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Sample records for prolonged word-finding pauses

  1. Effect of timing and duration of a single chest compression pause on short-term survival following prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P; Melnick, Sharon B; Walker, Robert G; Banville, Isabelle; Chapman, Fred W; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2009-04-01

    Pauses during chest compressions are thought to have a detrimental effect on resuscitation outcome. The Guidelines 2005 have recently eliminated the post-defibrillation pause. Previous animal studies have shown that multiple pauses of increasing duration decrease resuscitation success. We investigated the effect of varying the characteristics of a single pause near defibrillation on resuscitation outcome. Part A: 48 swine were anesthetized, fibrillated for 7min and randomized. Chest compressions were initiated for 90s followed by defibrillation and then resumption of chest compressions. Four groups were studied-G2000: 40s pause beginning 20s before, and ending 20s after defibrillation, A1: a 20s pause just before defibrillation, A2: a 20s pause ending 30s prior to defibrillation, and group A3: a 10s pause ending 30s prior to defibrillation. Part B: 12 swine (Group B) were studied with a protocol identical to Part A but with no pause in chest compressions. Primary endpoint was survival to 4h. The survival rate was significantly higher for groups A1, A2, A3, and B (5/12, 7/12, 5/12, and 5/12 survived) than for the G2000 group (0/12, p<0.05). Survival did not differ significantly among groups A1, A2, A3, and B. These results suggest that the Guidelines 2005 recommendation to omit the post-shock pulse check and immediately resume chest compressions may be an important resuscitation protocol change. However, these results also suggest that clinical maneuvers further altering a single pre-shock chest compression pause provide no additional benefit.

  2. Effect of timing and duration of a single chest compression pause on short-term survival following prolonged ventricular fibrillation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P.; Melnick, Sharon B.; Walker, Robert G.; Banville, Isabelle; Chapman, Fred W.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pauses during chest compressions are thought to have a detrimental effect on resuscitation outcome. The Guidelines 2005 have recently eliminated the post-defibrillation pause. Previous animal studies have shown that multiple pauses of increasing duration decrease resuscitation success. We investigated the effect of varying the characteristics of a single pause near defibrillation on resuscitation outcome. Methods Part A: 48 swine were anesthetized, fibrillated for 7 min and randomized. Chest compressions were initiated for 90 s followed by defibrillation and then resumption of chest compressions. Four groups were studied—G2000: 40 s pause beginning 20 s before, and ending 20 s after defibrillation, A1: a 20 s pause just before defibrillation, A2: a 20 s pause ending 30 s prior to defibrillation, and group A3: a 10 s pause ending 30 s prior to defibrillation. Part B: 12 swine (Group B) were studied with a protocol identical to Part A but with no pause in chest compressions. Primary endpoint was survival to 4 h. Results The survival rate was significantly higher for groups A1, A2, A3, and B (5/12, 7/12, 5/12, and 5/12 survived) than for the G2000 group (0/12, p < 0.05). Survival did not differ significantly among groups A1, A2, A3, and B. Conclusions These results suggest that the Guidelines 2005 recommendation to omit the post-shock pulse check and immediately resume chest compressions may be an important resuscitation protocol change. However, these results also suggest that clinical maneuvers further altering a single pre-shock chest compression pause provide no additional benefit. PMID:19185411

  3. Management of paroxysmal ectopic atrial tachycardia with long sinus pauses in a teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Sinus pauses in the setting of supraventricular tachycardia is rare in children. We describe an asymptomatic teen with irregular heart rate detected during an incidental exam who was found to have short runs of a slow ectopic atrial tachycardia on electrocardiogram and prolonged sinus pauses on routine ambulatory ECG. Successful catheter ablation of the ectopic atrial tachycardia led to resolution of the sinus pauses.

  4. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  5. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  6. Pauses in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons: What is Revealed by Their Common Themes and Variations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Striatal cholinergic interneurons, the so-called tonically active neurons (TANs, pause their firing in response to sensory cues and rewards during classical conditioning and instrumental tasks. The respective pause responses observed can demonstrate many commonalities, such as constant latency and duration, synchronous occurrence in a population of cells, and coincidence with phasic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons (DANs that signal reward predictions and errors. Pauses can however also show divergent properties. Pause latencies and durations can differ in a given TAN between appetitive vs. aversive outcomes in classical conditioning, initial excitation can be present or absent, and a second pause can variably follow a rebound. Despite more than 20 years of study, the functions of these pause responses are still elusive. Our understanding of pause function is hindered by an incomplete understanding of how pauses are generated. In this mini-review article, we compare pause types, as well as current key hypotheses for inputs underlying pauses that include dopamine-induced inhibition through D2-receptors, a GABA input from ventral tegmental area, and a prolonged afterhyperpolarization induced by excitatory input from the cortex or from the thalamus. We review how each of these mechanisms alone explains some but not all aspects of pause responses. These mechanisms might need to operate in specific but variable sets of sequences to generate a full range of pause responses. Alternatively, these mechanisms might operate in conjunction with an underlying control mechanism within cholinergic interneurons which could potentially provide a framework to generate the common themes and variations seen amongst pause responses.

  7. Subjective Word-Finding Difficulty Reduces Engagement in Social Leisure Activities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ likelihood of engaging in social leisure activities. Design Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Four study sites in the U.S. and France. Participants Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236) Measurements On separate questionnaires, patients were asked to 1) report whether had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty), and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of both social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Results Over half (52%) of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was uniquely related to social activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported reduced frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for covariates. In contrast, engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with higher age and depression scores, but was not related to word-finding complaints. These results were corroborated by the caregivers’ reports, and occurred above and beyond the effect of objective word-finding ability. Conclusion AD patients who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially-oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. A failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, thereby threatening the patient’s quality of life as well as increasing caregiver burden. Importantly

  8. Current management for word finding difficulties by speech-language therapists in South African remedial schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rauville, Ingrid; Chetty, Sandhya; Pahl, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Word finding difficulties frequently found in learners with language learning difficulties (Casby, 1992) are an integral part of Speech-Language Therapists' management role when working with learning disabled children. This study investigated current management for word finding difficulties by 70 Speech-Language Therapists in South African remedial schools. A descriptive survey design using a quantitative and qualitative approach was used. A questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussion were used to collect data. Results highlighted the use of the Renfrew Word Finding Scale (Renfrew, 1972, 1995) as the most frequently used formal assessment tool. Language sample analysis and discourse analysis were the most frequently used informal assessment procedures. Formal intervention programmes were generally not used. Phonetic, phonemic or phonological cueing were the most frequently used therapeutic strategies. The authors note strengths and raise concerns about current management for word finding difficulties in South African remedial schools, particularly in terms of bilingualism. Opportunities are highlighted regarding the development of assessment and intervention measures relevant to the diverse learning disabled population in South Africa.

  9. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  10. Influence of Lexical Factors on Word-Finding Accuracy, Error Patterns, and Substitution Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; German, Diane J.; Jagielko, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective, exploratory investigation examined the types of target words that 66 children with/without word-finding difficulties (WFD) had difficulty naming, and the types of errors they made. Words were studied with reference to lexical factors (LFs) that might influence naming performance: word frequency, familiarity, length, phonotactic…

  11. Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for Word-Finding Difficulties in Pupils with Persistent Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Nicoll, Hilary; Clark, Becky; Eachus, Beth; Gallagher, Aoife L.; Horniman, Karen; Jennings, Mary; McEvoy, Kate; Nimmo, Liz; Turner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background: Word-finding difficulties (WFDs) in children have been hypothesized to be caused at least partly by poor semantic knowledge. Therefore, improving semantic knowledge should decrease word-finding errors. Previous studies of semantic therapy for WFDs are inconclusive. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of semantic therapy for…

  12. Interword and intraword pause threshold in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Florence; Pellegrino, François; Jisa, Harriet; Fayol, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g., scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen (©) (Chesnet and Alamargot, 2005). The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  13. Fuel Loss and Jams due to Pausing Railroad Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Harada, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, all cars must pause before crossing the railroad for avoiding the accidents. This rule was established by a law in 1960. In fact, however, railroad crossings come to the serious bottlenecks because of this pausing rule and this bottleneck causes heavy jams. In this study, by using cellular automaton model we have investigated the traffic flow at railroad crossings in two cases: with pausing and without pausing. Moreover, the lost time due to pausing at railroad crossings have been a...

  14. Pauses in Written Composition: On the Importance of Where Writers Pause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Risko, Evan F.

