of Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains from Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutika, Gratian N.; Kabore, Idrissa; Parker, Andrew G.; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Seck, Momar T.; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The mating performance of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) mass- reared in Burkina Faso (BKF strain) was compared with that of target populations originating from the Bamako peri-urban area of the Niger River Basin, Mali (MLI strain) and the Niayes area, Senegal (SEN strain). The tests were carried out using a field cage either set up outdoors in Burkina Faso or inside the laboratory in Austria. The target population strains(MLI and SEN) were a few generations from the wild whereas the laboratory-reared flies (BKF) were adapted to laboratory rearing over many generations. The laboratory-reared BKF strain significantly out-competed the MLI strain in the mating tests, but showed close to equal competitiveness with the SEN strain. At least one-third of possible matings occurred during each observation period. The females from the two target populations readily mated with males from the BKF strain. The selected mating parameters and behaviour in the cage showed that there was mating compatibility between the strains and this absence of obvious mating barriers indicates the potential of using BKF strain males in programmes that have a sterile insect technique (SIT) component targeting the two G.p.gambiensis populations of Mali and Senegal.

  16. The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor–pheromone receptor pair (hpr1–hpp1 or hpr2–ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

  17. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-03-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest.

  18. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim using simple models that optimise the number...... of lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted for different feeding behaviours, and these predictions are tested experimentally using representative species. In general, male swimming speeds and the difference in swimming speeds between the genders are predicted...... and observed to increase with increasing conflict between mate searching and feeding. It is high in ambush feeders, where searching (swimming) and feeding are mutually exclusive and low in species, where the matured males do not feed at all. Ambush feeding males alternate between stationary ambush feeding...

  19. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  20. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  1. Pattern of mating preference of interspecific hybrid females and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    however, do not share identical relationships and there are some which are more closely ... of the parental species, if they additively inherited (Tomaru et al. 2004), while, when the ..... Drosophila sechellia and its siblings. Genes Genet. Syst.

  2. Social Mating System and Sex-Biased Dispersal in Mammals and Birds: A Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Karen E.; Shelley, Erin L.; Davis, Katie E.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that patterns of sex-biased dispersal are related to social mating system in mammals and birds has gained widespread acceptance over the past 30 years. However, two major complications have obscured the relationship between these two behaviors: 1) dispersal frequency and dispersal distance, which measure different aspects of the dispersal process, have often been confounded, and 2) the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in these vertebrate groups has not been examined using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. Results indicate that the evolution of female-biased dispersal in mammals may be more likely on monogamous branches of the phylogeny, and that females may disperse farther than males in socially monogamous mammalian species. However, we found no support for a relationship between social mating system and sex-biased dispersal in birds when the effects of phylogeny are taken into consideration. We caution that although there are larger-scale behavioral differences in mating system and sex-biased dispersal between mammals and birds, mating system and sex-biased dispersal are far from perfectly associated within these taxa. PMID:23483957

  3. Partitioning the effects of mating and nuptial feeding on the microbiome in gift-giving insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad C; Srygley, Robert B; Dietrich, Emma I; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-04-01

    Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction with the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that differ in nuptial gift size, the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex and the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus, with the expectation that larger gifts are more likely to affect the gut microbiome. Surprisingly, mating, but not nuptial gift consumption, affected the structure of bacterial communities in the gut, and only in Mormon crickets. The change in structure was due to a precipitous drop in the abundance of lactic-acid bacteria in unmated females, a taxon known for their beneficial effects on nutrition and immunity. Mating did not affect phenoloxidase or lysozyme-like antibacterial activity in either species, suggesting that any physiological response to mating on host-microbe interactions is decoupled from systemic immunity. Protein supplementation also did not affect the gut microbiome in decorated crickets, suggesting that insensitivity of gut microbes to dietary protein could contribute to the lack of an effect of nuptial gift consumption. Our study provides experimental evidence that sexual interactions can affect the microbiome and suggests mating can promote beneficial gut bacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  5. Temperature effects on the mating frequency of Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R.P.; Consoli, Fernando L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of temperature on the mating frequency of two lepidopterans, Anticarsia gemmatalis Huebner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which use different strategies of allocation, and with the utilization of nutrients for their reproductive activities. The insects were reared on artificial diets at 25 deg C, and the adults were exposed to five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C) to observe the influence of each temperature on their mating frequency, fecundity, fertility and longevity. The temperature affected the mating frequency of both species, being more evident at 15 deg C and 35 deg C, mainly for A. gemmatalis, which presented a drastic reduction on mating activities. The highest number of matings were observed from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, with S. frugiperda presenting mating activity (0-8) much higher than that of A. gemmatalis (0-2), but no correlation was observed among the number of matings and all other biological parameters evaluated (fecundity, fertility and longevity). However, S. frugiperda showed a positive correlation between fecundity and mating activity of females (r = 0.589; P = 0.003) at 25 deg C. The highest fecundities were observed at temperatures from 20 deg C to 30 deg C for S. frugiperda and at 25 deg C for A. gemmatalis. For both species, the longevity of males and females decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  6. Gamma irradiation effects on some biological aspects of Ephestia Kuehniella (Zell.), inherited sterility and mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Orabi, M.N.; Sawires, S.G.; Antonious, A.G.; Salama, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full grown male and female pupae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 40 to 450 Gy. Irradiated males were more radio-resistant than females. Reduction in fecundity and egg hatch were dose-dependant. Irradiated males or females showed significant shorter lifespan than control group. Also, there were reductions in F 1 progeny as a result of irradiating male and female parents with sub-sterilizing doses, which were more apparent in irradiating of male parents. The average larval pupal developmental period of F1 male and female progeny was affected. The sex ratio of F 1 generation was shifted in favor of males. The parental males or females irradiated as full-grown pupae were affected with sub-sterilizing dose of 200 Gy for male line and 100 Gy for female line. All possible mating combinations in F1, F 2 and F3 of males and females lines were examined. Fecundity and fertility of F I adults descendant from irradiated male parents were significantly reduced than F1 adults descendant from irradiated female parents. Also, the number of laid eggs and percentage of egg hatch were reduced drastically in crosses of F 1 males mated to unirradiated females of male line. Fecundity and fertility of the different mating combinations among F2 generation for both male and female treated lines were significantly decreased than the unirradiated control. Also, the number of adults resulting from all mating crosses among F2 generation was greatly reduced as compared to control adult progeny. There was a recovery in reproductive potential in moths of third generation for irradiated male line and in the second generation of the irradiated female line

  7. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up......A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  8. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate...... dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas...

  9. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant tendency...... for back-feather iridescence to be of shorter reflectance wavelength spectra in mated than in unmated males, which, when combined with acoustic variables, improves prediction of age class and mating status....

