WorldWideScience

Sample records for prominent negative carbon

  1. Reporting of various methodological and statistical parameters in negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, J; Saxena, D

    2014-01-01

    Biased negative studies not only reflect poor research effort but also have an impact on 'patient care' as they prevent further research with similar objectives, leading to potential research areas remaining unexplored. Hence, published 'negative studies' should be methodologically strong. All parameters that may help a reader to judge validity of results and conclusions should be reported in published negative studies. There is a paucity of data on reporting of statistical and methodological parameters in negative studies published in Indian Medical Journals. The present systematic review was designed with an aim to critically evaluate negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals for reporting of statistical and methodological parameters. Systematic review. All negative studies published in 15 Science Citation Indexed (SCI) medical journals published from India were included in present study. Investigators involved in the study evaluated all negative studies for the reporting of various parameters. Primary endpoints were reporting of "power" and "confidence interval." Power was reported in 11.8% studies. Confidence interval was reported in 15.7% studies. Majority of parameters like sample size calculation (13.2%), type of sampling method (50.8%), name of statistical tests (49.1%), adjustment of multiple endpoints (1%), post hoc power calculation (2.1%) were reported poorly. Frequency of reporting was more in clinical trials as compared to other study designs and in journals having impact factor more than 1 as compared to journals having impact factor less than 1. Negative studies published in prominent Indian medical journals do not report statistical and methodological parameters adequately and this may create problems in the critical appraisal of findings reported in these journals by its readers.

  2. Negative employee corporate brand identification: A case study of a prominent Malaysian University corporate brand

    OpenAIRE

    Syed alwi, SF; Balmer, JMT; CheHa, N; Yen, D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate negative employee corporate brand identification towards a business school in Malaysia. The research marshals the nascent literature of corporate brand identification (Balmer and Liao 2007; Balmer, Liao and Wang 2008) which marked new ground by drawing on social identity theory in corporate branding contexts. Corporate brand identification is relatively new concept but has been recognized as very important facet of corporate marketing (Balmer and Li...

  3. Pathways to Carbon-Negative Liquid Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, D.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many climate change mitigation scenarios assume that atmospheric carbon dioxide removal will be delivered at scale using bioenergy power generation with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). However, other pathways to negative emission technologies (NETs) in the energy sector are possible, but have received relatively little attention. Given that the costs, benefits and life-cycle emissions of technologies vary widely, more comprehensive analyses of the policy options for NETs are critical. This study provides a comparative assessment of the potential pathways to carbon-negative liquid biofuels. It is often assumed that that decarbonisation of the transport sector will include use of liquid biofuels, particularly for applications that are difficult to electrify such as aviation and maritime transport. However, given that biomass and land on which to grow it sustainably are limiting factors in the scaling up of both biofuels and NETs, these two strategies compete for shared factors of production. One way to circumvent this competition is carbon-negative biofuels. Because capture of exhaust CO2 in the transport sector is impractical, this will likely require carbon capture during biofuel production. Potential pathways include, for example, capture of CO2 from fermentation, or sequestration of biochar from biomass pyrolysis in soils, in combination with thermochemical or bio-catalytic conversion of syngas to alcohols or alkanes. Here we show that optimal pathway selection depends on specific resource constraints. As land availability becomes increasingly limiting if bioenergy is scaled up—particularly in consideration that abandoned degraded land is widely considered to be an important resource that does not compete with food fiber or habitat—then systems which enhance land productivity by increasing soil fertility using soil carbon sequestration become increasingly preferable compared to bioenergy systems that deplete or degrade the land resource on which they

  4. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  5. Novel permeable pavement systems utilising carbon-negative\\ud aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Tota-Maharaj, Kiran; Monrose, John; Hills, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The use of commercially produced Carbon-Negative aggregates from Carbon8 (a British company which applies patented Accelerated Carbonation Technology (ACT) to solidify waste residues producing useful eco-friendly aggregates) is being investigated in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad, Tobago and St. Lucia. Typical construction of the subbase layer of pavements in the Caribbean include layers of virgin aggregate material (gravel, pea gravel) on which the base course layer is located. These mate...

  6. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xianping; Kang, Zongxuan; Shu, Dong; Liao, Yuqing; Gong, Yibin; He, Chun; Hao, Junnan; Zhong, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO 4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  7. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Negative Differential Resistance in Atomic Carbon Chain-Graphene Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Liping; Liu Chunmei; Liu Nianhua

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of atomic carbon chain-graphene junctions by using the density-functional theory combining with the non-equilibrium Green's functions. The results show that the transport properties are sensitively dependent on the contact geometry of carbon chain. From the calculated I-V curve we find negative differential resistance (NDR) in the two types of junctions. The NDR can be considered as a result of molecular orbitals moving related to the bias window. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Negative Emissions: Where Will the Carbon Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R. D.; McCoy, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    The need for energy technologies that remove carbon dioxide from the air grows with each year of delay in acting to address climate change. The most commonly mentioned approach for achieving that, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), today is largely a modeler's concept, not a technology. Thus, in the near term how can we confidently discuss the scale of biomass for energy with a net reduction in CO2 concentrations in the absence of examples? As a first step toward achieving that research objective, this talk frames the likely ways in which net reductions in CO2 concentrations can be achieved from a lifecycle perspective, and the pathways through which biomass can be converted to fuels and materials while removing CO2 from the atmosphere. We will address questions such as: What pathways exist for converting biomass into transportation fuels, electricity, and materials? How can we capture and manage the carbon dioxide emissions from these kinds of activities? And, what are the tradeoffs between pathways? We have conducted preliminary analyses of some of the common biofuel production pathways, such as ethanol from corn with and without carbon capture. These pathways are still uniformly carbon positive, that is to say, they do not achieve the goal of reducing atmospheric CO2, even if they result in lower emissions than do petroleum-based fuels. More advanced pathways appear to have the capacity for minor atmospheric reductions, including those for drop-in replacement transportation fuels and some long-lived materials. Targets and options for improving these technologies to the point that they can, in fact, be carbon negative will be discussed, including pre-processing of the biomass near the production site to reduce transportation emissions, finding ways to manage small CO2 sources associated with processing, and uses of biochar. We will end with a summary of near-term RD&D needs to advance carbon-negative pathways and the associated technologies. This

  10. Negative intergroup contact is more influential, but positive intergroup contact is more common: Assessing contact prominence and contact prevalence in five Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Paolini, S.; Rubin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 96 (2014), 536–547 ISSN 0046-2772 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : intergroup contact * negative contact * outgroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2014

  11. Autophagy induction under carbon starvation conditions is negatively regulated by carbon catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Atsuhiro; Koizumi, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process in which cytoplasmic components are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosomes in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy is induced under a variety of starvation conditions, such as the depletion of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, zinc, and others. However, apart from nitrogen starvation, it remains unclear how these stimuli induce autophagy. In yeast, for example, it remains contentious whether autophagy is induced under carbon starvation conditions, with reports variously suggesting both induction and lack of induction upon depletion of carbon. We therefore undertook an analysis to account for these inconsistencies, concluding that autophagy is induced in response to abrupt carbon starvation when cells are grown with glycerol but not glucose as the carbon source. We found that autophagy under these conditions is mediated by nonselective degradation that is highly dependent on the autophagosome-associated scaffold proteins Atg11 and Atg17. We also found that the extent of carbon starvation-induced autophagy is positively correlated with cells' oxygen consumption rate, drawing a link between autophagy induction and respiratory metabolism. Further biochemical analyses indicated that maintenance of intracellular ATP levels is also required for carbon starvation-induced autophagy and that autophagy plays an important role in cell viability during prolonged carbon starvation. Our findings suggest that carbon starvation-induced autophagy is negatively regulated by carbon catabolite repression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Deployment, Design, and Commercialization of Carbon-Negative Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel Lucio

    Climate change mitigation requires gigaton-scale carbon dioxide removal technologies, yet few examples exist beyond niche markets. This dissertation informs large-scale implementation of bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS), a carbon-negative energy technology. It builds on existing literature with a novel focus on deployment, design, commercialization, and communication of BECCS. BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in Western North America by 2050, with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. BECCS complements other sources of renewable energy, and can be deployed in a manner consistent with regional policies and design considerations. The amount of biomass resource available limits the level of fossil CO2 emissions that can still satisfy carbon emissions caps. Offsets produced by BECCS are more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Implied costs of carbon for BECCS are relatively low ( 75/ton CO2 at scale) for a capital-intensive technology. Optimal scales for BECCS are an order of magnitude larger than proposed scales found in existing literature. Deviations from optimal scaled size have little effect on overall systems costs - suggesting that other factors, including regulatory, political, or logistical considerations, may ultimately have a greater influence on plant size than the techno-economic factors considered. The flexibility of thermochemical conversion enables a viable transition pathway for firms, utilities and governments to achieve net-negative CO 2 emissions in production of electricity and fuels given increasingly stringent climate policy. Primary research, development (R&D), and deployment needs are in large-scale biomass logistics, gasification, gas cleaning, and geological CO2 storage. R&D programs, subsidies, and policy that recognize co-conversion processes can support this pathway to commercialization

  13. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  14. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  15. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  16. A Commercialization Roadmap for Carbon-Negative Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) envisages the need for large-scale deployment of net-negative CO2 emissions technologies by mid-century to meet stringent climate mitigation goals and yield a net drawdown of atmospheric carbon. Yet there are few commercial deployments of BECCS outside of niche markets, creating uncertainty about commercialization pathways and sustainability impacts at scale. This uncertainty is exacerbated by the absence of a strong policy framework, such as high carbon prices and research coordination. Here, we propose a strategy for the potential commercial deployment of BECCS. This roadmap proceeds via three steps: 1) via capture and utilization of biogenic CO2 from existing bioenergy facilities, notably ethanol fermentation, 2) via thermochemical co-conversion of biomass and fossil fuels, particularly coal, and 3) via dedicated, large-scale BECCS. Although biochemical conversion is a proven first market for BECCS, this trajectory alone is unlikely to drive commercialization of BECCS at the gigatonne scale. In contrast to biochemical conversion, thermochemical conversion of coal and biomass enables large-scale production of fuels and electricity with a wide range of carbon intensities, process efficiencies and process scales. Aside from systems integration, primarily technical barriers are involved in large-scale biomass logistics, gasification and gas cleaning. Key uncertainties around large-scale BECCS deployment are not limited to commercialization pathways; rather, they include physical constraints on biomass cultivation or CO2 storage, as well as social barriers, including public acceptance of new technologies and conceptions of renewable and fossil energy, which co-conversion systems confound. Despite sustainability risks, this commercialization strategy presents a pathway where energy suppliers, manufacturers and governments could transition from laggards to leaders in climate change mitigation efforts.

  17. Negative emissions in ecologic transition - Case of carbon geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude-Depezay, Audrey; Royer-Adnot, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The authors first report a bibliographical review on carbon assessment of BECCS (bio-energy and carbon capture and storage), and then propose a technological innovation which would result in an improvement of their carbon print: the CO 2 -Dissolved technology. Thus, they outline the challenges of the carbon print of fossil carbon capture and storage, discusses the specificities of BECCS (transformation of biomass into energy, carbon print of BECCS processes for the production of ethanol, of electricity, or of paper pulp). They discuss the contribution of the CO 2 -dissolved technology to the production of bio-ethanol: description of a French plant and case of supercritical carbon capture and storage, characteristics of the concept (operation, carbon print assessment)

  18. MgO-templated carbon as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuya; Soneda, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, MgO-templated carbon with different pore structures was investigated as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors. With increasing the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, the irreversible capacity increased, and the coulombic efficiency of the 1st cycle decreased because of the formation of solid electrolyte interface layers. MgO-templated carbon annealed at 1000 °C exhibited the highest capacity and best rate performance, suggesting that an appropriate balance between surface area and crystallinity is imperative for fast Na-ion storage, attributed to the storage mechanism: combination of non-faradaic electric double-layer capacitance and faradaic Na intercalation in the carbon layers. Finally, a Na-ion capacitor cell using MgO-templated carbon and activated carbon as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, exhibited an energy density at high power density significantly greater than that exhibited by the cell using a commercial hard carbon negative electrode.

  19. Brandburg Prominance, Namibia, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Brandburg Prominance, Namibia (21.0S, 14.5E) is a round basaltic plug and is the highest feature (over 8,000 ft) in the country. Wind streaks on the surface of the coastal desert, aligned northeast to southwest, are the result of frequent sand storms. Coastal stratus clouds provide most of the life supporting moisture as fog droplets in this arid land where annual rainfall may be less than a quarter of an inch for decades at a time.

  20. Formation and support of prominence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the concepts discussed by the group on the formation and support of prominences. Only quiescent and long-lived active region prominences were considered, since transient prominence phenomena, such as sprays, surges, H alpha flare-loops, and coronal rain, are dynamically distinct from long-lived, prominences. Stable prominences (which are often referred to as filaments when seen against the disk) can be subdivided into three categories, namely active region prominences, quiescent prominences and polar crown prominences. The third category is closely related to the second since a quiescent prominence will eventually evolve into a polar crown prominence if it lasts long enough. The distinction between the first and second categories is not sharp either since intermediates exist here as well (Martin, 1973)

  1. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  2. Fast and simultaneous detection of prominent natural antioxidants using analytical microsystems for capillary electrophoresis with a glassy carbon electrode: a new gateway to food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Antonio Javier; Barrigas, Inés; González, María Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines for the first time the analytical possibilities of fast and simultaneous detection of prominent natural antioxidants including examples of flavonoids and vitamins using a CE microchip with electrochemical detection (ED). Unpinched injection conditions, zone electrophoretic separation and amperometric detection were carefully assayed and optimised. Analysis involved the zone electrophoretic separation of arbutin, (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid in less than 4 min using a borate buffer (pH 9.0, 50 mM), employing 2 kV as the separation voltage and +1.0 V as the detection potential. In addition, the separation of different 'couples' of natural antioxidants of food significance including (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and rutin, as well as arbutin and phlorizdin is proposed. To demonstrate the potential and future role of CE microsystems, analytical possibilities and a new route in the raw sample analysis are presented. The preliminary results obtained allow the proposal of CE-ED microchips as a real gateway to microanalysis in foods.

  3. Reprint of: Negative carbon cluster ion beams: New evidence for the special nature of C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; O'brien, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Heath, J. R.; Tittel, F. K.; Curl, R. F.; Kroto, H. W.; Smalley, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Cold carbon cluster negative ions are formed by supersonic expansion of a plasma created at the nozzle of a supersonic cluster beam source by an excimer laser pulse. The observed distribution of mass peaks for the Cn- ions for n > 40 demonstrates that the evidence previously given for the special stability of neutral C60 and the existence of spheroidal carbon shells cannot be an artifact of the ionization conditions.

  4. New perspectives on solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.

    2012-06-01

    Recent observations of prominences obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution instruments, on board satellites (Hinode, SDO) as well as on the ground (SST) have provided very intriguing movies and open a new area for understanding the nature of prominences. The main topics are still debate: formation, dynamics, and characteristics of the plasma in the core and in the transition zone between the prominence and corona. We will review briefly the recent advances made in these topics, observationally as well as theoretically.

  5. Manganese availability is negatively associated with carbon storage in northern coniferous forest humus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendahl, Johan; Berg, Björn; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-11-14

    Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R 2  = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon. In comparison, established ecosystem models applied on the same data have failed to predict carbon stocks (R 2  < 0.05), and in our study manganese availability overshadowed both litter production and climatic factors. We also identified exchangeable potassium as an additional strong predictor, however strongly correlated with manganese. The negative correlation between manganese and carbon highlights the importance of Mn-peroxidases in oxidative decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter. The results support the idea that the fungus-driven decomposition could be a critical factor regulating humus carbon accumulation in boreal forests, as Mn-peroxidases are specifically produced by basidiomycetes.

  6. Image Analysis of a Negatively Curved Graphitic Sheet Model for Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursill, L. A.; Bourgeois, Laure N.

    High-resolution electron micrographs are presented which show essentially curved single sheets of graphitic carbon. Image calculations are then presented for the random surface schwarzite-related model of Townsend et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 921-924, 1992). Comparison with experimental images does not rule out the contention that such models, containing surfaces of negative curvature, may be useful for predicting some physical properties of specific forms of nanoporous carbon. Some difficulties of the model predictions, when compared with the experimental images, are pointed out. The range of application of this model, as well as competing models, is discussed briefly.

  7. Negative ion emission at field electron emission from amorphous (alpha-C:H) carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Bernatskij, D P; Ivanov-Omskij, V I; Pavlov, V G; Zvonareva, T K

    2001-01-01

    The study on the electrons field emission from the plane cathode surface on the basis of the amorphous carbon film (alpha-C:H) is carried out. The methodology, making it possible to accomplish simultaneously the registration of the emission currents and visually observe the distribution of the emission centers on the plane emitter surface is developed. The analysis of the oscillograms indicated that apart from the proper electron constituent the negative ions of hydrogen (H sup - and H sub 2 sup -), carbon (C sup -) and hydrocarbon (CH sub n sup -) are observed. The ions emission is connected with the processes of formation and degradation of the local emission centers

  8. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  9. Disordered carbon negative electrode for electrochemical capacitors and high-rate batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yoshiyuki; Kamakura, Ayumu; Naoi, Katsuhiko; Kusachi, Yuki; Utsugi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of high-rate capability and cycleability for a disordered carbon negative electrode in LiPF 6 /PC based electrolyte solution, the cell performance tests with various rates and depth of discharges (DODs) has been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. From the charge-discharge measurements, a surface carbon-edge redox reaction occurring between a carbonyl (C edge =O) and a lithium alkoxide (C edge -OLi) that delivers a large capacity was found fast and high cycleability at only shallow DOD (2.0-0.4 V). The limited or shallow charge-discharge cycling utilizing such facile and reversible action of the C edge =O/C edge -OLi of the disordered carbon is suited to an application for an negative electrode of asymmetric hybrid capacitors. A deep DOD discharge (2.0-0.0 V) revealed the existence of some complex processes involving a lithium cluster deposition at pores or microvoids as well as a lithium ion intercalation at graphene layers. The cluster deposition at pores was found to be relatively fast and reproducible. The lithium ion intercalation at graphenes and the subsequent cluster deposition at microvoids were found to be slow and degrade the cycleability after 100 cycles because of the accumulation of a thick and low-ion-conductive solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on surface

  10. Carbon dioxide inhalation induces dose-dependent and age-related negative affectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Griez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide inhalation is known to induce an emotion similar to spontaneous panic in Panic Disorder patients. The affective response to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects was not clearly characterized yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-four healthy subjects underwent a double inhalation of four mixtures containing respectively 0, 9, 17.5 and 35% CO(2 in compressed air, following a double blind, cross-over, randomized design. Affective responses were assessed according to DSM IV criteria for panic, using an Electronic Visual Analogue Scale and the Panic Symptom List. It was demonstrated that carbon dioxide challenges induced a dose dependent negative affect (p<0.0001. This affect was semantically identical to the DSM IV definition of panic. Older individuals were subjectively less sensitive to Carbon Dioxide (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CO(2 induced affectivity may lay on a continuum with pathological panic attacks. Consistent with earlier suggestions that panic is a false biological alarm, the affective response to CO(2 may be part of a protective system triggered by suffocation and acute metabolic distress.

  11. Negative magnetoresistance of pitch-based carbon fibers Temperature and pressure dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    The negative transverse magnetoresistance of high-modulus pitch-based carbon fibers has been measured over the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K at ambient pressure and at 4.2 K under hydrostatic pressure up to 16 kbar. At low fields (less than 0.5 torr) the magnitude of the magnetoresistance increases markedly as the temperature is lowered from 4.2 K to 1.3 K, in disagreement with Bright's theoretical model, and decreases with pressure at the rate -0.6 percent/kbar.

  12. Unusual Passivation Ability of Superconcentrated Electrolytes toward Hard Carbon Negative Electrodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Koji; Yamada, Yuki; Watanabe, Eriko; Wang, Jianhui; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Hirata, Kazuhisa; Kawase, Takeo; Yamada, Atsuo

    2017-10-04

    The passivation of negative electrodes is key to achieving prolonged charge-discharge cycling with Na-ion batteries. Here, we report the unusual passivation ability of superconcentrated Na-salt electrolytes. For example, a 50 mol % sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (NaFSA)/succinonitrile (SN) electrolyte enables highly reversible Na + insertion into a hard carbon negative electrode without any electrolyte additive, functional binder, or electrode pretreatment. Importantly, an anion-derived passivation film is formed via preferential reduction of the anion upon charging, which can effectively suppress further electrolyte reduction. As a structural characteristic of the electrolyte, most anions are coordinated to multiple Na + cations at high concentration, which shifts the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the anions downward, resulting in preferential anion reduction. The present work provides a new understanding of the passivation mechanism with respect to the coordination state of the anion.

  13. Aesthetic Refinements in Patients with Prominent Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dirk F; Schwaiger, Nina; Wiedner, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of prominent eyes is still a challenging task. As well as the surgery, proper preoperative diagnosis differentiating between patients with and without Graves ophthalmopathy plays an important role. In functionally asymptomatic patients with Graves disease suffering from the aesthetic impairment of prominent eyes, the transpalpebral decompression by intraorbital fat removal technique has been proved to be reliable, effective, safe, and easily performed by a trained and experienced oculoplastic surgeon. This technique provides long-lasting results, leading to improvement not only in visual function but also in personal well-being and in the patient's social life, with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. The most powerful tool to treat the lower lid deformity and malar bags in patients without Graves disease is the subperiosteal midface lift. It shortens the lid-cheek junction and blends the retaining periorbital ligaments. Furthermore, it adds volume to the lower lid and gives a stable support. By the nature of the procedure, it also turns a negative into a positive vector. In experienced hands, Olivari's orbital decompression and Hester's midface lift are ideal options for the treatment of prominent eyes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. The most prominent safety guarantees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucenet, G.

    1978-01-01

    The Creys-Malville Nuclear Centre has been designed using the safety analysis implemented since the beginning of the developments of breeder reactors in France and the Super Phenix follows almost the same safety regulations as its predecessor the Phenix reactor. These regulations are based on: 'Recommendations for the safety standards of the Super Phenix' drawn up by the French Safety Authorities in July 1973. The prominent points are summarised. (C.F.)

  15. Negative to positive magnetoresistance transition in functionalization of carbon nanotube and polyaniline composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Maity, Krishna; Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance(MR) in polyaniline(PANI) with carbon nanotube(CNT) and functionalized carbon nanotube(fCNT) composites have been studied for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2 K and up to magnetic field 5 T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. This result depicts that the MR has strong dependency on disorder in the composite system. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

  16. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-01-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80 deg. and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3x10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90 deg. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1x10 15 ions/cm 2

  17. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, C.C.

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C 6 - /C 6 , Si n - /Si n (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge 2 - /Ge 2 , In 2 P - /In 2 P,InP 2 - /InP 2 , and Ga 2 As - . The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I - ·CH 3 I S N 2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C 6 , as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important π bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C 6 - spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only ∼40 cm -1 relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C 6 , and the open shell of the anion

  18. Carbon doping induced giant low bias negative differential resistance in boron nitride nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Liu, J.B.; Gao, G.Y.; Yao, K.L.

    2014-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's function combined with density functional theory, we investigated the electronic transport properties of carbon-doped armchair boron nitride nanoribbons. Obvious negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with giant peak-to-valley ratio up to the order of 10 4 –10 6 is found by tuning the doping position and concentration. Especially, with the reduction of doping concentration, NDR peak position can enter into mV bias range and even can be expected lower than mV bias. The negative differential resistance behavior is explained by the evolution of the transmission spectra and band structures with applied bias. - Highlights: • Negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with giant peak-to-valley ratio is found. • Doping concentration changes the NDR peak position significantly. • NDR peak position can enter into mV bias range and even lower than mV bias. • The results are explained by the bias-dependent transmission spectra and band structures

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanoparticles Isolated from Natural Sources against Pathogenic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, S.; Jose, S.; Varghese, S.; Kuriakose, S.; Jose, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from kitchen soot, characterization of the CNPs by UV/visible spectroscopy, SEM and XRD, and their antimicrobial action. The antibacterial activity of the isolated carbon nanoparticles was tested against various pathogenic bacterial strains such as Gram-negative Proteus refrigere and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus haemolyticus. The inhibition zones were measured, and it was found that the carbon nanoparticles isolated from natural sources are active against these Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains

  20. Experimental study of negative corona discharge in pure carbon dioxide and its mixtures with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoviny, T; Kocan, M; Matejcik, S; Mason, N J; Skalny, J D

    2004-01-01

    The products of a negative corona discharge in both pure CO 2 and mixtures of CO 2 + O 2 have been studied using a coaxial cylindrical electrode geometry with particular emphasis on the production of ozone. The discharge current in pure CO 2 was found to be highly sensitive to the presence of trace concentrations of molecular oxygen and to changes in the flow speed through the discharge. The effect of dissociative electron attachment to ozone on the discharge current was studied by measurements of ozone and CO production. The ozone concentration increases monotonically with increasing content of oxygen in the mixture with carbon dioxide, whereas the CO concentration exhibits a flat maximum for oxygen concentrations of around 4%. A simple kinetic model of the dominant chemical processes is described and compared with the experimental results

  1. Investigation of novel cobalt–boron–carbon system as negative material for secondary alkaline battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qinghong; Jiao Lifang; Du Hongmei; Huan Qingna; Peng Wenxiu; Song Dawei; Wang Yijing; Yua, Huatang

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel cobalt–boron–carbon systems have been successfully synthesized by a chemical reduction method with subsequent heat-treatment in the presence of various contents of glucose. The products thus obtained have been investigated as negative electrode materials in KOH aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples are characterized by XRD, ICP, TEM and BET method. It is found that the samples are composed of Co–B particles coated by carbon nanoflakes, which significantly improve their BET surface areas. Electrochemical measurements showed that the Co–B–C electrodes display high discharge capacity, excellent cycle stability and outstanding rate capability. The discharge capacity of the Co–B–C electrode reaches 430.1 mAh g −1 at the current density of 500 mA g −1 and it still remains 401.6 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles, which is attractive compared with other Co-based materials reported before. CV and XRD measurements reveal that the reversible faradic reaction between highly dispersed Co and Co(OH) 2 is dominant for the Co–B–C composites.

  2. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Caroline Chick [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C6-/C6, Sin-/Sin (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge2-/Ge2, In2P-/In2P,InP2-/InP2, and Ga2As-. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I-•CH3I SN2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C6, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important π bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C6- spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only ~40 cm-1 relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C6, and the open shell of the anion.

  3. Negative CO2 emissions via subsurface mineral carbonation in fractured peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Uptake of CO2 from surface water via mineral carbonation in peridotite can be engineered to achieve negative CO2 emissions. Reaction with peridotite, e.g., CO2 + olivine (A), serpentine (B) and brucite (C), forms inert, non-toxic, solid carbonates such as magnesite. Experimental studies show that A can be 80% complete in a few hours with 30 micron powders and elevated P(CO2) [1,2,3]. B is slower, but in natural systems the rate of B+C is significant [4]. Methods for capture of dilute CO2 via mineral carbonation [4,5,6,7] are not well known, though CO2 storage via mineral carbonation has been discussed for decades [8,9]. Where crushed peridotite is available, as in mine tailings, increased air or water flow could enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost [4,5]. Here we focus on enhancing subsurface CO2 uptake from surface water flowing in fractured peridotite, in systems driven by thermal convection such as geothermal power plants. Return of depleted water to the surface would draw down CO2 from the air [6,7]. CO2 uptake from water, rate limited by flow in input and output wells, could exceed 1000 tons CO2/yr [7]. If well costs minus power sales were 0.1M to 1M and each system lasts 10 years this costs oil industry. Uptake of 1 Gt CO2/yr at 1000 t/well/yr requires 1M wells, comparable to the number of producing oil and gas wells in the USA. Subsurface CO2 uptake could first be applied in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling. Sub-seafloor peridotite is extensive off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, with smaller amounts off Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. This would be a regional contribution, used in parallel with other methods elsewhere. To achieve larger scale is conceivable. There is a giant mass of seafloor peridotite along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Could robotic drills enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost, while fabric chimneys transport CO2-depleted water to the sea surface? Does anyone know James Cameron's phone number? [1] O

  4. Negative emissions technologies and carbon capture and storage to achieve the Paris Agreement commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Scott, Vivian

    2018-05-01

    How will the global atmosphere and climate be protected? Achieving net-zero CO2 emissions will require carbon capture and storage (CCS) to reduce current GHG emission rates, and negative emissions technology (NET) to recapture previously emitted greenhouse gases. Delivering NET requires radical cost and regulatory innovation to impact on climate mitigation. Present NET exemplars are few, are at small-scale and not deployable within a decade, with the exception of rock weathering, or direct injection of CO2 into selected ocean water masses. To keep warming less than 2°C, bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) has been modelled but does not yet exist at industrial scale. CCS already exists in many forms and at low cost. However, CCS has no political drivers to enforce its deployment. We make a new analysis of all global CCS projects and model the build rate out to 2050, deducing this is 100 times too slow. Our projection to 2050 captures just 700 Mt CO2 yr-1, not the minimum 6000 Mt CO2 yr-1 required to meet the 2°C target. Hence new policies are needed to incentivize commercial CCS. A first urgent action for all countries is to commercially assess their CO2 storage. A second simple action is to assign a Certificate of CO2 Storage onto producers of fossil carbon, mandating a progressively increasing proportion of CO2 to be stored. No CCS means no 2°C. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  5. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  6. Negative differential resistance in BN co-doped coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khurshed A.; Parvaiz, M. Shunaid

    2016-12-01

    The CNTFETs are the most promising advanced alternatives to the conventional FETs due to their outstanding structure and electrical properties. In this paper, we report the I-V characteristics of zig-zag (4, 0) semiconducting coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The CNTFET is co-doped with two, four and six boron-nitrogen (BN) atoms separately near the electrodes using the substitutional doping method and the I-V characteristics were calculated for each model using Atomistic Tool Kit software (version 13.8.1) and its virtual interface. The results reveal that all models show negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with the maximum peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) of 3.2 at 300 K for the four atom doped model. The NDR behavior is due to the band to band tunneling (BTBT) in semiconducting CNTFET and decreases as the doping in the channel increases. The results are beneficial for next generation designing of nano devices and their potential applications in electronic industry.

  7. Carbon-doping-induced negative differential resistance in armchair phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Xia, Congxin; Wang, Tianxing; Liu, Yufang

    2017-03-01

    By using a combined method of density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, we investigate the electronic transport properties of carbon-doped armchair phosphorene nanoribbons (APNRs). The results show that C atom doping can strongly affect the electronic transport properties of the APNR and change it from semiconductor to metal. Meanwhile, obvious negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviors are obtained by tuning the doping position and concentration. In particular, with reducing doping concentration, NDR peak position can enter into mV bias range. These results provide a theoretical support to design the related nanodevice by tuning the doping position and concentration in the APNRs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11274096), the University Science and Technology Innovation Team Support Project of Henan Province (No. 13IRTSTHN016), the University key Science Research Project of Henan Province (No.16A140043). The calculation about this work was supported by the High Performance Computing Center of Henan Normal University.

  8. Re-interpreting Prominences Classified as Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Some papers in the recent literature identify tornado prominences with barbs of quiescent prominences while papers in the much older historic literature include a second category of tornado prominence that does not correspond to a barb of a quiescent prominence. The latter are described as prominence mass rotating around a nearly vertical axis prior to its eruption and the rotation was verified by spectral measurements. From H alpha Doppler-shifted mass motions recorded at Helio Research or the Dutch Open Telescope, we illustrate how the apparent tornado-like motions, identified with barbs, are illusions in our mind’s eye resulting from poorly resolved counterstreaming threads of mass in the barbs of quiescent prominences. In contrast, we confirm the second category of rotational motion in prominences shortly before and during eruption. In addition, we identify this second category as part of the late phase of a phenomenon called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of the prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption continues, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and its rotational motion also continues. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in some historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence. However, when we now observe entire eruptions in time-lapse sequences, the similarity to terrestrial tornadoes is lost. We conclude that neither prominence barbs, that give the illusion of rotation, nor the cases of true rotational motion, in the legs of erupting prominences, are usefully described as tornado prominences when the complete prominence structure or complete erupting event is observed.

  9. Flotation process control optimisation at Prominent Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Josephine; Muhamad, Nur; Weidenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    OZ Minerals' Prominent Hill copper- gold concentrator is located 130 km south east of the town of Coober Pedy in the Gawler Craton of South Australia. The concentrator was built in 2008 and commenced commercial production in early 2009. The Prominent Hill concentrator is comprised of a conventional grinding and flotation processing plant with a 9.6 Mtpa ore throughput capacity. The flotation circuit includes six rougher cells, an IseMill for regrinding the rougher concentrate and a Jameson cell heading up the three stage conventional cell cleaner circuit. In total there are four level controllers in the rougher train and ten level controllers in the cleaning circuit for 18 cells. Generic proportional — integral and derivative (PID) control used on the level controllers alone propagated any disturbances downstream in the circuit that were generated from the grinding circuit, hoppers, between cells and interconnected banks of cells, having a negative impact on plant performance. To better control such disturbances, FloatStar level stabiliser was selected for installation on the flotation circuit to account for the interaction between the cells. Multivariable control was also installed on the five concentrate hoppers to maintain consistent feed to the cells and to the IsaMill. An additional area identified for optimisation in the flotation circuit was the mass pull rate from the rougher cells. FloatStar flow optimiser was selected to be installed subsequent to the FloatStar level stabiliser. This allowed for a unified, consistent and optimal approach to running the rougher circuit. This paper describes the improvement in the stabilisation of the circuit achieved by the FloatStar level stabiliser by using the interaction matrix between cell level controllers and the results and benefits of implementing the FloatStar flow optimiser on the rougher train.

  10. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  11. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  12. Prominence mass supply and the cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Innes, D. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Gibson, S. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Karpen, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  13. Thermal stability of disordered carbon negative-electrode materials prepared from peanut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Izumi; Doi, Takayuki; Yamaki, Jun-ichi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Lin, Y.Y.; Fey, George Ting-Kuo [Department of Chemistry and Material Engineering, National Central University, Chungli 32054 (China)

    2008-01-21

    The thermal stability of electrochemically lithiated disordered carbon with a poly(vinylidene difluoride) binder and 1 mol dm{sup -3} LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a hermetically sealed pan. The disordered carbon used was prepared by pyrolyzing peanut shells with porogen at temperatures above 500 C. The disordered carbon gave much larger charge and discharge capacities than graphite when a weight ratio of porogen to peanut shells was set at 5. In DSC curves, several exothermic peaks were observed at temperatures ranging from 120 to 310 C. This behavior was similar to that for electrochemically lithiated graphite, except for an exothermic peak at around 250 C. However, the lithiated disordered carbon had a higher heat value, which was evaluated by integrating a DSC curve, compared to lithiated graphite. The heat values increased with an increase in accumulated irreversible capacities. These results suggest that heat generation at elevated temperatures should increase as an amount of irreversibly trapped lithium-ion increases. On the other hand, heat values per reversible capacities for disordered carbon, which showed larger capacities than graphite, were almost comparable to that for graphite. These results indicate that several types of disordered carbon showed larger capacity than graphite, while their thermal stability was lowered accordingly. (author)

  14. Prominence Mass Supply and the Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.; Innes, D.

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system; the cavity is under-dense because it it evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolutin of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model and diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prminence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 A badpass near he prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  15. TANGLED MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2010-01-01

    Solar prominences are an important tool for studying the structure and evolution of the coronal magnetic field. Here we consider so-called hedgerow prominences, which consist of thin vertical threads. We explore the possibility that such prominences are supported by tangled magnetic fields. A variety of different approaches are used. First, the dynamics of plasma within a tangled field is considered. We find that the contorted shape of the flux tubes significantly reduces the flow velocity compared to the supersonic free fall that would occur in a straight vertical tube. Second, linear force-free models of tangled fields are developed, and the elastic response of such fields to gravitational forces is considered. We demonstrate that the prominence plasma can be supported by the magnetic pressure of a tangled field that pervades not only the observed dense threads but also their local surroundings. Tangled fields with field strengths of about 10 G are able to support prominence threads with observed hydrogen density of the order of 10 11 cm -3 . Finally, we suggest that the observed vertical threads are the result of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Simulations of the density distribution within a prominence thread indicate that the peak density is much larger than the average density. We conclude that tangled fields provide a viable mechanism for magnetic support of hedgerow prominences.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar prominence formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, J.