    2017-01-01

    Much previous research has conceptualized pauses during writing as indicators of the engagement of higher-level cognitive processes. In the present study 101 university students composed narrative or argumentative essays, while their key logging was recorded. We investigated the relation between pauses within three time intervals (300-999,…

  15. CDK9-dependent RNA polymerase II pausing controls transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Saskia; Schwalb, Björn; Decker, Tim Michael; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Eick, Dirk; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-10

    Gene transcription can be activated by decreasing the duration of RNA polymerase II pausing in the promoter-proximal region, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we use a 'multi-omics' approach to demonstrate that the duration of polymerase pausing generally limits the productive frequency of transcription initiation in human cells ('pause-initiation limit'). We further engineer a human cell line to allow for specific and rapid inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase CDK9, which is implicated in polymerase pause release. CDK9 activity decreases the pause duration but also increases the productive initiation frequency. This shows that CDK9 stimulates release of paused polymerase and activates transcription by increasing the number of transcribing polymerases and thus the amount of mRNA synthesized per time. CDK9 activity is also associated with long-range chromatin interactions, suggesting that enhancers can influence the pause-initiation limit to regulate transcription.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Pausing in Child and Adult Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the current study were (1) to assess differences in child and adult pausing, and (2) to determine whether characteristics of child and adult pausing can be explained by the same language variables. Spontaneous speech samples were obtained from ten 5-year-olds and their accompanying parent using a storytelling/retelling task. Analyses of pause frequency, duration, variation in durations, and pause location indicated that pause time decreased with retelling, but not with age group except when child and adult pausing was considered in its speech and language context. The results suggest that differences in child and adult pausing reflect differences in child and adult language, not in the cognitive resources allocated to language production PMID:23772097

  17. Visual memory during pauses between successive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersch, Timothy M; Kowler, Eileen; Schnitzer, Brian S; Dosher, Barbara A

    2008-12-22

    Selective attention is closely linked to eye movements. Prior to a saccade, attention shifts to the saccadic goal at the expense of surrounding locations. Such a constricted attentional field, while useful to ensure accurate saccades, constrains the spatial range of high-quality perceptual analysis. The present study showed that attention could be allocated to locations other than the saccadic goal without disrupting the ongoing pattern of saccades. Saccades were made sequentially along a color-cued path. Attention was assessed by a visual memory task presented during a random pause between successive saccades. Saccadic planning had several effects on memory: (1) fewer letters were remembered during intersaccadic pauses than during maintained fixation; (2) letters appearing on the saccadic path, including locations previously examined, could be remembered; off-path performance was near chance; (3) memory was better at the saccadic target than at all other locations, including the currently fixated location. These results show that the distribution of attention during intersaccadic pauses results from a combination of top-down enhancement at the saccadic target coupled with a more automatic allocation of attention to selected display locations. This suggests that the visual system has mechanisms to control the distribution of attention without interfering with ongoing saccadic programming.

  18. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  19. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  20. Global distribution of pauses observed with satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we study the commonality and differences observed in the variability of all the pauses. We also examined how good other datasets will represent these features among (and in between) different satellite measurements, re-analysis, and model data. Hemispheric differences observed in all the pauses are also reported.

  1. Influence of pauses in irradiation on radiotherapy effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skladowski, K.; Tarnawski, R.; Swierniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    The main goal of the study was demonstration, that pauses in radiotherapy of head and neck neoplasms dramatically influence on therapy results estimated as tumor control probability (TCP). The reason of this phenomenon is duplication of tumor cell proliferation during pauses in radiotherapy. This hypothesis is demonstrated on the analysis of statistical models, which parameters were estimated from the data of 1350 patients treated with radiotherapy in Center of Oncology in 1980-1989

  2. Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Robert; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported b...

  3. Plastid ribosome pausing is induced by multiple features and is linked to protein complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gawroński, Piotr; Jensen, Poul Erik; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    Many mRNAs contain pause sites that briefly interrupt the progress of translation. Specific features that induce ribosome pausing have been described; however, their individual contributions to pause-site formation, and the overall biological significance of ribosome pausing, remain largely uncle...

  4. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  5. Profiles and Pauses: Two Practical Activities for the Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Hall

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article describes two classroom activities, "Profiling" and "Pause Analysis", that can be successfully used in ESL writing classes. "Profiling" addresses such problems as poor development of ideas, simplistic ideas, and lack of coherence in written texts. "Pause Analysis" focusses on the thinking processes that students engage in while drafting text, processes such as searching for ideas, evaluat­ing ideas, and postponing ideas. Both activities enable the instructor to assume the role of intervener in the students' writing processes, rather than evaluator of the text produced. In drawing The attention of the student write to both product and process, "Profiling" and "Pause Analysis" help them develop an awareness of the relation-ship between ideas in English expository text and the thinking pro­cesses that writers engage in while drafting such text.

  6. Global distribution of pauses observed with satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present global distribution of altitudes and temperatures of these pauses observed with long-term space borne high- ... metries between northern and southern hemispheres continue up to the mesopause. We analyze ..... the mean temperature increases from the equa- .... monsoon circulation causes zonal asymmetry in.

  7. Decline in word-finding: The objective cognitive finding most relevant to patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carla; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emilia Rodrigues; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Ben, Juliana; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Wolf, Peter; Wiebe, Samuel; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the following: i) the objective impairment in neuropsychological tests that were associated with the subjective perception of cognitive function decline in Brazilian patients who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery and ii) the predictive variables for those impaired objective neuropsychological tests. Forty-eight adults with MTLE (27 right HS and 23 male) were divided according to their perception of changes (Decline or No-decline) of cognitive function domain of the QOLIE-31 questionnaire applied before and 1year after the ATL. The mean (SD) of changes in the raw score difference of the neuropsychological tests before and after the ATL was compared between Decline and No-decline groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to assess the optimum cutoff points of neuropsychological test score changes to predict patient-reported subjective cognitive decline. Six (12.5%) patients reported a perception of cognitive function decline after ATL. Among the 25 cognitive tests analyzed, only changes in the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were associated with subjective cognitive decline reported by patients. A reduction of ≥8 points in the raw score of BNT after surgery had 91% of sensitivity and 45% specificity for predicting subjective perception of cognitive function decline by the patient. Left side surgery and age older than 40years were more associated with an important BNT reduction with overall accuracy of 91.7%, 95% predictive ability for no impairment, and 75% for impairment of cognitive function. Impairment in word-finding seems to be the objective cognitive finding most relevant to Brazilian patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Similar to American patients, the side of surgery and age are good predictors for no decline in the BNT, but shows a lower accuracy to predict its decline. If replicated in other populations, the

  8. Using computers to enable self-management of aphasia therapy exercises for word finding: the patient and carer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued rehabilitation. The success of this option depends on its acceptability to patients and carers. To investigate factors that affect the acceptability of independent home computerized aphasia therapy practice. An acceptability study of computerized therapy was carried out alongside a pilot randomized controlled trial of computer aphasia therapy versus usual care for people more than 6 months post-stroke. Following language assessment and computer exercise prescription by a speech and language therapist, participants practised three times a week for 5 months at home with monthly volunteer support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 participants who received the intervention and ten carers (n = 24). Questions from a topic guide were presented and answered using picture, gesture and written support. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three research SLTs identified and cross-checked themes and subthemes emerging from the data. The key themes that emerged were benefits and disadvantages of computerized aphasia therapy, need for help and support, and comparisons with face-to-face therapy. The independence, flexibility and repetition afforded by the computer was viewed as beneficial and the personalized exercises motivated participants to practise. Participants and carers perceived improvements in word-finding and confidence-talking. Computer practice could cause fatigue and interference with other commitments. Support from carers or volunteers for motivation and technical assistance was seen as important. Although some participants preferred face-to-face therapy, using a computer for

  9. Pauses in theatrical interpretation: delimitation of prosodic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We intend to observe the function of a linguistic resource – the pause – in theatrical interpretation. Connected to the field of speech therapy, we search for theoretical support in the Linguistics field, mainly in prosodic phonology – specifically, we highlight intonational phrase and phonological utterance, prosodic constituents –, proposing a dialogue between these fields, regarding the work with actors. In speech therapy literature, the work with actors focuses, centrally, in organic issues involved in the vocal process, such as “misuse” or “voice abuse”. To a smaller extent, we find, in this literature, researches that emphasize issues regarding interpretation and expressive resources, besides a few emphasizing the importance of linguistic resources in interpretation. Differently, in linguistics literature, the pause is approached, to a larger extent, from the phonetic perspective, related to several language levels. In this research, we analyzed audio recordings of four actors from a same theatrical group, acting the theatrical text Brutas flores, focused on these aims: (1 detect the place where pauses happen in the interpretation of a single text by four actors; (2 survey physical characteristics of length of these pauses; (3 check to what extent the length of a pause is related to the place where it happens, regarding the prosodic limits of intonational phrases (I and phonological utterance (U. We could observe that, although the interpretation is characterized by the subjectivity of the actor, the interpretation is constructed based in the possibilities offered by the prosodic organization of the text itself, being more or less flexible.We were also able to confirm, by considering the length of VVs units containing pauses, the prosodic hierarchy proposed by Nespor & Vogel, once the length of these units in U's limits was significantly higher than the length in I's limits. Thus, our results reinforce the premise that a

  10. Responsible gambling tools: pop-up messages and pauses on video lottery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Martin; Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge

    2006-09-01

    The authors examined the effect of messages and pauses, presented on video lottery terminal screens, on erroneous beliefs and persistence to play. At posttest, the strength of erroneous beliefs was lower for participants who received messages conveying information about randomness in gambling as compared to those who received pauses. Pauses also diminished the strength of erroneous beliefs, and there was no difference between the effects of pauses and messages on the number of games played. The authors discuss these results in terms of the use of messages and pauses on video lottery terminals as a strategy for promoting responsible gambling.