  10. Allochronic separation versus mate choice: nonrandom patterns of mating between fall armyworm host strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöfl, G.; Dill, A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Assortative mating may result from intrinsic individual mating preferences or from assortment traits not requiring expression of preferences. Assortment traits are phenotypes expressed in both sexes that enhance the probability of encountering individuals possessing similar trait values. In the

  11. Multiple sexual signals: Calls over colors for mate attraction in an aposematic, color-diverse poison frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Eva Dreher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual signals indicate species identity and mate quality, and their importance for mate attraction is largely recognized. Recently, research in animal communication has started to integrate multiple signal modalities and evaluate their interactions. However, mate choice experiments across animal taxa have been limited to laboratory conditions, and assessments of multiple sexual signals under field conditions are still lacking. We take advantage of the divergence in visual and acoustic signals among populations of the Neotropical poison frog Oophaga pumilio to evaluate the importance of male advertisement calls and color patterns in female mate selection. Previous mate choice experiments in this species suggested color-assortative female mate preferences across many populations. Nevertheless, acoustic signals are crucial for sexual selection in frogs, and males of O. pumilio use advertisement calls to attract females. We hypothesize that both advertisement calls and coloration affects female mate selection in O.pumilio. To test this hypothesis we tested 452 receptive females from six populations in Costa Rica and Panama in their natural home ranges for preferences regarding local vs. non-local advertisement calls and color patterns. Overall, the calls overrode the effect of coloration, whereby most females preferred local over non-local calls. We found a tendency to prefer brighter (but not necessarily local males in two populations. Furthermore the strength of preferences varied geographically, and thus might be involved in prezygotic isolation among populations. The stronger effect of calls on mate attraction is associated with acoustic divergence between genetic groups in the species, while colour pattern diversity is mostly located within one genetic group, i.e. not linked to large-scale population structure. Finally our data highlights the importance to consider an array of signal modalities in multiple wild populations in studies of

  12. Social structure of the harem-forming promiscuous fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, is the harem truly important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2018-02-01

    Bats are social animals and display a diverse variety of mating and social systems, with most species exhibiting some form of polygyny. Their social organization is fluid and individuals frequently switch partners and roosting sites. While harem-like social organization is observed in multiple tropical species, its importance is contested in many of them. In this study, we investigated the role of harems in the social organization of the old world fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx . Based on regular behavioural observations over a period of 20 months and genetic data from microsatellite markers, we observed that the social organization is flexible, individuals regularly shift between roosts and the social organization resembles a fission-fusion society. Behavioural and genetic analyses suggest that the harems are not strict units of social structure, and the colony does not show signatures of subdivision with harems as behavioural units. We also observed that there was no correlation between individuals with high association index and pairwise relatedness. Our findings indicate that similar to the mating system, the social organization of C. sphinx can also be categorized as a fission-fusion society, and hence the term 'harem' is a misnomer. We conclude that the social system of C. sphinx is flexible, with multi-male multi-female organization, and individuals tend to be loyal to a given area rather than a roost.

  13. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L; Merriwether, Ann M; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J Koji

    2010-11-30

    Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a "one-night stand") and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism.

  14. Nodulation and nitrogen uptake characteristics as selection indices for promiscuous soybean breeding in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Sanginga, K.E.; Dashiell, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Selection for atmospheric dinitrogen fixation in promiscuous soybeans by indigenous rhizobia populations is usually determined indirectly based on visual assessment of nodulation. As the method has been criticized extensively, we have examined this assay in relation to other N 2 fixation indices by evaluating growth of promiscuous soybeans in four ecological zones of Nigeria. Nodulation was affected considerably by rainfall indigenous, rhizobia populations and soil P. The N 2 fixation indices measured, nodule development, apparent effectiveness, total N accumulation and N derived from fixation, varied among soybean genotypes. The visual nodule assessment index correlated with nodule weight (r = 0.74; P = 0.01), but had no significant correlation (r = 0.13) with proportion of apparent effective nodules. All nodule parameters, however, correlated significantly (r = 0.16-0.71; P=0.05) with total N accumulation and seed yield. The percent apparent effectiveness of nodules was a superior index to nodule score and nodule number but inferior to nodule mass. Total N accumulation patterns in the genotypes indicated that N 2 fixation in some genotypes could be substantial during the reproductive growth phase and may serve as suitable criteria for selection. Therefore, in low N soils, percent nodule effectiveness and total N accumulation may be used to augment the visual scores particularly for genotypes, which seem to nodulate profusely with indigenous rhizohia populations (author)

  15. Expanding the Bioactive Chemical Space of Anthrabenzoxocinones through Engineering the Highly Promiscuous Biosynthetic Modification Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xianyi; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Mingjia; Shen, Guangqing; Zhou, Linjun; Deng, Zixin; Lei, Chun; Qu, Xudong

    2018-01-19

    Anthrabenzoxocinones (ABXs) including (-)-ABXs and (+)-ABXs are a group of bacterial FabF-specific inhibitors with potent antimicrobial activity of resistant strains. Optimization of their chemical structures is a promising method to develop potent antibiotics. Through biosynthetic investigation, we herein identified and characterized two highly promiscuous enzymes involved in the (-)-ABX structural modification. The promiscuous halogenase and methyltransferase can respectively introduce halogen-modifications into various positions of the ABX scaffolds and methylation to highly diverse substrates. Manipulation of their activity in both of the (-)-ABXs and (+)-ABXs biosyntheses led to the generation of 14 novel ABX analogues of both enantiomers. Bioactivity assessment revealed that a few of the analogues showed significantly improved antimicrobial activity, with the C3-hydroxyl and chlorine substitutions critical for their activity. This study enormously expands the bioactive chemical space of the ABX family and FabF-specific inhibitors. The disclosed broad-selective biosynthetic machineries and structure-activity relationship provide a solid basis for further generation of potent antimicrobial agents.

  16. Engineering a promiscuous pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase by a high throughput FACS screen

    KAUST Repository

    Hohl, Adrian

    2017-12-06

    The Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNAPyl are used to facilitate the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into the genetic code of bacterial and eukaryotic cells by orthogonally reassigning the amber codon. Currently, the incorporation of new ncAAs requires a cumbersome engineering process composed of several positive and negative selection rounds to select the appropriate PylRS/tRNAPyl pair. Our fast and sensitive engineering approach required only a single FACS selection round to identify 110 orthogonal PylRS variants for the aminoacylation of 20 ncAAs. Pocket-substrate relationship from these variants led to the design of a highly promiscuous PylRS (HpRS), which catalyzed the aminoacylation of 31 structurally diverse lysine derivatives bearing clickable, fluorinated, fluorescent, and biotinylated entities. The high speed and sensitivity of our approach provides a competitive alternative to existing screening methodologies, and delivers insights into the complex PylRS-substrate interactions to facilitate the generation of additional promiscuous variants.