    1987-01-01

    Formation of Kippenhahn-Schluter type solar prominences by chromospheric mass injection is studied via numerical simulation. The numerical model is based on a two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. In addition, an analysis of gravitational thermal MHD instabilities related to condensation is performed by using the small-perturbation method. The conclusions are: (1) Both quiescent and active-region prominences can be formed by chromospheric mass injection, provided certain optimum conditions are satisfied. (2) Quiescent prominences cannot be formed without condensation, though enough mass is supplied from chromosphere. The mass of a quiescent prominence is composed of both the mass injected from the chromosphere and the mass condensed from the corona. On the other hand, condensation is not important to active region prominence formation. (3) In addition to channeling and supporting effects, the magnetic field plays another important role, i.e. containing the prominence material. (4) In the model cases, prominences are supported by the Lorentz force, the gas-pressure gradient and the mass-injection momentum. (5) Due to gravity, more MHD condensation instability modes appear in addition to the basic condensation mode

  17. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  18. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  19. PAN-based carbon fiber negative electrodes for structural lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hellqvist Kjell, Maria; Jacques, Eric; Zenkert, Dan; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Several grades of commercially-available polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers have been studied for structural lithium-ion batteries to understand how the sizing, different lithiation rates and number of fibers per tow affect the available reversible capacity, when used as both current collector and electrode, for use in structural batteries. The study shows that at moderate lithiation rates, 100 mA g-1, most of the carbon fibers display a reversible capacity close to or above 100 mAh ...

  20. Coexistence of positive and negative photoconductivity in nickel oxide decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Marín, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07300 (Mexico); Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigación para los Recursos Naturales, Salaices, Chihuahua 33941 (Mexico); Trejo-Valdez, M. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, Ciudad de México 07738 (Mexico); Cervantes-Sodi, F. [Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Ciudad de México 01219 (Mexico); Vargas-García, J.R. [Centro de Nanociencias y Micro y Nanotecnologías del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07738 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C., E-mail: ctorrest@ipn.mx [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Nickel oxide decorated carbon nanotubes were prepared by chemical vapor deposition. • Contrast in photoconductivity phenomena in the nanohybrid was analyzed. • Electrical and nonlinear optical properties were evaluated. • A Wheatstone bridge sensor based metal/carbon nanostructures was proposed. - Abstract: Within this work was explored the influence of nickel oxide decoration on the photoconductive effects exhibited by multiwall carbon nanotubes. Samples in thin film form were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition method. Experiments for evaluating the photo-response of the nanomaterials at 532 nanometers wavelength were undertaken. A contrasting behavior in the photoelectrical characteristics of the decorated nanostructures was analyzed. The decoration technique allowed us to control a decrease in photoconduction of the sample from approximately 100 μmhos/cm to −600 μmhos/cm. Two-wave mixing experiments confirmed an enhancement in nanosecond nonlinearities derived by nickel oxide contributions. It was considered that metallic nanoparticles present a strong responsibility for the evolution of the optoelectronic phenomena in metal/carbon nanohybrids. Impedance spectroscopy explorations indicated that a capacitive behavior correspond to the samples. A potential development of high-sensitive Wheatstone bridge sensors based on the optoelectrical performance of the studied samples was proposed.

  1. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bača, P.; Micka, Karel; Křivík, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 8 (2011), s. 3988-3992 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead battery electrodes * doping with carbon * accelerated testing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.951, year: 2011

  2. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004. The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common topic anaphora in the topic chain. Two important findings emerged from the present study. First, the characteristics of Chinese topic chains are transferrable to the interlanguage of Chinese EFL learners, thus resulting in overgeneralization of the zero anaphora. Second, the interlanguage discourse of Chinese EFL learners reflects a change of the second language acquisition process from topic-prominence to subject-prominence, thus lending support to the discourse transfer hypothesis.

  3. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, O.K.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with the Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arc sec by 60 arc set slit. Nonthermal velocities are derived from the measured line widths. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn cm -2 , while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn cm -2 . (Auth.)

  4. The Absorption of Light in Lakes: Negative Impact of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Primary Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Thrane, Jan-Erik; Hessen, Dag O.; Andersen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorbs a substantial fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in boreal lakes. However, few studies have systematically estimated how this light absorption influences pelagic primary productivity. In this study, 75 boreal lakes spanning wide and orthogonal gradients in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP) were sampled during a synoptic survey. We measured absorption spectra of phytoplankton pigments, CDOM, and non-algal...

  5. Beetle-kill to carbon-negative bioenergy in the Rockies: stand, enterprise, and regional-scale perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Paustian, K.

    2016-12-01

    The interior mountain West is particularly vulnerable to climate change with potential impacts including drought and wildfire intensification, and wide-scale species disruptions due to shifts in habitable elevation ranges or other effects. One such example is the current outbreak of native mountain pine and spruce beetles across the Rockies, with warmer winters, dryer summers, and a legacy of logging and fire suppression all interacting to result in infestation and unprecedented tree mortality over more than 42 million acres. Current global climate change mitigation commitments imply that shifts to renewable energy must be supplemented with widespread deployment of carbon-negative technologies such as BECCS and biochar. Carefully-designed forest bioenergy and biochar industries can play an important role in meeting these targets, valorizing woody biomass and allowing more acres to be actively managed under existing land management goals while simultaneously displacing fossil energy use and directly sequestering carbon. In this work we assess the negative emissions potential from the deployment of biochar co-producing thermochemical bioenergy technologies in the Rockies using beetle-kill wood as a feedstock, a way of leveraging a climate change driven problem for climate mitigation. We start with a review and classification of bioenergy lifecycle assessment emission source categories, clarifying the differences in mechanism and confidence around emissions sources, offsets, sequestration, and leakage effects. Next we develop methods for modeling ecosystem carbon response to biomass removals at the stand scale, considering potential species shifts and regrowth rates under different harvest systems deployed in different areas. We then apply a lifecycle assessment framework to evaluate the performance of a set of real-world bioenergy technologies at enterprise scale, including biomass logistics and conversion product yields. We end with an exploration of regional

  6. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  7. Measurement of energy spectra of charged particles emitted after the absorption of stopped negative pions in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechtersheimer, G.

    1978-06-01

    The energy spectra of charged particles (p,d,t, 3 He, 4 He and Li-nuclei) emitted after the absorption of stopped negative pions in carbon targets of different thickness (1.227, 0.307, 0.0202 g/cm 2 ) have been measured from the experimental threshold energy of about 0.5 MeV up to the kinematical limit of about 100 MeV. The experiments have been carried out at the biomedical pion channel πE3 of the Swiss Institute of Nuclear Research (SIN). (orig.) [de

  8. Different types of pre-lithiated hard carbon as negative electrode material for lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Xifeng; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two types of HC materials with different properties as negative electrode. • Lithium ion intercalation plateau of HC affects electrochemical performance of LIC. • The electrochemical performance of LIC is operated at different potential ranges. • The selection of HC and appropriate potential range of LIC have been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated hard carbon (HC) anode. Two kinds of HC materials with different physical and electrochemical behaviors have been investigated as the negative electrodes for LIC. Compared with spherical HC, the irregular HC shows a distinct lithium ion intercalation plateau in the charge–discharge process. The existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau for irregular HC greatly affects the electrochemical behavior of HC negative electrode and AC positive electrode. The effect of working potential range on the electrochemical performance of LIC-SH and LIC-IH is investigated by the galvanostatic charging–discharging, electrochemical impedance tests and cycle performance testing. The charge–discharge potential range of the irregular HC negative electrode is lower than the spherical HC electrode due to the existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau, which is conducive to the sufficient utilization of the AC positive electrode. The working potential range of LIC should be controlled to realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC-IH at the working potential range of 2.0-4.0 V exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 85.7 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 7.6 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention about 96.0% after 5000 cycles.

  9. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li x C 6 vertical bar 1 M LiPF 6 , 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) vert b ar LiMn 2 O 4 cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized

  10. Ozone generation in positive and negative corona discharge fed by humid oxygen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J D; Orszagh, J; MatejcIk, S; Mason, N J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of humidity on ozone generation of positive and negative corona discharges fed by O 2 and CO 2 has been studied in the humidity range of 100-20 000 ppm. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure of 100 kPa. The increase in humidity of CO 2 conspicuously suppressed the ozone generation in negative corona discharge at all values of the input energy densities into the discharge. The effect was less pronounced in oxygen. In contrast to decrease of ozone concentration observed in negative corona discharge, the presence of water both in O 2 and CO 2 acts catalytically. The ozone concentration has been found to increase remarkably (approximately 10 times) in oxygen, if the humidity was increased from 100 to 20 000 ppm. The dependence of ozone concentration on the gas humidity exhibited an extreme. The increase observed at humidity up to approximately 5000 ppm was followed by the marginal reduction in ozone concentration. Anyway, the values of this were considerably higher than those found in dry CO 2 . The effect of humidity on ozone concentration will be discussed in relation to plasma chemical processes in studied discharges and their macroscopic parameters.

  11. Automated image based prominent nucleoli detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Choon K; Kalaw, Emarene M; Singh, Malay; Chong, Kian T; Giron, Danilo M; Huang, Chao-Hui; Cheng, Li; Law, Yan N; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolar changes in cancer cells are one of the cytologic features important to the tumor pathologist in cancer assessments of tissue biopsies. However, inter-observer variability and the manual approach to this work hamper the accuracy of the assessment by pathologists. In this paper, we propose a computational method for prominent nucleoli pattern detection. Thirty-five hematoxylin and eosin stained images were acquired from prostate cancer, breast cancer, renal clear cell cancer and renal papillary cell cancer tissues. Prostate cancer images were used for the development of a computer-based automated prominent nucleoli pattern detector built on a cascade farm. An ensemble of approximately 1000 cascades was constructed by permuting different combinations of classifiers such as support vector machines, eXclusive component analysis, boosting, and logistic regression. The output of cascades was then combined using the RankBoost algorithm. The output of our prominent nucleoli pattern detector is a ranked set of detected image patches of patterns of prominent nucleoli. The mean number of detected prominent nucleoli patterns in the top 100 ranked detected objects was 58 in the prostate cancer dataset, 68 in the breast cancer dataset, 86 in the renal clear cell cancer dataset, and 76 in the renal papillary cell cancer dataset. The proposed cascade farm performs twice as good as the use of a single cascade proposed in the seminal paper by Viola and Jones. For comparison, a naive algorithm that randomly chooses a pixel as a nucleoli pattern would detect five correct patterns in the first 100 ranked objects. Detection of sparse nucleoli patterns in a large background of highly variable tissue patterns is a difficult challenge our method has overcome. This study developed an accurate prominent nucleoli pattern detector with the potential to be used in the clinical settings.

  12. Automated image based prominent nucleoli detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon K Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nucleolar changes in cancer cells are one of the cytologic features important to the tumor pathologist in cancer assessments of tissue biopsies. However, inter-observer variability and the manual approach to this work hamper the accuracy of the assessment by pathologists. In this paper, we propose a computational method for prominent nucleoli pattern detection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five hematoxylin and eosin stained images were acquired from prostate cancer, breast cancer, renal clear cell cancer and renal papillary cell cancer tissues. Prostate cancer images were used for the development of a computer-based automated prominent nucleoli pattern detector built on a cascade farm. An ensemble of approximately 1000 cascades was constructed by permuting different combinations of classifiers such as support vector machines, eXclusive component analysis, boosting, and logistic regression. The output of cascades was then combined using the RankBoost algorithm. The output of our prominent nucleoli pattern detector is a ranked set of detected image patches of patterns of prominent nucleoli. Results: The mean number of detected prominent nucleoli patterns in the top 100 ranked detected objects was 58 in the prostate cancer dataset, 68 in the breast cancer dataset, 86 in the renal clear cell cancer dataset, and 76 in the renal papillary cell cancer dataset. The proposed cascade farm performs twice as good as the use of a single cascade proposed in the seminal paper by Viola and Jones. For comparison, a naive algorithm that randomly chooses a pixel as a nucleoli pattern would detect five correct patterns in the first 100 ranked objects. Conclusions: Detection of sparse nucleoli patterns in a large background of highly variable tissue patterns is a difficult challenge our method has overcome. This study developed an accurate prominent nucleoli pattern detector with the potential to be used in the clinical settings.

  13. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic interpretation of the motion of prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    We study three types of prominence eruptions, which we will call the arch type, the loop type, and the gigantic arch type, respectively, from their shapes. If we regard the prominence as a magnetic flux tube, the onset of its ascending motion can be interpreted as the motion due to the screw-mode instability, which is the most unstable mode of instabilities of a magnetofluid column (pinch). The growth rate of this mode is evaluated and is shown to be consistent with the time scale of the initial stage of the eruption. In order to study the nonlinear stage of the instability, we propose a method of numerical calculation based on a variational technique known as Ritz's method. The result shows that the characteristic motion of the arch-, loop-, and gigantic arch-type eruptions may be reproduced by perturbing a model sequence with decreasing pitch angles of the unperturbed helical magnetic field lines. This conclusion seems to be supported by the pitch angles of observed threads in each type of prominence and also by the fact that the observed time profiles of the rising velocity of the prominences of each type agree well with those predicted from model calculations. (auth.)

  15. Topic Prominence in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The…

  16. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  17. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  18. Multispacecraft observations of a prominence eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On 9 May 2007 a prominence eruption occurred at the West limb. Remarkably, the event was observed by the STEREO/EUVI telescopes and by the HINODE/EIS and SOHO/UVCS spectrometers. We present results from all these instruments. High-cadence (~37 s data from STEREO/EUVI A and B in the He II λ304 line were used to study the 3-D shape and expansion of the prominence. The high spatial resolution EUVI images (~1.5"/pixel have been used to infer via triangulation the 3-D shape and orientation of the prominence 12 min after the eruption onset. At this time the prominence has mainly the shape of a "hook" highly inclined southward, has an average thickness of 0.068 R⊙, a length of 0.43 R⊙ and lies, in first approximation, on a plane. Hence, the prominence is mainly a 2-D structure and there is no evidence for a twisted flux rope configuration. HINODE/EIS was scanning with the 2" slit the region where the filament erupted. The EIS spectra show during the eruption remarkable non-thermal broadening (up to ~100 km s−1 in the region crossed by the filament in spectral lines emitted at different temperatures, possibly with differences among lines from higher Fe ionization stages. The CME was also observed by the SOHO/UVCS instrument: the spectrograph slit was centered at 1.7 R⊙, at a latitude of 5° SW and recorded a sudden increase in the O VI λλ1032–1037 and Si XII λ520 spectral line intensities, representative of the CME front transit.

  19. Increased requirement for minute ventilation and negative arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide gradient may indicate malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tien Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic signs of malignant hyperthermia (MH include unexplained tachycardia, increased end-tidal carbon dioxide (Etco2 concentration, metabolic and respiratory acidosis, and an increase in body temperature above 38.8°C. We present the case of a patient with highly probable MH. In addition to sinus tachycardia and metabolic and respiratory acidosis, this patient also had a negative arterial to Etco2 gradient and an increased requirement for minute ventilation to maintain a normal Etco2 concentration, with signs of increased CO2 production. Despite these signs of MH, the patient's rectal temperature monitoring equipment did not show an increase in temperature, although the temperature measured in the mouth was increased. This case illustrates the unreliability of measuring rectal temperature as a means of reflecting body temperature during MH and the usefulness of increased CO2 production signs in helping to diagnose MH.

  20. Chemical coupling of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanoparticles for improved negative electrode performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Cedric; Crosnier, Olivier; Schleich, Donald M.; Brousse, Thierry [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes (LGMPA), Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes, Rue Christian Pauc, BP50609, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Retoux, Richard [Laboratoire CRISMAT-CNRS/UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Belanger, Daniel [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-09-23

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/silicon nanocomposites obtained by a grafting technique using the diazonium chemistry are used to prepare silicon negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The covalent bonding of the two compounds is obtained via mono- and multi-layers of phenyl bridges, leading to an ideal dispersion of MWCNTs and silicon nanoparticles that are bound together. The presence of MWCNTs close to silicon nanoparticles enhances the electronic pathway to the active material particles and probably helps to prevent silicon decrepitation upon repeated lithium insertion/extraction by improving the mechanical stability of the electrode at a nanoscale level. This effect results in the enhancement of cycling ability and capacity, which are demonstrated by comparing the nanocomposite electrode to a simple mixture of the two compounds. This technique can be applied to other carbon conductive additives together with silicon or other nanosized active compounds. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. LARGE-SCALE FLOWS IN PROMINENCE CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Gibson, S. E.; Tomczyk, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Brooks, D. H.; Williams, D. R.; Tripathi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of rarefied density often form cavities above quiescent prominences. We observed two different cavities with the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter on 2005 April 21 and with Hinode/EIS on 2008 November 8. Inside both of these cavities, we find coherent velocity structures based on spectral Doppler shifts. These flows have speeds of 5-10 km s -1 , occur over length scales of tens of megameters, and persist for at least 1 hr. Flows in cavities are an example of the nonstatic nature of quiescent structures in the solar atmosphere.

  2. Hydrogen line formation in the quescent prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsovookhuu, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    Equations of transfer and statistical equilibrium for hydronen atom with eight bound levels and continuum are solved simultaneously. A plane-parallel layer located perpendicular to the Sun surface is taken as a geometrical model. Input parameters of the physical model are optical thickness in the center of Hsub(α) line, electron temperature and concentration in the layer center are well as temperature and density gradients. Functions of sources, line profiles, total energies and the Balmer decrements, which are compared with observations and theoretical calculations made by other authors, have been calculated. The comparison shows that the results are quite acceptable and can be used when analyzing the spectrum and determining physical parameters of solar prominences. Dependence of different performances of the line (equivalent width, central intensity, halfwidth, depth of central depression etc.) on values of initial model parameters is investigated. Line halfwidth is more sensitive to the temperatuu value in the layer center, while central intensity - to the value of temperature gradient and a depth of central depression - to electron concentration. Calculated were shares of primary sources responsible for different excitation mechanism depending on total optical thickness as well as mean probabilities of quantum yield out of a medium which can be used during parametric accountancy of radiation diffusion in solar prominences [ru

  3. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  4. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  5. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  6. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeda Palmer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were

  7. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeda; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Dominati, Estelle J; Probert, Merv E; Meier, Elizabeth A; Huth, Neil I; Dodd, Mike; Snow, Val; Larsen, Joshua R; Parton, William J

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally

  8. Negative effects of climate change on upland grassland productivity and carbon fluxes are not attenuated by nitrogen status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Samuel; Palmer, Sheila M; Chapman, Pippa J

    2018-05-09

    Effects of climate change on managed grassland carbon (C) fluxes and biomass production are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the individual and interactive effects of experimental warming (+3 °C above ambient summer daily range of 9-12 °C), supplemental precipitation (333 mm +15%) and drought (333 mm -23%) on plant biomass, microbial biomass C (MBC), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and dissolved organic C (DOC) flux in soil cores from two upland grasslands of different soil nitrogen (N) status (0.54% and 0.37%) in the UK. After one month of acclimation to ambient summer temperature and precipitation, five replicate cores of each treatment were subjected to three months of experimental warming, drought and supplemental precipitation, based on the projected regional summer climate by the end of the 21st Century, in a fully factorial design. NEE and DOC flux were measured throughout the experimental duration, alongside other environmental variables including soil temperature and moisture. Plant biomass and MBC were determined at the end of the experiment. Results showed that warming plus drought resulted in a significant decline in belowground plant biomass (-29 to -37%), aboveground plant biomass (-35 to -77%) and NEE (-13 to -29%), regardless of the N status of the soil. Supplemental precipitation could not reverse the negative effects of warming on the net ecosystem C uptake and plant biomass production. This was attributed to physiological stress imposed by warming which suggests that future summer climate will reduce the C sink capacity of the grasslands. Due to the low moisture retention observed in this study, and to verify our findings, it is recommended that future experiments aimed at measuring soil C dynamics under climate change should be carried out under field conditions. Longer term experiments are recommended to account for seasonal and annual variability, and adaptive changes in biota. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Mechanism of action of electrochemically active carbons on the processes that take place at the negative plates of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Rogachev, T.; Nikolov, P.; Petkova, G. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2009-06-01

    It is known that negative plates of lead-acid batteries have low charge acceptance when cycled at high rates and progressively accumulate lead sulphate on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation in hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Addition of some carbon or graphite forms to the negative paste mix improves the charge efficiency and slows down sulfation of the negative plates. The present investigation aims to elucidate the contribution of electrochemically active carbon (EAC) additives to the mechanism of the electrochemical reactions of charge of the negative plates. Test cells are assembled with four types of EAC added to the negative paste mix in five different concentrations. Through analysis of the structure of NAM (including specific surface and pore radius measurements) and of the electrochemical parameters of the test cells on HRPSoC cycling, it is established that the electrochemical reaction of charge Pb{sup 2+} + 2e{sup -} {yields} Pb proceeds at 300-400 mV lower over-potentials on negative plates doped with EAC additives as compared to the charge potentials of cells with no carbon additives. Hence, electrochemically active carbons have a highly catalytic effect on the charge reaction and are directly involved in it. Consequently, the reversibility of the charge/discharge processes is improved, which eventually leads to longer battery cycle life. Thus, charging of the negative plates proceeds via a parallel mechanism on the surfaces of both Pb and EAC particles, at a higher rate on the EAC phase. Cells with EAC in NAM have the longest cycle life when their NAM specific surface is up to 4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} against 0.5 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for the lead surface. The proposed parallel mechanism of charge is verified experimentally on model Pb/EAC/PbSO{sub 4} and Pb/EAC electrodes. During the charge and discharge cycles of the HRPSoC test, the EAC particles are involved in dynamic adsorption/desorption on the lead sulfate and lead

  10. Clinico-Epidemiological Comparison of Delusion-Prominent and Hallucination-Prominent Clinical Subgroups of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Krishtul, Vladimir; Kirsh, Zvi; Menuchin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Though hallucinations and delusions are prominent basic impairments in schizophrenia, reports of the relationship between hallucinatory and delusional symptoms among schizophrenia patients are scant. To examine the epidemiological and clinical differences between mainly hallucinatory and mainly delusional subgroups of paranoid schizophrenia patients. One hundred schizophrenia patients, paranoid type, were recruited. In a cross-sectional study, participants were divided into Mainly Hallucinatory (H) and Mainly Delusional (D) subgroups. Demographic variables were compared and clinical characteristics were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. The Quality-of-Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 was used to assess quality of life. Clinically, the H group was more heterogeneous as expressed by the broader range of scores that described the clinical picture of patients in that subgroup (in 43 of 78 variables, 55.13%) and similar ranges of scores (31 of 78 variables, 39.74%) for patients in the D group. Duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in group H than in group D (p=0.047). There was no statistically significant difference between the H and D subgroups in demographic characteristics. There are distinct epidemiological and clinical differences between the H and D subgroups, with more severe positive and negative symptoms and greater functional impairment in the H group. Paranoid schizophrenia patients with prominent hallucinations have poorer prognosis and need intensive therapeutic rehabilitation beginning with onset-of-illness. Further genetic studies and comparisons of fMRI and/or PET findings are warranted to investigate additional distinctive characteristics of these subgroups.

  11. The Computational Processing of Intonational Prominence: A Functional Prosody Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatani, Christine Hisayo

    1997-01-01

    Intonational prominence, or accent, is a fundamental prosodic feature that is said to contribute to discourse meaning. This thesis outlines a new, computational theory of the discourse interpretation of prominence, from a FUNCTIONAL PROSODY perspective. Functional prosody makes the following two important assumptions: first, there is an aspect of prominence interpretation that centrally concerns discourse processes, namely the discourse focusing nature of prominence; and second, the role of p...

  12. Prominent Optic Disc Featured in Inherited Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, M G; Bojinova, R I; Valmaggia, C; Schorderet, D F

    2017-04-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between prominent optic disc (POD) and inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD). Patients and Methods A cross-sectional consecutive study was performed in 10 children and 11 adults of 7 non-related families. We performed clinical phenotyping, including a detailed examination, fundus autofluorescence, and colour fundus and OCT imaging. Genetic testing was subsequently performed for all family members presenting retinal pathology. Results In 4 members of a 3-generation family, hyperfluorescent deposits on the surface of POD were related to a p.(L224M) heterozygous mutation in BEST1 . In the second family, one member presented deposits located on the surface on hyperaemic OD and a compound p.(R141H);(A195V) mutation in BEST1 . In the third family, POD was observed in father and child with early onset cone-rod dystrophy and a novel autosomal recessive p.(W31*) homozygous mutation in ABCA4 . In the fourth family, POD with "mulberry-like" deposits and attenuated vessels were observed in a 7-year old girl, with a mutation in USH1A , and with early onset rod-cone dystrophy, associated with hearing loss. In the fifth family, blurry OD with tortuous vessels was observed in 4 consanguineous female carriers and a hemizygous boy with a p.(R200H) mutation in the X-linked retinoschisis RS1 . In the sixth family, a mother and her son were both affected with POD and attenuated peripapillary vessels, and presented with a p.(Y836C) heterozygous mutation in TOPORS , thus confirming autosomal dominant RP. In the seventh family, in 3 family members with POD, compound p.(L541P;A1038 V);(G1961E) mutations in ABCA4 confirmed the diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Conclusions A variety of OD findings are found in a genetically heterogeneous group of IRDs. In the presence of POD, an inherited progressive photoreceptor disease should be ruled out. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Liking goes with liking: An intuitive congruence between preference and prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvinski, Coby; Amir, On

    2018-03-26

    In a series of 8 experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a "labeling effect" wherein people intuitively relate preferred choices to prominently labeled cues (such as heads as opposed to tails in a coin toss) and vice versa. Importantly, the observed congruence is asymmetric-it does not manifest for nonprominent cues and nonpreferred choices. This is because the congruence is driven by a process of evaluative matching: prominent cues are liked, but nonprominent cues are neutral or at most slightly negative in contrast. When we test prominent, yet truly negatively labeled cues, we indeed find a matching with less liked products. We discuss the theoretical contributions to the study of preferences and decision making, as well as demonstrate the practical implications to researchers and practitioners by using this process to assess intuitive preferences and reduce the compromise effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Prominent feature extraction for review analysis: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Basant; Mittal, Namita

    2016-05-01

    Sentiment analysis (SA) research has increased tremendously in recent times. SA aims to determine the sentiment orientation of a given text into positive or negative polarity. Motivation for SA research is the need for the industry to know the opinion of the users about their product from online portals, blogs, discussion boards and reviews and so on. Efficient features need to be extracted for machine-learning algorithm for better sentiment classification. In this paper, initially various features are extracted such as unigrams, bi-grams and dependency features from the text. In addition, new bi-tagged features are also extracted that conform to predefined part-of-speech patterns. Furthermore, various composite features are created using these features. Information gain (IG) and minimum redundancy maximum relevancy (mRMR) feature selection methods are used to eliminate the noisy and irrelevant features from the feature vector. Finally, machine-learning algorithms are used for classifying the review document into positive or negative class. Effects of different categories of features are investigated on four standard data-sets, namely, movie review and product (book, DVD and electronics) review data-sets. Experimental results show that composite features created from prominent features of unigram and bi-tagged features perform better than other features for sentiment classification. mRMR is a better feature selection method as compared with IG for sentiment classification. Boolean Multinomial Naïve Bayes) algorithm performs better than support vector machine classifier for SA in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  15. Effects of buffer agents on hydrogen adsorption and desorption at/within activated carbon for the negative electrode of aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Hsiu-Chuan; Wu, Tzu-Ho; Rajkumar, Muniyandi; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • H adsorption causes local pH increase and negatively shifts the double-layer potential window. • The local pH variation at AC/electrolyte interface can be controlled via adding buffer agents. • H adsorption potential on AC in buffer electrolytes follows the Nernstian dependence. • The pseudocapacitive reversibility of H adsorption/desorption at/within AC is too poor. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of adding buffer agents into aqueous electrolytes on the hydrogen adsorption/desorption behaviour at/within activated carbon are systematically investigated for the negative electrode of asymmetric supercapacitors. Due to the poor electrochemical reversibility of hydrogen adsorption/desorption at/within activated carbon, the hydrogen responses at/within activated carbon are not suitable for pseudo-capacitive energy storage of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor. The electrochemical adsorption of H atoms consumes protons and causes the local pH change at the activated carbon/electrolyte interface, leading to the negative shift in the H adsorption potential when weakly acidic, neutral, and weakly basic electrolytes without buffer agents are employed. The addition of buffer agents into electrolytes significantly improves the rate of proton supply and promotes the rate of hydrogen adsorption at/within AC. Interestingly, the onset potential of significant H adsorption obtained from the buffered electrolytes generally follows the Nernstian dependence, suggesting the Nerstian dependence of H"+/H_a_d_s on AC at all pH values. In order to obtain the energy storage devices with high coulombic and energy efficiencies, the onset potential of significant H adsorption obtained from the electrolyte containing buffer agents is a reliable lower potential limit of the AC-coated negative electrode for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors.

  16. Signs of helicity in solar prominences and related features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.

    This review illustrates several ways to identify the chirality (handedness) of solar prominences (filaments) from their structure and the structure of their surrounding magnetic fields in the chromosphere and corona. For prominences, these structural elements include the axial magnetic field direction, orientation of barbs, and direction of the prominence fine structure. The surrounding structures include the pattern of fibrils beneath the prominences and the pattern of coronal loops above the prominences. These ways of identifying chirality are then interpreted in terms of the formal definitions of helicity to yield a consistent set of one-to-one helicity relationships for all features. The helicity of some prominences can also be independently determined during their eruption by their fine structure, apparent crossings in the line-of-sight of different parts of the same prominence, and by large- scale twist of the prominence structure. Unlike observations of prominences (filaments) observed prior to eruption, in some cases evidence of both signs of helicity are found within the same erupting prominence. This indicates the continued application of forces on the prominences during the eruption process or the possible introduction of force(s) not present during earlier stages of their evolution.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of core/shell structured carbon coated silicon powders for lithium ion battery negative electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Çetinkaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface of nano silicon powders were coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolysis of polyacronitrile (PAN polymer. Microstructural characterization of amorphous carbon coated silicon powders (Si-C were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thickness of carbon coating is defined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Elemental analyses of Si-C powders were performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Structural and phase characterization of Si-C composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Produced Si-C powders were prepared as an electrode on the copper current collector and electrochemical tests were carried out using CR2016 button cells at 200 mA/g constant current density. According to electrochemical test results, carbon coating process enhanced the electrochemical performance by reducing the problems stem from volume change and showed 770 mAh/g discharge capacity after 30 cycles.

  18. A three-dimensional model for solar prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Priest, E.R.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    Prominences have been modelled largely as one-or two-dimensional structures, and yet observations show them to possess important variations in the third dimension along the prominence axis with great arches with feet reaching down towards the solar surface. As an initial attempt to understand this structure we consider a three-dimensional linear force-free field model for the global magnetic field around a quiescent prominence. It consists of a fundamental together with a harmonic that is periodic along the prominence. At the solar surface there is a series of flux concentrations spaced out periodically on both sides of the prominence. Between a pair of oppositely directed flux concentration, the magnetic field in the prominence is stronger and tends to be less highly sheared than elsewhere. This modulation of the field strength and shear angle along the prominence decreases with height and almost disappears above 10 Mm. Prominence fields that increase with height occur when the shear is large and the length-scale for field variations perpendicular to the prominence exceeds that along it. The variation of the prominence height along the prominence is calculated and it is suggested that feet occur where the prominence sags down to low heights. For prominences of Normal polarity this tends to occur near supergranule centres where the transverse field is least, whereas for those of Inverse polarity it usually takes place near the chromospheric network where the transverse field is greatest. The effect of concentrating the base flux by including extra harmonics is also included. For Normal polarity prominences it tends to make the foot wider, and for Inverse polarity configurations, it usually creates deeper and narrower feet

  19. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  20. Negative-ion production on carbon materials in hydrogen plasma : influence of the carbon hybridization state and the hydrogen content on H- yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, A.; Pardanaud, C.; Carrère, M.; Layet, J.M.; Gicquel, A.; Kumar, P.; Eon, D.; Jaoul, C.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Cartry, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly oriented polycrystalline graphite (HOPG), boron-doped diamond (BDD), nanocrystalline diamond, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon surfaces are exposed to low-pressure hydrogen plasma in a 13.56 MHz plasma reactor. Relative yields of surface-produced H- ions due to

  1. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    SOT images is negative and ranges from -10% for smaller flows to -50% for larger flows. Passive scalar 'cork movies' derived from NAVE measurements show that prominence plasma is entrained by the upflows, helping to counter the ubiquitous downflow streams in the prominence. Plume formation shows no clear temporal periodicity. However, it is common to find 'active cavities' beneath prominences that can spawn many upflows in succession before going dormant. The mean flow recurrence time in these active locations is roughly 300-500 s (5-8 minutes). Locations remain active on timescales of tens of minutes up to several hours. Using a column density ratio measurement and reasonable assumptions on plume and prominence geometries, we estimate that the mass density in the dark cavities is at most 20% of the visible prominence density, implying that a single large plume could supply up to 1% of the mass of a typical quiescent prominence. We hypothesize that the plumes are generated from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place on the boundary between the buoyant cavities and the overlying prominence. Characteristics, such as plume size and frequency, may be modulated by the strength and direction of the cavity magnetic field relative to the prominence magnetic field. We conclude that buoyant plumes are a source of quiescent prominence mass as well as a mechanism by which prominence plasma is advected upward, countering constant gravitational drainage.

  2. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    is negative and ranges from -10% for smaller flows to -50% for larger flows. Passive scalar "cork movies" derived from NAVE measurements show that prominence plasma is entrained by the upflows, helping to counter the ubiquitous downflow streams in the prominence. Plume formation shows no clear temporal periodicity. However, it is common to find "active cavities" beneath prominences that can spawn many upflows in succession before going dormant. The mean flow recurrence time in these active locations is roughly 300-500 s (5-8 minutes). Locations remain active on timescales of tens of minutes up to several hours. Using a column density ratio measurement and reasonable assumptions on plume and prominence geometries, we estimate that the mass density in the dark cavities is at most 20% of the visible prominence density, implying that a single large plume could supply up to 1% of the mass of a typical quiescent prominence. We hypothesize that the plumes are generated from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place on the boundary between the buoyant cavities and the overlying prominence. Characteristics, such as plume size and frequency, may be modulated by the strength and direction of the cavity magnetic field relative to the prominence magnetic field. We conclude that buoyant plumes are a source of quiescent prominence mass as well as a mechanism by which prominence plasma is advected upward, countering constant gravitational drainage.