  11. Pauses in spontaneous written communication: a keystroke logging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous writing observed in chats, instant messengers, and social media has become established as productive modes of communication and discourse genres. However, they remain understudied from the perspective of writing process research. In this paper, we present an empirical study wherein keystrokes made by chat users in a game were recorded. The distributions of the inter-key intervals were analyzed and fitted with ex-Gaussian distribution equation, and an argument for psycholinguistic interpretation of the distribution parameters is presented. This analysis leads to establishing a threshold of 500 ms for the identification of pauses in spontaneous writing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pauses longer than 1.2 s may correspond to higher-level linguistic processing beyond a single propositional expression (functional element of the discourse.

  12. Barack Obama’s pauses and gestures in humorous speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate speech pauses and gestures as means to engage the audience and present the humorous message in an effective way. The data consist of two speeches by the USA president Barack Obama at the 2011 and 2016 Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner...... produced significantly more hand gestures in 2016 than in 2011. An analysis of the hand gestures produced by Barack Obama in two political speeches held at the United Nations in 2011 and 2016 confirms that the president produced significantly less communicative co-speech hand gestures during his speeches...... and they emphasise the speech segment which they follow or precede. We also found a highly significant correlation between Obama’s speech pauses and audience response. Obama produces numerous head movements, facial expressions and hand gestures and their functions are related to both discourse content and structure...

  13. Backtracking dynamics of RNA polymerase: pausing and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerases is frequently interrupted by pauses. One mechanism of such pauses is backtracking, where the RNA polymerase translocates backward with respect to both the DNA template and the RNA transcript, without shortening the transcript. Backtracked RNA polymerases move in a diffusive fashion and can return to active transcription either by diffusive return to the position where backtracking was initiated or by cleaving the transcript. The latter process also provides a mechanism for proofreading. Here we present some exact results for a kinetic model of backtracking and analyse its impact on the speed and the accuracy of transcription. We show that proofreading through backtracking is different from the classical (Hopfield-Ninio) scheme of kinetic proofreading. Our analysis also suggests that, in addition to contributing to the accuracy of transcription, backtracking may have a second effect: it attenuates the slow down of transcription that arises as a side effect of discriminating between correct and incorrect nucleotides based on the stepping rates.

  14. Comparison of pause predictions of two sequence-dependent transcription models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Michelle D

    2010-01-01

    Two recent theoretical models, Bai et al (2004, 2007) and Tadigotla et al (2006), formulated thermodynamic explanations of sequence-dependent transcription pausing by RNA polymerase (RNAP). The two models differ in some basic assumptions and therefore make different yet overlapping predictions for pause locations, and different predictions on pause kinetics and mechanisms. Here we present a comprehensive comparison of the two models. We show that while they have comparable predictive power of pause locations at low NTP concentrations, the Bai et al model is more accurate than Tadigotla et al at higher NTP concentrations. The pausing kinetics predicted by Bai et al is also consistent with time-course transcription reactions, while Tadigotla et al is unsuited for this type of kinetic prediction. More importantly, the two models in general predict different pausing mechanisms even for the same pausing sites, and the Bai et al model provides an explanation more consistent with recent single molecule observations

  15. La pause dans la conversation en arabe marocain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia TOUIAQ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here focuses on how the structuring of spontaneous conversation is related to prosody. How the prosodic parameters, including the break, they fit into a logical demarcation, establishment and organization of parts of speech? To what extent are they relevant to the level of dis-course, intersubjective and interactional? Description of these data allowed us to understand different ways of structuring Moroccan spooked Arabic, prosodic point of view, but also in terms of thematic and interactional, without ever losing sight of the conversational speech is the location of enunciation issues to establish meaning. In the situation of a real conversation, the silence is an opportunity for a transfer of initiative or by speaking one or other of these contacts. On the other hand, the speaker who wishes to keep talking should avoid the use of the silent pause and use in preference to the filled pause. We hypothesize that one role of the silent pause is precisely to manage this aspect of the intersubjective and interactional space and to indicate whether a segment aims to allow the speaker to keep talking or given it to the caller.

  16. Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Use Time and Rate Coding to Transmit Purkinje Neuron Pauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Shyam Kumar; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei convey the final output of the cerebellum to their targets in various parts of the brain. Within the cerebellum their direct upstream connections originate from inhibitory Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have a complex firing pattern of regular spikes interrupted by intermittent pauses of variable length. How can the cerebellar nucleus process this complex input pattern? In this modeling study, we investigate different forms of Purkinje neuron simple spike pause synchrony and its influence on candidate coding strategies in the cerebellar nuclei. That is, we investigate how different alignments of synchronous pauses in synthetic Purkinje neuron spike trains affect either time-locking or rate-changes in the downstream nuclei. We find that Purkinje neuron synchrony is mainly represented by changes in the firing rate of cerebellar nuclei neurons. Pause beginning synchronization produced a unique effect on nuclei neuron firing, while the effect of pause ending and pause overlapping synchronization could not be distinguished from each other. Pause beginning synchronization produced better time-locking of nuclear neurons for short length pauses. We also characterize the effect of pause length and spike jitter on the nuclear neuron firing. Additionally, we find that the rate of rebound responses in nuclear neurons after a synchronous pause is controlled by the firing rate of Purkinje neurons preceding it.

  17. Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Use Time and Rate Coding to Transmit Purkinje Neuron Pauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Shyam Kumar; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei convey the final output of the cerebellum to their targets in various parts of the brain. Within the cerebellum their direct upstream connections originate from inhibitory Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have a complex firing pattern of regular spikes interrupted by intermittent pauses of variable length. How can the cerebellar nucleus process this complex input pattern? In this modeling study, we investigate different forms of Purkinje neuron simple spike pause synchrony and its influence on candidate coding strategies in the cerebellar nuclei. That is, we investigate how different alignments of synchronous pauses in synthetic Purkinje neuron spike trains affect either time-locking or rate-changes in the downstream nuclei. We find that Purkinje neuron synchrony is mainly represented by changes in the firing rate of cerebellar nuclei neurons. Pause beginning synchronization produced a unique effect on nuclei neuron firing, while the effect of pause ending and pause overlapping synchronization could not be distinguished from each other. Pause beginning synchronization produced better time-locking of nuclear neurons for short length pauses. We also characterize the effect of pause length and spike jitter on the nuclear neuron firing. Additionally, we find that the rate of rebound responses in nuclear neurons after a synchronous pause is controlled by the firing rate of Purkinje neurons preceding it. PMID:26630202

  18. Backtracking dynamics of RNA polymerase: pausing and error correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerases is frequently interrupted by pauses. One mechanism of such pauses is backtracking, where the RNA polymerase translocates backward with respect to both the DNA template and the RNA transcript, without shortening the transcript. Backtracked RNA polymerases move in a diffusive fashion and can return to active transcription either by diffusive return to the position where backtracking was initiated or by cleaving the transcript. The latter process also provides a mechanism for proofreading. Here we present some exact results for a kinetic model of backtracking and analyse its impact on the speed and the accuracy of transcription. We show that proofreading through backtracking is different from the classical (Hopfield–Ninio) scheme of kinetic proofreading. Our analysis also suggests that, in addition to contributing to the accuracy of transcription, backtracking may have a second effect: it attenuates the slow down of transcription that arises as a side effect of discriminating between correct and incorrect nucleotides based on the stepping rates. (paper)

  19. Model of the pathway of −1 frameshifting: Long pausing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been characterized that the programmed ribosomal −1 frameshifting often occurs at the slippery sequence on the presence of a downstream mRNA pseudoknot. In some prokaryotic cases such as the dnaX gene of Escherichia coli, an additional stimulatory signal—an upstream, internal Shine–Dalgarno (SD sequence—is also necessary to stimulate the efficient −1 frameshifting. However, the molecular and physical mechanism of the −1 frameshifting is poorly understood. Here, we propose a model of the pathway of the −1 translational frameshifting during ribosome translation of the dnaX −1 frameshift mRNA. With the model, the single-molecule fluorescence data (Chen et al. (2014 [29] on the dynamics of the shunt either to long pausing or to normal translation, the tRNA transit and sampling dynamics in the long-paused rotated state, the EF-G sampling dynamics, the mean rotated-state lifetimes, etc., are explained quantitatively. Moreover, the model is also consistent with the experimental data (Yan et al. (2015 [30] on translocation excursions and broad branching of frameshifting pathways. In addition, we present some predicted results, which can be easily tested by future optical trapping experiments.