  17. Identification of the key determinant of the transport promiscuity in Na+-translocating rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Adalyat M; Bertsova, Yulia V; Anashkin, Viktor A; Mamedov, Mahir D; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2018-05-15

    Bacterial Na + -transporting rhodopsins convert solar energy into transmembrane ion potential difference. Typically, they are strictly specific for Na + , but some can additionally transport H + . To determine the structural basis of cation promiscuity in Na + -rhodopsins, we compared their primary structures and found a single position that harbors a cysteine in strictly specific Na + -rhodopsins and a serine in the promiscuous Krokinobacter eikastus Na + -rhodopsin (Kr2). A Cys253Ser variant of the strictly specific Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Na + -rhodopsin (NaR) was indeed found to transport both Na + and H + in a light-dependent manner when expressed in retinal-producing Escherichia coli cells. The dual specificity of the NaR variant was confirmed by analysis of its photocycle, which revealed an acceleration of the cation-capture step by comparison with the wild-type NaR in a Na + -deficient medium. The structural basis for the dependence of the Na + /H + specificity in Na + -rhodopsin on residue 253 remains to be determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Basis for Potency and Promiscuity in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) and Tankyrase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Ekblad, Torun; Karlberg, Tobias; Löw, Mirjam; Pinto, Ana Filipa; Trésaugues, Lionel; Moche, Martin; Cohen, Michael S; Schüler, Herwig

    2017-02-23

    Selective inhibitors could help unveil the mechanisms by which inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) elicits clinical benefits in cancer therapy. We profiled 10 clinical PARP inhibitors and commonly used research tools for their inhibition of multiple PARP enzymes. We also determined crystal structures of these compounds bound to PARP1 or PARP2. Veliparib and niraparib are selective inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2; olaparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib are more potent inhibitors of PARP1 but are less selective. PJ34 and UPF1069 are broad PARP inhibitors; PJ34 inserts a flexible moiety into hydrophobic subpockets in various ADP-ribosyltransferases. XAV939 is a promiscuous tankyrase inhibitor and a potent inhibitor of PARP1 in vitro and in cells, whereas IWR1 and AZ-6102 are tankyrase selective. Our biochemical and structural analysis of PARP inhibitor potencies establishes a molecular basis for either selectivity or promiscuity and provides a benchmark for experimental design in assessment of PARP inhibitor effects.

  19. Associations between Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation with Both Infidelity and Sexual Promiscuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R.; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L.; Merriwether, Ann M.; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J. Koji

    2010-01-01

    Background Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. Methodology/Principal Findings We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a “one-night stand”) and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. Conclusions/Significance DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism. PMID:21152404

  20. Mechanism-Guided Discovery of an Esterase Scaffold with Promiscuous Amidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Kürten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and generation of biocatalysts with extended catalytic versatilities are of immense relevance in both chemistry and biotechnology. An enhanced atomistic understanding of enzyme promiscuity, a mechanism through which living systems acquire novel catalytic functions and specificities by evolution, would thus be of central interest. Using esterase-catalyzed amide bond hydrolysis as a model system, we pursued a simplistic in silico discovery program aiming for the identification of enzymes with an internal backbone hydrogen bond acceptor that could act as a reaction specificity shifter in hydrolytic enzymes. Focusing on stabilization of the rate limiting transition state of nitrogen inversion, our mechanism-guided approach predicted that the acyl hydrolase patatin of the α/β phospholipase fold would display reaction promiscuity. Experimental analysis confirmed previously unknown high amidase over esterase activity displayed by the first described esterase machinery with a protein backbone hydrogen bond acceptor to the reacting NH-group of amides. The present work highlights the importance of a fundamental understanding of enzymatic reactions and its potential for predicting enzyme scaffolds displaying alternative chemistries amenable to further evolution by enzyme engineering.

  1. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection, little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity.We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+ report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a "one-night stand" and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity.DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism.

  2. Engineered P450 biocatalysts show improved activity and regio-promiscuity in aromatic nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Chao; Hackett, John C; Loria, Rosemary; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2017-04-12

    Nitroaromatics are among the most important and commonly used chemicals but their production often suffers from multiple unsolved challenges. We have previously described the development of biocatalytic nitration processes driven by an engineered P450 TxtE fusion construct. Herein we report the creation of improved nitration biocatalysts through constructing and characterizing fusion proteins of TxtE with the reductase domain of CYP102A1 (P450BM3, BM3R). The majority of constructs contained variable linker length while one was rationally designed for optimizing protein-protein interactions. Detailed biochemical characterization identified multiple active chimeras that showed improved nitration activity, increased coupling efficiency and higher total turnover numbers compared with TxtE. Substrate promiscuity of the most active chimera was further assessed with a substrate library. Finally, a biocatalytic nitration process was developed to nitrate 4-Me-DL-Trp. The production of both 4-Me-5-NO 2 -L-Trp and 4-Me-7-NO 2 -L-Trp uncovered remarkable regio-promiscuity of nitration biocatalysts.

  3. Testing whether Metazoan Tyrosine Loss Was Driven by Selection against Promiscuous Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Siddharth; Struck, Travis J.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Paniscus, Mary; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory modification in metazoans, and the corresponding kinase enzymes have diversified dramatically. This diversification is correlated with a genome-wide reduction in protein tyrosine content, and it was recently suggested that this reduction was driven by selection to avoid promiscuous phosphorylation that might be deleterious. We tested three predictions of this intriguing hypothesis. 1) Selection should be stronger on residues that are more likely to be phosphorylated due to local solvent accessibility or structural disorder. 2) Selection should be stronger on proteins that are more likely to be promiscuously phosphorylated because they are abundant. We tested these predictions by comparing distributions of tyrosine within and among human and yeast orthologous proteins. 3) Selection should be stronger against mutations that create tyrosine versus remove tyrosine. We tested this prediction using human population genomic variation data. We found that all three predicted effects are modest for tyrosine when compared with the other amino acids, suggesting that selection against deleterious phosphorylation was not dominant in driving metazoan tyrosine loss. PMID:25312910

  4. Promiscuous activity of ER glucosidase II discovered through donor specificity analysis of UGGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Atsushi, E-mail: miyagawa.atsushi@nitech.ac.jp [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-Ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Totani, Kiichiro [Department of Materials and Life Science, Seikei University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Matsuo, Ichiro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Ito, Yukishige, E-mail: yukito@riken.jp [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); ERATO Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} UGGT has a narrow donor specificity. {yields} UGGT gave several non-natural high-mannose-type glycans. {yields} G-II has a promiscuous activity as broad specificity hexosidase. -- Abstract: In glycoprotein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), UGGT (UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase) and glucosidase II (G-II) play key roles. UGGT serves as a glycoprotein folding sensor by virtue of its unique specificity to glucosylate glycoproteins at incompletely folded stage. By using various UDP-Glc analogues, we first analyzed donor specificity of UGGT, which was proven to be rather narrow. However, marginal activity was observed with UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronic acid as well as with 3-, 4- and 6-deoxy glucose analogues to give corresponding transfer products. Intriguingly, G-II smoothly converted all of them back to Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}, providing an indication that G-II has a promiscuous activity as a broad specificity hexosidase.