  3. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  4. Quantifying the cepstral peak prominence, a measure of dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Sataloff, Robert T; Laureyns, Griet; Lurie, Deborah; Michael, Deirdre D; Heuer, Reinhardt; Rubin, Adam; Eller, Robert; Chandran, Swapna; Abaza, Mona; Lyons, Karen; Divi, Venu; Lott, Joanna; Johnson, Jennifer; Hillenbrand, James

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish normative values for the smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS) and its sensitivity and specificity as a measure of dysphonia. Prospective cohort study. Voice samples of running speech were obtained from 835 patients and 50 volunteers. Eight laryngologists and four speech-language pathologists performed perceptual ratings of the voice samples on the degree of dysphonia/normality using an analog scale. The mean of their perceptual ratings was used as the gold standard for the detection of the presence or absence of dysphonia. CPPS was measured using the CPPS algorithm of Hillenbrand, and the cut-off value for positivity that has the highest sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between normal and severely dysphonia voices was determined based on ROC-curve analysis. The cut-off value for normal for CPPS was set at 4.0 or higher, which gave a sensitivity of 92.4%, a specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value of 82.5%, and a negative predictive value of 90.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.937 (P dysphonia, with the normal value of CPPS (Hillenbrand algorithm) of a running speech sample being defined as a value of 4.0 or higher. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. QUIESCENT PROMINENCES IN THE ERA OF ALMA: SIMULATED OBSERVATIONS USING THE 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Anzer, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85740 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence–corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  6. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  7. Study of a Large Helical Eruptive Prominence Associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001-04-21

    Apr 21, 2001 ... morphology of the event, energy budget of the prominence and associated. CMEs. ... magnetically driven and internally powered. Key words. ... Solar prominences are ribbons of cool (∼8000 K) dense gas (∼10. −11 gcm. −3. ) ...

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD IN ATYPICAL PROMINENCE STRUCTURES: BUBBLE, TORNADO, AND ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); López Ariste, A. [IRAP—CNRS UMR 5277, 14, Av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dalmasse, K. [CISL/HAO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Gelly, B., E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: brigitte.schmieder@obspm.fr [CNRS UMR 3718 THEMIS, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D{sub 3} line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  9. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  10. Exploring the Perspectives of Alternative Fuels Production. Towards alternative fuels with zero, or negative greenhouse gas emissions, considering coal, biomass and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerhart, A.J.J.E.

    2009-05-01

    In this report it is shown that future improvements in the production process of Fischer-Tropsch fuels can reduce costs and produce CO2 neutral gasoline and diesel. Major benefits lie in the improvement of the overall temperature profile of the plant at higher temperatures and carbon capture and storage. Based on literature studies, it was found that future technologies can operate at higher temperatures, and thus a better integration of heating and cooling. It was found that the future model of a CBTL (Coal and Biomass To Liquids) plant can produce liquids at a break-even oil price (BEOP) of 58.60 USD/barrel at 100% coal, with similar greenhouse gas emissions compared to liquids produced by conventional means today. However, once biomass is introduced at a ratio of 33% - 67% biomass, a CBTL plant becomes neutral in terms of GHG emissions. The BEOP for this neutral scenario is 69.60 USD/barrel. Looking at the 100% biomass scenario, the BEOP becomes 82.77 USD/barrel. The greenhouse gas emissions at this point are negative, meaning that more CO2 is captured during the process than is needed to grow biomass. This in effect makes a CBTL plant a carbon sink. By introducing future technologies and improvements, such as membrane technology for CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage), higher FTS (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis) catalyst selectivities and an overall better temperature profile, the BEOP for the 100% coal scenario drops from 58.60 to 45.27 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the neutral scenario drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the 100% biomass scenario drops from 82.77 to 69.07 USD/barrel. For the neutral scenario, the BEOP drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. If one assumes that a BEOP of 60 USD/barrel is economically reasonable, one can calculate the level of a carbon tax, once a carbon tax regime is imposed. For SOTA (state-of-the-art) 100% coal, FS (Future Scenario) 100%, FS 50% coal and FS 33% coal, there is no need for a carbon tax to reach 60 USD

  11. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  12. Carbon Dioxide Emissions as an Indicator of Reduction of Negative Externalities Related to Road Motor Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of carbon dioxide emissions generated by road motor vehicles in the Czech Republic and the European Union. We discuss the current need for the introduction of environmental features to the system of taxation of motor vehicles, aiming at the mitigation of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere. The most harmful substance produced during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by motor vehicles is CO2, whose emissions are subsequently used as an instrument for green tax reforms in the European Union member states. In this article we define the main EU legal standards regulating harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere as a result of road motor transport. We may cite for instance the Regulation (EC No. 443/2009 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. The aim of the European Union is to reduce average emission values of new passenger cars sold in the EU to 130 g CO2/km by 2015 and to 95 g CO2/km by 2020. Assessment of tax on motor vehicles according to CO2 emissions shall help fulfil commitments from the Kyoto Protocol, aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillier, A. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Pandon Building, Camden Street, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Erdélyi, R., E-mail: andrew@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  14. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s –1 . The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency

  15. Two Categories of Apparent Tornado-like Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2014-06-01

    Two categories of solar prominences have been described in the literature as having a pattern of mass motions and/or a shape similar to terrestrial tornados. We first identify the two categories associated with prominences in the historic literature and then show that counterparts do exist for both in recent literature but one has not been called a tornado prominence. One category described as being similar to tornados is associated with the barbs of quiescent filaments but barbs appear to have rotational motion only under special conditions. H alpha Doppler observations from Helio Research confirm that this category is an illusion in our mind’s eye resulting from counterstreaming in the large barbs of quiescent filaments. The second category is a special case of rotational motion occurring during the early stages of some erupting prominences, in recent years called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of an erupting prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption proceeds, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and has true rotational motion. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in the historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence and spectra recorded in these cases provide proof of the rotational motion. When one observes an entire eruption which exhibits the rolling motion, as accomplished at Helio Research, the similarity to a tornado is lost because the event as a whole has quite a different nature and the analogy to a terrestrial tornado not longer appears suitable or helpful in understanding the observed and deduced physical processes. Our conclusion is that there are no solar prominences with motions that are usefully described as tornado or tornado-like events aside from the fun of observing

  16. Nitrogen Addition Exacerbates the Negative Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Yang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes are leading to an increase in localized abnormally low temperatures and increasing nitrogen (N deposition is a phenomenon recognized worldwide. Both low temperature stress (LTS and excess N induce oxidative stress in plants, and excess N also reduces their resistance to LTS. Mosses are primitive plants that are generally more sensitive to alterations in environmental factors than vascular species. To study the combined effects of N deposition and LTS on carbon (C and N metabolism in moss, two moss species, Pogonatum cirratum subsp. fuscatum, and Hypnum plumaeforme, exposed to various concentrations of nitrate (KNO3 or ammonium (NH4Cl, were treated with or without LTS. C/N metabolism indices were then monitored, both immediately after the stress and after a short recovery period (10 days. LTS decreased the photosystem II (PSII performance index and inhibited non-cyclic photophosphorylation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and glutamine synthetase activities, indicating damage to PSII and reductions in C/N assimilation in these mosses. LTS did not affect cyclic photophosphorylation, sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting a certain level of energy and C skeleton generation were maintained in the mosses to combat LTS; however, LTS inhibited the activity of glycolate oxidase. As predicted, N supply increased the sensitivity of the mosses to LTS, resulting in greater damage to PSII and a sharper decrease in C/N assimilation. After the recovery period, the performance of PSII and C/N metabolism, which were inhibited by LTS increased significantly, and were generally higher than those of control samples not exposed to LTS, suggesting overcompensation effects; however, N application reduced the extent of compensation effects. Both C and N metabolism exhibited stronger compensation effects in H. plumaeforme than in P. cirratum subsp. fuscatum. The

  17. ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  18. ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beck, C. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-10

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  19. Solar Tornado Prominences: Plasma Motions Along Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco; Martin, Sara F.; Rappazzo, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by E. Pettit in 1932, who studied them over many years up to 1950. High resolution and high cadence multi-wavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like properties of these prominences are mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We show that counterstreaming plasma motions with projected velocities up to +/- 45 km/sec along the prominence spine and barbs create a tornado-like impression when viewed at the limb. We demonstrate that barbs are often rooted at the intersection between 4-5 supergranular cells. We discuss the observed oscillations along the vertical parts of barbs and whether they may be related to vortex flows coming from the convection downdrafts at the intersection of supergranules (and possibly smaller convective cells) in the photosphere and their entrained magnetic field. The unwinding of magnetic threads near the photosphere via reconnection might be a source of the waves which are observed as oscillations in prominence barbs.

  20. The temperatures of negative pions in light ions collisions with carbon and tantalum nuclei at 4.2 A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, D.; Salihagic, D.; Simic, L.

    1991-01-01

    The slope of transverse momentum invariant spectra of the negative pions in the inelastic (d,α,C)+(C,Ta) collisions at 4.2xA GeV/c are studied. The temperatures of the negative pion are obtained in various rapidity intervals. In collisons with carbon going from fragmentation to the central rapidity region the temperature increases from 60 MeV to 110 MeV. ''Two-temperature'' shape of p p erpendicular spectra appears in interactions with the tantalum nucleus. The value of the first temperature remains almost constant (≅40 MeV) for different rapidities. And behaviour of the second temperature is similar to that observed in the light nuclei interactions (varying from 70 MeV up to 110 MeV). The experimental results are compared with calculations in the framework of the quark-gluon string model. The influence of resonances and intranuclear rescattering mechanism on values of temperatures is shown in different rapidity regions. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR

  1. Reconnection–Condensation Model for Solar Prominence Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Takafumi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yokoyama, Takaaki, E-mail: kaneko@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    We propose a reconnection–condensation model in which topological change in a coronal magnetic field via reconnection triggers radiative condensation, thereby resulting in prominence formation. Previous observational studies have suggested that reconnection at a polarity inversion line of a coronal arcade field creates a flux rope that can sustain a prominence; however, they did not explain the origin of cool dense plasmas of prominences. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including anisotropic nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiative cooling, we demonstrate that reconnection can lead not only to flux rope formation but also to radiative condensation under a certain condition. In our model, this condition is described by the Field length, which is defined as the scale length for thermal balance between radiative cooling and thermal conduction. This critical condition depends weakly on the artificial background heating. The extreme ultraviolet emissions synthesized with our simulation results have good agreement with observational signatures reported in previous studies.

  2. Static current-sheet models of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Low, B. C.

    1986-12-01

    A particular class of theoretical models idealize the prominence to be a discrete flat electric-current sheet suspended vertically in a potential magnetic field. The weight of the prominence is supported by the Lorentz force in the current sheet. These models can be extended to have curved electric-current sheets and to vary three-dimensionally. The equation for force balance is 1 over 4 pi (del times B) times Bdel p- p9 z=zero. Using Cartesian coordinates we take, for simplicity, a uniform gravity with constant acceleration g in the direction -z. If we are interested not in the detailed internal structure of the prominence, but in the global magnetic configuration around the prominence, we may take prominence plasma to be cold. Consideration is given to how such equilibrium states can be constructed. To simplify the mathematical problem, suppose there is no electric current in the atmosphere except for the discrete currents in the cold prominence sheet. Let us take the plane z =0 to be the base of the atmosphere and restrict our attention to the domain z greater than 0. The task we have is to solve for a magnetic field which is everywhere potential except on some free surface S, subject to suit able to boundary conditions. The surface S is determined by requiring that it possesses a discrete electric current density such that the Lorentz force on it is everywhere vertically upward to balance the weight of the material m(S). Since the magnetic field is potential in the external atmosphere, the latter is decoupled from the magnetic field and its plane parallel hydrostatic pressure and density can be prescribed.

  3. Solar Prominence Modelling and Plasma Diagnostics at ALMA Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Andrew; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to test potential solar prominence plasma diagnostics as obtained with the new solar capability of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We investigate the thermal and plasma diagnostic potential of ALMA for solar prominences through the computation of brightness temperatures at ALMA wavelengths. The brightness temperature, for a chosen line of sight, is calculated using the densities of electrons, hydrogen, and helium obtained from a radiative transfer code under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions, as well as the input internal parameters of the prominence model in consideration. Two distinct sets of prominence models were used: isothermal-isobaric fine-structure threads, and large-scale structures with radially increasing temperature distributions representing the prominence-to-corona transition region. We compute brightness temperatures over the range of wavelengths in which ALMA is capable of observing (0.32 - 9.6 mm), however, we particularly focus on the bands available to solar observers in ALMA cycles 4 and 5, namely 2.6 - 3.6 mm (Band 3) and 1.1 - 1.4 mm (Band 6). We show how the computed brightness temperatures and optical thicknesses in our models vary with the plasma parameters (temperature and pressure) and the wavelength of observation. We then study how ALMA observables such as the ratio of brightness temperatures at two frequencies can be used to estimate the optical thickness and the emission measure for isothermal and non-isothermal prominences. From this study we conclude that for both sets of models, ALMA presents a strong thermal diagnostic capability, provided that the interpretation of observations is supported by the use of non-LTE simulation results.

  4. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mass: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The crista terminalis is a normal anatomical structure within the right atrium that is not normally visualised in the standard views obtained while performing a transthoracic echocardiogram. In this case report, transthoracic echocardiography suggested the presence of a right atrial mass in a patient with end stage renal disease. However, subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the right atrial mass was actually a thick muscular bridge in the right atrium consistent with a prominent crista terminalis. An understanding of the anatomy and the echocardiographic appearance of a prominent crista terminalis will minimize the misdiagnosis of this structure avoiding unnecessary expensive additional tests.

  5. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  6. PATTERNS OF FLOWS IN AN INTERMEDIATE PROMINENCE OBSERVED BY HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cao Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plasma flows in filaments/prominences gives us clues to understanding their magnetic structures. We studied the patterns of flows in an intermediate prominence observed by Hinode/SOT. By examining a time series of Hα images and Ca II H images, we have found horizontal flows in the spine and vertical flows in the barb. Both of these flows have a characteristic speed of 10-20 km s -1 . The horizontal flows displayed counterstreaming. Our detailed investigation revealed that most of the moving fragments in fact reversed direction at the end point of the spine near a footpoint close to the associated active region. These returning flows may be one possible explanation of the well-known counterstreaming flows in prominences. In contrast, we have found vertical flows-downward and upward-in the barb. Most of the horizontal flows in the spine seem to switch into vertical flows when they approach the barb, and vice versa. We propose that the net force resulting from a small deviation from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where magnetic fields are predominantly horizontal, may drive these patterns of flow. In the prominence studied here, the supposed magnetohydrostatic configuration is characterized by magnetic field lines sagging with angles of 13 0 and 39 0 in the spine and the barb, respectively.

  7. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  8. On Lyman-line asymmetries in quiescent prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Anzer, U.; Schmieder, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 490, č. 1 (2008), s. 307-313 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun prominences * radiative transfer * line profiles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  9. Unintended exposure in radiotherapy: Identification of prominent causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, Mary; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Unintended exposures in radiotherapy are likely to occur when certain conditions that favour such exposures exist. Based on the frequency of occurrence of various causes of 100 events of unintended exposures in radiotherapy as derived from the analysis of published reports, a checklist for assessing the vulnerability of radiotherapy facilities for potential accidents has been prepared. The list presents items to be considered for safety critical assessments of a radiotherapy department for the improvement of patient safety and the entire radiotherapy processes. Materials and methods: The resources used for this paper consist of 100 unintended radiotherapy exposures and were derived from existing published reports. The analysis was performed by forming two templates: one consisting of 10 initiating events and another of 35 contributing factors. Results: Four most prominent initiating events were identified and together accounted for about 70% of all the unintended exposure events. Ten most prominent contributing factors were also identified and together accounted for about 70% of all the radiotherapy unintended exposure events covered under this study. Conclusion: With this knowledge of high frequency of occurrences, the identified four prominent initiating events and the 10 most prominent contributing factors must be checked and dealt with as a matter of priority when assessing the safety of a radiotherapy facility. A simple checklist for checking the quality assurance programmes of a radiotherapy department for every aspect of the design and delivery of radiation have been provided.

  10. Further Validation of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. Paige; Hall, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine select psychometric properties of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale (CIPS), including the reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Coaches (N = 338) who averaged 37 (SD = 12.27) years of age, had a mean of 13 (SD = 9.90) years of coaching experience,…

  11. Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Kuo, W. P.; Nimmagadda, S.; Benson, S. L.; Geetha-Loganathan, P.; Logan, C.; Au-Yeung, T.; Chiang, E.; Fu, K.; Richman, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2010), s. 574-591 ISSN 1058-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pharyngeal arch * mandibular arch * maxillary prominence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2010

  12. Prominence modelling: from observed emission measures to temperature profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anzer, U.; Heinzel, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 480, č. 2 (2008), s. 537-542 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS Project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * prominences * transition region Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  13. Holdaway's analysis of the nose prominence of an adult Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nose prominence was assessed using Holdaway's analysis. Twenty radiographs randomly selected, were retraced to assess for errors. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Student's t‑tests and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: The mean value recorded for the nose ...

  14. Eruptive prominences and long-delay geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between disappearing solar fragments and geomagnetic disturbances was investigated. It is shown that long-delay storms are associated with filaments well removed from the disc centre, and particularly in the case of large filaments and prominences, the proportion of events that produce long-delay storms increases with angular distance from the centre

  15. Cylindrical prominences and the magnetic influence of the photospheric boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Chicago Univ., IL; Low, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    We construct exact, non-linear, solutions for an horizontal, cylindrical, current-carrying, prominence supported against solar gravity by the action of a Lorentz force. The solutions incorporate the photosphere boundary condition, proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), and analyzed by them for line filaments. Our solutions have finite radius for the prominence material and, as well as satisfying the equations of magnetostatic equilibrium, they allow for the continuity of gas pressure, and of the normal and tangential components of magnetic field across the circular prominence boundary. We show that an infinity of solutions is possible and we illustrate the basic behavior by investigation of a special case. We also give a prescription for constructing equilibrium fields for any horizontal prominence with arbitrary cross-section and with an arbitrary external magnetic field. The prescription is ideally suited for numerical codes and we suggest that both the equilibrium of such shapes can easily be accomplished numerically together with their evolutionary history. (orig.)

  16. Lines of MgI Detected in Solar Prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Schwartz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-91 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /14./. Hvar, 26.09.2016-30.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : prominences * limb-flare * MgI emession Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and

  18. Multi-Wavelength Eclipse Observations of a Quiescent Prominence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr; Zapiór, M.; Druckmüller, M.; Gunár, Stanislav; Kotrč, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 7 (2014), s. 2487-2501 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : eclipse observations * prominences * quiescent Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  19. Electron densities in quiescent prominences derived from eclipse observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 1 (2009), s. 89-100 ISSN 0038-0938 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : prominences quiescent * eclipse observations * visible spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.628, year: 2009

  20. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  1. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: → Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. → Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. → A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  2. Physical and technical performances are not associated with tactical prominence in U14 soccer matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Figueiredo, António José; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa; Wong, Del P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical/technical variables and the tactical prominence variables in U14 soccer matches. Twenty-two young amateur soccer players (13.5 [Formula: see text] 0.5 years old, 5.4 [Formula: see text] 0.5 years of practice, 163.3 [Formula: see text] 9.8 cm in body height) from two teams of the Portuguese regional league volunteered for the study. Our results showed positive and moderate correlation between dribbling test and betweenness centrality (r = 0.324; p = 0.142), and negative moderate correlation between %fatigue index and betweenness centrality (r = -0.390; p = 0.073). Physical and technical variables had no statistical differences among tactical positions. Nevertheless, when tactical prominence of players from four tactical positions were compared, significant differences were found in terms of degree prestige (p = 0.001) and degree centrality (p = 0.002). This pilot study did not find strong correlations between physical/technical levels and tactical prominence in soccer matches.

  3. Head turning as a prominent motor symptom in status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gerhard; Broessner, Gregor; Unterberger, Iris; Walser, Gerald; Pfausler, Bettina; Trinka, Eugen

    2008-06-01

    Head and eye turning is frequently observed during seizures. Versions with tonic and/or clonic symptoms can be differentiated from smooth head deviations. Head turning as a prominent symptom of status epilepticus has not previously been reported. We present eight case reports, (7 women/1 man, mean age 41 years, median 41.5, range 10 to 74), of status epilepticus (SE), with head turning as a prominent motor symptom. Six were accompanied by continuous frontal, occipital and temporal ictal epileptiform discharges. Furthermore, two patients had absence status with rhythmic and clonic head versions. While the localizing significance of head turnings in SE is low, in our cases, the direction was away from the discharging hemisphere in all cases of focal SE regardless of whether the turning was classified as version (three cases) or deviation (three cases). In this small series of SE, the classical observation of a patient looking away from the discharging hemisphere is still valid.

  4. Non-LTE hydrogen-line formation in moving prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Rompolt, B.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen-line brightness variations, depending on the prominence-velocity changes were investigated. By solving the NON-Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) problem for hydrogen researchers determine quantitatively the effect of Doppler brightening and/or Doppler dimming (DBE, DDE) in the lines of Lyman and Balmer series. It is demonstrated that in low-density prominence plasmas, DBE in H alpha and H beta lines can reach a factor of three for velocities around 160 km/sec, while the L alpha line exhibits typical DDE. L beta brightness variations follow from a combined DBE in the H alpha and DDE in L alpha and L beta itself, providing that all relevant multilevel interlocking processes are taken into account.

  5. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  6. Beat gestures and prosodic prominence: impact on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kushch, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that gestures are beneficial for language learning. This doctoral thesis centers on the effects of beat gestures– i.e., hand and arm gestures that are typically associated with prosodically prominent positions in speech - on such processes. Little is known about how the two central properties of beat gestures, namely how they mark both information focus and rhythmic positions in speech, can be beneficial for learning either a first or a second language. The main go...

  7. Observations of apparent superslow wave propagation in solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, J. O.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Baes, M.; Wright, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Phase mixing of standing continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in atmospheric magnetic structures such as coronal arcades can create the apparent effect of a wave propagating across the magnetic field. Aims: We observe a prominence with SDO/AIA on 2015 March 15 and find the presence of oscillatory motion. We aim to demonstrate that interpreting this motion as a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) wave is faulty. We also connect the decrease of the apparent velocity over time with the phase mixing process, which depends on the curvature of the magnetic field lines. Methods: By measuring the displacement of the prominence at different heights to calculate the apparent velocity, we show that the propagation slows down over time, in accordance with the theoretical work of Kaneko et al. We also show that this propagation speed drops below what is to be expected for even slow MHD waves for those circumstances. We use a modified Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model to calculate the curvature of the magnetic field and fit our observations accordingly. Results: Measuring three of the apparent waves, we get apparent velocities of 14, 8, and 4 km s-1. Fitting a simple model for the magnetic field configuration, we obtain that the filament is located 103 Mm below the magnetic centre. We also obtain that the scale of the magnetic field strength in the vertical direction plays no role in the concept of apparent superslow waves and that the moment of excitation of the waves happened roughly one oscillation period before the end of the eruption that excited the oscillation. Conclusions: Some of the observed phase velocities are lower than expected for slow modes for the circumstances, showing that they rather fit with the concept of apparent superslow propagation. A fit with our magnetic field model allows for inferring the magnetic geometry of the prominence. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Prominence and tornado dynamics observed with IRIS and THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Mein, Pierre; Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Zapior, Maciek

    2017-08-01

    Several prominences were observed during campaigns in September 2013 and July 2014 with the IRIS spectrometer and the vector magnetograph THEMIS (Tenerife). SDO/AIA and IRIS provided images and spectra of prominences and tornadoes corresponding to different physical conditions of the transition region between the cool plasma and the corona. The vector magnetic field was derived from THEMIS observations by using the He D3 depolarisation due to the magnetic field. The inversion code (PCA) takes into account the Hanle and Zeeman effects and allows us to compute the strength and the inclination of the magnetic field which is shown to be mostly horizontal in prominences as well as in tornadoes. Movies from SDO/AIA in 304 A and Hinode/SOT in Ca II show the highly dynamic nature of the fine structures. From spectra in Mg II and Si IV lines provided by IRIS and H-alpha observed by the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass (MSDP) spectrograph in the Meudon Solar Tower we derived the Doppler shifts of the fine structures and reconstructed the 3D structure of tornadoes. We conclude that the apparent rotation of AIA tornadoes is due to large-scale quasi-periodic oscillations of the plasma along more or less horizontal magnetic structures.

  9. Semi-Metallic Be5C2 Monolayer Global Minimum with Quasi-Planar Pentacoordinate Carbons and Negative Poissons Ratio (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-03

    silicene47,48. It is noteworthy that Be has toxic properties and the chemical vapour deposition synthesis usually requires high temperature; hence, special...2007). 28. Zhang, C. J., Sun, W. X. & Cao, Z. X. Zigzag boron -carbon nanotubes with quasi-planar tetracoordinate carbons. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5638...Probing the planar tetra-, penta-, and hexacoordinate Carbon in carbon- boron mixed clusters. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2580–2592 (2008). 44. Luo, X. et

  10. Synthetic differential emission measure curves of prominence fine structures. II. The SoHO/SUMER prominence of 8 June 2004

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunár, Stanislav; Parenti, S.; Anzer, U.; Heinzel, Petr; Vial, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 535, November (2011), A122/1-A122/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/09/P554; GA ČR GA205/09/1705; GA ČR GAP209/10/1706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  11. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  12. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Antolin, Patrick, E-mail: sven.wedemeyer@astro.uio.no [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-09-10

    Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  13. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Observations in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Hα observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale

  14. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  15. The carbon harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    2018-02-01

    In 2015, the Paris climate agreement established a goal of limiting global warming to "well below" 2°C. In the most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, researchers surveyed possible road maps for reaching that goal and found something unsettling: In most model scenarios, simply cutting emissions isn't enough. To limit warming, humanity also needs negative emissions technologies that, by the end of the century, would remove more carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere than humans emit. The technologies would buy time for society to rein in carbon emissions, but they also give policymakers an excuse to drag their feet on climate action in the hopes that future inventions will clean up the mess. One particular technology has quietly risen to prominence, thanks to global models. The idea is to cultivate fast-growing grasses and trees to suck CO2 out of the atmosphere and then burn them at power plants to generate energy. But instead of being released back into the atmosphere in the exhaust, the crops' carbon would be captured and pumped underground. The technique is known as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, or—among climate wonks—simply as BECCS. Although BECCS is relatively cheap and theoretically feasible, the sheer scale at which it operates in the models alarms many researchers.

  16. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  17. Word-level prominence in Persian: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types. Unlike duration, the results for overall intensity and spectral tilt were significant only in the accented condition, suggesting that measures of intensity are not a correlate of stress in Persian but they are mainly caused by the presence of a pitch movement. The findings are phonologically interpreted as suggesting that word-level prominence in Persian is typologically similar to 'stress accent' languages, in which multiple phonetic cues are used to signal the prominence contrast in the accented condition, and stressed and unstressed syllables are different from each other even when the word is not pitch-accented.

  18. Magnetic field re-arrangement after prominence eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, R.A.; Poletto, G.

    1986-01-01

    It has long been known that magnetic reconnection plays a fundamental role in a variety of solar events. Although mainly invoked in flare problems, large-scale loops interconnecting active regions, evolving coronal hole boundaries, the solar magnetic cycle itself, provide different evidence of phenomena which involve magnetic reconnection. A further example might be given by the magnetic field rearrangement which occurs after the eruption of a prominence. Since most often a prominence reforms after its disappearance and may be observed at about the same position it occupied before erupting, the magnetic field has to undergo a temporary disruption to relax back, via reconnection, to a configuration similar to the previous one. The above sequence of events is best observable in the case of two-ribbon (2-R) flares but most probably is associated with all filament eruptions. Even if the explanation of the magnetic field rearrangement after 2-R flares in terms of reconnection is generally accepted, the lack of a three-dimensional model capable of describing the field reconfiguration, has prevented, up to now, a thorough analysis of its topology as traced by Hα/x-ray loops. The purpose of the present work is to present a numerical technique which enables one to predict and visualize the reconnected configuration, at any time t, and therefore allows one to make a significant comparison of observations and model predictions throughout the whole process. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Physics of solar prominences. Proceedings of the Colloquium, Oslo, Norway, August 14-18, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, E; Maltby, P

    1979-01-01

    These papers deal with recent theoretical and observational studies of the physics of solar prominences. Specific topics include reviews of prominence spectra and their interpretation, polarimetric observations and magnetic-field determination in prominences, observations of the prominence-corona interface, theories on the formation and stability of quiescent prominences, prominence classifications, observations of active prominences, observations and interpretations of coronal manifestations of eruptive prominences, and models of prominence structure and dynamics. Other contributions discuss simultaneous observations of Ca II and hydrogen Balmer lines in quiescent prominences, recent results in quiescent-prominence spectroscopy, the solar helium abundance obtained from optical spectra of quiescent prominences, and Stokes polarimetry of quiescent prominences in the He I D3 line. Magnetic-field determination based on the Hanle effect is also examined, along with the orientation of prominence microstructure relative to magnetic-field direction, radio observations of quiescent-prominence filaments at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths, EUV observations of filaments, and a magnetic-field reconnection model of quiescent prominences.

  20. Automatic detection of prominence (as defined by listeners' judgements) in read aloud Dutch sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, B.M.; Pols, L.C.W.; ten Bosch, L.F.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a first step towards the automatic classification of prominence (as defined by native listeners). As a result of a listening experiment each word in 500 sentences was marked with a rating scale between `0' (non-prominent) and `10' (very prominent). These prominence labels are

  1. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  2. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annesley, Thomas M.; Cooks, Robert G.; Herold, David A.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

    2016-01-04

    Each year the journal Clinical Chemistry publishes a January special issue on a topic that is relevant to the laboratory medicine community. In January 2016 the topic is mass spectrometry, and the issue is entitled “Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine”. One popular feature in our issues is a Q&A on a topic, clearly in this case mass spectrometry. The journal is assembling a panel of 5-6 experts from various areas of mass spectrometry ranging from instrument manufacturing to practicing clinical chemists. Dick Smith is one of the scientist requested to participate in this special issue Q&A on Mass Spectrometry. The Q&A Transcript is attached

  4. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  5. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  6. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  7. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  8. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  9. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  10. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis. (orig.)

  11. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  12. Combined surgical management of mandibular angle prominence and microgenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelles Masso, Ayelen Maria; Berger Kohn, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Chin play a very important role in facial aesthetics. Different deformities of volume and of position may occur at this level and it is the microgenia one of the more frequent. Treatment options include the use of silicone, alloplasty materials and autologous bone graft. Authors report the use of the bone removed from mandibular angle to increase the chin. This is the case of a white female patient aged 18 seen by the Orthognathics Multidisciplinary Staff of 'V. I. Lenin' Hospital due to its uncommon face width. The corresponding physical examination as well as the complementary ones diagnosed a bilateral prominence of mandibular angle associated with a microgenia. Surgery carried out was of remodeling type of both mandibular angles and genioplasty of height increase and a discrete advancement using the bone removed from the gonion. There were satisfactory aesthetic results without evidence of bone reabsorption. We conclude that use of autologous graft of mandibular angle is an effective treatment alternative for correction of microgenia. (author)

  13. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed.

  14. Prominent Determinants of Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Battistoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the most prominent drivers of brand equity, from a consumerbased point of view. We present a new approach for measuring brand equity, which can be applied regardless of the brand sector and is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This approach has the main advantage of allowing for comparisons to be made between non‐directly measurable elements and also has the advantage of enabling the ranking of intangible criteria, such as consumers’ feelings or purchase intentions. We focus on the fashion industry, since we believe in the higher value of our approach when applied to brands which offer products with less tangible characteristics. Thanks to a case study – which involved about 250 interviewees – we succeed in finding and prioritizing the elements which can have an impact on the brand value. We also provide a global ranking for three apparel brands: Gap, H&M and Zara. The results from our model are consistent with other popular ratings and can be extremely useful for brand managers.

  15. Piecewise mass flows within a solar prominence observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Tam, Kuan Vai; Zhao, Mingyu; Zhang, Xuefei

    2018-06-01

    The material of solar prominences is often observed in a state of flowing. These mass flows (MF) are important and useful for us to understand the internal structure and dynamics of prominences. In this paper, we present a high resolution Hα observation of MFs within a quiescent solar prominence. From the observation, we find that the plasma primarily has a circular motion and a downward motion separately in the middle section and legs of the prominence, which creates a piecewise mass flow along the observed prominence. Moreover, the observation also shows a clear displacement of MF's velocity peaks in the middle section of the prominence. All of these provide us with a detailed record of MFs within a solar prominence and show a new approach to detecting the physical properties of prominence.

  16. Prominent central spinal canal on MRI - normal variant or pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugal, T.P.; Brazier, D.; Roche, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The sensitivity of MRI can make differentiation of normal from abnormal challenging.The study investigates whether a visible central spinal canal is pathological or a normal variant. We review eight MRI (mostly on a 1.5 Tesla unit) cases where there is a visible central cavity in keeping with a central canal and review the literature. The central canal is a space in the medial part of the grey-matter commissure between the anterior and posterior horns. Histopathological studies show that the canal is present at birth with the majority showing subsequent involution but is uncommonly imaged on MRI. The main differential diagnosis is syringomyelia which usually presents with deficits in pain and sensation corresponding to the appropriate level often with a demonstrable aetiology. Two thirds of our patients were female with an average age of thirty-six years (range 26-45). The patients were largely asymptomatic or their symptoms appeared unrelated to the imaging findings. Three patients had minor previous trauma and two others had non-bacterial meningitis up to twenty years earlier. No patient had known spinal surgery or trauma.The cavity corresponded tomographically to the expected site of the central canal. The canal was in the thoracic location. The canal diameter ranged from one to five millimetres and its length varied from one half a vertebral body height to extending over the entire thoracic region. Its configuration was either filiform or fusiform, with smooth contours. No predisposing features to suggest syringomyelia or other structural abnormalities were noted. Where Gadolinium was given no abnormal enhancement was observed. These cases add to the literature and suggest that these prominent canals are largely asymptomatic and should be viewed as normal variants. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Development and Parameters of a Non-Self-Similar CME Caused by the Eruption of a Quiescent Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent prominence on 17 August 2013 and an associated coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from different vantage points by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Screening of the quiet Sun by the prominence produced an isolated negative microwave burst. We estimated the parameters of the erupting prominence from a radio absorption model and measured them from 304 Å images. The variations of the parameters as obtained by these two methods are similar and agree within a factor of two. The CME development was studied from the kinematics of the front and different components of the core and their structural changes. The results were verified using movies in which the CME expansion was compensated for according to the measured kinematics. We found that the CME mass (3.6 × 10^{15} g) was mainly supplied by the prominence (≈ 6 × 10^{15} g), while a considerable part drained back. The mass of the coronal-temperature component did not exceed 10^{15} g. The CME was initiated by the erupting prominence, which constituted its core and remained active. The structural and kinematical changes started in the core and propagated outward. The CME structures continued to form during expansion, which did not become self-similar up to 25 R_{⊙}. The aerodynamic drag was insignificant. The core formed during the CME rise to 4 R_{⊙} and possibly beyond. Some of its components were observed to straighten and stretch outward, indicating the transformation of tangled structures of the core into a simpler flux rope, which grew and filled the cavity as the CME expanded.