  20. Effect of Sitting Pause Times on Balance After Supine to Standing Transfer in Dim Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Albalwi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Dabbak, Fuad M; Daher, Noha S

    2017-06-01

    The risk of falling for older adults increases in dimly lit environments. Longer sitting pause times, before getting out of bed and standing during the night, may improve postural stability. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity immediately after a supine to standing transfer in a dimly lit room in older adult women. Eighteen healthy women aged 65 to 75 years who were able to independently perform supine to standing transfers participated in the study. On each of 2 consecutive days, participants assumed the supine position on a mat table and closed their eyes for 45 minutes. Then, participants were instructed to open their eyes and transfer from supine to sitting, with either 2- or 30-second pause in the sitting position followed by standing. The sitting pause time order was randomized. A significant difference was observed in postural sway velocity between the 2- and 30-second sitting pause times. The results revealed that there was less postural sway velocity after 30-second than 2-second sitting pause time (0.61 ± 0.19 vs 1.22 ± 0.68, P Falls related to bathroom usage at night are the most common reported falls among older adults. In the present study, the investigators studied the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity after changing position from supine to standing in a dimly lit environment. The findings showed that the mean postural sway velocity was significantly less after 30-second sitting pause time compared with 2-second sitting pause time. Postural sway velocity decreased when participants performed a sitting pause of 30 seconds before standing in a dimly lit environment. These results suggest that longer sitting pause times may improve adaptability to dimly lit environments, contributing to improved postural stability and reduced risk of fall in older adult women when getting out of bed at night.

  1. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cabral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs in ribosomal DNA (rDNA and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes. The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR, which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC, likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging.

  2. On the biased motion of a brownian particle for the pausing time behavior of the CTRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the biased Brownian motion with the absorbing barrier for the pausing time behavior of the CTRW (continuous-time random walk method), regarding a Brownian particle as a walker. For two pausing time density functions, the respective values for the transport averaged velocity and the dispersion are calculated as the time t becomes large. (KAERI)

  3. Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Nancy; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was recorded bilaterally from five neck/shoulder muscles. Root-mean-square decreased with isometric pauses in the cervical paraspinals, upper trapezius and middle trapezius, whereas it increased with rest. Variability in the pattern of muscular activity was not affected by any type of pause. Overall, no detrimental effects on the level of SEMG during active pauses were found suggesting that they could be implemented without a cost on activation level or variability. Practitioner Summary: We aimed to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is best in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic computer users performed a standardised computer task integrating different types of pauses. Muscle activation decreased with isometric pauses in neck/shoulder muscles, suggesting their implementation during computer work.

  4. Quiet is the new loud: pausing and focus in child and adult Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romøren, Anna Sara H; Chen, Aoju

    2015-03-01

    In a number of languages, prosody is used to highlight new information (or focus). In Dutch, focus is marked by accentuation, whereby focal constituents are accented and post-focal constituents are de-accented. Even if pausing is not traditionally seen as a cue to focus in Dutch, several previous studies have pointed to a possible relationship between pausing and information structure. Considering that Dutch-speaking 4 to 5 year olds are not yet completely proficient in using accentuation for focus and that children generally pause more than adults, we asked whether pausing might be an available parameter for children to manipulate for focus. Sentences with varying focus structure were elicited from 10 Dutch-speaking 4 to 5 year olds and 9 Dutch-speaking adults by means of a picture-matching game. Comparing pause durations before focal and non-focal targets showed pre-target pauses to be significantly longer when the targets were focal than when they were not. Notably, the use of pausing was more robust in the children than in the adults, suggesting that children exploit pausing to mark focus more generally than adults do, at a stage where their mastery of the canonical cues to focus is still developing.

  5. A rule-based backchannel prediction model using pitch and pause information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We manually designed rules for a backchannel (BC) prediction model based on pitch and pause information. In short, the model predicts a BC when there is a pause of a certain length that is preceded by a falling or rising pitch. This model was validated against the Dutch IFADV Corpus in a

  6. The Surgical Teams' Perception of the Effects of a Routine Intraoperative Pause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erestam, Sofia; Angenete, Eva; Derwinger, Kristoffer

    2016-12-01

    A pause routine may reduce stress and errors during surgery. The aim of this study was to explore how the team, divided into the different professional groups, perceived the implementation of a pause routine and its possible impact on safety. A pause routine was introduced at a University hospital operating theatre in Sweden in 2013. Questionnaires were distributed about 1 year later to all members of the operating theatre team. The questions included different perspectives of possible effects of the pause routine. A majority were positive to scheduled pauses. The surgeons often felt refreshed and at times changed their view on both anatomy and their surgical strategy. They were also perceived by other team members as improved regarding communication. All groups felt that patient safety was promoted. There were differences by profession in perception of team communication. The pause routine was well perceived by the surgical team. A majority believed that scheduled and regular pauses contribute to improved patient safety and better team communication. There were also findings of differences in communication and experience of team coherence between personnel categories that could benefit from further acknowledgement and exploration.

  7. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    , with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 2 min at two different work paces (low/high). Bipolar SEMG from four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. The relative rest time was higher for the lower parts compared with the upper......The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pwork with active pause compared with passive one (p

  8. Experimental pain leads to reorganisation of trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate acute effects of experimental muscle pain on spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle during computer work with active and passive pauses. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 2 min...... in one day, with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40 s without and with presence of experimental pain. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius. The centroid of exposure variation analysis along the time axis...... was lower during computer work with active pauses when compared with passive one in all muscle parts (P

  9. Effects of eccentric exercise on trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    ) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40s over 2 days, before, immediately and 24h after eccentric exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius during computer work. FINDINGS: EMG amplitude during computer work decreased......BACKGROUND: The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of eccentric exercises on the trapezius muscle spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work with active and passive pauses. METHODS: Twelve healthy male subjects performed computer work with passive (relax...... immediately after exercise (Pwork with active pauses compared with passive ones (P

  10. Effective Use of Pause Procedure to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bachhel, Rachna; Thaman, Richa Ghay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Active learning strategies have been documented to enhance learning. We created an active learning environment in neuromuscular physiology lectures for first year medical students by using ‘Pause Procedure’.

  11. Effects of a metronome on the filled pauses of fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenfeld, N

    1996-12-01

    Filled pauses (the "ums" and "uhs" that litter spontaneous speech) seem to be a product of the speaker paying deliberate attention to the normally automatic act of talking. This is the same sort of explanation that has been offered for stuttering. In this paper we explore whether a manipulation that has long been known to decrease stuttering, synchronizing speech to the beats of a metronome, will then also decrease filled pauses. Two experiments indicate that a metronome has a dramatic effect on the production of filled pauses. This effect is not due to any simplification or slowing of the speech and supports the view that a metronome causes speakers to attend more to how they are talking and less to what they are saying. It also lends support to the connection between stutters and filled pauses.

  12. Theoretical evaluation of transcriptional pausing effect on the attenuation in trp leader sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, H.; Kunisawa, T.; Otsuka, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transcriptional pausing on attenuation is investigated theoretically on the basis of the attenuation control mechanism presented by Oxender et al. (Oxender, D. L., G. Zurawski, and C. Yanofsky, 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 76:5524-5528). An extended stochastic model including the RNA polymerase pausing in the leader region is developed to calculate the probability of relative position between the RNA polymerase transcribing the trp leader sequence and the ribosome translati...

  13. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grasselli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst-pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning.

  14. How long is too long? How pause features after requests affect the perceived willingness of affirmative answers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohtz, Lea Susan; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    willingness was found to decrease with increasing pause duration, particularly above a "tolerance threshold" of 600 ms. Refining and qualifying this replicated result, the perception experiment showed additional effects of speaking-rate context and pause quality (silence vs. breathing vs. café noise......) on perceived willingness judgments. The overall results picture is discussed with respect to the origin of the "tolerance threshold", the status of breathing in speech, and the function of pauses in communication....

  15. ON THE PAUSED WARMING CONTROVERSY BASED ON IPCC AR5 AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKA J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paused warming since ca. 2002 (maybe, 1998 is not satisfactorily reflected by the IPCC WGI (2013 Report. The aim of the present study is to collect, present and discuss the key arguments of the issue, selected strictly from this valuable Report. Our study tackles three aspects: (i Symptoms of pausing, including atmospheric changes, near-surface oceans, cryosphere and geographical differences. (ii Possible reasons of the paused warming, including external forcing factors, playing rather minor role, and the enhanced ocean heat uptake. Though missing warming is 0.2 K/decade compared to the model expectations, the whole climate system integrates continuously increasing amount of heat, 95 % of which is locked in the oceans. (iii Consequences of the pausing for the three main branches of the IPCC activity. For climate science, correct simulation of the enhanced heat uptake is a challenge. Since characteristic time scale of most adaptation measures is 1-2 decades, or shorter, near-term projections may not drive adaptation until climate models become able meet this challenge. On the other hand, pausing warming does not question the need for mitigation, since it is physically unlikely, that oceans can uptake endless amount of heat. Vertical temperature gradients of the upper ocean layers already show stagnation.

  16. The history of research on the filled pause as evidence of the written language bias in linguistics (Linell, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2004-11-01

    Erard's (2004) publication in the New York Times of a journalistic history of the filled pause serves as the occasion for this critical review of the past half-century of research on the filled pause. Historically, the various phonetic realizations or instantiations of the filled pause have been presented with an odd recurrent admixture of the interjection ah. In addition, the filled pause has been consistently associated with both hesitation and disfluency. The present authors hold that such a mandatory association of the filled pause with disfluency is the product of The written language bias in linguistics [Linell, 1982] and disregards much cogent evidence to the contrary. The implicit prescriptivism of well formedness--a demand derived from literacy--must be rejected; literate well formedness is not a necessary or even typical property of spontaneous spoken discourse; its structures and functions--including those of the filled pause--are very different from those of written language The recent work of Clark and Fox Tree (2002) holds promise for moving the status of the filled pause not only toward that of a conventional word, but also toward its status as an interjection. This latter development is also being fostered by lexicographers. Nonetheless, in view of ongoing research regarding the disparate privileges of occurrence and functions of filled pauses in comparison with interjections, the present authors are reluctant to categorize the filled pause as an interjection.