  5. Engineering a promiscuous pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase by a high throughput FACS screen

    KAUST Repository

    Hohl, Adrian; Karan, Ram; Akal, Anstassja; Renn, Dominik; Liu, Xuechao; Dharamarajnadar, Alaguraj; Ghoprade, Seema Arun; Groll, Michael; Rueping, Magnus; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2017-01-01

    The Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNAPyl are used to facilitate the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into the genetic code of bacterial and eukaryotic cells by orthogonally reassigning the amber codon. Currently, the incorporation of new ncAAs requires a cumbersome engineering process composed of several positive and negative selection rounds to select the appropriate PylRS/tRNAPyl pair. Our fast and sensitive engineering approach required only a single FACS selection round to identify 110 orthogonal PylRS variants for the aminoacylation of 20 ncAAs. Pocket-substrate relationship from these variants led to the design of a highly promiscuous PylRS (HpRS), which catalyzed the aminoacylation of 31 structurally diverse lysine derivatives bearing clickable, fluorinated, fluorescent, and biotinylated entities. The high speed and sensitivity of our approach provides a competitive alternative to existing screening methodologies, and delivers insights into the complex PylRS-substrate interactions to facilitate the generation of additional promiscuous variants.

  6. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Reproduction and Mating Competitiveness in the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H. A.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; El-Dessouki, S. A.; El-Awady, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 100, 125, 150 Gy. The fecundity of normal females crossed with treated males decreased with the increase of the dose given to males. The reduction in egg hatch was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to males. Males irradiated by low doses of 125 and 150 Gy were fully competitive against untreated males for mating with normal females. Increasing the ratio of irradiated males to normal males from 1:1 to 5:1 decreased the rate of egg viability among P 1 and their successive filial generations. (Authors)

  8. Embryonic origin of mate choice in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Oliver; Crews, David

    2006-01-01

    Individual differences in the adult sexual behavior of vertebrates are rooted in the fetal environment. In the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), hatchling sex ratios differ between incubation temperatures, as does sexuality in same-sex animals. This variation can primarily be ascribed to the temperature having direct organizing actions on the brain. Here we demonstrate that embryonic temperature can affect adult mate choice in the leopard gecko. Given the simultaneous choice between two females from different incubation temperatures (30.0 and 34.0 degrees C), males from one incubation temperature (30.0 degrees C) preferred the female from 34.0 degrees C, while males from another incubation temperature (32.5 degrees C) preferred the female from 30.0 degrees C. We suggest that this difference in mate choice is due to an environmental influence on brain development leading to differential perception of opposite-sex individuals. This previously unrecognized modulator of adult mate choice lends further support to the view that mate choice is best understood in the context of an individual's entire life-history. Thus, sexual selection results from a combination of the female's as well as the male's life history. Female attractiveness and male choice therefore are complementary. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reproductive performance of gilts according to growth rate and backfat thickness at mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Filha, W S; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the influence of growth rate (GR) and backfat thickness (BF), at first mating of gilts, on the reproductive performance until the first farrowing and on the variation in birth weight of piglets. Gilts were categorized into three groups according to GR from birth until the first mating: GRI (600-700 g/d; n = 345), GRII (701-770 g/d; n = 710) and GRIII (771-870 g/d; n = 366). Analyses were also performed considering three groups formed according to BF (mm) at mating: BFI (10-15 mm; n = 405); BFII (16-17 mm; n = 649)and BFIII (18-23 mm; n = 367). There were no differences in farrowing rate and return to estrus rate among BF or GR groups (P > 0.05). GRII and GRIII females had larger litter size compared to GRI gilts (P GRI and GRII females. Moreover GRIII females had more piglets (P GRI females. More total born and born alive piglets were observed in BFII compared with BFI females (P 0.05). These results show that there is no advantage, in terms of farrowing rate and number of born alive, in performing the first mating of gilts with GR> 770 g/d and BF > 17 mm.

  10. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.com, e-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.com, e-mail: ibravo@ufba.br

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  11. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  12. New directions for mating disruption in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating Disruption (MD) is an alternative to insecticide for control of three major pests -Sparganthois fruitworm, Cranberry fruitworm and Blackheaded fireworm. MD functions by sending out false plumes of the insect's sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempti...

  13. Good vs complementary genes for parasite resistance and the evolution of mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lively Curtis M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female mate choice may be adaptive when males exhibit heritable genetic variation at loci encoding resistance to infectious disease. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis predicts that females should assess the genetic quality of males by monitoring traits that indicate health and vigor (condition-dependent choice, or CD. Alternatively, some females may employ a more direct method of screening and select mates based on the dissimilarity of alleles at the major histocompatibility loci (we refer to this as opposites-attract, or OA. Empirical studies suggest that both forms of mate choice exist, but little is known about the potential for natural selection to shape the two strategies in nature. Results We used computer simulation models to examine the evolutionary fates of the two forms of mate choice in populations at risk for infection by debilitating parasites. We found that populations exhibiting random mating (no mate choice can be invaded and replaced completely by individuals practicing CD type mate choice. We also found that an allele encoding OA choice can increase when rare in randomly mating populations, but that it does not go to fixation under selection. A similar result was obtained when the OA strategy was introduced into populations practicing CD mate choice. As before, we found that the OA choice allele will increase when rare, and that it will not go to fixation under selection. The converse however was not true, as CD individuals gain no rare advantage when introduced into an OA population. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that, when rare, OA is the best strategy for parasite evasion (of those considered here. The consequence of OA increasing in the population, however, is to reduce the parasite driven genotype oscillations and facilitate the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium at the disease-resistance loci. This leads to a neutrally stable situation in which different strategies have equal fitness, and

  14. Does kin recognition and sib-mating avoidance limit the risk of genetic incompatibility in a parasitic wasp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Metzger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When some combinations of maternal and paternal alleles have a detrimental effect on offspring fitness, females should be able to choose mates on the basis of their genetic compatibility. In numerous Hymenoptera, the sex of an individual depends of the allelic combination at a specific locus (single-locus Complementary Sex Determination, and in most of these species individuals that are homozygous at this sexual locus develop into diploid males with zero fitness.In this paper, we tested the hypothesis of genetic incompatibility avoidance by investigating sib-mating avoidance in the solitary wasp parasitoid, Venturia canescens. In the context of mate choice we show, for the first time in a non-social hymenopteran species, that females can avoid mating with their brothers through kin recognition. In "no-choice" tests, the probability a female will mate with an unrelated male is twice as high as the chance of her mating with her brothers. In contrast, in choice tests in small test arenas, no kin discrimination effect was observed. Further experiments with male extracts demonstrate that chemical cues emanating from related males influence the acceptance rate of unrelated males.Our results are compatible with the genetic incompatibility hypothesis. They suggest that the female wasps recognize sibs on the basis of a chemical signature carried or emitted by males possibly using a "self-referent phenotype matching" mechanism.