  18. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  19. Paradoxical aging in HIV: immune senescence of B Cells is most prominent in young age

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Varghese K.; de Armas, Lesley R.; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M.; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative “healthy controls” (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (≥60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction. PMID:28448963

  20. Paradoxical aging in HIV: immune senescence of B Cells is most prominent in young age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Stefano; Pallikkuth, Suresh; George, Varghese K; de Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-04-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (aged (40-59yrs) or old ( > 60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction.

  1. Morphology and Dynamics of Solar Prominences from 3D MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  2. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  3. Magnetic Field-Vector Measurements in Quiescent Prominences via the Hanle Effect: Analysis of Prominences Observed at Pic-Du-Midi and at Sacramento Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Hanle effect method for magnetic field vector diagnostics has now provided results on the magnetic field strength and direction in quiescent prominences, from linear polarization measurements in the He I E sub 3 line, performed at the Pic-du-Midi and at Sacramento Peak. However, there is an inescapable ambiguity in the field vector determination: each polarization measurement provides two field vector solutions symmetrical with respect to the line-of-sight. A statistical analysis capable of solving this ambiguity was applied to the large sample of prominences observed at the Pic-du-Midi (Leroy, et al., 1984); the same method of analysis applied to the prominences observed at Sacramento Peak (Athay, et al., 1983) provides results in agreement on the most probable magnetic structure of prominences; these results are detailed. The statistical results were confirmed on favorable individual cases: for 15 prominences observed at Pic-du-Midi, the two-field vectors are pointing on the same side of the prominence, and the alpha angles are large enough with respect to the measurements and interpretation inaccuracies, so that the field polarity is derived without any ambiguity.

  4. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  5. CRITICAL HEIGHT FOR THE DESTABILIZATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES: STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kai; Wang Yuming; Wang Shui; Shen Chenglong, E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-01-10

    At which height is a prominence inclined to be unstable, or where is the most probable critical height for the prominence destabilization? This question was statistically studied based on 362 solar limb prominences well recognized by Solar Limb Prominence Catcher and Tracker from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We found that there are about 71% disrupted prominences (DPs), among which about 42% of them did not erupt successfully and about 89% of them experienced a sudden destabilization process. After a comprehensive analysis of the DPs, we discovered the following: (1) Most DPs become unstable at a height of 0.06-0.14 R{sub Sun} from the solar surface, and there are two most probable critical heights at which a prominence is very likely to become unstable, the first one is 0.13 R{sub Sun} and the second one is 0.19 R{sub Sun }. (2) An upper limit for the erupting velocity of eruptive prominences (EPs) exists, which decreases following a power law with increasing height and mass; accordingly, the kinetic energy of EPs has an upper limit too, which decreases as the critical height increases. (3) Stable prominences are generally longer and heavier than DPs, and not higher than 0.4 R{sub Sun }. (4) About 62% of the EPs were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs); but there is no difference in apparent properties between EPs associated with CMEs and those that are not.

  6. CRITICAL HEIGHT FOR THE DESTABILIZATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES: STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kai; Wang Yuming; Wang Shui; Shen Chenglong

    2012-01-01

    At which height is a prominence inclined to be unstable, or where is the most probable critical height for the prominence destabilization? This question was statistically studied based on 362 solar limb prominences well recognized by Solar Limb Prominence Catcher and Tracker from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We found that there are about 71% disrupted prominences (DPs), among which about 42% of them did not erupt successfully and about 89% of them experienced a sudden destabilization process. After a comprehensive analysis of the DPs, we discovered the following: (1) Most DPs become unstable at a height of 0.06-0.14 R ☉ from the solar surface, and there are two most probable critical heights at which a prominence is very likely to become unstable, the first one is 0.13 R ☉ and the second one is 0.19 R ☉ . (2) An upper limit for the erupting velocity of eruptive prominences (EPs) exists, which decreases following a power law with increasing height and mass; accordingly, the kinetic energy of EPs has an upper limit too, which decreases as the critical height increases. (3) Stable prominences are generally longer and heavier than DPs, and not higher than 0.4 R ☉ . (4) About 62% of the EPs were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs); but there is no difference in apparent properties between EPs associated with CMEs and those that are not.

  7. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  8. Heating of an Erupting Prominence Associated with a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection on 2012 January 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the heating of an erupting prominence and loops associated with a coronal mass ejection and X-class flare. The prominence is seen as absorption in EUV at the beginning of its eruption. Later, the prominence changes to emission, which indicates heating of the erupting plasma. We find the densities of the erupting prominence using the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium in different passbands. We estimate the temperatures and densities of the erupting prominence and loops seen as emission features using the differential emission measure method, which uses both EUV and X-ray observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the X-ray Telescope on board Hinode . We consider synthetic spectra using both photospheric and coronal abundances in these calculations. We verify the methods for the estimation of temperatures and densities for the erupting plasmas. Then, we estimate the thermal, kinetic, radiative loss, thermal conduction, and heating energies of the erupting prominence and loops. We find that the heating of the erupting prominence and loop occurs strongly at early times in the eruption. This event shows a writhing motion of the erupting prominence, which may indicate a hot flux rope heated by thermal energy release during magnetic reconnection.

  9. 77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' The..., prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human and animal drugs and...

  10. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  11. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C,; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunar, S.; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper outlines background information and covers recent advances made via the analysis of spectra and images of prominence plasma and the increased sophistication of non-LTE (i.e. when there is a departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We first describe the spectral inversion techniques that have been used to infer the plasma parameters important for the general properties of the prominence plasma in both its cool core and the hotter prominence-corona transition region. We also review studies devoted to the observation of bulk motions of the prominence plasma and to the determination of prominence mass. However, a simple inversion of spectroscopic data usually fails when the lines become optically thick at certain wavelengths. Therefore, complex

  12. Fabrication of micro-prominences on PTFE surface using proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akane, E-mail: ogawa.akane@jaea.go.jp [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tomohiro [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 350-0198 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a typical fluoropolymer and it has several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation, solid lubrication etc. However, the conventional microstructuring methods have not been well applied to PTFE due to its chemical inertness. Some effective micromachining using synchrotron radiation or ion beam irradiation has been reported. In this study, we create micro-prominences by raising the original surface using proton beam writing (PBW) without chemical etching. A conical prominence was formed by spiral drawing from the center with a 3 MeV proton beam. The body was porous, and the bulk PTFE below the prominence changed to fragmented structures. With decreasing writing speed, the prominence became taller but the height peaked. The prominence gradually reduced in size after the speed reached the optimum value. We expect that these porous projections with high aspect ratio will be versatile in medical fields and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.

  13. Modeling of prominence threads in magnetic fields: Levitation by incompressible MHD waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécseli, Hans; Engvold, OddbjØrn

    2000-05-01

    The nature of thin, highly inclined threads observed in quiescent prominences has puzzled solar physicists for a long time. When assuming that the threads represent truly inclined magnetic fields, the supporting mechanism of prominence plasma against gravity has remained an open issue. This paper examines the levitation of prominence plasma exerted by weakly damped MHD waves in nearly vertical magnetic flux tubes. It is shown that the wave damping, and resulting `radiation pressure', caused predominantly by ion-neutral collisions in the `cold' prominence plasma, may balance the acceleration of gravity provided the oscillation frequency is ω~ 2 rad s^-1 (f~0.5 Hz). Such short wave periods may be the result of small-scale magnetic reconnections in the highly fragmentary magnetic field of quiescent prominences. In the proposed model, the wave induced levitation acts predominantly on plasma - neutral gas mixtures.

  14. TORNADO-LIKE EVOLUTION OF A KINK-UNSTABLE SOLAR PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming, E-mail: rliu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-01-01

    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ∼150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  15. Prominence-corona interface compared with the chromosphere-corona transition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrall, F Q; Schmahl, E J [Harvard Coll. Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-11-01

    The intensities of 52 EUV emission lines from each of 9 hedgerow prominences observed at the limb with the Harvard experiment on ATM-Skylab have been compared with intensities from the interior of network cells at the center of the disk, in order to compare the prominence-corona (P-C) interface with the chromosphere-corona (C-C) transition region. The intensity ratio Isub(cell)/Isub(prominence) for each line varies systematically (in all of the prominences observed), with the temperature of formation of the line as approximately Tsup(-0.6). The density sensitive C III (formed at T approximately 9x10/sup 4/ K) line ratio Isub(lambda1175)/Isub(lambda977) implies an average density 1.3x10/sup 9/ electrons cm/sup -3/ in the P-C interface and approximately 4 times this value in the C-C transition of the cells. The total optical thickness at the head of the Lyman continuum is < approximately 10 in most of the prominences studied; in two of the prominences, however, the possibility that tau/sub 0/ is large cannot be rejected. Methods of analysis of these EUV data are developed assuming both a resolved and an unresolved internal prominence structure. Although the systematic differences between the P-C interface and the C-C transition are stressed, the similarities are probably more remarkable and may be a result of fine structure in the C-C transition.

  16. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  17. Motions in Prominence Barbs as observed by Hinode/SOT and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Ofman, Leon; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss observations of prominence barb dynamics as observed by Hinode/SOT and IRIS. Prominence barbs extend outwards to the side of the main prominence spine and downwards towards the chromosphere. Their properties, including the structure of their magnetic field and the nature of the motions observed in them are a subject of current debate. We use a combination of high cadence, high resolution imaging, H-alpha Doppler, and Mg II line profile data to analyze and understand waves and flows in barbs and discuss their ramifications in terms of a model of the barb magnetic field as collection of dipped field lines.

  18. The complex effects of ocean acidification on the prominent N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haizheng; Shen, Rong; Zhang, Futing; Wen, Zuozhu; Chang, Siwei; Lin, Wenfang; Kranz, Sven A; Luo, Ya-Wei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Morel, François M M; Shi, Dalin

    2017-05-05

    Acidification of seawater caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is anticipated to influence the growth of dinitrogen (N 2 )-fixing phytoplankton, which contribute a large fraction of primary production in the tropical and subtropical ocean. We found that growth and N 2 -fixation of the ubiquitous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium decreased under acidified conditions, notwithstanding a beneficial effect of high CO 2 Acidification resulted in low cytosolic pH and reduced N 2 -fixation rates despite elevated nitrogenase concentrations. Low cytosolic pH required increased proton pumping across the thylakoid membrane and elevated adenosine triphosphate production. These requirements were not satisfied under field or experimental iron-limiting conditions, which greatly amplified the negative effect of acidification. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. MULTI-LINE STOKES INVERSION FOR PROMINENCE MAGNETIC-FIELD DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; Lopez Ariste, A.; Paletou, F.; Leger, L.

    2009-01-01

    We present test results on the simultaneous inversion of the Stokes profiles of the He I lines at 587.6 nm (D 3 ) and 1083.0 nm in prominences (90 deg. scattering). We created data sets of synthetic Stokes profiles for the case of quiescent prominences (B -3 of the peak intensity for the polarimetric sensitivity of the simulated observations. In this work, we focus on the error analysis for the inference of the magnetic field vector, under the usual assumption that the prominence can be assimilated to a slab of finite optical thickness with uniform magnetic and thermodynamic properties. We find that the simultaneous inversion of the two lines significantly reduces the errors on the inference of the magnetic field vector, with respect to the case of single-line inversion. These results provide a solid justification for current and future instrumental efforts with multi-line capabilities for the observations of solar prominences and filaments.

  20. Morphology Of A Hot Prominence Cavity Observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark A.; Reeves, K. K.; Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Prominence cavities appear as circularly shaped voids in coronal emission over polarity inversion lines where a prominence channel is straddling the solar limb. The presence of chromospheric material suspended at coronal altitudes is a common but not necessary feature within these cavities. These voids are observed to change shape as a prominence feature rotates around the limb. We use a morphological model projected in cross-sections to fit the cavity emission in Hinode/XRT passbands, and then apply temperature diagnostics to XRT and SDO/AIA data to investigate the thermal structure. We find significant evidence that the prominence cavity is hotter than the corona immediately outside the cavity boundary. This investigation follows upon "Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-ray Telescope on Hinode" by Reeves et al., 2012, ApJ, in press.

  1. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA. II. Kinetic Temperature Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Anzer, Ulrich; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2018-01-01

    We provide the theoretical background for diagnostics of the thermal properties of solar prominences observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). To do this, we employ the 3D Whole-Prominence Fine Structure (WPFS) model that produces synthetic ALMA-like observations of a complex simulated prominence. We use synthetic observations derived at two different submillimeter/millimeter (SMM) wavelengths—one at a wavelength at which the simulated prominence is completely optically thin and another at a wavelength at which a significant portion of the simulated prominence is optically thick—as if these were the actual ALMA observations. This allows us to develop a technique for an analysis of the prominence plasma thermal properties from such a pair of simultaneous high-resolution ALMA observations. The 3D WPFS model also provides detailed information about the distribution of the kinetic temperature and the optical thickness along any line of sight. We can thus assess whether the measure of the kinetic temperature derived from observations accurately represents the actual kinetic temperature properties of the observed plasma. We demonstrate here that in a given pixel the optical thickness at the wavelength at which the prominence plasma is optically thick needs to be above unity or even larger to achieve a sufficient accuracy of the derived information about the kinetic temperature of the analyzed plasma. Information about the optical thickness cannot be directly discerned from observations at the SMM wavelengths alone. However, we show that a criterion that can identify those pixels in which the derived kinetic temperature values correspond well to the actual thermal properties in which the observed prominence can be established.

  2. SOLAR MAGNETIZED TORNADOES: ROTATIONAL MOTION IN A TORNADO-LIKE PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gömöry, Peter; Wang, Tongjiang; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-01-01

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ∼5 km s –1

  3. Solar Magnetized Tornadoes: Rotational Motion in a Tornado-like Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Gömöry, Peter; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Wang, Tongjiang; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-04-01

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ~5 km s-1.

  4. SOLAR MAGNETIZED TORNADOES: ROTATIONAL MOTION IN A TORNADO-LIKE PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vanninathan, Kamalam [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Gömöry, Peter [Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-05960 Tatranská Lomnica (Slovakia); Wang, Tongjiang [Department of Physics, the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing, E-mail: yang.su@uni-graz.at [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-10

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ∼5 km s{sup –1}.

  5. SOLAR LIMB PROMINENCE CATCHER AND TRACKER (SLIPCAT): AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND ITS PRELIMINARY STATISTICAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuming; Cao Hao; Chen Junhong; Zhang Tengfei; Yu Sijie; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chenglong; Wang, S.; Zhang Jie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automated system, which has the capability to catch and track solar limb prominences based on observations from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) 304 A passband. The characteristic parameters and their evolution, including height, position angle, area, length, and brightness, are obtained without manual interventions. By applying the system to the STEREO-B/SECCHI/EUVI 304 A data during 2007 April-2009 October, we obtain a total of 9477 well-tracked prominences and a catalog of these events available online. A detailed analysis of these prominences suggests that the system has a rather good performance. We have obtained several interesting statistical results based on the catalog. Most prominences appear below the latitude of 60 0 and at the height of about 26 Mm above the solar surface. Most of them are quite stable during the period they are tracked. Nevertheless, some prominences have an upward speed of more than 100 km s -1 , and some others show significant downward and/or azimuthal speeds. There are strong correlations among the brightness, area, and height. The expansion of a prominence is probably one major cause of its fading during the rising or erupting process.

  6. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25×25 to 150×500 Mm2 in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed 3 km/s. In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (1012 - 1014 kg and 1029 - 1031 erg). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index -1.1 ± 0.2.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, ±6 km s –1 , at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s –1 . Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to ∼20 km s –1 ) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  8. Prominence Bubbles and Plumes: Thermo-magnetic Buoyancy in Coronal Cavity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Hurlburt, N.

    2009-05-01

    The Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope continues to produce high spatial and temporal resolution images of solar prominences in both the Ca II 396.8 nm H-line and the H-alpha 656.3 nm line. Time series of these images show that many quiescent prominences produce large scale (50 Mm) dark "bubbles" that "inflate" into, and sometimes burst through, the prominence material. In addition, small-scale (2--5 Mm) dark plumes are seen rising into many quiescent prominences. We show typical examples of both phenomena and argue that they originate from the same mechanism: concentrated and heated magnetic flux that rises due to thermal and magnetic buoyancy to equilibrium heights in the prominence/coronal-cavity system. More generally, these bubbles and upflows offer a source of both magnetic flux and mass to the overlying coronal cavity, supporting B.C. Low's theory of CME initiation via steadily increasing magnetic buoyancy breaking through the overlying helmut streamer tension forces. Quiescent prominences are thus seen as the lowermost parts of the larger coronal cavity system, revealing through thermal effects both the cooled downflowing "drainage" from the cavity and the heated upflowing magnetic "plasmoids" supplying the cavity. We compare SOT movies to new 3D compressible MHD simulations that reproduce the dark turbulent plume dynamics to establish the magnetic and thermal character of these buoyancy-driven flows into the corona.

  9. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  10. DYNAMICS OF A PROMINENCE-HORN STRUCTURE DURING ITS EVAPORATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Xing [Department of Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Liu, Wei, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ∼150 minutes and an amplitude of ∼30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (∼3 Mm) and a shorter period (∼10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  11. Prominence Bubble Shear Flows and the Coupled Kelvin-Helmholtz — Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Hillier, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Prominence bubbles are large arched structures that rise from below into quiescent prominences, often growing to heights on the order of 10 Mm before going unstable and generating plume upflows. While there is general agreement that emerging flux below pre-existing prominences causes the structures, there is lack of agreement on the nature of the bubbles and the cause of the instability flows. One hypothesis is that the bubbles contain coronal temperature plasma and rise into the prominence above due to both magnetic and thermal buoyancy, eventually breaking down via a magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to release hot plasma and magnetic flux and helicity into the overlying coronal flux rope. Another posits that the bubbles are actually just “arcades” in the prominence indicating a magnetic separator line between the bipole and the prominence fields with the observed upflows and downflows caused by reconnection along the separator. We analyze Hinode/SOT, SDO/AIA, and IRIS observations of prominence bubbles, focusing on characteristics of the bubble boundary layers that may discriminate between the two hypotheses. We find speeds on the order of 10 km/s in prominence plasma downflows and lateral shear flows along the bubble boundary. Inflows to the boundary gradually increase the thickness and brightness of the layer until plasma drains from there, apparently around the dome-like bubble domain. In one case, shear flow across the bubble boundary develops Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices that we use to infer flow speeds in the low-density bubble on the order of 100 km/sec. IRIS spectra indicate that plasma flows on the bubble boundary at transition region temperatures achieve Doppler speeds on the order of 50 km/s, consistent with this inference. Combined magnetic KH-RT instability analysis leads to flux density estimates of 10 G with a field angle of 30° to the prominence, consistent with vector magnetic field measurements. In contrast, we find no evidence

  12. Solar Prominences Embedded in Flux Ropes: Morphological Features and Dynamics from 3D MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  13. ARE TORNADO-LIKE MAGNETIC STRUCTURES ABLE TO SUPPORT SOLAR PROMINENCE PLASMA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present

  14. Are Tornado-Like Magnetic Structures Able to Support Solar Prominence Plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjo, S. T.; Luna Bennasar, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  15. ARE TORNADO-LIKE MAGNETIC STRUCTURES ABLE TO SUPPORT SOLAR PROMINENCE PLASMA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Priest, E. [Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  16. Prominent extraaxial CSF space on cranial ultrasound in infants: correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Lee, Mun Hyang; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Won Soon; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Chan Gyo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To determine the clinical significance of prominent extra-axial CSF space (EACSFS) in infants, as seen on cranial ultrasound. Between March 1996 and November 1997, all infants who had undergone head ultrasound at our institution and were found to have prominent EACSFS were evaluated. The width of the interhemispheric fissure was measured at three locations at the level of the frontal horn, body and atrium of the lateral ventricles. The depth of the CSF space over the convexity was also measured. The average of these measurements was calculated and each patient was assigned to one of three groups: mild, moderate, or marked. Ultrasound findings were evaluated for other associated abnormalities. Clinical neurodevelopment was evaluated by a pediatric neurologist, and ultrasound and neurodevelopmental findings were correlated. Prominent EACSFS was found in 153 patients, and neurodevelopmental evaluation up to a corrected age of 9 months was available in 133. One hundred and eight of 117 infants with normal neurodevelopment had no other associated abnormality(n=81), or abnormality associated only with grade I subependymal hemorrhage or cyst(n=27). Twelve of 16 infants with an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome had major abnormalities including PVL, grade IV hemorrhage, and marked ventriculomegaly. Prominent EACSFS alone does not appear to be clinically significant. An abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is associated with major abnormalities seen on ultrasound. Follow-up examination for prominent EACSFS is not indicated unless the associated abnormality requires further evaluations.

  17. Prominent extraaxial CSF space on cranial ultrasound in infants: correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Lee, Mun Hyang; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Won Soon; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Chan Gyo

    1999-01-01

    To determine the clinical significance of prominent extra-axial CSF space (EACSFS) in infants, as seen on cranial ultrasound. Between March 1996 and November 1997, all infants who had undergone head ultrasound at our institution and were found to have prominent EACSFS were evaluated. The width of the interhemispheric fissure was measured at three locations at the level of the frontal horn, body and atrium of the lateral ventricles. The depth of the CSF space over the convexity was also measured. The average of these measurements was calculated and each patient was assigned to one of three groups: mild, moderate, or marked. Ultrasound findings were evaluated for other associated abnormalities. Clinical neurodevelopment was evaluated by a pediatric neurologist, and ultrasound and neurodevelopmental findings were correlated. Prominent EACSFS was found in 153 patients, and neurodevelopmental evaluation up to a corrected age of 9 months was available in 133. One hundred and eight of 117 infants with normal neurodevelopment had no other associated abnormality(n=81), or abnormality associated only with grade I subependymal hemorrhage or cyst(n=27). Twelve of 16 infants with an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome had major abnormalities including PVL, grade IV hemorrhage, and marked ventriculomegaly. Prominent EACSFS alone does not appear to be clinically significant. An abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is associated with major abnormalities seen on ultrasound. Follow-up examination for prominent EACSFS is not indicated unless the associated abnormality requires further evaluations

  18. A Discourse Perspective of Topic-prominence in Chinese EFL Learners’ Interlanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topic-prominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from the discourse perspective. We have selected as the research target “topic chain” which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse and “zero anaphora” which is the most common topic anaphor of topic chain. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of “topic chain” (Wang, 2002; 2004. Actually, in the event of a topic chain, research on topic structures should go into the typical range of discourse. Two important findings were yielded by the present study. First, the characteristics of Chinese topic chain are transferrable to the interlanguage of Chinese EFL learners, thus resulting in overgeneralization of zero anaphora; second, interlanguage discourse of Chinese EFL learners reflects the characteristics of a second language acquisition process from topic-prominence to subject-prominence, thus lending support to the discourse transfer hypothesis.

  19. HELICAL MOTIONS OF FINE-STRUCTURE PROMINENCE THREADS OBSERVED BY HINODE AND IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Takenori J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Tsuneta, Saku, E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the Hinode and/or Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55 km s{sup -1} seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space–time trajectories with a typical period of ∼390 s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest the propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90–270 km s{sup -1}. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with an eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found Doppler velocities of 30–40 km s{sup -1} in opposite directions in the top and bottom portions of the prominence, comparable to the plane-of-sky speed. The moving threads have about twice broader line widths than stationary threads. These observations, when taken together, provide strong evidence for rotations of helical prominence threads, which were likely driven by unwinding twists triggered by magnetic reconnection between twisted prominence magnetic fields and ambient coronal fields.

  20. SOLAR PROMINENCES EMBEDDED IN FLUX ROPES: MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DYNAMICS FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofsíca de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  1. 78 FR 69691 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and... entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' When... promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human drugs, including biological drug products, and...

  2. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  3. The EU and Climate Change Policy: Law, Politics and Prominence at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad David Damro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is a prominent player in the politics of climate change, operating as an authoritative regional actor that influences policy-making at the national and international levels. The EU’s climate change policies are thus subjected to multiple pressures that arise from the domestic politics of its twenty-seven individual member states and the international politics of non-EU states with which it negotiates. Facing these multiple pressures, how and why could such a non-traditional actor develop into a prominent player at different levels of climate change policy-making? This article argues that the EU’s rise to prominence can be understood by tracking a number of historical-legal institutional developments at the domestic and international levels. The article also provides a preliminary investigation of the EU emissions trading scheme, a new institutional mechanism that illustrates the policy pressures arising from different levels.

  4. Subcision Using a Spinal Needle Cannula and a Thread for Prominent Nasolabial Fold Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeul Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deepening of the nasolabial crease is an esthetically unpleasing aging phenomenon occurring in the midface. Various treatment modalities have been introduced to improve the appearance of prominent nasolabial folds, all of which have pros and cons. Currently, a minimally invasive technique using synthetic dermal fillers is most commonly used. A simple and easy subcision procedure using a wire scalpel has also been used and reported to be effective for prominent nasolabial fold correction, with minimal complications. As an alternative to the wire scalpel, we used a 20-gauge metal type spinal needle cannula (Hakko Co. and 4-0 Vicryl suture (Ethicon Inc. for subcision of nasolabial folds. This technique is less expensive than the use of a wire scalpel and easily available when needed. Therefore, on the basis of favorable results, our modified subcision technique may be considered effective for prominent nasolabial fold correction.

  5. A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I. General properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.; Hood, A.W.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that a solar prominence consists of cool plasma supported in a large-scale curved and twisted magnetic flux tube. As long as the flux tube is untwisted, its curvature is concave toward the solar surface, and so it cannot support dense plasma against gravity. However, when it is twisted sufficiently, individual field lines may acquire a convex curvature near their summits and so provide support. Cool plasma then naturally tends to accumulate in such field line dips either by injection from below or by thermal condensation. As the tube is twisted up further or reconnection takes place below the prominence, one finds a transition from normal to inverse polarity. When the flux tube becomes too long or is twisted too much, it loses stability and its true magnetic geometry as an erupting prominence is revealed more clearly. 56 refs

  6. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P. [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Universitat de les Illes Balears. Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5. Palma (Illes Balears), E-07122 (Spain)

    2016-08-20

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  7. Redox-controlled carbon and phosphorus burial: A mechanism for enhanced organic carbon sequestration during the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2017-12-01

    Geological records reveal a major perturbation in carbon cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma), marked by global warming of more than 5 °C and a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion of at least 2.5‰ within the marine realm. The entire event lasted about 200,000 yr and was associated with a massive release of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system over several thousands of years. Here we focus on the terminal stage of the PETM, during which the ocean-atmosphere system rapidly recovered from the carbon cycle perturbation. We employ a carbon-cycle box model to examine the feedbacks between surface ocean biological production, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and carbonate chemistry during massive CO2 release events, such as the PETM. The model results indicate that the redox-controlled carbon-phosphorus feedback is capable of producing enhanced organic carbon sequestration during large carbon emission events. The locale of carbon oxidation (ocean vs. atmosphere) does not affect the amount of carbon sequestered. However, even though the model produces trends consistent with oxygen, excess accumulation rates of organic carbon (∼1700 Pg C during the recovery stage), export production and δ13 C data, it fails to reproduce the magnitude of change of sediment carbonate content and the CCD over-deepening during the recovery stage. The CCD and sediment carbonate content overshoot during the recovery stage is muted by a predicted increase in CaCO3 rain. Nonetheless, there are indications that the CaCO3 export remained relatively constant during the PETM. If this was indeed true, then an initial pulse of 3,000 Pg C followed by an additional, slow leak of 2,500 Pg C could have triggered an accelerated nutrient supply to the surface ocean instigating enhanced organic carbon export, consequently increasing organic carbon sequestration, resulting in an accelerated restoration of ocean-atmosphere biogeochemistry during the termination

  8. Vaginal orgasm is more prevalent among women with a prominent tubercle of the upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have uncovered multiple markers of vaginal orgasm history (unblocked pelvic movement during walking, less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms, greater urethrovaginal space). Other markers (perhaps of prenatal origin) even without obvious mechanistic roles in vaginal orgasm might exist, and a clinical observation led to the novel hypothesis that a prominent tubercle of the upper lip is such a marker. To examine the hypothesis that a prominent tubercle of the upper lip is associated specifically with greater likelihood of experiencing vaginal orgasm (orgasm elicited by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent masturbation). Women (N = 258, predominantly Scottish) completed an online survey reporting their frequencies of various sexual activities and corresponding orgasms, age, and the prominence of the tubercle of their upper lip. Social desirability response bias was also assessed. Multivariate associations of lip tubercle prominence with vaginal orgasm (ever and past month consistency) and with orgasm by other means. RESULTS.: A prominent and sharply raised lip tubercle was associated with greater odds (odds ratio = 12.3) of ever having a vaginal orgasm, and also with greater past month vaginal orgasm consistency (an effect driven by the women who never had a vaginal orgasm), than less prominent lip tubercle categories. Lip tubercle was not associated with social desirability responding, or with orgasm triggered by masturbation during PVI, solitary or partner clitoral or vaginal masturbation, vibrator, or cunnilingus. The results are discussed in light of the unique nature of vaginal orgasm and the possibility of prenatal developmental influences. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Establishing the Thematic Structure and Investigating the most Prominent Theta Roles Used in Sindhi Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali Veesar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the thematic structure of the Sindhi verbs to find theta roles in the Sindhi language. The study tries to answer the research questions; “What are the thematic structures of Sindhi verbs?” and “What are the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language?” It examines the argument/thematic structure of Sindhi verbs and also finds the theta roles assigned by the Sindhi verbs to their arguments along with the most prominent theta roles used in the Sindhi language. The data come from the two interviews taken from two young native Sindhi speakers, which consist of 2 hours conversation having 1,669 sentences in natural spoken version of the Sindhi language. Towards the end, it has been found that the Sindhi language has certain theta roles which are assigned by the verbs to their arguments in sentences. Each verb phrase in our data is thus examined and studied in detail in terms of Argument/Thematic structure in order to find theta roles in Sindhi language. Thus, in this regard, each verb phrase (in a sentence has been examined with the help of Carnie’s theoretical framework (Thematic Relation and Theta Roles: 2006 in order to find the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language. The data have been examined and analysed on the basis of the Carnie’s theoretical framework. The study finds that the Sindhi language has all (09 theta roles which have been proposed by Carnie (2006. It has been found that six prominent theta roles out of nine are used prominently in Sindhi. The six prominent theta roles in Sindhi language are: agent, theme, beneficiary, recipient, locative and goal.

  10. Eliciting extra prominence in read-speech tasks: The effects of different text-highlighting methods on acoustic cues to perceived prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Stephanie; Niebuhr, Oliver; Fischer, Kerstin

    2018-01-01

    The research initiative Innovating Speech EliCitation Techniques (INSPECT) aims to describe and quantify how recording methods, situations and materials influence speech produc-tion in lab-speech experiments. On this basis, INSPECT aims to develop methods that reliably stimulate specific patterns...... and styles of speech, like expressive or conversational speech or different types emphatic accents. The present study investigates if and how different text highlighting methods (yellow background, bold, capital letter, italics, and underlining) make speakers reinforce the level of perceived prominence...

  11. The relative cueing power of F0 and duration in German prominence perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Winkler, Jana

    2017-01-01

    hierarchy further by putting numbers on the interplay of duration and F0. German listeners indirectly judged through lexical identification the relative prominence levels of two neighboring syllables. Results show that an increase in F0 of between 0.49 and 0.76 st is required to outweigh the prominence...... effect of a 30% increase in duration of a neighboring syllable. These numbers are fairly stable across a large range of absolute F0 and duration levels and hence useful in speech technology....

  12. DIRECT DETECTION OF THE HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELD GEOMETRY FROM 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF PROMINENCE KNOT TRAJECTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapiór, Maciej; Martinez-Gómez, David, E-mail: zapior.maciek@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5. Palma (Illes Balears), E-07122 (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1–3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 10{sup 9} A.

  13. Direct Detection of the Helical Magnetic Field Geometry from 3D Reconstruction of Prominence Knot Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapiór, Maciej; Martínez-Gómez, David

    2016-02-01

    Based on the data collected by the Vacuum Tower Telescope located in the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands, we analyzed the three-dimensional (3D) motion of so-called knots in a solar prominence of 2014 June 9. Trajectories of seven knots were reconstructed, giving information of the 3D geometry of the magnetic field. Helical motion was detected. From the equipartition principle, we estimated the lower limit of the magnetic field in the prominence to ≈1-3 G and from the Ampère’s law the lower limit of the electric current to ≈1.2 × 109 A.

  14. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  15. Wolman disease in patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL negative mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaf Elsayed

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Wolman disease should be excluded in patients with clinical and laboratory characteristics of FHL and negative molecular testing especially if the fever is not prominent and is associated with relatively huge hepatomegaly and/or severe failure to thrive.

  16. Characterization of black carbon in the ambient air of Agra, India: Seasonal variation and meteorological influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Singh, Shalendra Pratap; Jangid, Ashok; Kumar, Ranjit

    2017-09-01

    This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal—and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The mean black carbon concentration is 9.5 μg m-3 and, owing to excessive biomass/fossil fuel combustion and automobile emissions, the concentration varies considerably. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter (December). This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate (1-2 m s-1) wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.

  17. F0-based rhythm effects on the perception of local syllable prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    of the global rhythmic context with regard to both the prominence and the F(0) patterns. Two conclusions were drawn on this basis. First, listeners use speech rhythm to predict the perceptual properties of syllables, which is in line with the guide function that speech rhythm is assumed to have in German...

  18. Synthetic Hydrogen Spectra of Oscillating Prominence Slabs Immersed in the Solar Corona

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapiór, Maciej; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J.L.; Heinzel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 131/1-131/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  19. Class of analytic solutions for the thermally balanced magnetostatic prominence sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B.C.; Wu, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    This is a theoretical study of the nonlinear interplay between magnetostatic equilibrium and energy balance in a Kippenhahn-Schlueter type prominence sheet. The basic effects are illustrated explicitly with an analytic model in which a radiative loss proportional to rho 2 T balances against wave heating proportional to rho, with thermal conduction confined along magnetic field lines, where rho and T denote the plasma density and temperature, respectively. The particular choices of heat sink and source enable us to integrate the governing equations exactly while they are of the basic mathematical forms to simulate radiative loss in an optically thin plasma which is heated by wave dissipation. The steady solutions exhibit three different basic behaviors, characterized by the total wave heating in the prominence sheet being more than, equal to, or less than the total radiative loss. It is the compaction of the plasma along the field lines under its own weight combined with the effects of energy transport that determines which of the three basic behaviors obtains in a particular situation. The implications of the steady solutions for the formation of prominences are discussed. The exact solutions presented do not support the conclusion of Milne, Priest, and Roberts that there is an upper bound on the plasma beta for an equilibrium of the Kippenhahn-Schlueter prominence

  20. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism.