  17. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Crooks, Steven M.; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Jeakyeong

    2014-01-01

    Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four…

  18. Discrete sequence production with and without a pause: the role of cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouen, A.-L.; Verwey, Willem B.; van der Helden, J.; Scheiber, C.; Neveu, R.; Dominey, P.F.; Ventre-Dominey, J.

    2013-01-01

    Our sensorimotor experience unfolds in sequences over time. We hypothesize that the processing of movement sequences with and without a temporal pause will recruit distinct but cooperating neural processes, including cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar networks. We thus, compare neural activity

  19. Quiet is the New Loud : Pausing and Focus in Child and Adult Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romøren, Anna Sara H; Chen, Aoju

    2015-01-01

    In a number of languages, prosody is used to highlight new information (or focus). In Dutch, focus is marked by accentuation, whereby focal constituents are accented and post-focal constituents are de-accented. Even if pausing is not traditionally seen as a cue to focus in Dutch, several previous

  20. Cues-Pause-Point Language Training: Teaching Echolalics Functional Use of Their Verbal Labeling Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Martin J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A cues-pause-point procedure was used to train two severely retarded females to remain quiet before, during, and briefly after the presentation of questions and then to verbalize on the basis of environmental cues whose labels represented the correct responses. Echolalia was rapidly replaced by correct responding on the trained stimuli. (Author/JW)

  1. Single-molecule analysis of inhibitory pausing states of V1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, Naciye Esma; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okuno, Daichi; Nakano, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Ken; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-17

    V(1)-ATPase, the hydrophilic V-ATPase domain, is a rotary motor fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Here, we found that Thermus thermophilus V(1)-ATPase shows two types of inhibitory pauses interrupting continuous rotation: a short pause (SP, 4.2 s) that occurred frequently during rotation, and a long inhibitory pause (LP, >30 min) that terminated all active rotations. Both pauses occurred at the same angle for ATP binding and hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed that the time constants of inactivation into and activation from the SP were too short to represent biochemically predicted ADP inhibition, suggesting that SP is a newly identified inhibitory state of V(1)-ATPase. The time constant of inactivation into LP was 17 min, consistent with one of the two time constants governing the inactivation process observed in bulk ATPase assay. When forcibly rotated in the forward direction, V(1) in LP resumed active rotation. Solution ADP suppressed the probability of mechanical activation, suggesting that mechanical rotation enhanced inhibitory ADP release. These features were highly consistent with mechanical activation of ADP-inhibited F(1), suggesting that LP represents the ADP-inhibited state of V(1)-ATPase. Mechanical activation largely depended on the direction and angular displacement of forced rotation, implying that V(1)-ATPase rotation modulates the off rate of ADP.

  2. Modified pause schemes and working days for more volume flexibility in manufactering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, G.; Looze, M. de; Bosch, T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of two measures to increase the volume flexibility, namely the introduction of an alternating pause scheme and the elongation of the working day, were evaluated in two manufacturing companies. Both measures led to an increase in volume output of about 16% at relatively low costs. The

  3. Automated detection of unfilled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Automated detection of un lled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals Roelant Ossewaardea,b, Roel Jonkersa, Fedor Jalvingha,c, Roelien Bastiaansea aCenter for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen; bInstitute for ICT, HU University of Applied Science, Utrecht; cSt.

  4. An Exploratory Study of Pauses in Computer-Assisted EFL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cuiqin; Ding, Yanren

    2014-01-01

    The advance of computer input log and screen-recording programs over the last two decades has greatly facilitated research into the writing process in real time. Using Inputlog 4.0 and Camtasia 6.0 to record the writing process of 24 Chinese EFL writers in an argumentative task, this study explored L2 writers' pausing patterns in computer-assisted…

  5. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  6. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Graham, Naida L.; Shellikeri, Sanjana; Phuong, Kent; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rochon, Elizabeth; Tang-Wai, David F.; Chow, Tiffany W.; Black, Sandra E.; Zinman, Lorne H.; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls. Design 136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV) or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA). Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups—mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit) and bulbar-respiratory—based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients. Results The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate) was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures. Conclusions and Relevance This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS—FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD. PMID:26789001

  7. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Yunusova

    Full Text Available This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls.136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA. Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups--mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit and bulbar-respiratory--based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients.The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures.This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS-FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD.

  8. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  9. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  10. Calcium Imaging Reveals Coordinated Simple Spike Pauses in Populations of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Ramirez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s control of movement is thought to involve coordinated activity between cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results reported here demonstrate that somatic Ca2+ imaging is a faithful reporter of Na+-dependent “simple spike” pauses and enables us to optically record changes in firing rates in populations of Purkinje cells in brain slices and in vivo. This simultaneous calcium imaging of populations of Purkinje cells reveals a striking spatial organization of pauses in Purkinje cell activity between neighboring cells. The source of this organization is shown to be the presynaptic gamma-Aminobutyric acid producing (GABAergic network, and blocking ionotropic gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAARs abolishes the synchrony. These data suggest that presynaptic interneurons synchronize (inactivity between neighboring Purkinje cells, and thereby maximize their effect on downstream targets in the deep cerebellar nuclei.

  11. Study of the dark pause phenomenon in a low cost exploding wire experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, R.; Chatelain, G.; Lester, M.; Pouzo, J.

    1988-01-01

    A low cost exploding wire experiment is described and several aspects of the phenomenology in this type of plasmas are researched. Plasma photographies with high time resolution are obtained with a non-expensive Kerr cell switching system. The research is centered in the study of the dark pause phenomenon and the experimental results are interpreted using a very simple model. (author). 3 refs, 12 figs

  12. Applying pause analysis to explore cognitive processes in the copying of sentences by second language users

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Putri Afzan Maria Binti

    2013-01-01

    Pause analysis is a method that investigates processes of writing by measuring the amount of time between pen strokes. It provides the field of second language studies with a means to explore the cognitive processes underpinning the nature of writing. This study examined the potential of using free handwritten copying of sentences as a means of investigating components of the cognitive processes of adults who have English as their Second Language (ESL).\\ud \\ud A series of one pilot and three ...

  13. Balloon Dilatation of Pediatric Subglottic Laryngeal Stenosis during the Artificial Apneic Pause: Experience in 5 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balloon dilatation is a method of choice for treatment of laryngeal stenosis in children. The aim of procedure in apneic pause is to avoid new insertion of tracheostomy cannula. Patients and Methods. The authors performed balloon dilatation of subglottic laryngeal strictures (SGS in 5 children (3 girls and 2 boys without tracheotomy. Two of them with traumatic and inflammatory SGS had a tracheal cannula removed in the past. The other 3 children with postintubation SGS had never had a tracheostomy before. The need for tracheostomy due to worsening stridor was imminent for all of them. Results. The total of seven laryngeal dilatations by balloon esophagoplasty catheter in apneic pause was performed in the 5 children. The procedure averted the need for tracheostomy placement in 4 of them (80%. Failure of dilatation in girl with traumatic stenosis and concomitant severe obstructive lung disease led to repeated tracheostomy. Conclusion. Balloon dilatation of laryngeal stricture could be done in the absence of tracheostomy in apneic pause. Dilatation averted threatening tracheostomy in all except one case. Early complication after the procedure seems to be a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of balloon dilatation.

  14. Encounter rates and swimming behavior of pause-travel and cruise larval fish predators in calm and turbulent laboratory environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    measure of prey encounter rate in unsatiated larvae) were significantly higher in turbulent than in calm water at low food abundances for two size groups of cod. The difference in cod attack position rate between calm and turbulent water was much less when prey was more abundant. Attack position rates...... of herring larvae were higher in turbulent water than in calm water, but the difference was not significant. Interspecific differences in swimming and pausing behavior were related to differences in prey search strategy used by the two species (cod: pause-travel; herring: cruise). We used a newly developed...... search model for pause-travel predators in calm and turbulent environments to compare encounter rates for predators using cruise and pause-travel search strategies. Encounter rates for cod and herring larvae, estimated with respective search models, were similar in calm and low turbulence water; at high...