  15. An integrative mating system assessment of a nonmodel, economically important Pacific rockfish (Sebastes melanops) reveals nonterritorial polygamy and conservation implications for a large species flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorge, Kurt W; Wilson, Raymond R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops . Microsatellite parentage analysis of 17 pregnant females, 1,256 of their progeny, and 106 adults from the population yielded one to four sires per brood, a mean of two sires, and a female mate frequency distribution with a truncated normal (random) pattern. The 11 multiple paternity broods all contained higher median allele richness than the six single paternity broods (Wilcoxon test: W  = 0, p  distributions that distinguish polygynandry and polyandrogyny mating systems, that is, variations of polygamy, but not polyandry. Inference for polygamy is consistent with weak premating sexual selection on males, expected in mid-water, schooling S. melanops , owing to polyandrous mating, moderately aggregated receptive females, an even ASR, and no territories and nests used for reproduction. Each of these characteristics facilitates more mating males and erodes conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Evaluation of male evolutionary responses of demersal congeners that express reproductively territorial behavior revealed they have more potential mechanisms for producing premating sexual selection, greater variation in reproductive success, and a reduced breeding effective population size of adults and annual effective size of a cohort, compared to S. melanops modeled with two mates per adult. Such divergence in behavior and mating system by territorial species may

  16. Paternal Effort in Relation to Acoustically Mediated Mate Choice in a Neotropical Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Beth Ann

    One aspect of communication not normally considered in studies of anuran amphibians involves the extent to which acoustic signals indicate the quality of parental care a male provides. My research examined this question in the golden rocket frog (Anomaloglossus beebei), a Neotropical dendrobatid that exhibits acoustically mediated mate choice and biparental care. I investigated the function of the male advertisement call of A. beebei in the context of female mate choice by testing the predictions of four hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the relationship between mate signals and male parental care quality. In addition, I conducted a series of studies on acoustic variability, female preferences for advertisement call traits and the importance of male parental care on offspring survival.

  17. Automatic Attention towards Face or Body as a Function of Mating Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jing Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because women's faces and bodies carry different cues of reproductive value, men may attend to different perceptual cues as functions of their long-term versus short-term mating motivations. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments on 135 male and 132 female participants. When influenced by short-term rather than long-term mating motivations, men's attention was captured by (Study 1, was shifted to (Study 2, and was distracted by (Study 3 the waist/hip area rather than the face on photographs of attractive women. Similar effects were not found among the female participants in response to photographs of attractive men. These results support the evolutionary view that, similar to the attentional selectivity found in other domains of life, male perceptual attention has evolved to selectively capture and hold reproductive information about the opposite sex as a function of short-term versus long-term mating goals.

  18. Obp56h Modulates Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Shorter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions in insects are driven by conspecific chemical signals that are detected via olfactory and gustatory neurons. Odorant binding proteins (Obps transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that RNAi knockdown of Obp56h gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster enhances mating behavior by reducing courtship latency. The change in mating behavior that results from inhibition of Obp56h expression is accompanied by significant alterations in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC composition, including reduction in 5-tricosene (5-T, an inhibitory sex pheromone produced by males that increases copulation latency during courtship. Whole genome RNA sequencing confirms that expression of Obp56h is virtually abolished in Drosophila heads. Inhibition of Obp56h expression also affects expression of other chemoreception genes, including upregulation of lush in both sexes and Obp83ef in females, and reduction in expression of Obp19b and Or19b in males. In addition, several genes associated with lipid metabolism, which underlies the production of cuticular hydrocarbons, show altered transcript abundances. Our data show that modulation of mating behavior through reduction of Obp56h is accompanied by altered cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and implicate 5-T as a possible ligand for Obp56h.

  19. Sexual segregation and flexible mating patterns in temperate bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L Angell

    Full Text Available Social structure evolves from a trade-off between the costs and benefits of group-living, which are in turn dependent upon the distribution of key resources such as food and shelter. Males and females, or juveniles and adults, may have different priorities when selecting habitat due to differences in physiological or behavioural imperatives, leading to complex patterns in group composition. We studied social structure and mating behaviour in the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii along an altitudinal gradient, combining field studies with molecular genetics. With increasing altitude the proportion of males in summer roosts increased and only males were present in the highest roosts. With increasing altitude environmental temperature decreased, nightly variation in temperature increased, and bat foraging activity decreased, supporting the hypothesis that the harsher, high elevation sites cannot support breeding females. We found that offspring in female-dominated lowland roosts had a very high probability of being fathered by bats caught during autumn swarming at hibernation sites, in contrast to those in intermediate roosts, which had a high probability of being fathered by males sharing the nursery roost with the females. Whilst females normally appear to exclude males from nursery colonies, for those in marginal habitats, one explanation for the presence of males is that the thermoregulatory benefits to the females may outweigh disadvantages, such as competition for food, and give some males an opportunity to increase their breeding success. We suggest that the environment, and its effects on resource distribution, thus determine social structure, which in turn determines the mating pattern that has evolved.

  20. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  1. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  2. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Density-dependent selection on mate search and evolution of Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Kramer, Andrew M; Bernhauerová, Veronika; Drake, John M

    2018-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high-density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density. We develop an individual-based, eco-genetic model to study how mating systems and fitness trade-offs interact with changes in population density to drive evolution of the rate at which males or females search for mates. Finite mate search rate triggers Allee effects in our model and we explore how these Allee effects respond to such evolution. We allow a population to adapt to several population density regimes and examine whether high-density populations are likely to reverse adaptations attained at low densities. We find density-dependent selection in most of scenarios, leading to search rates that result in lower Allee thresholds in populations kept at lower densities. This mainly occurs when fecundity costs are imposed on mate search, and provides an explanation for why Allee effects are often observed in anthropogenically rare species. Optimizing selection, where the attained trait value minimizes the Allee threshold independent of population density, depended on the trade-off between search and survival, combined with monogamy when females were searching. Other scenarios led to runaway selection on the mate search rate, including evolutionary suicide. Trade-offs involved in mate search may thus be crucial to determining how density influences the evolution of Allee effects. Previous studies did not examine evolution of a trait related to the strength of Allee effects under density variation. We emphasize the crucial role that mating systems, fitness

  4. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jiming; Yang Rongxin; Xian Darong; Feng Chunsheng

    1986-01-01

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F 1 and F 2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F 3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  5. Looking for a similar partner: host plants shape mating preferences of herbivorous insects by altering their contact pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhardt, Sven; Otte, Tobias; Hilker, Monika

    2012-09-01

    The role of phenotypical plasticity in ecological speciation and the evolution of sexual isolation remains largely unknown. We investigated whether or not divergent host plant use in an herbivorous insect causes assortative mating by phenotypically altering traits involved in mate recognition. We found that males of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae preferred to mate with females that were reared on the same plant species to females provided with a different plant species, based on divergent cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that serve as contact pheromones. The cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes of the beetles were host plant specific and changed within 2 weeks after a shift to a novel host plant species. We suggest that plant-induced phenotypic divergence in mate recognition cues may act as an early barrier to gene flow between herbivorous insect populations on alternative host species, preceding genetic divergence and thus, promoting ecological speciation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. The complex interplay between macronutrient intake, cuticular hydrocarbon expression and mating success in male decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, J; Jensen, K; House, C M; Sakaluk, S K; Sakaluk, J K; Hunt, J