  1. Non-LTE modelling of prominence fine structures using hydrogen Lyman-line profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwartz, Pavol; Gunár, S.; Curdt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 577, May (2015), A92/1-A92/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Grant - others:SAV(SK) VEGA 2/0108/12 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  2. Reconstruction of a helical prominence in 3D from IRIS spectra and images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmieder, B.; Zapiór, Maciej; Ariste, A.L.; Levens, P.; Labrosse, N.; Gravet, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 606, October (2017), A30/1-A30/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  3. Energy release from a stream of infalling prominence debris on 2011 September 7-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years high-resolution and high-cadence EUV imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere and release energy. We present a clear example of this phenomenon occurring on 2011 September 7-8. The initial eruption of prominence material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7, resulting in a semi-continuous stream of this material returning to the solar surface between 00:20 - 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. A substantial area remote from the original active region experienced brightening in multiple EUV channels observed by SDO/AIA. Using the differential emission measure, we estimated the energetic properties of this event. We found that the radiated energy of the impacted plasma was of order 10^27 ergs, while the upper limit on the thermal energy peaked at 10^28 ergs. Based on these estimates we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2x10^14 energy release takes place during these events, and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.

  4. MUC2 is the prominent colonic mucin expressed in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Opdam, F. J.; Einerhand, A. W.; Büller, H. A.; Dekker, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that MUC2 is the prominent mucin synthesised in healthy colon. AIM: To identify the predominant mucins in ulcerative colitis (UC) and to study their biosynthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mucin was purified from UC resection specimens. This mucin on sodium dodecylsulphate

  5. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  6. Observation of the Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability in a Solar Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heesu; Xu, Zhi; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Sujin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Yeon-Han; Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Ji, Kaifan

    2018-04-01

    Many solar prominences end their lives in eruptions or abrupt disappearances that are associated with dynamical or thermal instabilities. Such instabilities are important because they may be responsible for energy transport and conversion. We present a clear observation of a streaming kink-mode Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability (KHI) taking place in a solar prominence using the Hα Lyot filter installed at the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, Fuxian-lake Solar Observatory in Yunnan, China. On one side of the prominence, a series of plasma blobs floated up from the chromosphere and streamed parallel to the limb. The plasma stream was accelerated to about 20–60 km s‑1 and then undulated. We found that 2″- and 5″-size vortices formed, floated along the stream, and then broke up. After the 5″-size vortex, a plasma ejection out of the stream was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images. Just before the formation of the 5″-size vortex, the stream displayed an oscillatory transverse motion with a period of 255 s with the amplitude growing at the rate of 0.001 s‑1. We attribute this oscillation of the stream and the subsequent formation of the vortex to the KHI triggered by velocity shear between the stream, guided by the magnetic field and the surrounding media. The plasma ejection suggests the transport of prominence material into the upper layer by the KHI in its nonlinear stage.

  7. The lattice dynamics of six prominent B.C.C. transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brescansin, L.M.; Padial, N.T.; Shukla, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency versus wave vector dispersion relations along the three principal symmetry directions, [xi00], [xixi0] and [xixixi], of six prominent body centered cubic transition metals, namely that of molybdenum, α-iron, tungsten, tantalum, niobium and that of chromium, have been computed on the basis of a phenomenological model. The calculated results are in very good agreements to the experimental findings

  8. EUV lines observed with EIS/Hinode in a solar prominence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, Petr; Watanabe, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 531, July (2011), A69/1-A69/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  9. Total mass of six quiescent prominences estimated from their multi-spectral observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwartz, Pavol; Heinzel, Petr; Kotrč, Pavel; Fárník, František; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 574, February (2015), A62/1-A62/18 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  10. Extreme-ultraviolet limb spectra of a prominence observed from SKYLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariska, J.T.; Doschek, G.A.; Feldman, U.

    1979-01-01

    Line profiles of extreme ultraviolet emission lines observed in a solar prominence at positions above the white-light limb with the NRL slit spectrograph on Skylab are discussed. Absolute line intensities and full widths at half-maximum are presented for lines formed over the temperature range approx.1 x 10 4 to 2.2 x 10 5 K. The volume emission measures calculated using resonance line intensities are greater than quiet-Sun emission measures at the same height above the limb and indicate a somewhat different distribution of material with temperature in the prominence compared to the quiet-Sun emission measure at +8''. Electron densities in the prominence determined using the calculated emission measures and the intensities of density-sensitive intersystem lines are between the quiet-Sun electron density and half the quiet-Sun electron density. Random mass-motion velocities calculated from the measured full widths at half-maximum show a range of velocities. For T/sub e/> or approx. =4 x 10 4 K, the nonthermal velocity decreases with increasing height in the prominence. For T/sub e/ 4 K, the calculated mass motions are near zero. From the He II 1640 A line profile we derive an average temperature of 27,000 K for the region in which He II is emitted

  11. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kaludjerović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fibers were prepared with regenerated cellulose or polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using sodium phosphate dibasic followed by the carbonization process. The activation process increases the adsorption properties of fibers which is more prominent for active carbone fibers obtained from the cellulose precursor. Chemical activation with sodium phosphate dibasic produces an active carbon material with both mesopores and micropores.

  12. ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  13. PROPAGATING WAVES TRANSVERSE TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon (France); Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K. [Code 671, NASA' s GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lopez-Ariste, A. [THEMIS, CNRS-UPS853, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Toot, D. [Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ({sup T}élescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires{sup )} with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D{sub 3} line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s{sup –1}, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  14. The role of prominence in determining the scope of boundary-related lengthening in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at examining and accounting for the scope of the temporal effect of phrase boundaries. Previous research has indicated that there is an interaction between boundary-related lengthening and prominence such that the former extends towards the nearby prominent syllable. However, it is unclear whether this interaction is due to lexical stress and/or phrasal prominence (marked by pitch accent) and how far towards the prominent syllable the effect extends. Here, we use an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) study of Greek to examine the scope of boundary-related lengthening as a function of lexical stress and pitch accent separately. Boundaries are elicited by the means of a variety of syntactic constructions.. The results show an effect of lexical stress. Phrase-final lengthening affects the articulatory gestures of the phrase-final syllable that are immediately adjacent to the boundary in words with final stress, but is initiated earlier within phrase-final words with non-final stress. Similarly, the articulatory configurations during inter-phrasal pauses reach their point of achievement later in words with final stress than in words with non-final stress. These effects of stress hold regardless of whether the phrase-final word is accented or de-accented. Phrase-initial lengthening, on the other hand, is consistently detected on the phrase-initial constriction, independently of where the stress is within the preceding, phrase-final, word. These results indicate that the lexical aspect of prominence plays a role in determining the scope of boundary-related lengthening in Greek. Based on these results, a gestural account of prosodic boundaries in Greek is proposed in which lexical and phrasal prosody interact in a systematic and coordinated fashion. The cross-linguistic dimensions of this account and its implications for prosodic structure are discussed.

  15. Comparing UV/EUV line parameters and magnetic field in a quiescent prominence with tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Fletcher, L.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Understanding the relationship between plasma and the magnetic field is important for describing and explaining the observed dynamics of solar prominences. Aims: We determine if a close relationship can be found between plasma and magnetic field parameters, measured at high resolution in a well-observed prominence. Methods: A prominence observed on 15 July 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Télescope Héliographique pour l'Étude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires (THEMIS) is selected. We perform a robust co-alignment of data sets using a 2D cross-correlation technique. Magnetic field parameters are derived from spectropolarimetric measurements of the He I D3 line from THEMIS. Line ratios and line-of-sight velocities from the Mg II h and k lines observed by IRIS are compared with magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth. Electron densities are calculated using Fe xii line ratios from the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, which are compared to THEMIS and IRIS data. Results: We find Mg II k/h ratios of around 1.4 everywhere, similar to values found previously in prominences. Also, the magnetic field is strongest ( 30 G) and predominantly horizontal in the tornado-like legs of the prominence. The k3 Doppler shift is found to be between ±10 km s-1 everywhere. Electron densities at a temperature of 1.5 × 106 K are found to be around 109 cm-3. No significant correlations are found between the magnetic field parameters and any of the other plasma parameters inferred from spectroscopy, which may be explained by the large differences in the temperatures of the lines used in this study. Conclusions: This is the first time that a detailed statistical study of plasma and magnetic field parameters has been performed at high spatial resolution in a prominence. Our results provide important constraints on future models of the plasma and magnetic field in

  16. EUV lines observed with EIS/Hinode in a solar prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Watanabe, T.

    2011-07-01

    Context. During a multi-wavelength observation campaign with Hinode and ground-based instruments, a solar prominence was observed for three consecutive days as it crossed the western limb of the Sun in April 2007. Aims: We report on observations obtained on 26 April 2007 using EIS (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) on Hinode. They are analysed to provide a qualitative diagnostic of the plasma in different parts of the prominence. Methods: After correcting for instrumental effects, the rasters at different wavelengths are presented. Several regions within the same prominence are identified for further analysis. Selected profiles for lines with formation temperatures between log (T) = 4.7 and log (T) = 6.3, as well as their integrated intensities, are given. The profiles of coronal, transition region, and He ii lines are discussed. We pay special attention to the He ii line, which is blended with coronal lines. Results: Some quantitative results are obtained by analysing the line profiles. They confirm that depression in EUV lines can be interpreted in terms of two mechanisms: absorption of coronal radiation by the hydrogen and neutral helium resonance continua, and emissivity blocking. We present estimates of the He ii line integrated intensity in different parts of the prominence according to different scenarios for the relative contribution of absorption and emissivity blocking to the coronal lines blended with the He ii line. We estimate the contribution of the He ii 256.32 Å line to the He ii raster image to vary between ~44% and 70% of the raster's total intensity in the prominence according to the different models used to take into account the blending coronal lines. The inferred integrated intensities of the He ii 256 Å line are consistent with the theoretical intensities obtained with previous 1D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, yielding a preliminary estimate of the central temperature of 8700 K, a central pressure of 0.33 dyn cm-2, and a

  17. On the formation of Mg II h and k lines in solar prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Vial, J. C.; Anzer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 564, April (2014), A132/1-A132/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2463; GA ČR GA205/09/1705 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line: profiles * line: formation * Sun: filaments, prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  18. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, Petr; Vial, J. C.; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunár, Stanislav; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2010), s. 243-332 ISSN 0038-6308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1100 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar prominences * spectroscopy * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.433, year: 2010

  19. The challenges to the consolidation of Brazil’s international prominence: education and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Sanches Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, Brazil has gained international visibility especially due to the capacity of its economical development and the progress of its public policies on fighting poverty. Though there reason for celebration exists with respect to the country’s recent achievements, Brazil still has a lot to do if it wants to gain international prominence. In this paper, we address two issues that are fundamental for Brazil to achieve real leadership: education and culture.

  20. On the Visibility of Prominence Fine Structures at Radio Millimeter Wavelengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Bárta, Miroslav; Karlický, Marian; Rudawy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 7 (2015), s. 1981-2000 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906; GA ČR GAP209/12/0103; GA ČR GA13-24782S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : prominences * quiescent * radio emission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2015

  1. Magnetic field vector and electron density diagnostics from linear polarization measurements in 14 solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Hanle effect is the modification of the linear polarization parameters of a spectral line due to the effect of the magnetic field. It has been successfully applied to the magnetic field vector diagnostic in solar prominences. The magnetic field vector is determined by comparing the measured polarization to the polarization computed, taking into account all the polarizing and depolarizing processes in line formation and the depolarizing effect of the magnetic field. The method was applied to simultaneous polarization measurements in the Helium D3 line and in the hydrogen beta line in 14 prominences. Four polarization parameters are measured, which lead to the determination of the three coordinates of the magnetic field vector and the electron density, owing to the sensitivity of the hydrogen beta line to the non-negligible effect of depolarizing collisions with electrons and protons of the medium. A mean value of 1.3 x 10 to the 10th power cu. cm. is derived in 14 prominences.

  2. Prominent cerebral veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey)

    2017-07-15

    Clinical applications of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) are increasing steadily. The aim of this study is to investigate the appearance of cerebral veins on SWI, which is very sensitive to the deoxyhaemoglobin level in vessels, in pulmonary embolism (PE). The cranial SWI images of 19 patients with PE and 22 controls from September 2013 through March 2016 were retrospectively examined for the presence of prominent cerebral veins. MRI findings were correlated with blood oxygen levels. 12 of 19 patients with PE had hypoxemia and SWI images of 11 of these hypoxemic patients depicted prominent cerebral veins in the form of increased number, diameter, and elongation. The mean PaO{sub 2} and SaO{sub 2} in these patients were 48.5 ± 9.1 mmHg and 75.2 ± 8.0 %, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the presence of prominent veins on SWI and hypoxemia (p < 0.05). Of the 7 patients with normal blood oxygen pressure and saturation, 1 also showed an augmented appearance of cerebral veins on SWI. In the presence of neurological symptoms suggestive of an intracranial pathology in patients with PE, a SWI added to the conventional MRI sequences may predict hypoxemia and exclude other intracranial pathologies. (orig.)

  3. Prominent deep medullary veins: a predictive biomarker for stroke risk from transient ischemic attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Xu, Zhihua; Li, Hongyi; Cai, Xiaonan; Chang, Cancan; Yang, Benqiang

    2018-05-01

    Background Deep medullary veins (DMVs) are a biomarker of severity and prognosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, their clinical significance remains unclear in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Purpose To determine whether prominent deep medullary veins (PDMVs) are a predictive biomarker for stroke risk after TIA. Material and Methods Clinical and imaging data of 49 patients with TIA and 49 sex- and age-matched controls were studied. PDMVs were defined as DMVs with a score of 3 (TDMVs) or asymmetric DMVs (ADMVs), and the relationship between PDMVs and clinical features was analyzed. The DMV score based on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) ranged from 0 (not visible) to 3 (very prominent) and was calculated for both hemispheres separately. A different score in each hemisphere was defined as ADMVs and an equal score was defined as symmetric DMVs. The asymmetry and score of DMVs were compared between the two groups and with respect to the time from TIA onset to imaging analysis. Results Agreement between neuroradiologists for the DMV asymmetry/score on SWI was excellent. The frequency of ADMVs and TDMVs was significantly higher in patients with TIA than controls ( P  0.05); PDMVs were not correlated with age, blood pressure, or diabetes. However, PDMVs were associated with the ABCD2 score (≥4), clinical symptoms, and duration of TIA (≥10 min). Conclusion Prominent deep medullary veins is a predictive biomarker for the risk of stroke in many patients having suffered from TIA.

  4. The Apparent Critical Decay Index at the Onset of Solar Prominence Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Aulanier, G.; Gilchrist, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) embedded in a line-tied external magnetic field that decreases with height as {z}-n is unstable to perturbations if the decay index of the field n is larger than a critical value. The onset of this instability, called torus instability, is one of the main mechanisms that can initiate coronal mass ejections. Since flux ropes often possess magnetic dips that can support prominence plasma, this is also a valuable mechanism to trigger prominence eruptions. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the formation and/or emergence of MFRs suggest a critical value for the onset of the instability in the range [1.4-2]. However, detailed observations of prominences suggest a value in the range [0.9-1.1]. In this Letter, by using a set of MHD simulations, we show why the large discrepancy between models and observations is only apparent. Our simulations indeed show that the critical decay index at the onset of the eruption is n=1.4+/- 0.1 when computed at the apex of the flux rope axis, while it is n=1.1+/- 0.1 when it is computed at the altitude of the topmost part of the distribution of magnetic dips. The discrepancy only arises because weakly twisted curved flux ropes do not have dips up to the altitude of their axis.

  5. Orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Simon; Harrison, Jayne E; Furness, Susan; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-30

    Prominent lower front teeth (termed reverse bite; under bite; Class III malocclusion) may be due to a combination of the jaw or tooth positions or both. The upper jaw (maxilla) can be too far back or the lower jaw (mandible) too far forward, or both. Prominent lower front teeth can also occur if the upper front teeth (incisors) are tipped back or the lower front teeth are tipped forwards, or both. Various treatment approaches have been described to correct prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 January 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 January 2013), and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting children or adolescents or both (aged 16 years or less) receiving any type of orthodontic treatment to correct prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion). Orthodontic treatments were compared with control groups who received either no treatment, delayed treatment or a different active intervention. Screening of references, identification of included and excluded studies, data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included studies was performed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Meta-analysis was only undertaken when studies of similar comparisons reported comparable outcome measures. A fixed-effect model was used. The I2 statistic was used as a measure of statistical heterogeneity. Seven RCTs with a total of 339 participants were included in this review. One study was assessed as at low risk of bias, three studies were at high risk of bias, and in the remaining three studies risk of bias

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  7. Differences between Doppler velocities of ions and neutral atoms in a solar prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Hillier, A.

    2017-05-01

    Context. In astrophysical systems with partially ionized plasma, the motion of ions is governed by the magnetic field while the neutral particles can only feel the magnetic field's Lorentz force indirectly through collisions with ions. The drift in the velocity between ionized and neutral species plays a key role in modifying important physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, damping of magnetohydrodynamic waves, transport of angular momentum in plasma through the magnetic field, and heating. Aims: This paper aims to investigate the differences between Doppler velocities of calcium ions and neutral hydrogen in a solar prominence to look for velocity differences between the neutral and ionized species. Methods: We simultaneously observed spectra of a prominence over an active region in H I 397 nm, H I 434 nm, Ca II 397 nm, and Ca II 854 nm using a high dispersion spectrograph of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory. We compared the Doppler velocities, derived from the shift of the peak of the spectral lines presumably emitted from optically-thin plasma. Results: There are instances when the difference in velocities between neutral atoms and ions is significant, for example 1433 events ( 3% of sets of compared profiles) with a difference in velocity between neutral hydrogen atoms and calcium ions greater than 3σ of the measurement error. However, we also found significant differences between the Doppler velocities of two spectral lines emitted from the same species, and the probability density functions of velocity difference between the same species is not significantly different from those between neutral atoms and ions. Conclusions: We interpreted the difference of Doppler velocities as being a result of the motions of different components in the prominence along the line of sight, rather than the decoupling of neutral atoms from plasma. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Prominent papilla of vater at CT: differentiation between benign and malignant lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Won; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn and others

    1998-01-01

    To establish the criteria for differential diagnosis between malignant tumor and benign prominence of papilla of Vater, as seen on CT. Sixteen consecutive patients with prominent patilla of Vater, as seen on CT during a ten-month period were included in this study. Final diagnosis was papilla of Vater cancer (n=3D5), chronic inflammation (n=3D3), benign tumor (n=3D3), or and normal (n=3D5), and this was confirmed by surgery in 11 cases, and endoscopy in five. Papilla size and attenuation, the presence of accompanied dilatation of the bile or pancreatic duct, and lymph node enlargement were analyzed by two experienced radiologists, who reached a concensus. A past history of stone disease, laboratory findings such as serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, or endoscopic findings of duodenal diverticulum were additionally analyzed. Papilla size was the only significantly different CT finding between malignant and benign lesions, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels were also significantly different between the two groups. The smallest malignant tumor was 18 mm and the largest benign lesion was 15 mm. The presence of bile or pancreatic duct dilatation, serum bilirubin level, attenuation of the mass, a history of stone disease, and lymph node enlargement were not significantly different between the two groups. In patients with prominent papilla of Vater, as seen on CT, a mass larger than 18 mm is the only reliable radiologic finding to indicate malignant tumor of papilla of Vater. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels can, in addition, be helpful for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions.=20

  9. Children’s responses to online advergames: the role of persuasion knowledge, brand prominence and game involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.; Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three factors typically associated with advergames: brand prominence, game involvement, and (limited) persuasion knowledge on cognitive and affective responses. An experiment (N = 104, 7-12 year olds) showed that game involvement and brand prominence influenced

  10. "Ode Ori": a culture-bound disorder with prominent somatic features in Yoruba Nigerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, R O

    1987-03-01

    Thirty patients diagnosed by Nigerian Yoruba traditional healers as suffering from a condition termed "Ode Ori" are described. The chief complaints were of a crawling sensation in the head and body, noises in the ears, palpitations and various other somatic complaints. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were prominent in all the patients and indeed the most common DSM-III diagnoses were of depressive and anxiety disorders. The significance of the disorder and its features is discussed in the context of the socio-cultural background of the patients.

  11. Sustainable Competitiveness of the SME Sector Formed by Collaboration: The Prominent Role of HR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Molnár

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resources play a prominent role in the analysis of the development and competitiveness of the SME sector, therefore the discussion of the human resources is inevitable during the general characterisation of the sector. The development of and application of the appropriate organisational culture, motivation, competence are fundamental competitiveness factors of the success of SMEs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be adapted to the SMEs. The role of the state is necessary for the success of SMEs. The European Union continues to give special emphasis to the SME sector in the future, as one of the key business sectors influencing the economic success of a nation.

  12. Communicative dynamism and prosodic prominence in presentation sentences with initial rhematic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the theory of functional sentence perspective (Firbas 1992, the distinction between presentation and quality scale sentences plays a vital role. The present paper proposes to shed light on one of the most common configurations of presentation sentences, viz. structures with initial rhematic subject (e.g. an uninvited dwarf came, examining the way native speakers place the intonation centre in such structures, i.e. to map the correspondence between the degrees of communicative dynamism and prosodic prominence. For the purpose of the investigation selected chapters from Tolkien’s The Hobbit are used.

  13. Statistical comparison of the observed and synthetic hydrogen Lyman line profiles in solar prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunár, Stanislav; Schwartz, Pavol; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, Petr; Anzer, U.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 514, May (2010), A43/1-A43/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/09/P554; GA ČR GA205/07/1100; GA AV ČR 1QS300120506 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun filaments * prominences * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  14. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma with prominent squamous differentiation: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kim, Y C; Cinn, Y W

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. While histopathology of the tumor showed a circumscribed, lobulated intradermal mass with prominent squamous differentiation, the immunohistochemical study with antibodies to cytokeratins, CAM 5.2 and 19, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein and p53 all demonstrated positivity. These findings confirmed that the tumor was of eccrine sweat gland origin and it was thought to be a nodular hidradenocarcinoma differentiating toward the eccrine duct and/or secretory portions. She was treated with a wide local excision and no recurrence was observed 18 months after excision.

  15. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  16. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  17. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  18. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  19. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Diego [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Nobili, Valerio [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco [Dept. Pathology, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Santorelli, Filippo Maria [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  1. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. ► Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. ► Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. ► Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  2. Competing risk bias was common in Kaplan-Meier risk estimates published in prominent medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; McAlister, Finlay A

    2016-01-01

    Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves are well known to medical researchers, reviewers, and editors. In this study, we determined the proportion of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in prominent medical journals that are potentially biased because of competing events ("competing risk bias"). We randomly selected 100 studies that had at least one Kaplan-Meier analysis and were recently published in prominent medical journals. Susceptibility to competing risk bias was determined by examining the outcome and potential competing events. In susceptible studies, bias was quantified using a previously validated prediction model when the number of outcomes and competing events were given. Forty-six studies (46%) contained Kaplan-Meier analyses susceptible to competing risk bias. Sixteen studies (34.8%) susceptible to competing risk cited the number of outcomes and competing events; in six of these studies (6/16, 37.5%), the outcome risk from the Kaplan-Meier estimate (relative to the true risk) was biased upward by 10% or more. Almost half of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in medical journals are susceptible to competing risk bias and may overestimate event risk. This bias was found to be quantitatively important in a third of such studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FINE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF COUNTER-STREAMING MASS FLOWS IN A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends

  4. OBSERVATIONAL DETECTION OF DRIFT VELOCITY BETWEEN IONIZED AND NEUTRAL SPECIES IN SOLAR PROMINENCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomenko, Elena; Collados, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, Antonio J., E-mail: khomenko@iac.es, E-mail: mcv@iac.es, E-mail: aj.diaz@uib.es [Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122, Crta Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of differences in the ion and neutral velocities in prominences using high-resolution spectral data obtained in 2012 September at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife). A time series of scans of a small portion of a solar prominence was obtained simultaneously with high cadence using the lines of two elements with different ionization states, namely, Ca ii 8542 Å and He i 10830 Å. The displacements, widths, and amplitudes of both lines were carefully compared to extract dynamical information about the plasma. Many dynamical features are detected, such as counterstreaming flows, jets, and propagating waves. In all of the cases, we find a very strong correlation between the parameters extracted from the lines of both elements, confirming that both lines trace the same plasma. Nevertheless, we also find short-lived transients where this correlation is lost. These transients are associated with ion-neutral drift velocities of the order of several hundred m s{sup −1}. The patches of non-zero drift velocity show coherence in time–distance diagrams.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in two-dimensional prominences embedded in coronal arcades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Díaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Solar prominence models used so far in the analysis of MHD waves in two-dimensional structures are quite elementary. In this work, we calculate numerically magnetohydrostatic models in two-dimensional configurations under the presence of gravity. Our interest is in models that connect the magnetic field to the photosphere and include an overlying arcade. The method used here is based on a relaxation process and requires solving the time-dependent nonlinear ideal MHD equations. Once a prominence model is obtained, we investigate the properties of MHD waves superimposed on the structure. We concentrate on motions purely two-dimensional, neglecting propagation in the ignorable direction. We demonstrate how, by using different numerical tools, we can determine the period of oscillation of stable waves. We find that vertical oscillations, linked to fast MHD waves, are always stable and have periods in the 4-10 minute range. Longitudinal oscillations, related to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, have longer periods in the range of 28-40 minutes. These longitudinal oscillations are strongly influenced by the gravity force and become unstable for short magnetic arcades.

  6. Carbon trading: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘carbon trading’, amongst others addressing

  7. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Donato; J.B. Kauffman; R.A. Mackenzie; A. Ainsworth; A.Z. Pfleeger

    2012-01-01

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced...

  8. Gender parity trends for invited speakers at four prominent virology conference series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, Robert F; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2017-06-07

    Scientific conferences are most beneficial to participants when they showcase significant new experimental developments, accurately summarize the current state of the field, and provide strong opportunities for collaborative networking. A top-notch slate of invited speakers, assembled by conference organizers or committees, is key to achieving these goals. The perceived underrepresentation of female speakers at prominent scientific meetings is currently a popular topic for discussion, but one that often lacks supportive data. We compiled the full rosters of invited speakers over the last 35 years for four prominent international virology conferences, the American Society for Virology Annual Meeting (ASV), the International Herpesvirus Workshop (IHW), the Positive-Strand RNA Virus Symposium (PSR), and the Gordon Research Conference on Viruses & Cells (GRC). The rosters were cross-indexed by unique names, gender, year, and repeat invitations. When plotted as gender-dependent trends over time, all four conferences showed a clear proclivity for male-dominated invited speaker lists. Encouragingly, shifts toward parity are emerging within all units, but at different rates. Not surprisingly, both selection of a larger percentage of first time participants and the presence of a woman on the speaker selection committee correlated with improved parity. Session chair information was also collected for the IHW and GRC. These visible positions also displayed a strong male dominance over time that is eroding slowly. We offer our personal interpretation of these data to aid future organizers achieve improved equity among the limited number of available positions for session moderators and invited speakers. IMPORTANCE Politicians and media members have a tendency to cite anecdotes as conclusions without any supporting data. This happens so frequently now, that a name for it has emerged: fake news. Good science proceeds otherwise. The under representation of women as invited

  9. Effects of risk disclosure prominence in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs: An integrative cognitive process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ilwoo; Park, Jin Seong

    2018-01-01

    The literature shows that the prominence of risk disclosure influences consumer responses to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. However, little is known about the psychological process whereby disclosure prominence exerts its influences on health beliefs and behavior. Based on a review of the literature on health cognition and behavior, the current study proposed and tested a model to show that risk disclosure prominence affects consumers' drug choice intention through the mediating roles of awareness of drug adverse reactions (ARs), perceived control over ARs, and perceived risk of ARs. The findings were discussed in terms of their theoretical and managerial implications.

  10. A model of 'disparitions brusques' (sudden disappearance of eruptive prominences) as an instability driven by MHD waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    1982-04-01

    A mode of 'disparitions brusques' (sudden disappearance of eruptive prominences) is discussed based on the Kippenhahn and Schluter configuration. It is shown that Kippenhahn and Schluter's current sheet is very weakly unstable against magnetic reconnecting modes during the lifetime of quiescent prominences. Disturbances in the form of fast magnetosonic waves originating from nearby active regions or the changes of whole magnetic configuration due to newly emerged magnetic flux may trigger a rapid growing instability associated with magnetic field reconnection. This instability gives rise to disruptions of quiescent prominences and also generates high energy particles. (author)

  11. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J. (WU); (Danforth)

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  12. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  13. Topicality and Text Pragmatic Prominence Five Hierarchies Regarding the Topic Suitability of Nominal Constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Iørn

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a description of topicality and text pragmatic prominence of nominal discourse referents based on four hierarchies. These hierarchies concern the referent with respect to (a) its identifiability (± identifiable), (b) its referentiality (e.g. deictic, specific...... incorporation of the NP designating the referent, (2) the linguistic material of anaphors linked to the NP, and (3) various phenomena linked to the possible clefting of the NP. The paper also demonstrates that the proposed model and taxonomy is very well suited as tertium comparationis in a cross......-linguistic approach, not least in typological comparisons between for instance Romance and Germanic languages. The correlations described are viewed cross-linguistically with evidence from Italian, Danish, and English....

  14. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    Full Text Available Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  15. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  16. Exploring H2O Prominence in Reflection Spectra of Cool Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2018-05-01

    The H2O abundance of a planetary atmosphere is a powerful indicator of formation conditions. Inferring H2O in the solar system giant planets is challenging, due to condensation depleting the upper atmosphere of water vapor. Substantially warmer hot Jupiter exoplanets readily allow detections of H2O via transmission spectroscopy, but such signatures are often diminished by the presence of clouds composed of other species. In contrast, highly scattering water clouds can brighten planets in reflected light, enhancing molecular signatures. Here, we present an extensive parameter space survey of the prominence of H2O absorption features in reflection spectra of cool (T eff clouds brighten the planet: T eff ∼ 150 K, g ≳ 20 ms‑2, f sed ≳ 3, m ≲ 10× solar. In contrast, planets with g ≲ 20 ms‑2 and T eff ≳ 180 K display substantially prominent H2O features embedded in the Rayleigh scattering slope from 0.4 to 0.73 μm over a wide parameter space. High f sed enhances H2O features around 0.94 μm, and enables these features to be detected at lower temperatures. High m results in dampened H2O absorption features, due to water vapor condensing to form bright, optically thick clouds that dominate the continuum. We verify these trends via self-consistent modeling of the low-gravity exoplanet HD 192310c, revealing that its reflection spectrum is expected to be dominated by H2O absorption from 0.4 to 0.73 μm for m ≲ 10× solar. Our results demonstrate that H2O is manifestly detectable in reflected light spectra of cool giant planets only marginally warmer than Jupiter, providing an avenue to directly constrain the C/O and O/H ratios of a hitherto unexplored population of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  17. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Sczesny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism. In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence.

  18. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Kaufmann, Michèle C.

    2018-01-01

    Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism. In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence. PMID:29387029

  19. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Kaufmann, Michèle C

    2017-01-01

    Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism . In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence.

  20. A Modality Called 'Negation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, F.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While

  1. Relating a Prominence Observed from the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode Satellite to Known 3-D Structures of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Agah, Y.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We address only a first step in relating limb and disk observations by illustrating and comparing the spines and barbs of three different quiescent prominences and filaments observed in Hα by three different telescopes. Although the appearance of the three quiescent prominences is quite different, we show that each consists of a spine, barbs extending from the spine, and arcs at the base of some of the curtains of barb threads.

  2. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  4. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Bsl; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne E; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2018-03-13

    Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment; and to assess the effects of different types of orthodontic braces. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 27 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 27 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 27 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of orthodontic treatments to correct prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. We included trials that compared early treatment in children (two-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces (removable, fixed, functional) or head-braces versus late treatment in adolescents (one-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces or head-braces, and trials that compared any

  5. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  6. Prominent reflector beneath around the segmentation boundary between Tonankai-Nankai earthquake area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In most cases, first break of such large events of Nankai Trough usually begins from southwest off the Kii Peninsula so far. The idea of split Philippine Sea plate between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, which explains seismicity, tectonic background, receiver function image and historical plate motion, was previously suggested. Moreover, between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, there is a gap of deep low-frequency events observed in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In 2010 and 2011, we conducted the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation from off Shikoku and Kii Peninsula. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km/year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found a possible prominent reflector imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km. The velocity just beneath the reflector cannot be determined due to the lack of ray paths. Based of the amplitude information, we interpret the reflector as the forearc Moho based on the velocity gap (from ~6.4km/s to ~7.4km/s). However, the reflector is shallower than the forearc Moho of other area along the Nankai Trough. Similar reflectors are recognized along other seismic profiles around the Kii channel. In this presentation, we will show the result of structure analysis to understand the peculiar structure including the prominent reflector around the Kii channel. Relation between the structure and the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake or seismic gap of the deep low-frequency events will be also

  7. Atomic negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given

  8. The formation of solar prominences by thermal instability in a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.A.; Priest, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The energy balance equation for the upper chromosphere or lower corona contains a radiative loss term which is destabilizing, because of slight decrease in temperature from the equilibrium value causes more radiation and hence a cooling of the plasma; also a slight increase in temperature has the effect of heating the plasma. In spite of this tendency towards thermal instability, most of the solar atmosphere is remarkably stable, since thermal conduction is very efficient at equalizing any temperature irregularity which may arise. However, the effectiveness of thermal conduction in transporting heat is decreased considerably in a current sheet or a magnetic flux tube, since heat can be conducted quickly only along the magnetic field lines. This paper presents a simple model for the thermal equilibrium and stability of a current sheet. It is found that, when its length exceeds a certain maximum value, no equilibrium is possible and the plasma in the sheet cools. The results may be relevant for the formation of a quiescent prominence. (Auth.)

  9. Structure of personality psychology based on cocitation analysis of prominent authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremov Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Author Cocitation Analysis was applied in order to map the personality psychology as a research field. A group of 25 authors were selected from the Haggbloom (1999, 2002 lists of the most cited and prominent psychologists, judged to be the main contributors to the field. All of their cocitations identified in the three year volumes of SSCI were downloaded to be analyzed by cluster analysis and MDS. The analysis resulted in four clusters comprising (1 theorists of individual differences amalgamated with authors of biological orientation with R. Cattell positioned centrally, (2 behaviorists joined by socio-cognitive theorists led by M.E.P. Seligman and A. Bandura, and (3 the group of psychoanalytic (dynamic theorists with A. Adler in the middle. In fourth cluster G. Allport, H. Murray, K. Lewin, W. Mischel, and D. Buss were found mixed together to make a rather heterogeneous group. In two-axes representation one of the dimensions was understood as reflecting methodological and the other one content-specific differences among the authors, although this interpretation is not univocal. The same procedure was repeated on citations given to the same authors in SocioFakt - the Serbian Citation Index for Social Sciences, revealing a reduced picture of the domain. At this portrait, some important authors are missing as a result of their low citation rate, suggesting that in the Serbian personality psychology entire research fields don’t exist. .