  15. Interword and intraword pause threshold in the writing of texts by children and adolescents : a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eChenu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g. scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen© (Chesnet & Alamargot, 2005. The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  16. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  17. Pausing precarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, I.; Dovey, M.D.S.; Rasch, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to be precarious, and who self-identifies as part of the precariat? Is it a political position? And if so, how can precariats start to organize themselves? In this first episode of the Zero Infinite podcast we discuss precarity, anti-austerity and work through interviews with Alex

  18. Modular Organization of the NusA- and NusG-Stimulated RNA Polymerase Pause Signal That Participates in the Bacillus subtilis trp Operon Attenuation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Smarajit; Yakhnin, Alexander V; Babitzke, Paul

    2017-07-15

    The Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by a transcription attenuation mechanism in which tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to the nascent transcript and blocks the formation of an antiterminator structure such that the formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator causes termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). In the absence of bound TRAP, the antiterminator forms and transcription continues into the trp genes. RNA polymerase pauses at positions U107 and U144 in the 5' UTR. The general transcription elongation factors NusA and NusG stimulate pausing at both positions. NusG-stimulated pausing at U144 requires sequence-specific contacts with a T tract in the nontemplate DNA (ntDNA) strand within the paused transcription bubble. Pausing at U144 participates in a trpE translation repression mechanism. Since U107 just precedes the critical overlap between the antiterminator and terminator structures, pausing at this position is thought to participate in attenuation. Here we carried out in vitro pausing and termination experiments to identify components of the U107 pause signal and to determine whether pausing affects the termination efficiency in the 5' UTR. We determined that the U107 and U144 pause signals are organized in a modular fashion containing distinct RNA hairpin, U-tract, and T-tract components. NusA-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the U-tract sequence, whereas NusG-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the T-tract sequence. We also determined that pausing at U107 results in increased TRAP-dependent termination in the 5' UTR, implying that NusA- and NusG-stimulated pausing participates in the trp operon attenuation mechanism by providing additional time for TRAP binding. IMPORTANCE The expression of several bacterial operons is controlled by regulated termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Transcription attenuation is defined as situations in which the binding of a regulatory

  19. Steady-state structural fluctuation is a predictor of the necessity of pausing-mediated co-translational folding for small proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenxi; Liu, Wanting; Jin, Jingjie; Xiao, Qilan; Lu, Ruibin; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Sheng; Zhang, Gong

    2018-03-25

    Translational pausing coordinates protein synthesis and co-translational folding. It is a common factor that facilitates the correct folding of large, multi-domain proteins. For small proteins, pausing sites rarely occurs in the gene body, and the 3'-end pausing sites are only essential for the folding of a fraction of proteins. The determinant of the necessity of the pausings remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that the steady-state structural fluctuation is a predictor of the necessity of pausing-mediated co-translational folding for small proteins. Validated by experiments with 5 model proteins, we found that the rigid protein structures do not, while the flexible structures do need 3'-end pausings to fold correctly. Therefore, rational optimization of translational pausing can improve soluble expression of small proteins with flexible structures, but not the rigid ones. The rigidity of the structure can be quantitatively estimated in silico using molecular dynamic simulation. Nevertheless, we also found that the translational pausing optimization increases the fitness of the expression host, and thus benefits the recombinant protein production, independent from the soluble expression. These results shed light on the structural basis of the translational pausing and provided a practical tool for industrial protein fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Maracatus Solar e Reis de Paus: tradição e modernidade no carnaval de rua em Fortaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Roberto Antônio de Sousa da

    2013-01-01

    Trata-se de um estudo etnográfico e comparativo dos Maracatus Solar (2006) e Reis de Paus (1960), cujo objetivo foi verificar o que existe de antigo e tradicional no novo maracatu praticado pela agremiação Solar e, em contrapartida, o que existe de novo ou moderno no velho maracatu ritualizado pela agremiação Reis de Paus. Cabe ressaltar que por meio deste estudo de caso pretendeu-se também observar etnograficamente e compreender melhor os processos de rupturas e continuidades ...

  2. Theory of mind and emotion recognition skills in children with specific language impairment, autism spectrum disorder and typical development: group differences and connection to knowledge of grammatical morphology, word-finding abilities and verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social perception abilities. To compare the performance of children with SLI, ASD and typical development (TD) in social perception tasks measuring Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In addition, to evaluate the association between social perception tasks and language tests measuring word-finding abilities, knowledge of grammatical morphology and verbal working memory. Children with SLI (n = 18), ASD (n = 14) and TD (n = 25) completed two NEPSY-II subtests measuring social perception abilities: (1) Affect Recognition and (2) ToM (includes Verbal and non-verbal Contextual tasks). In addition, children's word-finding abilities were measured with the TWF-2, grammatical morphology by using the Grammatical Closure subtest of ITPA, and verbal working memory by using subtests of Sentence Repetition or Word List Interference (chosen according the child's age) of the NEPSY-II. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children with SLI or TD on the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest. Both SLI and ASD groups scored significantly lower than TD children on Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest of NEPSY-II. However, there were no significant group differences on non-verbal Contextual tasks of the ToM subtest of the NEPSY-II. Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest were correlated with the Grammatical Closure subtest and TWF-2 in children with SLI. In children with ASD correlation between TWF-2 and ToM: Verbal tasks was moderate, almost achieving statistical significance, but no other correlations were found. Both SLI and ASD groups showed difficulties in tasks measuring verbal ToM but differences were not found in tasks measuring non-verbal Contextual ToM. The

  3. Effect of Continuous Current during Pauses between Successive Strokes on the Decay of the Lightning Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, N.L.; Bazelyan, E.M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2000-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is used to study the dynamics of the hydrodynamic parameters of the lightning channel in the return stroke and after the pulse current is damped. The effect of the continuous residual electric current during pauses between the successive strokes on the plasma cooling in the channel is analyzed. It is shown that a continuous electric current, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the peak current in the return stroke, is capable of maintaining the channel conductivity. This effect cannot be explained merely by Joule heating but is largely governed by the fact that the turbulent heat transport is substantially suppressed. In this case, even a continuous current as low as 50-100 A is capable of maintaining the conductivity of the lightning channel at a level at which only M-components can develop in the channel rather than the dart leader of the subsequent stroke

  4. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: IV. the Pause Marker Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Three previous articles provided rationale, methods, and several forms of validity support for a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), termed the pause marker (PM). Goals of the present article were to assess the validity and stability of the PM Index (PMI) to scale CAS severity. Method: PM scores and speech, prosody,…

  5. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  6. Interventions for Echolalic Behaviour for Children with Autism: A Review of Verbal Prompts and the Cues Pause Point Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavon, Nicole M.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines behavior interventions for echolalic behavior in children with autism, including verbal prompting (focusing on the echolalic behavior itself) and the cues-pause-point procedure (which employs the child's prerequisite skills to teach correct verbal responses). A review of the literature indicated that both techniques were…

  7. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  8. Prediction of Audience Response from Spoken Sequences, Speech Pauses and Co-speech Gestures in Humorous Discourse by Barack Obama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    president mocks himself, his collaborators, political adversary and the press corps making the audience react with cheers, laughter and/or applause. The results of the prediction experiment demonstrate that information about spoken sequences, pauses and co-speech gestures by Obama can be used to predict...

  9. An Investigation of Read Speech of Arabic Students Learning Turkish as a Second Language in Terms of Stress and Pause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Serdar; Bardakçi, Mehmet; Öztürk, Mustafa Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Suprasegmental features are essential in conveying meaning; however, they are one of the neglected topics in teaching Turkish as a foreign/second language. This paper aims to examine read speech by Arabic students learning Turkish as a second language and describe their read speech in terms of stress and pause. Within this framework, 34 Syrian…

  10. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  11. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  12. Filled pause refinement based on the pronunciation probability for lecture speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Long

    Full Text Available Nowadays, although automatic speech recognition has become quite proficient in recognizing or transcribing well-prepared fluent speech, the transcription of speech that contains many disfluencies remains problematic, such as spontaneous conversational and lecture speech. Filled pauses (FPs are the most frequently occurring disfluencies in this type of speech. Most recent studies have shown that FPs are widely believed to increase the error rates for state-of-the-art speech transcription, primarily because most FPs are not well annotated or provided in training data transcriptions and because of the similarities in acoustic characteristics between FPs and some common non-content words. To enhance the speech transcription system, we propose a new automatic refinement approach to detect FPs in British English lecture speech transcription. This approach combines the pronunciation probabilities for each word in the dictionary and acoustic language model scores for FP refinement through a modified speech recognition forced-alignment framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the Reith Lectures speech transcription task, in which only imperfect training transcriptions are available. Successful results are achieved for both the development and evaluation datasets. Acoustic models trained on different styles of speech genres have been investigated with respect to FP refinement. To further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, speech transcription performance has also been examined using systems built on training data transcriptions with and without FP refinement.

  13. R A Cowley, the "Golden Hour," the "Momentary Pause," and the "Third Space".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David E

    2017-12-01

    R Adams Cowley (1917-1991), the Baltimore thoracic and trauma surgeon, was an outstanding politician and promoter of emergency medical services. His skills included the effective use of language, for example, identifying the critical time immediately after injury as a "golden hour," and describing shock as a "momentary pause in the act of death." Conversely, Cowley avoided the tendency of some contemporaries to justify massive crystalloid infusion by invoking a "third space." Cowley is often assumed to have originated the first two phrases, but, in fact, their histories go back at least to the 19th century and illustrate the development of surgical science. The "third space" is often assumed to have originated with Cowley's contemporary, Tom Shires (1925-2007), but, in fact, neither of them used the phrase to describe Shires' controversial theories about an extracellular fluid deficit after trauma. Reviewing the actual etymology of these terms may help clarify the history of the underlying scientific ideas and enable more effective communication in the future.