    2017-04-01

    The condition dependence of male sexual traits plays a central role in sexual selection theory. Relatively little, however, is known about the condition dependence of chemical signals used in mate choice and their subsequent effects on male mating success. Furthermore, few studies have isolated the specific nutrients responsible for condition-dependent variation in male sexual traits. Here, we used nutritional geometry to determine the effect of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression and mating success in male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus). We show that both traits are maximized at a moderate-to-high intake of nutrients in a P:C ratio of 1 : 1.5. We also show that female precopulatory mate choice exerts a complex pattern of linear and quadratic sexual selection on this condition-dependent variation in male CHC expression. Structural equation modelling revealed that although the effect of nutrient intake on mating success is mediated through condition-dependent CHC expression, it is not exclusively so, suggesting that other traits must also play an important role. Collectively, our results suggest that the complex interplay between nutrient intake, CHC expression and mating success plays an important role in the operation of sexual selection in G. sigillatus. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Philips, André; Reichard, Martin

    2015-06-22

    The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits--the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating tactics. We quantified the learning accuracy of males and females in a spatial learning task and scored them for learning accuracy. Males were subsequently allowed to play the roles of a guarder and a sneaker in competitive mating trials, with reproductive success measured using paternity analysis. We detected a significant interaction between male mating role and learning accuracy on reproductive success, with the best-performing males in maze trials showing greater reproductive success in a sneaker role than as a guarder. Using a cross-classified breeding design, learning accuracy was demonstrated to be heritable, with significant additive maternal and paternal effects. Our results imply that male cognitive traits may undergo intra-sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Trade-Offs in Promiscuous Enzymes Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Mutational Robustness of the Native Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kaltenbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which an emerging new function trades off with the original function is a key characteristic of the dynamics of enzyme evolution. Various cases of laboratory evolution have unveiled a characteristic trend; a large increase in a new, promiscuous activity is often accompanied by only a mild reduction of the native, original activity. A model that associates weak trade-offs with "evolvability" was put forward, which proposed that enzymes possess mutational robustness in the native activity and plasticity in promiscuous activities. This would enable the acquisition of a new function without compromising the original one, reducing the benefit of early gene duplication and therefore the selection pressure thereon. Yet, to date, no experimental study has examined this hypothesis directly. Here, we investigate the causes of weak trade-offs by systematically characterizing adaptive mutations that occurred in two cases of evolutionary transitions in enzyme function: (1 from phosphotriesterase to arylesterase, and (2 from atrazine chlorohydrolase to melamine deaminase. Mutational analyses in various genetic backgrounds revealed that, in contrast to the prevailing model, the native activity is less robust to mutations than the promiscuous activity. For example, in phosphotriesterase, the deleterious effect of individual mutations on the native phosphotriesterase activity is much larger than their positive effect on the promiscuous arylesterase activity. Our observations suggest a revision of the established model: weak trade-offs are not caused by an intrinsic robustness of the native activity and plasticity of the promiscuous activity. We propose that upon strong adaptive pressure for the new activity without selection against the original one, selected mutations will lead to the largest possible increases in the new function, but whether and to what extent they decrease the old function is irrelevant, creating a bias towards initially weak

  9. In situ imaging and proteome profiling indicate andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wijaya, Hadhi; Samanta, Sanjay; Lam, Yulin; Yao, Shao Q.

    2015-06-01

    Natural products represent an enormous source of pharmacologically useful compounds, and are often used as the starting point in modern drug discovery. Many biologically interesting natural products are however not being pursued as potential drug candidates, partly due to a lack of well-defined mechanism-of-action. Traditional in vitro methods for target identification of natural products based on affinity protein enrichment from crude cellular lysates cannot faithfully recapitulate protein-drug interactions in living cells. Reported herein are dual-purpose probes inspired by the natural product andrographolide, capable of both reaction-based, real-time bioimaging and in situ proteome profiling/target identification in live mammalian cells. Our results confirm that andrographolide is a highly promiscuous compound and engaged in covalent interactions with numerous previously unknown cellular targets in cell type-specific manner. We caution its potential therapeutic effects should be further investigated in detail.

  10. Sex-specific trail pheromone mediates complex mate finding behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Melody Keena; Maya Nehme; Shifa Wang; Peter Meng; Aijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, and is considered, worldwide, to be one of the most serious quarantine pests of deciduous trees. We isolated four chemicals from the trail of A. glabripennis virgin and mated females that were not present in trails of mature males. These compounds were...

  11. Heat shock suppresses mating and sperm transfer in the rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H J; Qian, Q; Liu, X D

    2014-06-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor in determining the population size of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in summer. High temperatures inhibit survival, development and fecundity of this insect. However, biological responses of female and male adults to heat shock, and physiological mechanism of high temperature suppressing population development are still ambiguous. We experimentally tested the impact of heat shock (5 h day-1) on biological traits, spermatogenesis and sperm transfer of adults of C. medinalis. The result showed that heat exposure to 39 and 40 °C for 5 h reduced longevity and copulation frequency of adults, and hatchability of eggs. Immediate survival rate of males was lower than that of females after 3 days of exposure to 41 °C. The oviposition period, copulation frequency, fecundity of adults and hatchability of eggs were significantly lower when male adults were exposed to 40 or 41 °C for 3 days. Heat shock decreased frequency and success rate of mating when males were exposed, and it also resulted in postponement of mating behaviour and prolongation of mating duration as both the female and male adults were exposed. Heat shock did not affect spermatogenesis, but significantly inhibited sperms maturation. Moreover, males could not ejaculate sperm into females during copulation when these male moths received heat shock. Heat shock remarkably suppressed mating behaviour and sperm transfer, which led to a dramatic decline of rice leaf folder populations.

  12. Sperm Production and Mating Ability Among F1 males of Heliothis Virescens (F.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.M.; Sallam, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Adult males of Heliothis Virescens (F.) less than 12 h-old were irradiated with sub sterilizing doses of 50,100 or 125 Gy then crossed with untreated virgin females. The resulted F 1 males 1-and 4-day-old were dissected to determine the production of eupyrene sperm bundles and its accumulation in the duplex region. In another test, an experiment was conducted to determine the ability of F 1 males to mate and transfer sperm to untreated females. The data show that, eupyrene sperm bundles were not found in the duplex of newly emerged males immediately after emergence Number of eupyrene sperm bundles descended to duplex was significantly affected at 125 Gy during the first dark: light cycle of sperm descended. Accumulation of eupyrene sperm bundles of unmated F 1 males was significantly reduced at 100 and 125 Gy. It is apparent that the first mating is the most important, even in the control, and the rate of females that achieved successful mating with F 1 males after the first ejaculate was markedly reduced. This reduction was directly related to the dose level of irradiation. The proportion of mated females without and sperm, with apyrene sperms only or those with reduced amount of eupyrene sperms was generally increased as the dose applied to P 1 increased

  13. The impact of founder events on chromosomal variability in multiply mating species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    size reductions and recent bottlenecks leading to decreased X/A diversity ratios. Here we use theory and simulation to investigate a separate demographic effect-that of founder events involving multiply mated females-and find that it leads to much stronger reductions in X/A diversity ratios than...