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  11. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ENGEMAN, Elliott JACOBSON, Michael L. AVERY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Florida, along with Hawaii, has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA, and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles. Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida, many of these species present novel difficulties for management, or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging. Moreover, initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially harmful species has become established. It also requires the political will along with concomitant resources and appropriate personnel to develop effective methods and apply them. We review the situation in Florida, including assessment of risk for establishment, and we use a subset of prominent species to illustrate in more detail the array of invasive reptile species circumstances in Florida, including routes of introduction, impacts, and potential and implemented management actions. These examples not only highlight the severity of the invasive reptile problems in the state, but they also show the diversity in resolve and response towards them and the motivating factors [Current Zoology 57 (5: 599–612, 2011].

  12. High Resolution, High-Speed Photography, an Increasingly Prominent Diagnostic in Ballistic Research Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Muelder, S.

    1999-01-01

    High resolution, high-speed photography is becoming a prominent diagnostic in ballistic experimentation. The development of high speed cameras utilizing electro-optics and the use of lasers for illumination now provide the capability to routinely obtain high quality photographic records of ballistic style experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to review in a visual manner the progress of this technology and how it has impacted ballistic experimentation. Within the framework of development at LLNL, we look at the recent history of large format high-speed photography, and present a number of photographic records that represent the state of the art at the time they were made. These records are primarily from experiments involving shaped charges. We also present some examples of current photographic technology, developed within the ballistic community, that has application to hydro diagnostic experimentation at large. This paper is designed primarily as an oral-visual presentation. This written portion is to provide general background, a few examples, and a bibliography

  13. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants' responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful.

  14. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  15. Prominent Midlatitude Circulation Signature in High Asia's Surface Climate During Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Thomas; Maussion, Fabien; Collier, Emily; Chiang, John C. H.; Scherer, Dieter

    2017-12-01

    High Asia has experienced strong environmental changes in recent decades, as evident in records of glaciers, lakes, tree rings, and vegetation. The multiscale understanding of the climatic drivers, however, is still incomplete. In particular, few systematic assessments have evaluated to what degree, if at all, the midlatitude westerly circulation modifies local surface climates in the reach of the Indian Summer Monsoon. This paper shows that a southward shift of the upper-tropospheric westerlies contributes significantly to climate variability in the core monsoon season (July-September) by two prominent dipole patterns at the surface: cooling in the west of High Asia contrasts with warming in the east, while moist anomalies in the east and northwest occur with drying along the southwestern margins. Circulation anomalies help to understand the dipoles and coincide with shifts in both the westerly wave train and the South Asian High, which imprint on air mass advection and local energy budgets. The relation of the variabilities to a well-established index of midlatitude climate dynamics allows future research on climate proxies to include a fresh hypothesis for the interpretation of environmental changes.

  16. Ornament in Contemporary Iranian Architecture (Case Study: Prominent Buildings in Tehran after the Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the status of ornamental practices in contemporary Iranian architecture, specifically after the Islamic revolution, using a descriptive–analytical method. In this regard, the external appearances of 92 prominent buildings constructed in Tehran between 1979–2013, were examined, and their means of visual expression were analyzed. The results indicate that half of the samples lack ornament; in the others, a noticeable increase in the ornamental element size and visual complexity, as well as a significant decrease in their semantic contents (as compared with traditional ornament were observed. These are changes that mostly resulted from modernization and subsequent processes such as industrialization and rationalization, as well as the long-lasting influence of modernists’ arguments against such practices. The presence of ornament in architecture, however, is necessary due to its crucial role in increasing the visual coherence of the environment and fulfilling the human desire for order and beauty. Therefore, this paper suggests the replacement of the current dualistic model of thought, which is dominant in the profession and schools of architecture in Iran, with one that provides an opportunity for the coexistence of concepts such as ornament and structure, form and function, and the sensuous and the rational, hence providing a revitalization of ornament in contemporary architecture.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC-FIELD GEOMETRY ON LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, M.; Díaz, A. J.; Karpen, J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side. We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  18. The Effects of Magnetic-field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillaitons of Solar Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M.; Diaz, A. J.; Karpen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side.We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  19. Muscle diseases with prominent joint contractures: Main entities and diagnostic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymard, B; Ferreiro, A; Ben Yaou, R; Stojkovic, T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle diseases may have various clinical manifestations including muscle weakness, atrophy or hypertrophy and joint contractures. A spectrum of non-muscular manifestations (cardiac, respiratory, cutaneous, central and peripheral nervous system) may be associated. Few of these features are specific. Limb joint contractures or spine rigidity, when prevailing over muscle weakness in ambulant patients, are of high diagnostic value for diagnosis orientation. Within this context, among several disorders, four groups of diseases should systematically come to mind including the collagen VI-related myopathies, the Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies, the SEPN1 and FHL1 related myopathies. More rarely other genetic or acquired myopathies may present with marked contractures. Diagnostic work-up should include a comprehensive assessment including family history, neurological, cardiologic and respiratory evaluations. Paraclinical investigations should minimally include muscle imaging and electromyography. Muscle and skin biopsies as well as protein and molecular analyses usually help to reach a precise diagnosis. We will first describe the main muscle and neuromuscular junction diseases where contractures are typically a prominent symptom of high diagnostic value for diagnosis orientation. In the following chapters, we will present clues for the diagnostic strategy and the main measures to be taken when, at the end of the diagnostic work-up, no definite muscular disease has been identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. DYNAMICS OF CORONAL RAIN AND DESCENDING PLASMA BLOBS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES. II. PARTIALLY IONIZED CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-20

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  1. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  2. Fascioperichondrial Flap with a Proximal Base Combined with Prominent Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heval Selman Özkan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this article, we present a personalized surgical technique to relocate a fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base as an additional measure to improve results and hide sharp edges which frequently occur following traditional otoplasty. Materials and Methods: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base prepared from the dorsal side was transposed to the anterior helix and conchal excision side and secured with stitches to hide visible edges and reinforce Furnas sutures. Nine patients operated for prominent ear deformity using this modification were included in the study and follow-up period was at least 6 months. Conchal mastoid distances were calculated from the superior and middle third of the ears before and after the operation, also in follow-up controls to determine the efficiency of the method. Results: There were no suture extrusions, skin necrosis or infection. The mean difference for both the upper and middle third of the ears were considerably lower (p≤0.05 at the end of six month after the operation. There were no visible skin edges and discomfort described by the patients. Conclusion: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base repositioning to conchal side is an easy procedure that can be applied simply as an adjunct to traditional techniques. Addition of this flap provides an additional tissue to reinforce suture repair and, the results seem to be more durable and strong. Another main advantage of this flap is eliminating the unnatural visible breakpoints in the conchal bowl.

  3. Prominent Role of Spin-Orbit Coupling in FeSe Revealed by Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In most existing theories for iron-based superconductors, spin-orbit coupling (SOC has been assumed to be insignificant. Here, we use spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering to show that collective low-energy spin excitations in the orthorhombic (or “nematic” phase of FeSe possess nearly no in-plane component. Such spin-space anisotropy is present over an energy range greater than the superconducting gap 2Δ_{sc} and gets fully inherited in the superconducting state, resulting in a c-axis polarized “spin resonance” without any noticeable isotropic spectral-weight rearrangement related to the superconductivity, which is distinct from observations in the superconducting iron pnictides. The contrast between the strong suppression of long-range magnetic order in FeSe and the persisting large spin-space anisotropy, which cannot be explained microscopically by introducing single-ion anisotropy into local-moment spin models, demonstrates the importance of SOC in an itinerant-electron description of the low-energy spin excitations. Our result helps to elucidate the nearby magnetic instabilities and the debated interplay between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in FeSe. The prominent role of SOC also implies a possible unusual nature of the superconducting state.

  4. Hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation and associated pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yumi; Tanigawa, Hiroki; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Tsuyoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Herein, we report a 63-year-old man presenting with hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation on his back. The tumor was dermal-based, solid and cystic. Tumor cells with squamous differentiation and with keratin pearl formation were identified predominantly in the superficial dermis, and mucinous cells were identified principally in the cystic lesion in the deep dermis. Interestingly, the additional feature of pagetoid cells was identified in the overlying epidermis. Both the mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma and pagetoid cells had intracytoplasmic mucin; however, they had different histopathologic findings and immunophenotypes. Mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma had small nuclei and abundant intracytoplasmic mucin presenting goblet cells with low rate of positive immunostaining for p53 and Ki67. In contrast, pagetoid cells had larger nuclei with less intracytoplasmic mucin. Both p53- and Ki67-positive cells were increased in pagetoid cells. Additionally, mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma were MUC1(+)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(+)/MUC6(+), but pagetoid cells were MUC1(+; focal)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(-)/MUC6(+; focal). The derivation of pagetoid cells is unclear; however, the localized small region of pagetoid cells over the hidradenocarcinoma in the present case may suggest a common histogenesis of these two malignant neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Prominent attractive qualities of nurses' work in operating room departments: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Catrine; Josephson, Malin; Wadensten, Barbro; Rissén, Dag

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of nurses in operating room departments (ORs) in Sweden and other countries can lead to reduced capacity and quality in healthcare, as well as more intense work for those on the job. Little is known about what nurses in ORs perceive as crucial for their workplace to be attractive. To capture attractive qualities of nurses' work in Swedish ORs and take a first step in the process of adapting the Attractive Work Questionnaire for use in a health care context. The Attractive Work Questionnaire was completed by 147 (67% ) nurses in four Swedish ORs. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were performed to determine the underlying structure of the data. Factors contributing to job attractiveness identified in the area "work conditions" were: relations, leadership, equipment, salary, organisation, physical work environment, location, and working hours; in the area "work content": mental work, autonomy and work rate; and in the area "job satisfaction": status and acknowledgement. The PCA showed consistency with the original Attractive Work Questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.57-0.90. Prominent attractive qualities for nurses' work in Swedish ORs were possible to identify through the Attractive Work Questionnaire and the results suggest that the questionnaire can be useful in a health care context.

  6. A prominent anchoring effect on the kinetic control of drug release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Lee, Sang-Wha

    2018-01-15

    This work demonstrated kinetically controlled release of model drugs (ibuprofen, FITC) from well-tailored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) depending on the surface charges and molecular sizes of the drugs. The molecular interactions between entrapped drugs and the pore walls of MSNs controlled the release of the drugs through the pore channels of MSNs. Also, polydopamine (PDA) layer-coated MSNs (MSNs@PDA) was quite effective to retard the release of large FITC, in contrast to a slight retardation effect on relatively small Ibuprofen. Of all things, FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate)-labeled APTMS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) (APTMS-FITC conjugates) grafted onto the MSNs generate a pinch-effect on the pore channel (so-called a prominent anchoring effect), which was highly effective in trapping (or blocking) drug molecules at the pore mouth of the MSNs. The anchored APTMS-FITC conjugates provided not only tortuous pathways to the diffusing molecules, but also sustained release of the ibuprofen over a long period of time (∼7days). The fast release kinetics was predicted by an exponential equation based on Fick's law, while the slow release kinetics was predicted by Higuchi model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A self-consistent model of a thermally balanced quiescent prominence in magnetostatic equilibrium in a uniform gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model of quiescent prominences in the form of an infinite vertical sheet is presented. Self-consistent solutions are obtained by integrating simultaneously the set of nonlinear equations of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance. The basic features of the models are: (1) The prominence matter is confined to a sheet and supported against gravity by a bowed magnetic field. (2) The thermal flux is channelled along magnetic field lines. (3) The thermal flux is everywhere balanced by Low's (1975) hypothetical heat sink which is proportional to the local density. (4) A constant component of the magnetic field along the length of the prominence shields the cool plasma from the hot surrounding. It is assumed that the prominence plasma emits more radiation than it absorbes from the radiation fields of the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and the above hypothetical heat sink is interpreted to represent the amount of radiative loss that must be balanced by a nonradiative energy input. Using a central density and temperature of 10 11 particles cm -3 and 5000 K respectively, a magnetic field strength between 2 to 10 gauss and a thermal conductivity that varies linearly with temperature, the physical properties implied by the model are discussed. The analytic treatment can also be carried out for a class of more complex thermal conductivities. These models provide a useful starting point for investigating the combined requirements of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance in the quiescent prominence. (Auth.)

  8. A SOLAR TORNADO OBSERVED BY AIA/SDO: ROTATIONAL FLOW AND EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN A PROMINENCE AND CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Morgan, Huw; Leonard, Drew; Jeska, Lauren, E-mail: xxl@aber.ac.uk [Sefydliad Mathemateg a Ffiseg, Prifysgol Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-20

    During 2011 September 24, as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument of the Solar Dynamic Observatory and ground-based H{alpha} telescopes, a prominence and associated cavity appeared above the southwest limb. On 2011 September 25 8:00 UT, material flows upward from the prominence core along a narrow loop-like structure, accompanied by a rise ({>=}50,000 km) of the prominence core and the loop. As the loop fades by 10:00, small blobs and streaks of varying brightness rotate around the top part of the prominence and cavity, mimicking a cyclone. The most intense and coherent rotation lasts for over three hours, with emission in both hot ({approx}1 MK) and cold (hydrogen and helium) lines. We suggest that the cyclonic appearance and overall evolution of the structure can be interpreted in terms of the expansion of helical structures into the cavity, and the movement of plasma along helical structures which appears as a rotation when viewed along the helix axis. The coordinated movement of material between prominence and cavity suggests that they are structurally linked. Complexity is great due to the combined effect of these actions and the line-of-sight integration through the structure which contains tangled fields.

  9. Carbon Sequestration by Urban Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fares, Silvano; Paoletti, Elena; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prominent component of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, resulting mainly from fuel combustion in the built environment – for activities such as heating of buildings, urban mobility and cooking. The concentration of near-surface CO2 in cities is affected by ....... In this chapter, we review the most recent studies and highlight emerging research needs for a better understanding of present and future roles of urban trees in removing CO2 from the atmosphere....

  10. Tracing the Potential Flow of Consumer Data: A Network Analysis of Prominent Health and Fitness Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Quinn; Held, Fabian P; Bero, Lisa A

    2017-06-28

    A great deal of consumer data, collected actively through consumer reporting or passively through sensors, is shared among apps. Developers increasingly allow their programs to communicate with other apps, sensors, and Web-based services, which are promoted as features to potential users. However, health apps also routinely pose risks related to information leaks, information manipulation, and loss of information. There has been less investigation into the kinds of user data that developers are likely to collect, and who might have access to it. We sought to describe how consumer data generated from mobile health apps might be distributed and reused. We also aimed to outline risks to individual privacy and security presented by this potential for aggregating and combining user data across apps. We purposively sampled prominent health and fitness apps available in the United States, Canada, and Australia Google Play and iTunes app stores in November 2015. Two independent coders extracted data from app promotional materials on app and developer characteristics, and the developer-reported collection and sharing of user data. We conducted a descriptive analysis of app, developer, and user data collection characteristics. Using structural equivalence analysis, we conducted a network analysis of sampled apps' self-reported sharing of user-generated data. We included 297 unique apps published by 231 individual developers, which requested 58 different permissions (mean 7.95, SD 6.57). We grouped apps into 222 app families on the basis of shared ownership. Analysis of self-reported data sharing revealed a network of 359 app family nodes, with one connected central component of 210 app families (58.5%). Most (143/222, 64.4%) of the sampled app families did not report sharing any data and were therefore isolated from each other and from the core network. Fifteen app families assumed more central network positions as gatekeepers on the shortest paths that data would have to

  11. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  12. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  13. Overexpression of K-p21Ras play a prominent role in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhou, Xin-liang; Yang, Ju-lun

    2018-06-01

    The proto-oncogene ras product, p21Ras, has been found overexpression in many human tumors. However, the subtypes of overexpressed p21Ras still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate overexpressed isoforms of p21Ras and their roles in the progress of lung cancer. Method: The expression of total p21Ras in normal lung tissues and lung cancers was determined by immunohistochemically staining with monoclonal antibody (Mab) KGHR-1 which could recognize and broad spectrum reaction with the (K/H/N) ras protein. Then, the isoforms of p21Ras was examined by specific Mab for each p21Ras subtypes. Results: Low expression of total p21Ras was found in 26.67% (8/30) of normal lung tissues, and 81.31% (87/107) of adenocarcinoma harbored overexpressed total p21Ras. Besides, 70.00% (35/50) of squamous cell carcinoma were detected overexpressed total p21Ras. In addition, 122 lung cancer tissues from overexpression of total p21Ras protein were selected to detect the expression of each subtype. And all the 122 lung cancer tissues were K-p21Ras overexpression. Moreover, there was a statistical significance difference between the expression level of total p21Ras and differentiation, and the same results were observed between the expression level of total p21Ras and lymph node metastasis (P0.05). Conclusions: Overexpression of K-p21Ras plays a prominent role in the progress of lung cancer and it is suggested that the p21Ras could serve as a promising treatment target in lung cancer.

  14. Temperature and EUV Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S.E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 Aug. 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model prediction of the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the line intensities by a factor of 4-10, while overestimating pB data by no more than a factor of 1.4. One possible explanation for this is that there may be a significant amount of material at temperatures outside of the range log T(K) approximately equals 5.8 - 6.7 in both the cavity and the streamer.

  15. Brown seaweed Padina gymnospora is a prominent natural wound-care product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegna P. Baliano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seaweeds are related to anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-noceptive effects. This work aimed to verify the potential of seaweed Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder 1871 to improve wound healing in vitro. P. gymnospora was collected at a bethonic area in Espirito Santo. Methanolic extract of P. gymnospora was obtained by percolation. To determine cytotoxicity, colorimetric MTT tests were performed against normal fibroblasts (L929, macrophages (RAW 264.7 and human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3 cell lines using concentration range of 12–110 µg ml-1. To evaluate in vitro wound healing, monolayer of fibroblasts L929 was seeded and artificial wounded. Cell proliferation was blocked by 5 µg ml-1 Mytomycin C. Nitric oxide inhibition was quantified with Raw 264.7 by Griess reaction. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Eletrospray ionization with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS was applied to detail composition of P. gymnospora methanolic extract. No cytotoxic effect in all cell lines was detected until the maximum concentration of 110 µg ml-1. P. gymnospora promoted significantly migration at the concentration of 25 µg ml-1 (p < 0.05. A prominent inhibition of nitric oxide formation was achieved in a concentration of 20 µg ml-1 of methanolic extract of P. gymnospora (62.06 ± 1.20%. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus could be demonstrated with MIC of 500 µg ml-1. ESI-FT-ICR MS analysis indicated eleven molecules between then, linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid. P. gymnospora favored wound repair in vitro what could be related to its fatty acid composition. In addition, its antimicrobial effect, and NO inhibition activity contribute for a new approach of P. gymnospora as a promise natural product for treatment of cutaneous wound.

  16. Myoelectrical manifestation of fatigue less prominent in patients with cancer related fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A lack of fatigue-related muscle contractile property changes at time of perceived physical exhaustion and greater central than peripheral fatigue detected by twitch interpolation technique have recently been reported in cancer survivors with fatigue symptoms. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that compared to healthy people, myoelectrical manifestation of fatigue in the performing muscles would be less significant in these individuals while sustaining a prolonged motor task to self-perceived exhaustion (SPE since their central fatigue was more prominent. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining electromyographic (EMG signal changes during fatiguing muscle performance. METHODS: Twelve individuals who had advanced solid cancer and cancer-related fatigue (CRF, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a sustained elbow flexion at 30% maximal voluntary contraction till SPE. Amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF of EMG signals of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii muscles were evaluated when the individuals experienced minimal, moderate, and severe fatigue. RESULTS: CRF patients perceived physical "exhaustion" significantly sooner than the controls. The myoelectrical manifestation of muscular fatigue assessed by EMG amplitude and MPF was less significant in CRF than controls. The lower MPF even at minimal fatigue stage in CRF may indicate pathophysiologic condition of the muscle. CONCLUSIONS: CRF patients experience less myoelectrical manifestation of muscle fatigue than healthy individuals near the time of SPE. The data suggest that central nervous system fatigue plays a more important role in limiting endurance-type of motor performance in patients with CRF.

  17. Prominence vs. aboutness in sequencing: a functional distinction within the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Grewe, Tanja; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Prior research on the neural bases of syntactic comprehension suggests that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) correlates with the processing of word order variations. However, there are inconsistencies with respect to the specific subregion within the IFG that is implicated by these findings: the pars opercularis or the pars triangularis. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the dissociation between pars opercularis and pars triangularis activation may reflect functional differences between clause-medial and clause-initial word order permutations, respectively. To this end, we directly compared clause-medial and clause-initial object-before-subject orders in German in a within-participants, event-related fMRI design. Our results showed increased activation for object-initial sentences in a bilateral network of frontal, temporal and subcortical regions. Within the lIFG, posterior and inferior subregions showed only a main effect of word order, whereas more anterior and superior subregions showed effects of word order and sentence type, with higher activation for sentences with an argument in the clause-initial position. These findings are interpreted as evidence for a functional gradation of sequence processing within the left IFG: posterior subportions correlate with argument prominence-based (local) aspects of sequencing, while anterior subportions correlate with aboutness-based aspects of sequencing, which are crucial in linking the current sentence to the wider discourse. This proposal appears compatible with more general hypotheses about information processing gradients in prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke: Impact on prominent cortical veins in susceptibility-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rajeev K.; Hsieh, Kety; Gratz, Pascal P.; Schankath, Adrian C.; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Jung, Simon; Schroth, Gerhard; Gralla, Jan; El-Koussy, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extent of hypoperfusion is an important prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have postulated that the extent of prominent cortical veins (PCV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) reflects the extent of hypoperfusion. Our aim was to investigate, whether there is an association between PCV and the grade of leptomeningeal arterial collateralization in acute ischemic stroke. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between SWI and perfusion-MRI findings. Methods: 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a thromboembolic M1-segment occlusion underwent MRI followed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and were subdivided into two groups with very good to good and moderate to no leptomeningeal collaterals according to the DSA. The extent of PCV on SWI, diffusion restriction (DR) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and prolonged mean transit time (MTT) on perfusion-imaging were graded according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission and the time between symptom onset and MRI were documented. Results: 20 patients showed very good to good and 13 patients poor to no collateralization. PCV-ASPECTS was significantly higher for cases with good leptomeningeal collaterals versus those with poor leptomeningeal collaterals (mean 4.1 versus 2.69; p = 0.039). MTT-ASPECTS was significantly lower than PCV-ASPECTS in all 33 patients (mean 1.0 versus 3.5; p < 0.00). Conclusions: In our small study the grade of leptomeningeal collateralization correlates with the extent of PCV in SWI in acute ischemic stroke, due to the deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin ratio. Consequently, extensive PCV correlate with poor leptomeningeal collateralization while less pronounced PCV correlate with good leptomeningeal collateralization. Further SWI is a very helpful tool in detecting tissue at risk but cannot replace PWI since MTT detects significantly more ill

  19. Prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways in patients with portal hypertension: demonstration by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Bezerra, Alexandre Araujo Sergio; Cecin, Alexnadre Oliveira; Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Goldman, Susan Menasce; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. We reviewed the images from 40 patients with portal hypertension studied with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and selected illustrative cases of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. The scans were performed using high field equipment (1.5 Tesla) and a 3 D volume technique. Image were obtained after intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast media using a power injector. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated with precision the porto-systemic collateral pathways, particularly when investigating extensive territories or large vessels. The cases presented show the potential of this method in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension and prominent collateral pathways. (author)

  20. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  1. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  2. Mammalian knock out cells reveal prominent roles for atlastin GTPases in ER network morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guohua; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Renvoisé, Benoît; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Park, Seong Hee; Blackstone, Craig, E-mail: blackstc@ninds.nih.gov

    2016-11-15

    Atlastins are large, membrane-bound GTPases that participate in the fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules to generate the polygonal ER network in eukaryotes. They also regulate lipid droplet size and inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, though mechanisms remain unclear. Humans have three atlastins (ATL1, ATL2, and ATL3), and ATL1 and ATL3 are mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathies. Cellular investigations of atlastin orthologs in most yeast, plants, flies and worms are facilitated by the presence of a single or predominant isoform, but loss-of-function studies in mammalian cells are complicated by multiple, broadly-expressed paralogs. We have generated mouse NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three mammalian atlastins (Atl1/2/3) using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout (KO). ER morphology is markedly disrupted in these triple KO cells, with prominent impairment in formation of three-way ER tubule junctions. This phenotype can be rescued by expression of distant orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sey1p) and Arabidopsis (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3) as well as any one of the three human atlastins. Minimal, if any, changes are observed in the morphology of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. Alterations in BMP signaling and increased sensitivity to ER stress are also noted, though effects appear more modest. Finally, atlastins appear required for the proper differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells into an adipocyte-like phenotype. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegias and sensory neuropathies associated with atlastin mutations. - Highlights: • NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three atlastin paralogs were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. • Cells lacking all atlastin GTPases exhibit far fewer 3-way ER tubule junctions. • ER morphology defects in atlastin knockout cells are rescued by distant plant and yeast orthologs. • Atlastin knock out cells also

  3. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Henke, Michael; de Visser, Pieter H B; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard; Wiechers, Dirk; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different components of photosynthetic limitations at the leaf level and to upscale these limitations to different canopy layers and the whole plant. A static virtual three-dimensional canopy structure was constructed using digitized plant data in GroIMP. Light interception of the leaves was simulated by a ray-tracer and used to compute leaf photosynthesis. Different components of photosynthetic limitations, namely stomatal (S(L)), mesophyll (M(L)), biochemical (B(L)) and light (L(L)) limitations, were calculated by a quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis under different light regimes. In the virtual cucumber canopy, B(L) and L(L) were the most prominent factors limiting whole-plant photosynthesis. Diffusional limitations (S(L) + M(L)) contributed Photosynthesis in the lower canopy was more limited by the biochemical capacity, and the upper canopy was more sensitive to light than other canopy parts. Although leaves in the upper canopy received more light, their photosynthesis was more light restricted than in the leaves of the lower canopy, especially when the light condition above the canopy was poor. An increase in whole-plant photosynthesis under diffuse light did not result from an improvement of light use efficiency but from an increase in light interception. Diffuse light increased the photosynthesis of leaves that were directly shaded by other leaves in the canopy by up to 55%. Based on the results, maintaining biochemical capacity of the middle-lower canopy and increasing the leaf area of the upper canopy would be promising strategies to improve canopy photosynthesis in a high-wire cucumber cropping system. Further analyses using the approach described in this study can be expected to

  4. Mammalian knock out cells reveal prominent roles for atlastin GTPases in ER network morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guohua; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Renvoisé, Benoît; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Park, Seong Hee; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Atlastins are large, membrane-bound GTPases that participate in the fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules to generate the polygonal ER network in eukaryotes. They also regulate lipid droplet size and inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, though mechanisms remain unclear. Humans have three atlastins (ATL1, ATL2, and ATL3), and ATL1 and ATL3 are mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathies. Cellular investigations of atlastin orthologs in most yeast, plants, flies and worms are facilitated by the presence of a single or predominant isoform, but loss-of-function studies in mammalian cells are complicated by multiple, broadly-expressed paralogs. We have generated mouse NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three mammalian atlastins (Atl1/2/3) using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout (KO). ER morphology is markedly disrupted in these triple KO cells, with prominent impairment in formation of three-way ER tubule junctions. This phenotype can be rescued by expression of distant orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sey1p) and Arabidopsis (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3) as well as any one of the three human atlastins. Minimal, if any, changes are observed in the morphology of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. Alterations in BMP signaling and increased sensitivity to ER stress are also noted, though effects appear more modest. Finally, atlastins appear required for the proper differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells into an adipocyte-like phenotype. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegias and sensory neuropathies associated with atlastin mutations. - Highlights: • NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three atlastin paralogs were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. • Cells lacking all atlastin GTPases exhibit far fewer 3-way ER tubule junctions. • ER morphology defects in atlastin knockout cells are rescued by distant plant and yeast orthologs. • Atlastin knock out cells also

  5. An assessment of prominent proposals to amend intellectual property regimes using a human rights framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Timmermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of proposals to alleviate the negative effects of intellectual property regimes is currently under discussion. This article offers a critical evaluation of six of these proposals: the Health Impact Fund, the Access to Knowledge movement, prize systems, open innovation models, compulsory licenses and South-South collaborations. An assessment on how these proposals target the human rights affected by intellectual property will be provided. The conflicting human rights that will be individually discussed are the rights: to benefit from one’s own scientific work, to benefit from the advancement of science, to participate in scientific enterprises and to self-determination.

  6. Dynamics of quiescent prominence fine structures analyzed by 2D non-LTE modelling of the Hα line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mein, P.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, Petr; Mein, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 543, July (2012), A93/1-A93/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/09/P554; GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2012

  7. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A HOT-CHANNEL-LIKE SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS EMBEDDED PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity

  8. Effect of the prominent catalyst layer surface on reactant gas transport and cell performance at the cathodic side of a PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, Shiang-Wuu; Wu, Horng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The cell performance enhancement of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been numerically investigated with the prominence-like form catalyst layer surface of the same composition at the cathodic half-cell of a PEMFC. The geometries of the prominence-like form catalyst layer surface are assigned as one prominence, three prominences, and five prominences catalyst layer surfaces with constant distance between two prominences in the same gas diffusion layer (GDL) for the purpose of investigating the cell performance. To confine the current investigation to two-dimensional incompressible flows, we assume that the fluid flow is laminar with a low Reynolds number 15. The results indicate that the prominence-like form catalyst layer surface can effectively enhance the local cell performance of a PEMFC.

  9. Open questions on prominences from coordinated observations by IRIS, Hinode, SDO/AIA, THEMIS, and the Meudon/MSDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Tian, H.; Kucera, T.; López Ariste, A.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Golub, L.

    2014-09-01

    Context. A large prominence was observed by multiple instruments on the ground and in space during an international campaign on September 24, 2013, for three hours (12:12 UT -15:12 UT). Instruments used in the campaign included the newly launched (June 2013) Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), THEMIS (Tenerife), the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), and the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in the Meudon Solar Tower. The movies obtained in 304 Å with the EUV imager SDO/AIA, and in Ca II line by SOT show the dynamic nature of the prominence. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of the prominence fine structures in multiple wavelengths to understand their formation. Methods: The spectrographs IRIS and MSDP provided line profiles with a high cadence in Mg II h (2803.5 Å) and k (2796.4 Å) lines along four slit positions (IRIS), and in Hα in a 2D field of view (MSDP). The spectropolarimetry of THEMIS (Tenerife) allowed us to derive the magnetic field of the prominence using the He D3 line depolarization (Hanle effect combined with the Zeeman effect). Results: The magnetic field is found to be globally horizontal with a relatively weak field strength (8-15 Gauss). On the other hand, the Ca II movie reveals turbulent-like motion that is not organized in specific parts of the prominence. We tested the addition of a turbulent magnetic component. This model is compatible with the polarimetric observations at those places where the plasma turbulence peaks. On the other hand, the Mg II line profiles show multiple peaks well separated in wavelength. This is interpreted by the existence of small threads along the line of sight with a large dispersion of discrete values of Doppler shifts, from 5 km s-1 (a quasi-steady component) to 60-80 km s-1. Each peak corresponds to a Gaussian profile, and not to a reversed profile as was expected by the present non

  10. Dualising Intuitionictic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa's motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic Cw was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to CWo Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature 'Brouwerian logic' or 'closed-set logic'.

  11. Dualising Intuitionistic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa’s motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic C! was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to C!. Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature ‘Brouwerian logic’ or ‘closed-set logic’.

  12. DYNAMICS OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE TORNADO OBSERVED BY SDO/AIA ON 2012 NOVEMBER 7–8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mghebrishvili, Irakli; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, University St. 2, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Shergelashvili, Bidzina [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Veronig, Astrid [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Poedts, Stefaan, E-mail: teimuraz.zaqarashvili@oeaw.ac.at [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-10

    We study the detailed dynamics of a solar prominence tornado using time series of 171, 304, 193, and 211 Å spectral lines obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly during 2012 November 7–8. The tornado first appeared at 08:00 UT, November 07, near the surface, gradually rose upwards with the mean speed of ∼1.5 km s{sup −1} and persisted over 30 hr. Time–distance plots show two patterns of quasi-periodic transverse displacements of the tornado axis with periods of 40 and 50 minutes at different phases of the tornado evolution. The first pattern occurred during the rising phase and can be explained by the upward motion of the twisted tornado. The second pattern occurred during the later stage of evolution when the tornado already stopped rising and could be caused either by MHD kink waves in the tornado or by the rotation of two tornado threads around a common axis. The later hypothesis is supported by the fact that the tornado sometimes showed a double structure during the quasi-periodic phase. 211 and 193 Å spectral lines show a coronal cavity above the prominence/tornado, which started expansion at ∼13:00 UT and continuously rose above the solar limb. The tornado finally became unstable and erupted together with the corresponding prominence as coronal mass ejection (CME) at 15:00 UT, November 08. The final stage of the evolution of the cavity and the tornado-related prominence resembles the magnetic breakout model. On the other hand, the kink instability may destabilize the twisted tornado, and consequently prominence tornadoes can be used as precursors for CMEs.