  14. Counting to ten milliseconds: low-anger, but not high-anger, individuals pause following negative evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Meier, Brian P; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-01-01

    Low-anger individuals are less reactive, both emotionally and behaviourally, to a large variety of situational primes to anger and aggression. Why this is so, from an affective processing perspective, has been largely conjectural. Four studies (total N=270) sought to link individual differences in anger to tendencies exhibited in basic affective processing tasks. On the basis of motivational factors and considerations, it was hypothesised that negative evaluations would differentially activate a psychological alarm system at low levels of anger, resulting in a pause that should be evident in the speed of making subsequent evaluations. Just such a pattern was evident in all studies. By contrast, high-anger individuals did not pause following their negative evaluations. In relation to this affective processing tendency, at least, dramatically different effects were observed among low- versus high-anger individuals. Implications for the personality-processing literature, theories of trait anger, and fast-acting regulatory processes are discussed.

  15. Dwell-Time Distribution, Long Pausing and Arrest of Single-Ribosome Translation through the mRNA Duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2015-10-09

    Proteins in the cell are synthesized by a ribosome translating the genetic information encoded on the single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA). It has been shown that the ribosome can also translate through the duplex region of the mRNA by unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed model of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex we study theoretically the distribution of dwell times of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex under the effect of a pulling force externally applied to the ends of the mRNA to unzip the duplex. We provide quantitative explanations of the available single molecule experimental data on the distribution of dwell times with both short and long durations, on rescuing of the long paused ribosomes by raising the pulling force to unzip the duplex, on translational arrests induced by the mRNA duplex and Shine-Dalgarno(SD)-like sequence in the mRNA. The functional consequences of the pauses or arrests caused by the mRNA duplex and the SD sequence are discussed and compared with those obtained from other types of pausing, such as those induced by "hungry" codons or interactions of specific sequences in the nascent chain with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

  16. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  17. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  18. Supplementary Motor Area Activation in Disfluency Perception : An fMRI Study of Listener Neural Responses to Spontaneously Produced Unfilled and Filled Pauses

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Robert; Ingvar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) and Filled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. For both stimuli increased activity was observed in the Primary Auditory Cortex (PAC). However, FPs, but not UPs, elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA), Brodmann Area 6. Our results provide neurocognitive confirmation of the alleged difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and could also provide a partial explanation for the previously repo...

  19. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

  20. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  1. Can exposure variation be promoted in the shoulder girdle muscles by modifying work pace and inserting pauses during simulated assembly work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Madeleine, Pascal; Cid, Marina Machado; Samani, Afshin; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of changing the work pace and implementing two pause types during an assembly task. Eighteen healthy women performed a simulated task in four different conditions: 1) slow or 2) fast work pace with 3) passive or 4) active pauses every two minutes. The root mean square (RMS) and exposure variation analysis (EVA) from the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles, as well as the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) from the neck-shoulder region, were observed. Decreased RMS and RPE as well as more variable muscle activity (EVA) were observed in the slow work pace compared with the fast one. The pause types had a limited effect, but active pauses resulted in increased RMS of the clavicular trapezius. The findings revealed the importance of work pace in the reduction of perceived exertion and promotion of variation in muscle activation during assembly tasks. However, the pause types had no important effect on the evaluated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  3. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of rest-pause vs. traditional bench press training on muscle strength, electromyography, and lifting volume in randomized trial protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, J Adam; Paquette, Max R; Brooks, Justin; Fuller, Dana K; Coons, John M

    2017-09-01

    Rest-pause (4-s unloaded rest between repetitions) training effects on one repetition maximum (1 RM), lifting volume, and neural activation via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training programme design. Therefore, this study compared 1 RM, neural activation via (EMG), and volume differences between rest-pause vs. traditional resistance training. Trained males (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either a rest-pause or a traditional training group. Pre- and post-1 RM testing was recorded. Training sessions were completed twice a week for 4 weeks and consisted of four sets of bench press to volitional fatigue at 80% of pre-test 1 RM with a 2-min rest between sets. Total volume completed was recorded on each training day. Neural activation of the pectoralis major was measured on the first and last training days. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated both groups significantly increased their 1 RMs following the 4-week training protocol (p  .05). An independent samples t test indicated that total volume lifted was significantly higher for the rest-pause group (56,778 vs. 38,315 lbs; p < .05) throughout the protocol and independently during weeks 2, 3, and 4. While strength and neural activation changes did not differ between groups, both increased 1 RMs and the rest-pause group achieved greater increases in volume than the traditional group. If volume is the focus of training, the rest-pause method should be utilized.

  5. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  6. Adolescent girls in Denmark use oral contraceptives at an increasingly young age, and with more pauses and shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Nielsen, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    was to describe the use of hormonal contraceptives among the Danish adolescent female population, focusing on age, period and cohort effects and including types of hormonal contraceptives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women aged 14-50 years during the 1995-2012 period were identified through the Central Person...... Register. Furthermore, the National Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics provided information on redeemed prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives characterised by Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC) classification codes. RESULTS: At the age of 17 years, more than 50% of the Danish adolescent......, adolescent girls have more pauses and shifts between types of hormonal contraceptives. Since 2010 there has been a shift toward use of second generation oral contraceptives away from third and fourth generation contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls tend to initiate their use of oral contraceptives...

  7. GSK3β is involved in the relief of mitochondria pausing in a Tau-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Llorens-Martín

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial trafficking deficits have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. The Ser/Thre kinase GSK3β is believed to play a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. Given that GSK3β substrates include Tau protein, here we studied the impact of GSK3β on mitochondrial trafficking and its dependence on Tau protein. Overexpression of GSK3β in neurons resulted in an increase in motile mitochondria, whereas a decrease in the activity of this kinase produced an increase in mitochondria pausing. These effects were dependent on Tau proteins, as Tau (-/- neurons did not respond to distinct GSK3β levels. Furthermore, differences in GSK3β expression did not affect other parameters like mitochondria velocity or mitochondria run length. We conclude that GSK3B activity regulates mitochondrial axonal trafficking largely in a Tau-dependent manner.

  8. Hand rest and wrist support are effective in preventing fatigue during prolonged typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Bianca; de Resende, Marília Maniglia; da Silva Filho, Manoel

    Case series (longitudinal). Only few reports concerning the efficacy of commonly used strategies for preventing upper limb occupational disorders associated with prolonged typing exist. We aimed to investigate whether the duration of typing and the use of 2 strategies (hand rest and wrist support) changes muscle physiological response and therefore the electromyography records. We enrolled 25 volunteers, who were unfamiliar with the task and did not have musculoskeletal disorders. The subjects underwent 3 prolonged typing protocols to investigate the efficacy of the 2 adopted strategies in reducing the trapezius, biceps brachii, and extensor digitorum communis fatigue. Typing for 1 hour induced muscular fatigue (60%-67% of the subjects). The extensor digitorum communis muscle exhibited the highest percentage of fatigue (72%-84%) after 1 and 4 hours of typing (1 hour, P = .04; 4 hours, P = .02). Fatigue levels in this muscle were significantly reduced (24%) with the use of pause typing (4 hours, P = .045), whereas biceps brachii muscle fatigue was reduced (32%) only with the use of wrist supports (P = .02, after 4 hours). Trapezius muscle fatigue was unaffected by the tested occupational strategies (1 hour, P = .62; 4 hours, P = .85). Despite presenting an overall tendency for fatigue detected during the application of the protocols, the assessed muscles exhibited different behavior patterns, depending on both the preventive strategy applied and the muscle mechanical role during the task. Hand rest and wrist support can successfully reduce muscle fatigue in specific upper limb muscles during prolonged typing, leading to a muscle-selective reduction in the occurrence of fatigue and thus provide direct evidence that they may prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders. N/A. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Postreinforcement Pause Duration Varies within a Session and with a Variable Response Requirement but Not as a Function of Prior Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the variables that influence postreinforcement pause (PRP) duration in rats when wheel running serves as the reinforcing consequence. The relationship between revolutions and PRP duration when revolutions were manipulated within a session and the effect of changing the response requirement from fixed to variable on PRP…

  10. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. Method: PM and other…

  11. A Comparison between the Occurrence of Pauses, Repetitions and Recasts under Conditions of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaroglu, Nese; Basaran, Suleyman; Roberts, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study compares pauses, repetitions and recasts in matched task interactions under face-to-face and computer-mediated conditions. Six first-year English undergraduates at a Turkish University took part in Skype-based voice chat with a native speaker and face-to-face with their instructor. Preliminary quantitative analysis of transcripts showed…

  12. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  13. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  14. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  15. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  16. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  17. Physiologic effects of alveolar recruitment and inspiratory pauses during moderately-high-frequency ventilation delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe lung injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Cordioli

    Full Text Available To investigate whether performing alveolar recruitment or adding inspiratory pauses could promote physiologic benefits (VT during moderately-high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (MHFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed. Then, animals were ventilated on a conventional mechanical ventilator with a respiratory rate (RR = 60 breaths/minute and PEEP titrated according to ARDS Network table. The first two steps consisted of a randomized order of inspiratory pauses of 10 and 30% of inspiratory time. In final step, we removed the inspiratory pause and titrated PEEP, after lung recruitment, with the aid of electrical impedance tomography. At each step, PaCO2 was allowed to stabilize between 57-63 mmHg for 30 minutes.The step with RR of 60 after lung recruitment had the highest PEEP when compared with all other steps (17 [16,19] vs 14 [10, 17]cmH2O, but had lower driving pressures (13 [13,11] vs 16 [14, 17]cmH2O, higher P/F ratios (212 [191,243] vs 141 [105, 184] mmHg, lower shunt (23 [20, 23] vs 32 [27, 49]%, lower dead space ventilation (10 [0, 15] vs 30 [20, 37]%, and a more homogeneous alveolar ventilation distribution. There were no detrimental effects in terms of lung mechanics, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Neither the addition of inspiratory pauses or the alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by decremental PEEP titration resulted in further reductions in VT.During MHFPPV set with RR of 60 bpm delivered by a conventional ventilator in severe ARDS swine model, neither the inspiratory pauses or PEEP titration after recruitment maneuver allowed reduction of VT significantly, however the last strategy decreased driving pressures and improved both shunt and dead space.