  14. Mate choice in Australian brush-turkeys Alectura lathami : a preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, S.

    1992-01-01

    Female brush-turkeys respond to several factors when choosing with whom they will mate and where they will lay their eggs. The most important factors seem to be mound condition (especially incubation stage and digging effort required), male presence at mounds (though not necessarily male quality),

  15. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  16. Postnatal nutrition influences male attractiveness and promotes plasticity in male mating preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-12-01

    Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits. These results suggest that early-life dietary conditions can induce multiple and long-lasting effects on male and female reproductive traits. Moreover, the results seem to reflect a previously unreported case of adaptive plasticity in mate choice in response to a nutritionally mediated reduction in sexual attractiveness.

  17. From preferred to actual mate characteristics: the case of human body shape.

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    Alexandre Courtiol

    Full Text Available The way individuals pair to produce reproductive units is a major factor determining evolution. This process is complex because it is determined not only by individual mating preferences, but also by numerous other factors such as competition between mates. Consequently, preferred and actual characteristics of mates obtained should differ, but this has rarely been addressed. We simultaneously measured mating preferences for stature, body mass, and body mass index, and recorded corresponding actual partner's characteristics for 116 human couples from France. Results show that preferred and actual partner's characteristics differ for male judges, but not for females. In addition, while the correlation between all preferred and actual partner's characteristics appeared to be weak for female judges, it was strong for males: while men prefer women slimmer than their actual partner, those who prefer the slimmest women also have partners who are slimmer than average. This study therefore suggests that the influences of preferences on pair formation can be sex-specific. It also illustrates that this process can lead to unexpected results on the real influences of mating preferences: traits considered as highly influencing attractiveness do not necessarily have a strong influence on the actual pairing, the reverse being also possible.

  18. The Criteria of Love: Trait Desirability of Filipino Youth on Mate Selection

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    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In choosing a life partner, making a ‘good match’ is what everyone hopes for. Usually we have the habit of thinking on how many potential mates are sitting around? And with that, how many would you be attracted and attached to, and how many person you’d probably never date? To find out the relevance of the claim, this quantitative study was designed to know the desirable traits being considered by the Filipino youth in selecting their potential mate, and how male and female differ in their preferences. A total of 400 Filipino university students with the age of 15 to 23 years old participated in the study through self-administered survey. General findings revealed that over the 6 trait dimensions: Physical Traits; Social Traits; Personality Traits; Skills; Achievements; and Spiritual Traits—male and female have significant difference in their trait preference in choosing their mate. Though there are traits that fall under the same degree of importance, women still have higher preference in mate selection criteria as compared to men in all traits. Overall, the trait preferences of the respondents were critically influenced by their sex. Nevertheless, this study clearly suggests the similarity that men and women put importance to traits which can help them develop and maintain an intimate and strong interpersonal relationship with their mate.

  19. A proxy of social mate choice in prairie warblers is correlated with consistent, rapid, low-pitched singing

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    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    In songbirds, female mate choice may be influenced by how well a male performs his songs. Performing songs well may be especially difficult if it requires maximizingmultiple aspects of performance simultaneously.We therefore hypothesized that, in a population of prairie warblers, the males most attractive to females would be those with superior performance in more than...

  20. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  1. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

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    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  2. Interspecific Mating between Wild and Sterile Fruit Flies of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) with Guava Fruit Fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong, Manon

    2003-06-01

    Copulation and sperm transfer were observed between wild flies and sterile flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in cages. 8-day old pupae of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were irradiated with gamma rays at 90 and 80 gray respectively. Wild flies from infested fruits and sterile flies from artificial diet in the labolatory were used for testing. The experiments were conducted 3 treatments and 3 replications. The ratio of sterile male : wild male: wild female were 3:1:1 by using sterile male of B. dorsalis: wild male of B. correcta : wild female of B. correcta and sterile male of B. correcta: wild male of B. dorsalis: wild female of B. dorsalis as 60:20:20 flies respectively. The experiment found 69 pairs of copulation consisting of 3 mating pairs(4.3%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 22 mating pairs (31.9%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta, 42 mating pairs(60.9%) of sterile male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. The cages which ratio 1:1 consisted of wild B. dorsalis and wild B. correcta (male and female = 50:50 flies) were observed and found that 43 pairs of copulation such as 2 mating pairs (4.6%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 26 mating pairs (60.5%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B. dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta and 15 mating pairs(34.9%) of wild male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. Mated female flies were separated from male flies. Egg hatch and sperm were checked. The hatchability of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 81 and 90%. The average sperm level in spermathecae of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 2.2 and 2.3 respectively but had no sperm in their spemathecae of females of interspecific copulations Mating behavior of both species began in the evening before sunset at

  3. Terminal Investment Strategies and Male Mate choice: Extreme Tests of Bateman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maydianne C B; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2005-11-01

    Bateman's principle predicts the intensity of sexual selection depends on rates of increase of fecundity with mating success for each sex (Bateman slopes). The sex with the steeper increase (usually males) is under more intense sexual selection and is expected to compete for access to the sex under less intense sexual selection (usually females). Under Bateman and modern refinements of his ideas, differences in parental investment are key to defining Bateman slopes and thus sex roles. Other theories predict sex differences in mating investment, or any expenditures that reduce male potential reproductive rate, can also control sex roles. We focus on sexual behaviour in systems where males have low paternal investment but frequently mate only once in their lifetimes, after which they are often killed by the female. Mating effort (=terminal investment) is high for these males, and many forms of investment theory might predict sex role reversal. We find no qualitative evidence for sex role reversal in a sample of spiders that show this extreme male investment pattern. We also present new data for terminally-investing redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti). Bateman slopes are relatively steep for male redbacks, and, as predicted by Bateman, there is little evidence for role reversal. Instead, males are competitive and show limited choosiness despite wide variation in female reproductive value. This study supports the proposal that high male mating investment coupled with low parental investment may predispose males to choosiness but will not lead to role reversal. We support the utility of using Bateman slopes to predict sex roles, even in systems with extreme male mating investment.

  4. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.

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    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

    2013-09-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body.