  13. The magnetic field configuration of a solar prominence inferred from spectropolarimetric observations in the He i 10 830 Å triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Determining the magnetic field vector in quiescent solar prominences is possible by interpreting the Hanle and Zeeman effects in spectral lines. However, observational measurements are scarce and lack high spatial resolution. Aims: We determine the magnetic field vector configuration along a quiescent solar prominence by interpreting spectropolarimetric measurements in the He i 1083.0 nm triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter installed at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide. Methods: The He i 1083.0 nm triplet Stokes profiles were analyzed with an inversion code that takes the physics responsible for the polarization signals in this triplet into account. The results are put into a solar context with the help of extreme ultraviolet observations taken with the Solar Dynamic Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites. Results: For the most probable magnetic field vector configuration, the analysis depicts a mean field strength of 7 gauss. We do not find local variations in the field strength except that the field is, on average, lower in the prominence body than in the prominence feet, where the field strength reaches ~25 gauss. The averaged magnetic field inclination with respect to the local vertical is ~77°. The acute angle of the magnetic field vector with the prominence main axis is 24° for the sinistral chirality case and 58° for the dextral chirality. These inferences are in rough agreement with previous results obtained from the analysis of data acquired with lower spatial resolutions. A movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. The temporal behaviour of MHD waves in a partially ionized prominence-like plasma: Effect of heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Context. During heating or cooling processes in prominences, the plasma microscopic parameters are modified due to the change of temperature and ionization degree. Furthermore, if waves are excited on this non-stationary plasma, the changing physical conditions of the plasma also affect wave dynamics. Aims: Our aim is to study how temporal variation of temperature and microscopic plasma parameters modify the behaviour of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves excited in a prominence-like hydrogen plasma. Methods: Assuming optically thin radiation, a constant external heating, the full expression of specific internal energy, and a suitable energy equation, we have derived the profiles for the temporal variation of the background temperature. We have computed the variation of the ionization degree using a Saha equation, and have linearized the single-fluid MHD equations to study the temporal behaviour of MHD waves. Results: For all the MHD waves considered, the period and damping time become time dependent. In the case of Alfvén waves, the cut-off wavenumbers also become time dependent and the attenuation rate is completely different in a cooling or heating process. In the case of slow waves, while it is difficult to distinguish the slow wave properties in a cooling partially ionized plasma from those in an almost fully ionized plasma, the period and damping time of these waves in both plasmas are completely different when the plasma is heated. The temporal behaviour of the Alfvén and fast wave is very similar in the cooling case, but in the heating case, an important difference appears that is related with the time damping. Conclusions: Our results point out important differences in the behaviour of MHD waves when the plasma is heated or cooled, and show that a correct interpretation of the observed prominence oscillations is very important in order to put accurate constraints on the physical situation of the prominence plasma under study, that is, to perform prominence

  15. The bronchiolar epithelium as a prominent source of pro-inflammatory cytokines after lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Uthe, Daniela; Wilfert, Falk; Ludwig, Daniela; Yang Kunyu; Koenig, Jochem; Palm, Jan; Schuck, Andreas; Willich, Normann; Remberger, Klaus; Ruebe, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study in detail the temporal and spatial release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue of C57BL/6 mice after thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either sham irradiation or a single fraction of 12 Gy delivered to the thorax. Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were killed at 0.5 h, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 24 weeks post-irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was established to evaluate the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice (compared with nonirradiated lung tissue). Immunohistochemical detection methods (alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase, avidin-biotin-complex [ABC]) and automated image analysis were used to quantify the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue (percentage of the positively stained area). Results: Radiation-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in the lung tissue was detectable within the first hours after thoracic irradiation. We observed statistically significant up-regulations for TNF-α at 1 h p.i. on mRNA (4.99 ± 1.60) and at 6 h p.i. on protein level (7.23% ± 1.67%), for IL-1α at 6 h p.i. on mRNA (11.03 ± 0.77) and at 12 h p.i. on protein level (27.58% ± 11.06%), for IL-6 at 6 h p.i. on mRNA (6.0 ± 3.76) and at 12 h p.i. on protein level (7.12% ± 1.93%). With immunohistochemistry, we could clearly demonstrate that the bronchiolar epithelium is the most prominent source of these inflammatory cytokines in the first hours after lung irradiation. During the stage of acute pneumonitis, the bronchiolar epithelium, as well as inflammatory cells in the lung interstitium, produced high amounts of TNF-α (with the maximal value at 4 weeks p.i.: 9.47% ± 1

  16. Prominent spectral features of Sm3+ ion in disordered zinc tellurite glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Tanko

    Full Text Available Trivalent rare earth doped glasses with modified spectroscopic features are essential for solid state lasers and diverse photonic applications. Glass composition optimisation may fulfil such demand. Stimulating the spectral properties of samarium (Sm3+ ions in tellurite glass host with desired enhancement is the key issue. Glasses with composition (80 − xTeO2–20ZnO–(xSm2O3, where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5 mol% are prepared using melt quenching method. The role of varying Sm3+ contents to improving the absorption and emission properties of the prepared glasses are determined. XRD pattern verifies amorphous nature of synthesised glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural modification of (TeO4 trigonal bipyramid structural units. DTA traces display prominent transition peaks for glass transition, crystallisation and melting temperature. Samples are discerned to be stable with desired Hruby parameter and superior glass forming ability. The UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectra reveals nine peaks centred at 470, 548, 947, 1085, 1238, 1385, 1492, 1550 and 1589 nm. These bands arise due to 6H5/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 transitions, respectively. The direct, indirect band gap and Urbach energy calculated from the absorption edge of UV–Vis–NIR spectra are found to appear within (2.75–3.18 eV, (3.22–3.40 eV, and (0.20–0.31 eV, respectively. The observed increase in refractive index from 2.45 to 2.47 is ascribed to the generation of non-bridging oxygen atoms via the conversion of TeO4 into TeO3 units. Conversely the decrease in refractive index to 2.39 is attributed to the lower ionic radii (1.079 Å of Sm3+. PL spectra under the excitation of 452 nm display four emission bands centred at 563, 600, 644 and 705 nm corresponding to 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of samarium ions. Excellent features of the results nominate these compositions

  17. Carbon beams, production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont M, E.

    1979-01-01

    Installation, test and working conditions of a new negative-ion facility of the Salazar EN tandem are briefly described. Carbon is the material used for the test and the heavy ion stripping phenomenon is reviewed. (author)

  18. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  19. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  20. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  1. Carbon calculators as a tool for a low-carbon everyday life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2012-01-01

    survey and focus groups with users of a Danish Internet-based carbon calculator developed in 2009, the year of the Climate Summit in Copenhagen, when climate change was prominent on the political agenda. The article concludes that the subject website primarily attracts people already interested...

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  4. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Federico E; Gonzalez, Mark D; Cheng, Jiye; Wu, Meng; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-08-13

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ∼50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial nine-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for using ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. Although genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary-free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage's substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those who harbor it.

  5. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2008-01-01

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it

  6. Stratigraphy and stable isotope geochemistry of the carbonate sequence from the Paraguay belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Ventura.; Alvarenga, Carlos Jose Souza de; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2001-01-01

    isotope data across 1300 m of carbonates from the northern Paraguay Belt that are stratigraphically placed above glacial sediments. The whole sequence may be divided into three different horizons that shows a general increase in δ 13 C PDB values from the base to the top: 1) a lower horizon in which the δ 13 C PDB values are negative; 2) a intermediate horizon dominated by slightly positive carbon isotope values; and 3) an upper horizon in which the carbon isotope values vary from -1% o to +9.3% o Compared to the carbonate sequences from the Brasilia Belt (Bambui Group), the amount of high δ 13 C PDB values in the Paraguay belt is much less prominent. Rocks from the lower horizon lay directly above the glacial diamictites and present variable δ 18 O PDB values. Besides presenting negative δ 13 C PDB values, they also display a negative carbon isotope peak that may reach values as low as 10% o . The intermediate horizon is best represented in the Provincia Serrana area and is characterized by homogeneous δ 13 C PDB values through out the sequence. This horizon is dominated by dolostones and present δ 18 O PDB values ranging between + 1.9% o and +2.7% o . The upper horizon is dominated by dolostones and present variable δ 13 C PDB and δ 18 O PDB values. The highest δ 13 C PDB values were found on samples from a narrow layer from the Provincia Serrana area. Although the Guia area also has positive values (+3.8% o , they were not as high as those from the Provincia Serrana. At the end of the profile, and just bellow the contact with the upper siliciclastic unit, there is an abrupt decrease in the δ 13 C PDB values down to -2.0% o (au)

  7. Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: Stratiform "super-K" zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Sukop, M.C.; Huang, H.; Alvarez, P.F.; Curran, H.A.; Renken, R.A.; Dixon, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    solutions for pipe flow, LBMs offer a new means of obtaining accurate permeability values for such materials. We suggest that the stratiform ichnogenic groundwater flow zones have permeabilities even more extreme (???2-5 orders of magnitude higher) than the Jurassic "super-K" zones of the giant Ghawar oil field. The flow zones of the Pleistocene Biscayne aquifer provide examples of ichnogenic macroporosity for comparative analysis of origin and evolution in other carbonate aquifers, as well as petroleum reservoirs. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  8. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  9. Prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted image in the cat brain with acute infarction: DWI, SWI, and PWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Dong Chan

    2014-10-01

    The multiple prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) have been found in the ischemic territory of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Venous side is the unknown area in the hemodynamics of brain infarction. To evaluate the venous aspect in acute brain infarction through an animal study. The acute infarction in cat brains was induced with a bolus infusion of 0.25 mL of triolein through one side of the common carotid artery. The magnetic resonance (MR) images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, SW, and perfusion-weighted (PWI) images, were obtained serially at 2 h (n = 17), 1 day (n = 11), and 4 days (n = 4) after triolein infusion. The obtained MR images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. For qualitative assessment, the signal intensity of the serial MR images was evaluated. The presence or absence and the location with serial changes of infarction were identified on DWI and ADC map images. The presence or absence of prominent hypointense veins and the serial changes of cortical veins were also evaluated on SWI. Quantitative assessment was performed by comparing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit times (MTT) of the lesions with those of the contralateral normal side calculated on PWI. The serial changes of rCBV, rCBF, and MTT ratio were also evaluated. Acute infarction in the first and second medial gyrus of lesion hemisphere was found by qualitative evaluation of DWI and ADC map images. On the serial evaluation of SWI, the cortical veins of cat brain with infarction were obscured at 2 h and then re-appeared at 1 day. The hemorrhage transformation and prominent hypointense veins were seen at 4 days on SWI. The quantitative evaluation revealed increased MTT ratios and decreased rCBV and rCBF ratios on PWIs in the acute infarction of cat brain. The prominent hypointense veins on SWI were seen in the half of the acute

  10. The Top Chron C27n Event in the Western Atlantic: Evidence for a transient perturbation of the carbon cycle in the Late Danian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter; Bornemann, André; Speijer, Robert P.

    2010-05-01

    The Paleocene to early Eocene is punctuated by several transient, ˜20-200 ky lasting hyperthermal events of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was the most prominent one. Abrupt shallowing of the lysocline/CCD, negative carbon isotope excursions, and benthic faunal turnover all imply a major perturbation of the ocean system during these events. Our recent research at the Southern Tethyan shelf suggests the presence of an additional hyperthermal event associated with sea-level fluctuations, the Latest Danian Event (LDE; Speijer, 2003; Bornemann et al., 2009). At Zumaia, Northern Spain, a negative ~0.5 per mil carbon isotope excursion is present in the uppermost Danian that may correlate to the LDE (Arenillas et al. 2008). Moreover, cyclostratigraphic studies have shown that several deep-sea sites are characterized by a prominent peak in both Fe and MS data at cycle Pc100-38 in the uppermost Danian: this applies to all Walvis Ridge (Atlantic) and Shatsky Rise (Pacific) sites as well as Site 1001 in the Caribbean Sea (Top Chron C27n Event; Westerhold et al., 2007). These results suggest that the LDE in the Tethys and the Top Chron C27n Event in the Atlantic may be correlative. We have conducted mineralogical, geochemical, and micropaleontological investigations to characterize this event in the Western Atlantic. Our first results from ODP Leg 165 Site 1001 show that the Top Chron 27n Event shown by Westerhold el al. (2008) corresponds to a ~12 cm thick clay layer. Mineralogical analyses reveal a sharp ~50% drop of the carbonate content in the clay layer and a disproportionally high increase of the phyllosilicate content in the insoluble residue compared to the quartz and illite content. Bulk rock isotope analyses show an abrupt negative ~0.6 per mil carbon isotope excursion at the onset of the clay layer, followed by a 1-m thick interval where carbon isotopes shows a tailing back to pre-event values. The magnitude and pattern of the carbon isotope

  11. 2D radiative-magnetohydrostatic model of a prominence observed by Hinode, SoHO/SUMER and Meudon/MSDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlicki, A.; Gunar, S.; Heinzel, P.; Schmieder, B.; Schwartz, P.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Prominences observed by Hinode show very dynamical and intriguing structures. To understand the mechanisms that are responsible for these moving structures, it is important to know the physical conditions that prevail in fine-structure threads. In the present work we analyse a quiescent prominence with fine structures, which exhibits dynamic behaviour, which was observed in the hydrogen Hα line with Hinode/SOT, Meudon/MSDP and Ondřejov/HSFA2, and simultaneously in hydrogen Lyman lines with SoHO/SUMER during a coordinated campaign. We derive the fine-structure physical parameters of this prominence and also address the questions of the role of the magnetic dips and of the interpretation of the flows. Methods: We calibrate the SoHO/SUMER and Meudon/MSDP data and obtain the line profiles of the hydrogen Lyman series (Lβ to L6), the Ciii (977.03 Å) and Svi (933.40 Å), and Hα along the slit of SoHO/SUMER that crosses the Hinode/SOT prominence. We employ a complex 2D radiation-magnetohydrostatic (RMHS) modelling technique to properly interpret the observed spectral lines and derive the physical parameters of interest. The model was constrained not only with integrated intensities of the lines, but also with the hydrogen line profiles. Results: The slit of SoHO/SUMER is crossing different prominence structures: threads and dark bubbles. Comparing the observed integrated intensities, the depressions of Hα bubbles are clearly identified in the Lyman, Ciii, and Svi lines. To fit the observations, we propose a new 2D model with the following parameters: T = 8000 K, pcen = 0.035 dyn cm-2, B = 5 Gauss, ne = 1010 cm-3, 40 threads each 1000 km wide, plasma β is 3.5 × 10-2. Conclusions: The analysis of Ciii and Svi emission in dark Hα bubbles allows us to conclude that there is no excess of a hotter plasma in these bubbles. The new 2D model allows us to diagnose the orientation of the magnetic field versus the LOS. The 40 threads are integrated along the LOS. We

  12. Effects of Inulin and Sodium Carbonate in Phosphate-Free Restructured Poultry Steaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, B.; Serdaroğlu, M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently inorganic phosphates used in meat product formulations have caused negative impact on consumers due to their potential health risks. Therefore, utilization of natural ingredients as phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic to meet consumer demands for clean-label trends. In this study, we objected to investigate the effects of inulin utilization either in the powder or gelled form, alone or in combination with sodium carbonate on quality of phosphate-free restructured chicken steaks. Total moisture, protein, lipid and ash values of the trial groups were in the range of 71.54-75.46%, 22.60-24.31%, 0.94-1.70% and 1.45-2.13%, respectively. pH of the samples was between 6.18-6.39, significant increments were recorded in samples containing inulin with sodium carbonate. L*, a* and b* values were recorded as 78.92-81.05, 1.76-3.05 and 10.80-11.94, respectively, where use of gelled inulin resulted in changes of L* and a* values. Utilization of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate decreased cook loss and enhanced product yield. Sensory scores in control group with phosphate showed a similar pattern to sensory scores in groups with inulin and sodium carbonate. During storage, purge loss and lipid oxidation rate were similar in control and inulin + sodium carbonate samples. The results showed that use of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate provided equivalent physical, chemical and sensory quality to phosphates in restructured chicken steaks.

  13. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  14. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  15. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  16. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  18. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  19. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  20. Elemental geochemistry and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Cenomanian to Santonian neritic carbonates in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidtalab, Amin; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    A Neo-Tethyan upper Cenomanian-Santonian neritic carbonate ramp succession (Sarvak and Ilam formations), drilled in the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, was investigated via detailed sedimentology, microfacies analysis, elemental geochemistry and Sr-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). The succession contains two exposure surfaces, which are known as the CT-ES and mT-ES (Cenomanian-Turonian and middle Turonian, respectively), and associated prominent negative carbon-isotope excursions that represent important regional stratigraphic marker horizons. Precise knowledge about the onset of platform exposure and the duration of the exposure-related hiatus, however, is currently lacking due to a rather low-resolved shallow-water biostratigraphic framework and a bulk carbonate carbon-isotope pattern that clearly differs from global Late Cretaceous reference curves. Therefore, the existing bio-chemostratigraphic framework was complemented by bulk carbonate strontium-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). As bulk carbonate material is in particular prone to diagenetic alteration, a careful selection of least altered samples has been carried out by means of elemental geochemistry and petrography. In contrast to what could be expected, the meteoric alteration of limestones beneath both exposure surfaces is not clearly expressed by increasing iron and manganese and coeval decreasing strontium contents. On the contrary, the impact of meteoric diagenesis is well illustrated via pronounced increases in Rb concentrations and concomitant prominent positive shifts to radiogenic strontium-isotope values, an observation that clearly reflects the decay of continentally derived 87Rb into 87Sr. Rubidium corrected strontium-isotope values place the CT-ES around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and point to an exposure duration of less than 0.4 Myr. This rather short-term CT-ES related hiatus is supported by petrographic evidence, which indicates a youth karstification stage of strata beneath the CT

  1. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  2. An analysis of prominent prospect of in-situ sandstone type uranium deposits in Yanji basins group, Jilin province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhidong; Zhang Shuyi

    2003-01-01

    In Mesozoic-Cenozoic era, many medium-small-sized sedimentary basins had been formed in Yanbian draped-faulted region of Jilin Province. The basement of these basins is constituted of U-riched granite body produced during late Hercynian-early Yanshan period. Uranium-mineralization has been found in coal-bearing formation, oil-bearing formation and in tint layer of red formation. On the bases of analyzing of uranium source, geologic tectonic, paleoclimatology, paleogeography, hydrogeology and reconstruction, it is concluded that there is a prominent prospect to discover large in-situ sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yanji basins. (authors)

  3. Incidentally diagnosed Takayasu arteritis on thyroid ultrasonography showing prominent collateral vessels of thyroidal arteries and common carotid artery occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Se Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We report a case of middle-aged woman incidentally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis during the ultrasonography of a thyroid gland nodule. Prominent collaterals of the thyroidal arteries and a thin common carotid artery with mural thickening and deficient intraluminal flow signals were initially depicted on the ultrasonography with color Doppler. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography aortography confirmed the diagnosis with the imaging features of a bilateral long segment common carotid artery occlusion and segmental stenosis of the left subclavian artery in addition to the suggestive physical findings.

  4. Prominent soft x-ray lines of Sr-like Au41+ in low-energy EBIT spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkas, Marius Jonas; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Traebert, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic multireference Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory has been employed to calculate with high accuracy the energy levels and transition probabilities of Cu- to Sr-like gold ions. The many-body calculations were carried out to identify the unassigned blended lines in the 35-40 A region of the low-energy EBIT spectrum of the gold ions [Traebert et al 2001 Can. J. Phys.79153]. Most of the prominent lines in the 35-40 A region were identified as the emission lines in Sr-like gold

  5. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  6. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  7. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  8. PRE-FLARE CORONAL JET AND EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF A SOLAR ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE ASSOCIATED WITH THE M1.8 FLARE: SDO AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Kushwaha, Upendra [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Udaipur 313001 (India); Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Cho, K.-S., E-mail: bhuwan@prl.res.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the triggering, activation, and ejection of a solar eruptive prominence that occurred in a multi-polar flux system of active region NOAA 11548 on 2012 August 18 by analyzing data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory , the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager , and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation on board the Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory . Prior to the prominence activation, we observed striking coronal activities in the form of a blowout jet, which is associated with the rapid eruption of a cool flux rope. Furthermore, the jet-associated flux rope eruption underwent splitting and rotation during its outward expansion. These coronal activities are followed by the prominence activation during which it slowly rises with a speed of ∼12 km s{sup −1} while the region below the prominence emits gradually varying EUV and thermal X-ray emissions. From these observations, we propose that the prominence eruption is a complex, multi-step phenomenon in which a combination of internal (tether-cutting reconnection) and external (i.e., pre-eruption coronal activities) processes are involved. The prominence underwent catastrophic loss of equilibrium with the onset of the impulsive phase of an M1.8 flare, suggesting large-scale energy release by coronal magnetic reconnection. We obtained signatures of particle acceleration in the form of power-law spectra with hard electron spectral index ( δ  ∼ 3) and strong HXR footpoint sources. During the impulsive phase, a hot EUV plasmoid was observed below the apex of the erupting prominence that ejected in the direction of the prominence with a speed of ∼177 km s{sup −1}. The temporal, spatial, and kinematic correlations between the erupting prominence and the plasmoid imply that the magnetic reconnection supported the fast ejection of prominence in the lower corona.

  9. Use of Aripiprazole Long Acting Injection in Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence for the efficacious use of second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is scant. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 34-year-old female of Afro-Caribbean origin, who presented with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia and was successfully treated with aripiprazole long acting injection. Within a period of six to nine months, the patient returned to her premorbid level of functioning. Conclusion. Aripiprazole long acting injection promises benefits in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Further research needs to be conducted on the use of this drug.

  10. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  11. In vivo transcriptional profile analysis reveals RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling as prominent processes for adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Naef, Felix; Hacker, Coleen R; Menn, Benedicte; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Magnasco, Marcelo; Patil, Nila; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells and neurogenesis persist in the adult mammalian brain subventricular zone (SVZ). Cells born in the rodent SVZ migrate to the olfactory bulb (Ob) where they differentiate into interneurons. To determine the gene expression and functional profile of SVZ neurogenesis, we performed three complementary sets of transcriptional analysis experiments using Affymetrix GeneChips: (1) comparison of adult mouse SVZ and Ob gene expression profiles with those of the striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus; (2) profiling of SVZ stem cells and ependyma isolated by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); and (3) analysis of gene expression changes during in vivo SVZ regeneration after anti-mitotic treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of data from these three separate approaches showed that in adult SVZ neurogenesis, RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling are biological processes as statistically significant as cell proliferation, transcription, and neurogenesis. In non-neurogenic brain regions, RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling were not prominent processes. Fourteen mRNA splicing factors including Sf3b1, Sfrs2, Lsm4, and Khdrbs1/Sam68 were detected along with 9 chromatin remodeling genes including Mll, Bmi1, Smarcad1, Baf53a, and Hat1. We validated the transcriptional profile data with Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. The data greatly expand the catalogue of cell cycle components, transcription factors, and migration genes for adult SVZ neurogenesis and reveal RNA splicing and chromatin remodeling as prominent biological processes for these germinal cells.

  12. An interpretation of hydrogen and helium line spectra of the loop prominence observed on November 3, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureizumi, Takeshi; Kubota, Jun; Kawaguchi, Ichiro; Tamenaga, Tatsuo; Maeda, Koichiro.

    1977-01-01

    The H sub(I), He sub(I), and He sub(II) emission lines of the loop prominence observed on November 3, 1973 in the rapidly developing phase are analyzed. The difference in widths of these lines suggests they do not originate in the same volume. The estimated T sub(e) (8000-9000 K) and n sub(e) (-- 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) in the loop from the Balmer lines do not change appreciably with time everywhere in the loop during our observation (00 sup(h)40 sup(m)-01 sup(h)10 sup(m)UT). The degree of ionization of hydrogen is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0. The ionizing mechanisms may be attributed to the UV radiation (lambda<=912A) from the underlying flare region. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is approximately established in the excited levels of He sub(I), but the singlet levels are somewhat overpopulated. The UV radiation field (lambda<=504A) from the surrounding coronal condensation is estimated from microwave and X-ray flux measurements of S sub(OLRAD)9. The ionization of He sub(I) (ionization degree 0.1-0.2) is mainly controlled by UV radiation from the coronal condensation. An adequate thread structure model of the loop prominence is suggested. (auth.)

  13. Prominent blue emission through Tb3+ doped La2O3 nano-phosphors for white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Singh, Rajan Kr; Srivastava, Amit; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Jai

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we report the tunable luminescence emission of Tb3+ doped La2O3 nanophosphors synthesized by a facile and effective Polyol method. The structural and surface morphological studies have been carried out by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The XRD studies elucidate the proper phase formation and the results emanate from Raman spectroscopy of the as synthesized nanophosphor affirms it. The optical properties of the as fabricated nanoparticles have been investigated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy shows the occurrence of excitation peaks at 305, 350 and 375 nm for 543 nm emissions, correspond to transition 5D4 →7F5. Emission spectra with 305 nm excitation exhibits characteristic emission peaks of Tb3+ion at 472, 487, 543 and 580 nm. The intensity of emission increases with Tb3+ concentration and is most prominent for 7 at% Tb3+ ion. The characteristic emissions of Tb3+ ion owes to the transition in which intensities of blue and green emission are prominent. The dominant intensity has been found for 472 nm (for blue emission). Commission international d 'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates have found in the light blue to green region. The research work provides a new interesting insight dealing with tunable properties with Tb3+ doping in La2O3 nanophosphors, to be useful for display devices, solar cells, LEDs and optoelectronic devices.

  14. High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for early Albian oceanic anoxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.

    2018-03-01

    The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the early Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian Event. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable early Albian Paquier event. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt Event. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt Events (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these early Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.

  15. Negative Phototropism of Chlorophytum comosum Roots and Their Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Juan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Chlorophytum comosum were grown hydroponically, allowing us to study the performance and mechanism of negative phototropism. The results of this study were as follows. All the adventitious roots and their branch roots bent away from light with a maximum curvature of approximately 88.5°. Blue-violet light prominently induced negative phototropism while red light had no effect. The root cap was the site of photo perception. Roots with shaded or divested root caps exposed to unilateral light showed no negative phototropism, but resumed their original characteristics when the shade was removed or when new root caps grew. The curvature increased when the light intensity ranged 0–110 μmol · m−2 · s−1. The negative phototropism curvature could be promoted by exogenous CaCl2 but was inhibited by exogenous LaCl3; exogenous CaCl2 could reduce the inhibitory effect of LaCl3. Unilateral light induced the horizontal transport of IAA from the irradiated side to the shaded side, resulting in an unequal distribution of IAA in both the sides, leading to negative phototropism. The horizontal transport of IAA was promoted by exogenous Ca2+ but inhibited by exogenous La3+.

  16. Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials have been obtained from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag. The batch composition was modified with the addition of lithium carbonate, hydrated alumina, boric acid and nucleating agent (titania). The batch was melted at 1400°C followed by casting in the form of ...

  17. Fundamental properties of secondary negative ion emission by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1989-01-01

    The report describes some results obtained from preliminary experiments on secondary negative ion emission from a cesiated surface by Xe-ion beam sputtering, which give the production probability. A measuring system is constructed for secondary negative ion emission. The system consists of a microwave ion source with a lens, a sputtering target holder with a heater, a cesium oven, a limiting aperture with a substrate for deposition, a negative-ion extractor and lens, and a ExB type mass separator. Observations are made on the dependence of negative ion current on cesium supply, dependence of negative ion current on target temperature, and negative ion production probability. The cesium supply and the target temperature are found to strongly influence the negative ion emission. By controlling these factors, the optimum condition for secondary negative ion emission is achieved with a minimum surface work function. The production probability of the negative ion is found to be very high, about 20% for carbon. Therefore, the secondary negative ion emission is considered a useful and highly efficient method to obtain high current ion beams. The constant in the Rasser's theoretical equation is experimentally determined to be 4.1 x 10 -4 eV sec/m. (N.K.)

  18. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. Birth of prominent scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star. PMID:29543855

  1. Grammar and discourse prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Vinther, Nicoline Munck; Kristensen, Line Burholt

    items receive more attention than grammatical ones. These hypotheses were tested in a reading experiment which employed the change blindness paradigm (Rensink et al. 1997). 32 adult speakers of Danish read 40 target sentences (and ten filler sentences). Each sentence was presented twice to each...... participant – for the second presentation, which occurred a few seconds after the first presentation, a target word in the sentence was omitted. The participants were instructed to report whether they had noticed any differences between the two versions. The stimuli were constructed using a 2x2 design...

  2. Birth of prominent scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; González Brambila, Claudia N; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star.

  3. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...

  4. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  5. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  6. Funding pathways to a low-carbon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Chris; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-07-01

    The framing of funding programmes can sustain existing ways of conceptualizing particular problems, as well as create new ones. Yet, without more prominent roles for social sciences and humanities, the techno-economic conceptualization of energy consumers could hinder long-term low-carbon aspirations.

  7. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  8. The Effect of Parkinson Disease Tremor Phenotype on Cepstral Peak Prominence and Transglottal Airflow in Vowels and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Brittany R; Watts, Christopher R

    2018-02-19

    The physiological manifestations of Parkinson disease are heterogeneous, as evidenced by disease subtypes. Dysphonia has been well documented as an early and progressively significant impairment associated with the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate how acoustic and aerodynamic measures of vocal function were affected by Parkinson tremor subtype (phenotype) in an effort to better understand the heterogeneity of voice impairment severity in Parkinson disease. This is a prospective case-control study. Thirty-two speakers with Parkinson disease assigned to tremor and nontremor phenotypes and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Sustained vowels and connected speech were recorded from each speaker. Acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and aerodynamic measures of transglottal airflow (TAF) were calculated from the recorded acoustic and aerodynamic waveforms. Speakers with a nontremor dominant phenotype exhibited significantly (P Parkinson tremor phenotype in mild to moderate stages of the disease. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution to the study of solar prominences from observations performed on the LPSP instrument aboard the OSO-8 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    1981-01-01

    Notably by reprinting various documents and articles, this research reports works undertaken from the design of an experiment performed with the LPSP instrument aboard the OSO-8 satellite, to its data processing and interpretation. This experiment aimed at the study of the chromosphere fine structure by means of simultaneous high resolution observations of the L α, L β, Mg II, Ca II, H and K lines. The first part presents the on-board LPSP instrument. The second part reports observations of active and quiescent solar prominences. The third part reports the transfer calculation for five resonance lines (H Lα, Mg II H and K, Ca II H and K), and the comparison with observations performed on OSO-8

  10. Atypical dengue meningitis in Makkah, Saudi Arabia with slow resolving, prominent migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalakatawi H Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dengue meningitis is a rare presentation of dengue infection, our aim is to focus on atypical presentation of dengue meningitis that may appear in dengue endemic area like the Makkah region. We report two cases of clinical meningitis with positive dengue virus (DENV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid, followed for minimal 3 months for their prominent attacks of migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia. With special consideration to attack time, type, severity, and respond to classical therapy, using regular ECG monitoring, visual analog pain score and neuropsychological assessments were done. Both cases showed resistant migraine like headaches to classic anti-migraine therapy except for strong NSAID and narcotics with tendency to have severe to extreme severe daily migraine like headache on early to late afternoon time, associated with non-fatal arrhythmias and extreme death phobia, that resolve slowly in a minimal 3 month period. In conclusion, dengue meningitis in the endemic area may present atypically.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1997-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale molecular electronic networks. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal graphene sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural characteristics of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme. The study of pi-electron local densities of states (LDOS) of these junctions reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap.

  12. Air quality impacted by local pollution sources and beyond - Using a prominent petro-industrial complex as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Lin, Wen-Dian; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chiu, Ching-Jui; Chiang, Hung-Chi; Fan, Chen-Lun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S

    2018-05-01

    The present study combines high-resolution measurements at various distances from a world-class gigantic petrochemical complex with model simulations to test a method to assess industrial emissions and their effect on local air quality. Due to the complexity in wind conditions which were highly seasonal, the dominant wind flow patterns in the coastal region of interest were classified into three types, namely northeast monsoonal (NEM) flows, southwest monsoonal (SEM) flows and local circulation (LC) based on six years of monitoring data. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was chosen as an indicative pollutant for prominent industrial emissions. A high-density monitoring network of 12 air-quality stations distributed within a 20-km radius surrounding the petrochemical complex provided hourly measurements of SO 2 and wind parameters. The SO 2 emissions from major industrial sources registered by the monitoring network were then used to validate model simulations and to illustrate the transport of the SO 2 plumes under the three typical wind patterns. It was found that the coupling of observations and modeling was able to successfully explain the transport of the industrial plumes. Although the petrochemical complex was seemingly the only major source to affect local air quality, multiple prominent sources from afar also played a significant role in local air quality. As a result, we found that a more complete and balanced assessment of the local air quality can be achieved only after taking into account the wind characteristics and emission factors of a much larger spatial scale than the initial (20 km by 20 km) study domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  14. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  15. Non-negative Tensor Factorization with missing data for the modeling of gene expressions in the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Non-negative Tensor Factorization (NTF) has become a prominent tool for analyzing high dimensional multi-way structured data. In this paper we set out to analyze gene expression across brain regions in multiple subjects based on data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas [1] with more than 40 % data m...

  16. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi L.; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...... carbon amounted to 3.2 and 5.3 mol C m−2 yr−1, respectively. Sulfate reduction was the most prominent mineralization pathway, accounting for 69% of the benthic mineralization, while denitrification accounted for 2%. Overall, the carbon mineralization and burial in Kobbefjord were significantly higher...... in ice coverage in higher Arctic Greenlandic fjords will, as a first approximation, entail proportional increases in productivity, mineralization, and burial of organic carbon in the fjords, which will thus become similar to present-day southerly systems....

  17. Fullerenes, nanotubes, onions and related carbon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C N.R.; Seshadri, Ram; Govindaraj, A; Sen, Rahul [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    1995-12-01

    Fullerenes, containing five- and six-membered carbon rings, of which C{sub 6}0 and C{sub 7}0 are the prominent members, exhibit phase transitions associated with orientational ordering. When C{sub 6}0 is suitably doped with electrons, it shows novel superconducting and magnetic properties. We review these and other properties of fullerenes in bulk or in film form along with the preparative and structural aspects. Carbon nanotubes and onions (hyperfullerenes) are the other forms of carbon whose material properties have aroused considerable interest. Besides discussing these new forms of carbon, we briefly introduce other possible forms, such as those involving five-, six- and seven-membered rings and hybrids between diamond and graphite

  18. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  19. Discovery of carbon nanotubes. Sara ni carbon nanotube e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, S

    1994-01-20

    This paper describes the following matters on carbon nanotubes (CNt): CNt is discovered in carbon deposits generated in the tip of a negative electrode during DC arc discharge between carbon electrodes. CNt has a construction in which cylinders made of normally several layers are superposed, based on cylindrical crystals in a single layer with six-member rings of carbon atoms laid out. Spiral arrangement of carbon six-member rings has been discovered in the single-layered crystals. Five-member rings exist in a location where the CNt tip is closed, and seven-member rings in a location where the CNt presents a saddle-like curve, without exceptions. It is introduced theoretically that the electronic structure of the single-layered CNt depends on the cylinder diameter and spiral pitch. Replacing part of the carbon negative electrode with iron, and vaporizing iron and carbon simultaneously through arc discharge can result in a single-layered CNt with a diameter of 1 nm. Heating the CNt deposited with metallic lead in an oxygen atmosphere can form CNt containing lead compounds. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  1. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  2. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  3. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  4. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  5. Carbon price volatility: Evidence from EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhen-Hua; Zou, Le-Le; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines carbon price volatility using data from the European Union Emission Trading Scheme from a nonlinear dynamics point of view. First, we use a random walk model, including serial correlation and variance ratio tests, to determine whether carbon price history information is fully reflected in current carbon price. The empirical research results show that carbon price is not a random walk: the price history information is not fully reflected in current carbon price. Second, use R/S, modified R/S and ARFIMA to analyse the memory of carbon price history. For the period April 2005-December 2008, the modified Hurst index of the carbon price is 0.4859 and the d value of ARFIMA is -0.1191, indicating short-term memory of the carbon price. Third, we use chaos theory to analyse the influence of the carbon market internal mechanism on carbon price, i.e., the market's positive and negative feedback mechanism and the heterogeneous environment. Chaos theory proves that the correlation dimension of carbon price increases. The maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive and large. There is no obvious complex endogenous phenomenon of nonlinear dynamics the carbon price fluctuation. The carbon market is mildly chaotic, showing both market and fractal market characteristics. Price fluctuation is not only influenced by the internal market mechanism, but is also impacted by the heterogeneous environment. Finally, we provide suggestions for regulation and development of carbon market.

  6. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  7. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  8. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  9. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  10. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  11. Challenges in personalised management of chronic diseases-heart failure as prominent example to advance the care process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Fleischhacker, Lutz; Golubnitschaja, Olga; Heemskerk, Frank; Helms, Thomas; Hoedemakers, Thom; Allianses, Sandra Huygen; Jaarsma, Tiny; Kinkorova, Judita; Ramaekers, Jan; Ruff, Peter; Schnur, Ivana; Vanoli, Emilio; Verdu, Jose; Zippel-Schultz, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Europe, accounting for more than 2/3 of all death causes and 75 % of the healthcare costs. Heart failure is one of the most prominent, prevalent and complex chronic conditions and is accompanied with multiple other chronic diseases. The current approach to care has important shortcomings with respect to diagnosis, treatment and care processes. A critical aspect of this situation is that interaction between stakeholders is limited and chronic diseases are usually addressed in isolation. Health care in Western countries requires an innovative approach to address chronic diseases to provide sustainability of care and to limit the excessive costs that may threaten the current systems. The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases combined with their enormous economic impact and the increasing shortage of healthcare providers are among the most critical threats. Attempts to solve these problems have failed, and future limitations in financial resources will result in much lower quality of care. Thus, changing the approach to care for chronic diseases is of utmost social importance.

  12. A review of global outlook on fluoride contamination in groundwater with prominence on the Pakistan current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Farooqi, Abida; Xiao, Tangfu; Ali, Waqar; Noor, Sifat; Abiola, Oyebamiji; Ali, Salar; Nasim, Wajid

    2017-12-19

    Several million people are exposed to fluoride (F - ) via drinking water in the world. Current review emphasized the elevated level of fluoride concentrations in the groundwater and associated potential health risk globally with a special focus on Pakistan. Millions of people are deeply dependent on groundwater from different countries of the world encompassing with an elevated level of fluoride. The latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of fluorosis. India and China, the two most populous countries of the world, are the worst affected. In Pakistan, fluoride data of 29 major cities are reviewed and 34% of the cities show fluoride levels with a mean value greater than 1.5 mg/L where Lahore, Quetta and Tehsil Mailsi are having the maximum values of 23.60, 24.48, > 5.5 mg/L, respectively. In recent years, however, other countries have minimized, even eliminated its use due to health issues. High concentration of fluoride for extended time period causes adverse effects of health such as skin lesions, discoloration, cardiovascular disorders, dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal fluorosis. This review deliberates comprehensive strategy of drinking water quality in the global scenario of fluoride contamination, especially in Pakistan with prominence on major pollutants, mitigation technologies, sources of pollution and ensuing health problems. Considering these verities, health authorities urgently need to establish alternative means of water decontamination in order to prevent associated health problems.

  13. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION OF AN H{alpha} MORETON WAVE, EUV WAVE, AND FILAMENT/PROMINENCE OSCILLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin' ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oi, Akihito [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Akioka, Maki, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.

  14. TRANSIENT GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY MODULATION DURING SOLAR CYCLE 24: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO PROMINENT FORBUSH DECREASE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    Forbush decrease (FD) events are of great interest for transient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) modulation study. In this study, we perform comparative analysis of two prominent Forbush events during cycle 24, occurring on 2012 March 8 (Event 1) and 2015 June 22 (Event 2), utilizing the measurements from the worldwide neutron monitor (NM) network. Despite their comparable magnitudes, the two Forbush events are distinctly different in terms of evolving GCR energy spectrum and energy dependence of the recovery time. The recovery time of Event 1 is strongly dependent on the median energy, compared to the nearly constant recovery time of Event 2 over the studied energy range. Additionally, while the evolutions of the energy spectra during the two FD events exhibit similar variation patterns, the spectrum of Event 2 is significantly harder, especially at the time of deepest depression. These difference are essentially related to their associated solar wind disturbances. Event 1 is associated with a complicated shock-associated interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) disturbance with large radial extent, probably formed by the merging of multiple shocks and transient flows, and which delivered a glancing blow to Earth. Conversely, Event 2 is accompanied by a relatively simple halo ICME with small radial extent that hit Earth more head-on.

  15. A simplistic model for identifying prominent web users in directed multiplex social networks: a case study using Twitter networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Hemza; Boubetra, Abdelhak; Akrouf, Samir

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to describe a new simplistic model dedicated to gauge the online influence of Twitter users based on a mixture of structural and interactional features. The model is an additive mathematical formulation which involves two main parts. The first part serves to measure the influence of the Twitter user on just his neighbourhood covering his followers. However, the second part evaluates the potential influence of the Twitter user beyond the circle of his followers. Particularly, it measures the likelihood that the tweets of the Twitter user will spread further within the social graph through the retweeting process. The model is tested on a data set involving four kinds of real-world egocentric networks. The empirical results reveal that an active ordinary user is more prominent than a non-active celebrity one. A simple comparison is conducted between the proposed model and two existing simplistic approaches. The results show that our model generates the most realistic influence scores due to its dealing with both explicit (structural and interactional) and implicit features.

  16. "What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007 and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008, mathematics (e.g., American Statistical Association, 1999, the physical sciences (e.g., American Chemical Society, 2006, and the social sciences (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2002 have, in recent years, wrestled with what constitutes authorship and how to eliminate problematic practices such as honorary authorship and ghost authorship (e.g., Anonymous, 2004; Claxton, 2005; Manton & English, 2008. As authorship is the coin of the realm in academia (Louis, Holdsworth, Anderson, & Campbell, 2008, it is an ethical issue of singular importance. The goal of this paper is to review prominent and diverse guidelines concerning scientific authorship and to attempt to synthesize existing guidelines into recommendations that represent ethical practices for ensuring credit where (and only where credit is due.

  17. TRANSIENT GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY MODULATION DURING SOLAR CYCLE 24: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO PROMINENT FORBUSH DECREASE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Zhang, H., E-mail: zhaolingling@ucas.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Forbush decrease (FD) events are of great interest for transient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) modulation study. In this study, we perform comparative analysis of two prominent Forbush events during cycle 24, occurring on 2012 March 8 (Event 1) and 2015 June 22 (Event 2), utilizing the measurements from the worldwide neutron monitor (NM) network. Despite their comparable magnitudes, the two Forbush events are distinctly different in terms of evolving GCR energy spectrum and energy dependence of the recovery time. The recovery time of Event 1 is strongly dependent on the median energy, compared to the nearly constant recovery time of Event 2 over the studied energy range. Additionally, while the evolutions of the energy spectra during the two FD events exhibit similar variation patterns, the spectrum of Event 2 is significantly harder, especially at the time of deepest depression. These difference are essentially related to their associated solar wind disturbances. Event 1 is associated with a complicated shock-associated interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) disturbance with large radial extent, probably formed by the merging of multiple shocks and transient flows, and which delivered a glancing blow to Earth. Conversely, Event 2 is accompanied by a relatively simple halo ICME with small radial extent that hit Earth more head-on.

  18. Triple-A syndrome with prominent ophthalmic features and a novel mutation in the AAAS gene: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Caroline

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, achalasia, and – occasionally – autonomic instability. Mutations have been found in the AAAS gene on 12q13. Case presentation We present the case of a 12 year-old boy with classic systemic features of triple-A syndrome and several prominent ophthalmic features, including: accommodative spasm, dry eye, superficial punctate keratopathy, and pupillary hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine. MRI showed small lacrimal glands bilaterally. DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from the 16 exons of the AAAS gene revealed compound heterozygosity for a new, out-of-frame 5-bp deletion in exon 15, c1368-1372delGCTCA, and a previously-described nonsense mutation in exon 9, c938C>T, R286X. Conclusions In addition to known ophthalmic manifestations, triple-A syndrome can present with accommodative dysregulation and ocular signs of autonomic dysfunction.

  19. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  20. Funding pathways to a low-carbon transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulds, Chris; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    The framing of funding programmes can sustain existing ways of conceptualizing particular problems, as well as create new ones. Yet, without more prominent roles for social sciences and humanities, the techno-economic conceptualization of energy consumers could hinder long-term low-carbon aspirat......The framing of funding programmes can sustain existing ways of conceptualizing particular problems, as well as create new ones. Yet, without more prominent roles for social sciences and humanities, the techno-economic conceptualization of energy consumers could hinder long-term low...

  1. Production of intense negative ion beams in magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, H.

    1988-01-01

    Production of intense negative ion beams in magnetically insulated diodes was studied in order to develop an understanding of this process by measuring the ion-beam parameters as a function of diode and cathode plasma conditions in different magnetically insulated diodes. A coral diode, a racetrack diode, and an annular diode were used. The UCI APEX pulse line, with a nominal output of 1MV, 140kA, was used under matched conditions with a pulse length of 50 nsec. Negative-ion intensity and divergence were measured with Faraday cups and CR-39 track detectors. Cathode plasma was produced by passive dielectric cathodes and later, by an independent plasma gun. Negative-ion currents had an intensity of a few A/cm 2 with a divergence ranging between a few tenths milliradians for an active TiH 2 plasma gun and 300 milliradians for a passive polyethelene cathode. Negative ions were usually emitted from a few hot spots on the cathode surface. These hot spots are believed to cause transverse electrical fields in the diode gap responsible for the beam divergence. Mass spectrometry measurements showed that the ion beam consists of mainly H - ions when using a polyethelene or a TiH 2 cathodes, and mainly of negative carbon ions when using a carbon cathode

  2. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  3. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and ...

  4. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  5. Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Negative Feelings about Being Gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.

  6. Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Negative Feelings about Being Gay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323

  7. Comprehensive metabolomics identified lipid peroxidation as a prominent feature in human plasma of patients with coronary heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a complex human disease associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers for the different types of CHD remain poorly defined. Metabolomics has been increasingly recognized as an enabling technique with the potential to identify key metabolomic features in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology and differentiate different stages of CHD. We performed comprehensive metabolomic analysis in human plasma from 28 human subjects with stable angina (SA, myocardial infarction (MI, and healthy control (HC. Subsequent analysis demonstrated a uniquely altered metabolic profile in these CHD: a total of 18, 37 and 36 differential metabolites were identified to distinguish SA from HC, MI from SA, and MI from HC groups respectively. Among these metabolites, glycerophospholipid (GPL metabolism emerged as the most significantly disturbed pathway. Next, we used a targeted metabolomic approach to systematically analyze GPL, oxidized phospholipid (oxPL, and downstream metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. Surprisingly, lipids associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO pathways including oxidized PL and isoprostanes, isomers of prostaglandins, were significantly elevated in plasma of MI patients comparing to HC and SA, consistent with the notion that oxidative stress-induced LPO is a prominent feature in CHD. Our studies using the state-of-the-art metabolomics help to understand the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CHD; LPO metabolites may serve as potential biomarkers to differentiation MI from SA and HC. Keywords: Metabolomics, Lipid peroxidation, Lipidomics, Myocardial infarction, Isoprostanes, Coronary heart disease (CHD

  8. A Prominent Role of Interleukin-18 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Advocates Its Blockage for Therapy of Hepatic Necroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Bachmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen [paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP]-induced acute liver injury (ALI not only remains a persistent clinical challenge but likewise stands out as well-characterized paradigmatic model of drug-induced liver damage. APAP intoxication associates with robust hepatic necroinflammation the role of which remains elusive with pathogenic but also pro-regenerative/-resolving functions being ascribed to leukocyte activation. Here, we shine a light on and put forward a unique role of the interleukin (IL-1 family member IL-18 in experimental APAP-induced ALI. Indeed, amelioration of disease as previously observed in IL-18-deficient mice was further substantiated herein by application of the IL-18 opponent IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BPd:Fc to wild-type mice. Data altogether emphasize crucial pathological action of this cytokine in APAP toxicity. Adding recombinant IL-22 to IL-18BPd:Fc further enhanced protection from liver injury. In contrast to IL-18, the role of prototypic pro-inflammatory IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α is controversially discussed with lack of effects or even protective action being repeatedly reported. A prominent detrimental function for IL-18 in APAP-induced ALI as proposed herein should relate to its pivotal role for hepatic expression of interferon-γ and Fas ligand, both of which aggravate APAP toxicity. As IL-18 serum levels increase in patients after APAP overdosing, targeting IL-18 may evolve as novel therapeutic option in those hard-to-treat patients where standard therapy with N-acetylcysteine is unsuccessful. Being a paradigmatic experimental model of ALI, current knowledge on ill-fated properties of IL-18 in APAP intoxication likewise emphasizes the potential of this cytokine to serve as therapeutic target in other entities of inflammatory liver diseases.

  9. Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Rat Developing Brain In Utero Prominently Targets Immune Cells and Promotes Early Microglial Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Cloarec

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in human and represent a major health care and socio-economical burden. In contrast with this medical importance, the pathophysiological events remain poorly known. Murine models of brain cytomegalovirus infection, mostly neonatal, have brought recent insights into the possible pathogenesis, with convergent evidence for the alteration and possible involvement of brain immune cells.In order to confirm and expand those findings, particularly concerning the early developmental stages following infection of the fetal brain, we have created a model of in utero cytomegalovirus infection in the developing rat brain. Rat cytomegalovirus was injected intraventricularly at embryonic day 15 (E15 and the brains analyzed at various stages until the first postnatal day, using a combination of gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry and multicolor flow cytometry experiments.Rat cytomegalovirus infection was increasingly seen in various brain areas including the choroid plexi and the ventricular and subventricular areas and was prominently detected in CD45low/int, CD11b+ microglial cells, in CD45high, CD11b+ cells of the myeloid lineage including macrophages, and in CD45+, CD11b- lymphocytes and non-B non-T cells. In parallel, rat cytomegalovirus infection of the developing rat brain rapidly triggered a cascade of pathophysiological events comprising: chemokines upregulation, including CCL2-4, 7 and 12; infiltration by peripheral cells including B-cells and monocytes at E17 and P1, and T-cells at P1; and microglia activation at E17 and P1.In line with previous findings in neonatal murine models and in human specimen, our study further suggests that neuroimmune alterations might play critical roles in the early stages following cytomegalovirus infection of the brain in utero. Further studies are now needed to determine which role, whether favorable or detrimental

  10. Host preferences support the prominent role of Hyalomma ticks in the ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. However, what contributes to their central role in CCHFV ecology is unclear. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by 133 species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV. We found that the composition of vertebrate hosts on which Hyalomma spp. feed is different than for other tick genera. Immatures of the genus Hyalomma feed preferentially on species of the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, and the class Aves, while adults concentrate mainly on the family Bovidae. With the exception of Aves, these hosts include the majority of the vertebrates consistently reported to be viremic upon CCHFV infection. While other tick genera also feed on these hosts, Hyalomma spp. almost completely concentrate their populations on them. Hyalomma spp. feed on less phylogenetically diverse hosts than any other tick genus, implying that this network of hosts has a low resilience. Indeed, removing the most prominent hosts quickly collapsed the network of parasitic interactions. These results support the intermittent activity of CCHFV foci: likely, populations of infected Hyalomma spp. ticks exceed the threshold of contact with humans only when these critical hosts reach adequate population density, accounting for the sporadic occurence of clinical tick-transmitted cases. Our data describe the association of vertebrate host preferences with the role of Hyalomma spp. ticks in maintaining endemic CCHFV foci, and highlight the importance of host-tick dynamics in pathogen ecology.

  11. Endocrine and molecular investigations in a cohort of 25 adolescent males with prominent/persistent pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, F; Gaspari, L; Mbou, F; Philibert, P; Audran, F; Morel, Y; Biason-Lauber, A; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common condition observed in up to 65% of adolescent males. It is usually idiopathic and tends to regress within 1-2 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated 25 adolescent males with prominent (>B3) and/or persistent (>2 years) pubertal gynecomastia (P/PPG) to determine whether a hormonal/genetic defect might underline this condition. Endocrine investigation revealed the absence of hormonal disturbance for 18 boys (72%). Three patients presented Klinefelter syndrome and three a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) as a result of p.Ala646Asp and p.Ala45Gly mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The last patient showed a 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency as a result of a compound heterozygous mutation of the CYP17A1 gene leading to p.Pro35Thr(P35T) and p.Arg239Stop(R239X) in the P450c17 protein. Enzymatic activity was analyzed: the mutant protein bearing the premature stop codon R239X showed a complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The mutant P35T seemed to retain 15-20% of 17α-hydroxylase and about 8-10% of 17,20-lyase activity. This work demonstrates that P/PPG had an endocrine/genetic cause in 28% of our cases. PAIS may be expressed only by isolated gynecomastia as well as by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Isolated P/PPG is not always a 'physiological' condition and should thus be investigated through adequate endocrine and genetic investigations, even though larger studies are needed to better determine the real prevalence of genetic defects in such patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Tweeting celebrity suicides: Users' reaction to prominent suicide deaths on Twitter and subsequent increases in actual suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Mori, Kota; Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2017-09-01

    A substantial amount of evidence indicates that news coverage of suicide deaths by celebrities is followed by an increase in suicide rates, suggesting a copycat behavior. However, the underlying process by which celebrity status and media coverage leads to increases in subsequent suicides is still unclear. This study collected over 1 million individual messages ("tweets") posted on Twitter that were related to 26 prominent figures in Japan who died by suicide between 2010 and 2014 and investigated whether media reports on suicide deaths that generated a greater level of reactions by the public are likely to be followed by a larger increase in actual suicides. We also compared the number of Twitter posts and the number of media reports in newspaper and on television to understand whether the number of messages on Twitter in response to the deaths corresponds to the amount of coverage in the traditional media. Using daily data from Japan's national death registry between 2010 and 2014, our analysis found an increase in actual suicides only when suicide deaths generated a large reaction from Twitter users. In contrast, no discernible increase in suicide counts was observed when the analysis included suicide deaths to which Twitter users did not show much interest, even when these deaths were covered considerably by the traditional media. This study also found suicides by relatively young entertainers generated a large number of posts on Twitter. This sharply contrasts with the relatively smaller volume of reaction to them generated by traditional forms of media, which focuses more on the deaths of non-entertainers. The results of this study strongly suggest that it is not sufficient to examine only traditional news media when investigating the impact of media reports on actual suicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of CDX2 Expression and Microsatellite Instability Are Prominent Features of Large Cell Minimally Differentiated Carcinomas of the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoi, Takao; Tani, Masachika; Lucas, Peter C.; Caca, Karel; Dunn, Rodney L.; Macri¶, Ettore; Loda¶, Massimo; Appelman, Henry D.; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2001-01-01

    Most large bowel cancers are moderately to well-differentiated adenocarcinomas comprised chiefly or entirely of glands lined by tall columnar cells. We have identified a subset of poorly differentiated colon carcinomas with a distinctive histopathological appearance that we term large cell minimally differentiated carcinomas (LCMDCs). These tumors likely include a group of poorly differentiated carcinomas previously described by others as medullary adenocarcinomas. To better understand the pathogenesis of these uncommon neoplasms, we compared molecular features of 15 LCMDCs to those present in 25 differentiated adenocarcinomas (DACs) of the colon. Tumors were examined for alterations commonly seen in typical colorectal carcinomas, including increased p53 and β-catenin immunoreactivity, K-ras gene mutations, microsatellite instability, and loss of heterozygosity of markers on chromosomes 5q, 17p, and 18q. In addition, tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for CDX2, a homeobox protein whose expression in normal adult tissues is restricted to intestinal and colonic epithelium. Markedly reduced or absent CDX2 expression was noted in 13 of 15 (87%) LCMDCs, whereas only 1 of the 25 (4%) DACs showed reduced CDX2 expression (P < 0.001). Nine of 15 (60%) LCMDCs had the high-frequency microsatellite instability phenotype, but only 2 of 25 (8%) DACs had the high-frequency microsatellite instability phenotype (P = 0.002). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that the molecular pathogenesis of LCMDCs is distinct from that of most DACs. CDX2 alterations and DNA mismatch repair defects have particularly prominent roles in the development of LCMDCs. PMID:11733373

  14. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  15. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  16. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  17. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  18. Effect of polarized radiative transfer on the Hanle magnetic field determination in prominences: Analysis of hydrogen H alpha line observations at Pic-du-Midi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Deglinnocenti, E. L.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1985-01-01

    The linear polarization of the Hydrogen H alpha line of prominences has been computed, taking into account the effect of a magnetic field (Hanle effect), of the radiative transfer in the prominence, and of the depolarization due to collisions with the surrounding electrons and protons. The corresponding formalisms are developed in a forthcoming series of papers. In this paper, the main features of the computation method are summarized. The results of computation have been used for interpretation in terms of magnetic field vector measurements from H alpha polarimetric observations in prominences performed at Pic-du-Midi coronagraph-polarimeter. Simultaneous observations in one optically thin line (He I D(3)) and one optically thick line (H alpha) give an opportunity for solving the ambiguity on the field vector determination.

  19. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8 and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4, respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  20. Halogeno-substituted 2-aminobenzoic acid derivatives for negative ion fragmentation studies of N-linked carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David J

    2005-01-01

    Negative ion electrospray mass spectra of high-mannose N-linked glycans derivatised with 2-aminobenzoic acids and ionised from solutions containing ammonium hydroxide gave prominent [M-H](-) ions accompanied by weaker [M-2H](2-) ions. Fragmentation of both types of ions gave prominent singly charged glycosidic cleavage ions containing the derivatised reducing terminus and ions from the non-reducing terminus that appeared to be products of cross-ring cleavages. Differentiation of these two groups of ions was conveniently achieved in a single spectrum by use of chloro- or bromo-substituted benzoic acids in order to label ions containing the derivative with an atom with a distinctive isotope pattern. Fragmentation of the doubly charged ions gave more abundant fragments, both singly and doubly charged, than did fragmentation of the singly charged ions, but information of chain branching was masked by the appearance of prominent ions produced by internal cleavages. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Visual attention and emotional reactions to negative stimuli: The role of age and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maria; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-09-01

    Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli. Additionally, we investigated age differences in the association between visual attention and emotional reactivity, and whether these are moderated by cognitive reappraisal. Older as compared with younger adults showed fixation patterns away from negative image content, while they reacted with greater negative emotions. The association between visual attention and emotional reactivity differed by age group and positive reappraisal. Younger adults felt better when they attended more to negative content rather than less, but this relationship only held for younger adults who did not attach a positive meaning to the negative situation. For older adults, overall, there was no significant association between visual attention and emotional reactivity. However, for older adults who did not use positive reappraisal, decreases in attention to negative information were associated with less negative emotions. The present findings point to a complex relationship between younger and older adults' visual attention and emotional reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document identifies the main sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in the general outdoor atmosphere, describes methods of measuring and monitoring its concentration levels in the United Kingdom, and discusses the effects of carbon monoxide on human health. Following its review, the Panel has put forward a recommendation for an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom of 10 ppm, measured as a running 8-hour average. The document includes tables and graphs of emissions of CO, in total and by emission source, and on the increase in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin with continuing exposure to CO. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  4. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  5. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  6. Negative emissions from stopping deforestation and forest degradation, globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Richard A; Nassikas, Alexander A

    2018-01-01

    Forest growth provides negative emissions of carbon that could help keep the earth's surface temperature from exceeding 2°C, but the global potential is uncertain. Here we use land-use information from the FAO and a bookkeeping model to calculate the potential negative emissions that would result from allowing secondary forests to recover. We find the current gross carbon sink in forests recovering from harvests and abandoned agriculture to be -4.4 PgC/year, globally. The sink represents the potential for negative emissions if positive emissions from deforestation and wood harvest were eliminated. However, the sink is largely offset by emissions from wood products built up over the last century. Accounting for these committed emissions, we estimate that stopping deforestation and allowing secondary forests to grow would yield cumulative negative emissions between 2016 and 2100 of about 120 PgC, globally. Extending the lifetimes of wood products could potentially remove another 10 PgC from the atmosphere, for a total of approximately 130 PgC, or about 13 years of fossil fuel use at today's rate. As an upper limit, the estimate is conservative. It is based largely on past and current practices. But if greater negative emissions are to be realized, they will require an expansion of forest area, greater efficiencies in converting harvested wood to long-lasting products and sources of energy, and novel approaches for sequestering carbon in soils. That is, they will require current management practices to change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  8. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  9. Increased topsoil carbon stock across China's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Ding, Jinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Ma, Wenhong; Ji, Chengjun; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-08-01

    Biomass carbon accumulation in forest ecosystems is a widespread phenomenon at both regional and global scales. However, as coupled carbon-climate models predicted, a positive feedback could be triggered if accelerated soil carbon decomposition offsets enhanced vegetation growth under a warming climate. It is thus crucial to reveal whether and how soil carbon stock in forest ecosystems has changed over recent decades. However, large-scale changes in soil carbon stock across forest ecosystems have not yet been carefully examined at both regional and global scales, which have been widely perceived as a big bottleneck in untangling carbon-climate feedback. Using newly developed database and sophisticated data mining approach, here we evaluated temporal changes in topsoil carbon stock across major forest ecosystem in China and analysed potential drivers in soil carbon dynamics over broad geographical scale. Our results indicated that topsoil carbon stock increased significantly within all of five major forest types during the period of 1980s-2000s, with an overall rate of 20.0 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (95% confidence interval, 14.1-25.5). The magnitude of soil carbon accumulation across coniferous forests and coniferous/broadleaved mixed forests exhibited meaningful increases with both mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, soil carbon dynamics across these forest ecosystems were positively associated with clay content, with a larger amount of SOC accumulation occurring in fine-textured soils. In contrast, changes in soil carbon stock across broadleaved forests were insensitive to either climatic or edaphic variables. Overall, these results suggest that soil carbon accumulation does not counteract vegetation carbon sequestration across China's forest ecosystems. The combination of soil carbon accumulation and vegetation carbon sequestration triggers a negative feedback to climate warming, rather than a positive feedback predicted by coupled carbon-climate models

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  11. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  12. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  13. Observed IRIS Profiles of the h and k Doublet of Mg II and Comparison with Profiles from Quiescent Prominence NLTE Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vial, J. C.; Pelouze, G.; Heinzel, Petr; Kleint, L.; Anzer, U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 1 (2016), s. 67-87 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Mg II lines * non-LTE diagnostic * Sun prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  14. Hot prominence detected in the core of a coronal mass ejection: Analysis of SOHO/UVCS L alpha and SOHO/LASCO visible-light observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Susino, R.; Jejčič, S.; Bemporad, A.; Anzer, U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 589, May (2016), A128/1-A128/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  15. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  16. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced...

  17. Perfect antireflection via negative refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Juan J.; Barriuso, Alberto G.; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a geometrical framework to discuss the action of slabs of negatively refracting materials. We show that these slabs generate the same orbits as normal materials, but traced out in opposite directions. This property allows us to confirm that the action of any lossless multilayer can be optically canceled by putting it together with the multilayer constructed as the inverted mirror image, with ε and μ reversed in sign

  18. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  19. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  20. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prominent ears: the effect of reconstructive surgery on self-esteem and social interaction in children with a minor defect compared to children with a major orthopedic defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Birgitta Johansson; Hedlund, Anders; Andersson, Gerhard; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective study of patients with prominent ears, the effect of reconstructive surgery on self-esteem and social interaction was examined 1 year after surgery. Of 42 patients with prominent ears aged 7 to 15 years, 21 were matched with a comparison group of orthopedic patients (leg lengthening) and a control group of schoolchildren. Psychological measures evaluated self-esteem, depression, anxiety, cognition, parents' ratings of child behavior and symptoms, and parent anxiety. Semistructured interviews with the child and parents were also conducted. The motivation to be operated on was pain, teasing, and feelings of being different. The satisfaction rate with the result of reconstructive surgery was high. The psychological measures of the prominent ears group had results close to those of the control group, although the leg lengthening group had lower self-esteem and higher depression and anxiety scores. With few exceptions, all patients had scores within the normal range on self-rating scales. Parents reported less activity at leisure time in both patient groups than in the control group. After surgery, parents reported improved behavior on the Child Behavior Checklist total problem score. Patients with minor defects had fewer self-reported psychological and behavior problems than the major defect group. Interestingly, prominent ears patients also had low activity levels. Reconstructive surgery had no adverse effect on the prominent ears patients in this interim study but rather resulted in improved well-being. It is important to investigate further the effect of reconstructive surgery on children's self-esteem and social interaction.

  3. Curvature effects in carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endohedral supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jingsong; Bobby,; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Meunier, Vincent; Yushin, Gleb; Portet, Cristelle; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior ...

  4. Carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  5. K-shell photodetachment of the negative ion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, N M; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Hibbert, A

    2003-01-01

    The partial and total cross sections for photodetachment of the metastable 1s 2 2s2p 2 4 P e bound state of the negative ion of beryllium are presented for a range of initial photon energies across and beyond the 1s detachment threshold. The cross sections are computed using a multichannel close-coupling R-matrix approximation, where sophisticated configuration-interaction wavefunctions are used to represent the initial and final states. Twelve target eigenstates with configurations 1s 2 2s2p, 1s 2 2p 2 , 1s2s 2 2p, 1s2s2p 2 and 1s2p 3 are included in the expansion of the total wavefunction describing the neutral Be atom. A number of prominent resonance structures have been identified in the partial cross sections for the three total system symmetry transitions of interest: 4 P e - 4 S o , 4 P o and 4 D o . No comparison can be made at this stage with other theoretical or experimental measurements due to a lack of data describing the inner shell photodetachment of the negative ion of beryllium

  6. Dosimetry and radiobiology of negative pions and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The depth dose distribution of pion beams has not been found superior to protons. Pion radiation quality at the plateau region is comparable to conventional low-LET radiations, and radiobiology results also indicate RBE values close to unity. In the pion stopping region, the radiation quality increases considerably. Radiobiology data for negative pions at the Bragg peak position clearly indicate the increase in RBE and the reduction in OER. Even at the Bragg peak position, compared to fast neutrons, the average LET of negative pions is lower. Pion radiobiology data have indicated lower RBE values and higher OER values compared to fast neutrons. The radiation quality of fast neutrons is in between that of carbon and neon ions at the peak region and that of neon ions at the plateau is lower than for fast neutrons. The mean LET value for helium ions, even at the distal end of the peak, is lower than for fast neutrons. Dose localization of heavy ions has been found to decrease slowly with increasing charge of the heavy ion. The intercellular contact that protects cells after exposure to low-LET radiations is not detected after exposure to heavy ions. Single and fractionated doses of heavy ions produce dose-response curves for heavy ions having reduced shoulders but similar slopes when compared to gamma rays. Fractionated treatments of heavy ions produce an enhanced effect in the peak region compared to the plateau region and could lead to a substantial gain in therapeutic ratio. The OER for protons was similar to that for x rays. The OER values for negative pions, helium ions, and carbon ions were larger, for neon ions similar, and for argon ions smaller when compared to fast neutrons.Negative pions, helium ions, and carbon ions may be very effective clinically because the radiation quality of these beams is similar to that of the mixed scheme of neutrons and x rays

  7. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  8. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake T Hovde

    Full Text Available Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales, is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales, and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb, compact (∼ 40% of the genome is protein coding and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two "red" RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. The Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes.

  9. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  10. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional (2D) integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the 2D Helmholtz equation.

  11. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  12. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics

  13. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  14. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  15. Negative emotion differentiation: its personality and well-being correlates and a comparison of different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Lee Pe, Madeline; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in negative emotion differentiation may play a prominent role in well-being. Yet, many basic questions about negative emotion differentiation remain unanswered, including how it relates and overlaps with related and known dimensions of individual differences and what its possible underlying processes are. To answer these questions, in the current article we present three correlational studies that chart the nomological network of individual differences in negative emotion differentiation in terms of personality, difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, and several indicators of well-being, propose a novel paradigm to assess it in the lab, and explore relationships with a possible underlying mechanism in terms of the motivation to approach or avoid emotions. The results affirm consistent relations between negative emotion differentiation and indicators of adjustment like negative affect, self-esteem, neuroticism, depression and meta-knowledge about one's emotions, and show how it is related to the motivation to experience affective states.

  16. Prototype inverted sputter source for negative heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Shiroh

    1977-10-01

    A sputter source from which negative heavy ion beam is extracted through a tungsten wire and disc ionizer was built and tested. An alkali metal surface ionization gun with the ionizer is described, and also performance of the surface ionization gun and of the sputter source for negative heavy ions using the gun is reported. The gun was tested for three alkali metals, i.e. sodium, potassium and cesium. Total potassium beam current of 1-2mA was obtained at entrance aperture of the magnet. Sputtering materials and gases for producing negative heavy ions are carbon, copper, aluminium, molybdenum, oxygen and air. With carbon and leakage air, the beam intensities analyzed are: 2-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 4.6-11μA (at exit slit) for C - , 3-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 6.8-11μA (at exit slit) for 2C - , and 11-15μA (at Faraday cup) and 25-34μA (at exit slit) for O - . Total beam current at the entrance aperture was 200-400μA. (auth.)

  17. Balloon-Assisted Chemoembolization Using a Micro-Balloon Catheter Alongside a Microcatheter for a Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a Prominent Arterioportal Shunt: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshiai, Sodai, E-mail: hoshiai@sb4.so-net.ne.jp; Mori, Kensaku; Ishiguro, Toshitaka; Konishi, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoko [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Fukuda, Kuniaki [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Minami, Manabu [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Although transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is one of the established treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is difficult to treat HCCs with prominent arterioportal (AP) shunts because anticancer drugs and embolic materials migrate into the non-tumorous liver through the AP shunts and may cause liver infarction. We developed a novel method of balloon-assisted chemoembolization using a micro-balloon catheter alongside a microcatheter simultaneously inserted through a single 4.5-Fr guiding sheath, comprising proximal chemoembolization with distal arterial balloon occlusion. We applied this method to treat an HCC with a prominent distal AP shunt induced by previous proton beam therapy and achieved successful chemoembolization without non-tumorous liver infarction under temporal balloon occlusion of a distal AP shunt.

  18. Hot prominence detected in the core of a coronal mass ejection. II. Analysis of the C III line detected by SOHO/UVCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejčič, S.; Susino, R.; Heinzel, P.; Dzifčáková, E.; Bemporad, A.; Anzer, U.

    2017-11-01

    Context. We study the physics of erupting prominences in the core of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and present a continuation of a previous analysis. Aims: We determine the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity of an erupting prominence embedded in the core of a CME that occurred on August 2, 2000 using the Ultraviolet Coronagraph and Spectrometer observations (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) simultaneously in the hydrogen Lα and C III lines. We develop the non-LTE (departures from the local thermodynamic equilibrium - LTE) spectral diagnostics based on Lα and Lβ measured integrated intensities to derive other physical quantities of the hot erupting prominence. Based on this, we synthesize the C III line intensity to compare it with observations. Methods: Our method is based on non-LTE modeling of eruptive prominences. We used a general non-LTE radiative-transfer code only for optically thin prominence points because optically thick points do not allow the direct determination of the kinetic temperature and microturbulence from the line profiles. The input parameters of the code were the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity derived from the Lα and C III line widths, as well as the integrated intensity of the Lα and Lβ lines. The code runs in three loops to compute the radial flow velocity, electron density, and effective thickness as the best fit to the Lα and Lβ integrated intensities within the accuracy defined by the absolute radiometric calibration of UVCS data. Results: We analyzed 39 observational points along the whole erupting prominence because for these points we found a solution for the kinetic temperature and microturbulent velocity. For these points we ran the non-LTE code to determine best-fit models. All models with τ0(Lα) ≤ 0.3 and τ0(C III) ≤ 0.3 were analyzed further, for which we computed the integrated intensity of the C III line using a two-level atom. The best agreement between

  19. Bilan CarboneR - Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    Bilan Carbone TM , a method for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, was developed to help companies and territorial authorities estimate emissions from their activities or on their territories. After validating the audit perimeter and determining the emission categories to be taken into account, activity data is collected and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated using the tool. Besides accounting greenhouse gas emissions at any given time, the inventory evaluates impact on climate and energy dependence. This helps organizations deal with their emissions by classifying them, implementing action plans to reduce emissions and starting a dynamic process taking into account carbon in their strategic decisions

  20. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…