  5. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

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    DIRCEU PRATISSOLI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  6. The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae

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    Alzira Kelly Passos Roriz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and populations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission, lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female. Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

  7. Parental conflict in birds: comparative analyses of offspring development, ecology and mating opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, V.A; Liker, A; Freckleton, R.P; Székely, T

    2007-01-01

    Parents often conflict over how much care to provide to their offspring. This conflict is expected to produce a negative relationship between male and female parental care, the strength of which may be mediated by both ecological and life-history variables. Previous studies have observed such trade-offs, but it is not known how generally they occur. Traditional views of sexual conflict place great importance on ecological factors in determining levels of parental care, whereas alternative views propose that the key determinant is mating opportunity. We carried out a broad-scale comparative study of parental conflict using 193 species from 41 families of birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analysis, we establish the generality of intersexual parental care conflict. We also show that parental conflict, as indicated by the disparity in care between the male and the female, depends on offspring development and mating opportunities, since in precocial species both males and females responded to increased mating opportunities. Altricial birds, however, failed to show these relationships. We also found little influence of breeding climate on parental conflict. Taken together, our results suggest that sexual conflict is a key element in the evolution of parental care systems. They also support the view that the major correlates of the intersexual conflict are mating opportunities for both sexes, rather than the breeding environment. PMID:18029303

  8. The evolution of female sex pheromones

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    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  9. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  10. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

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    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  11. Direct reciprocity stabilizes simultaneous hermaphroditism at high mating rates: A model of sex allocation with egg trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Jonathan M; Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Simultaneous hermaphroditism is predicted to be unstable at high mating rates given an associated increase in sperm competition. The existence of reciprocal egg trading, which requires both hermaphroditism and high mating rates to evolve, is consequently hard to explain. We show using mathematical models that the presence of a trading economy creates an additional fitness benefit to egg production, which selects for traders to bias their sex allocation toward the female function. This female-biased sex allocation prevents pure females from invading a trading population, thereby allowing simultaneous hermaphroditism to persist stably at much higher levels of sperm competition than would otherwise be expected. More generally, our model highlights that simultaneous hermaphroditism can persist stably when mating opportunities are abundant, as long as sperm competition remains low. It also predicts that reciprocity will select for heavier investment in the traded resource. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. A test of the "sexy son" hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers' mating status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2006-02-01

    According to the original "sexy son" hypothesis, a female may benefit from pairing with an already-mated male despite a reduction in fecundity because her sons inherit their father's attractiveness. We used data from a long-term study of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) collected during 24 years to test this prediction. Our results show that the sons of polygynously mated females fledged in poor condition and therefore did not inherit their father's large forehead patch (a condition-dependent display trait) or mating status. From the female's perspective, polygynous pairing resulted in fewer recruited grandchildren than did a monogamous pairing. The reproductive value of sons did not outweigh the fecundity costs of polygyny because the low paternal care reduced the attractiveness of sons. When there are long-lasting parental effects on offspring attractiveness, costs of polygyny may include the production of nonsexy sons.

  13. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics.

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    Ramona Flatz

    Full Text Available Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus. We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males across two breeding rookeries (San Jorge and Los Islotes in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fathers could be identified for 30% of pups sampled at San Jorge across three breeding seasons and 15% of sampled pups at Los Islotes across two breeding seasons. Analysis of paternal relatedness between the pups for which no fathers were identified (sampled over four breeding seasons at San Jorge and two at Los Islotes revealed that few pups were likely to share a father. Thirty-one percent of the sampled males on San Jorge and 15% of the sampled males on Los Islotes were assigned at least one paternity. With one exception, no male was identified as the father of more than two pups. Furthermore, at Los Islotes rookery there were significantly fewer pups assigned paternity than expected given the pool of sampled males (p<0.0001. Overall, we found considerably lower variation in male reproductive success than expected in a species that exhibits behavior associated with strongly polygynous mating. Low variation in male reproductive success may result from heightened mobility among receptive females in the Gulf of California, which reduces the ability of males to monopolize groups of females. Our results raise important questions regarding the adaptive role of territoriality and the potential for alternative mating tactics in this species.

  14. Effects of Context and Relative Rank on Mate Choice and Affiliation Ratings

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    P. Lynne Honey

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Female dominance has not often been studied as a factor in mate choice and other social interactions. When it has been examined, there have been a number of conflicting findings. The present study was designed to clarify interpretations of a study conducted by Brown and Lewis (2004 that found that men prefer subordinate women in a workplace context. We presented participants with information about the relative rank of physically attractive targets, in two very different contexts (work-related and recreational. We found that the context in which rank cues are presented has an impact on affiliation ratings, but that cues of rank do not affect mate choice ratings. Future studies of effects of dominance must take into account the context in which they are presented, and recognize that rank may not be a sufficient indicator of dominance for the purpose of mate choice by both men and women.

  15. The population dynamical implications of male-biased parasitism in different mating systems.

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    Martin R Miller

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established 'two-sex' model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect of pathogenic disease at different case mortalities, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male-biased parasitism appears similar to unbiased parasitism in terms of its effect on the population dynamics. At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence.

  16. Sterility and mating competitiveness of irradiated males of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.; Eesa, N.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Low level gamma radiation adversely affected the reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, oncopeltus fasciatus dallas, as expressed by fecundity and fertility. Treatment was applied to late 5th instar male nymphs. Both fecundity and fertility decreased linearly with the treatment dose and complete sterility occurred when males were exposed to 6 kilorads and mated with normal females. The mating competitiveness of O. fasciatus males irradiated at late 5th instar nymphs decreased linearly with the treatment dose. A strong negative relationship existed between dose and mating competitiveness ( r = -0.93). A 3:2 ratio of irradiated males at 4 kilorads ( as late 5th instar as many progeny as normal in F 1 .2 tab.,1 fig

  17. Are Women’s Mate Preferences for Altruism Also Influenced by Physical Attractiveness?

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    Daniel Farrelly

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Altruism plays a role in mate choice, particularly in women’s preferences and in long-term (LT relationships. The current study analyzed how these preferences interacted with another important mate choice variable, physical attractiveness. Here, female participants were presented with photographs of men of varying levels of physical attractiveness, alongside descriptions of them behaving either altruistically or not in different scenarios. The results showed women preferred altruistic men, particularly in LT relationships and that this interacted with physical attractiveness such that being both attractive and altruistic made a man more desirable than just the sum of the two desirable parts. Also, being altruistic made low attractive men more desirable but only for LT relationships. Finally, men who were just altruistic were rated more desirable than men who were just attractive, especially for LT relationships. Overall, these findings are discussed in terms of the role of altruism in mate choice, particularly in LT relationships and directions of future research.

  18. SEXUAL SELECTION. Irrationality in mate choice revealed by túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda M; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-08-28

    Mate choice models derive from traditional microeconomic decision theory and assume that individuals maximize their Darwinian fitness by making economically rational decisions. Rational choices exhibit regularity, whereby the relative strength of preferences between options remains stable when additional options are presented. We tested female frogs with three simulated males who differed in relative call attractiveness and call rate. In binary choice tests, females' preferences favored stimulus caller B over caller A; however, with the addition of an inferior "decoy" C, females reversed their preferences and chose A over B. These results show that the relative valuation of mates is not independent of inferior alternatives in the choice set and therefore cannot be explained with the rational choice models currently used in sexual selection theory. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.