  18. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  19. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  20. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  1. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  2. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  3. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  4. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  5. Effect of duration of the pause single-phase auto-reclosing on electro-power transmission capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasil'nikova Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem associated with accidents in the aerial line (AL ultra-high voltage (UHV due to its big length. In lines with a voltage of 500-1150 kV the overwhelming proportion of trips (98% is caused by single-phase short circuit (SPSC. A substantial portion (70% single-phase short circuits is erratic arc accidents which can be successfully eliminated in a high-speed auto-reclosing (HSAR or single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR. Success single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR at liquidation by single-phase short circuit (SPSC, on the one hand, is determined by the characteristics of the secondary arc current, and on the other hand the effectiveness of ways to reduce secondary arc current and recovery voltage development. The minimum dead time, at a HSAR it is usually taken as 0.5 s., at single-phase autoreclosing (SPAR it depends on the current value of the arc support is in the range of 0.5-3.0 s. The article shows high efficiency of use single-phase auto reclosing (SPAR at liquidation SPSC in a single-chain AL voltage of 500 kV, the dependence of the bandwidth of transmission in maintaining the dynamic stability from the length of the pause SPAR.

  6. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  7. Learning to Spell Words: Findings, Theories, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There has been less research on how children learn to spell than on how they learn to read, but a good deal is now known about spelling development. This article reviews studies of normative development, beginning with children's early scribbles and proceeding to prephonological spelling involving letters, phonologically influenced invented…

  8. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  9. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  10. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  12. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  13. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  14. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  15. StpA and Hha stimulate pausing by RNA polymerase by promoting DNA-DNA bridging of H-NS filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Beth A; Hron, Daniel R; Qin, Liang; van der Valk, Ramon A; Kotlajich, Matthew V; Dame, Remus T; Landick, Robert

    2018-06-20

    In enterobacteria, AT-rich horizontally acquired genes, including virulence genes, are silenced through the actions of at least three nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs): H-NS, StpA and Hha. These proteins form gene-silencing nucleoprotein filaments through direct DNA binding by H-NS and StpA homodimers or heterodimers. Both linear and bridged filaments, in which NAPs bind one or two DNA segments, respectively, have been observed. Hha can interact with H-NS or StpA filaments, but itself lacks a DNA-binding domain. Filaments composed of H-NS alone can inhibit transcription initiation and, in the bridged conformation, slow elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) by promoting backtracking at pause sites. How the other NAPs modulate these effects of H-NS is unknown, despite evidence that they help regulate subsets of silenced genes in vivo (e.g. in pathogenicity islands). Here we report that Hha and StpA greatly enhance H-NS-stimulated pausing by RNAP at 20°C. StpA:H-NS or StpA-only filaments also stimulate pausing at 37°C, a temperature at which Hha:H-NS or H-NS-only filaments have much less effect. In addition, we report that both Hha and StpA greatly stimulate DNA-DNA bridging by H-NS filaments. Together, these observations indicate that Hha and StpA can affect H-NS-mediated gene regulation by stimulating bridging of H-NS/DNA filaments.

  16. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  17. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  18. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  19. How laser damage resistance of HfO2/SiO2 optical coatings is affected by embedded contamination caused by pausing the deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    2015-07-01

    Reducing contamination is essential for producing optical coatings with high resistance to laser damage. One aspect of this principle is to make every effort to limit long interruptions during the coating's deposition. Otherwise, contamination may accumulate during the pause and become embedded in the coating after the deposition is restarted, leading to a lower laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). However, pausing a deposition is sometimes unavoidable, despite our best efforts. For example, a sudden hardware or software glitch may require hours or even overnight to solve. In order to broaden our understanding of the role of embedded contamination on LIDT, and determine whether a coating deposited under such non-ideal circumstances could still be acceptable, this study explores how halting a deposition overnight impacts the LIDT, and whether ion cleaning can be used to mitigate any negative effects on the LIDT. The coatings investigated are a beam splitter design for high reflection at 1054 nm and high transmission at 527 nm, at 22.5° angle of incidence in S-polarization. LIDT tests were conducted in the nanosecond regime.

  20. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  1. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  2. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  3. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  4. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  5. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  6. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  7. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  8. The requirement for pre-TCR during thymic differentiation enforces a developmental pause that is essential for V-DJβ rearrangement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Hathcock

    Full Text Available T cell development occurs in the thymus and is critically dependent on productive TCRβ rearrangement and pre-TCR expression in DN3 cells. The requirement for pre-TCR expression results in the arrest of thymocytes at the DN3 stage (β checkpoint, which is uniquely permissive for V-DJβ recombination; only cells expressing pre-TCR survive and develop beyond the DN3 stage. In addition, the requirement for TCRβ rearrangement and pre-TCR expression enforces suppression of TCRβ rearrangement on a second allele, allelic exclusion, thus ensuring that each T cell expresses only a single TCRβ product. However, it is not known whether pre-TCR expression is essential for allelic exclusion or alternatively if allelic exclusion is enforced by developmental changes that can occur in the absence of pre-TCR. We asked if thymocytes that were differentiated without pre-TCR expression, and therefore without pause at the β checkpoint, would suppress all V-DJβ rearrangement. We previously reported that premature CD28 signaling in murine CD4(-CD8(- (DN thymocytes supports differentiation of CD4(+CD8(+ (DP cells in the absence of pre-TCR expression. The present study uses this model to define requirements for TCRβ rearrangement and allelic exclusion. We demonstrate that if cells exit the DN3 developmental stage before TCRβ rearrangement occurs, V-DJβ rearrangement never occurs, even in DP cells that are permissive for D-Jβ and TCRα rearrangement. These results demonstrate that pre-TCR expression is not essential for thymic differentiation to DP cells or for V-DJβ suppression. However, the requirement for pre-TCR signals and the exclusion of alternative stimuli such as CD28 enforce a developmental "pause" in early DN3 cells that is essential for productive TCRβ rearrangement to occur.

  9. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  11. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  12. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  13. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  14. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  15. Acute Smc5/6 depletion reveals its primary role in rDNA replication by restraining recombination at fork pausing sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao P Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smc5/6, a member of the conserved SMC family of complexes, is essential for growth in most organisms. Its exact functions in a mitotic cell cycle are controversial, as chronic Smc5/6 loss-of-function alleles produce varying phenotypes. To circumvent this issue, we acutely depleted Smc5/6 in budding yeast and determined the first cell cycle consequences of Smc5/6 removal. We found a striking primary defect in replication of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA array. Each rDNA repeat contains a programmed replication fork barrier (RFB established by the Fob1 protein. Fob1 removal improves rDNA replication in Smc5/6 depleted cells, implicating Smc5/6 in the management of programmed fork pausing. A similar improvement is achieved by removing the DNA helicase Mph1 whose recombinogenic activity can be inhibited by Smc5/6 under DNA damage conditions. DNA 2D gel analyses further show that Smc5/6 loss increases recombination structures at RFB regions; moreover, mph1∆ and fob1∆ similarly reduce this accumulation. These findings point to an important mitotic role for Smc5/6 in restraining recombination events when protein barriers in rDNA stall replication forks. As rDNA maintenance influences multiple essential cellular processes, Smc5/6 likely links rDNA stability to overall mitotic growth.

  16. Association with Aurora-A Controls N-MYC-Dependent Promoter Escape and Pause Release of RNA Polymerase II during the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Büchel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MYC proteins bind globally to active promoters and promote transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II. To identify effector proteins that mediate this function, we performed mass spectrometry on N-MYC complexes in neuroblastoma cells. The analysis shows that N-MYC forms complexes with TFIIIC, TOP2A, and RAD21, a subunit of cohesin. N-MYC and TFIIIC bind to overlapping sites in thousands of Pol II promoters and intergenic regions. TFIIIC promotes association of RAD21 with N-MYC target sites and is required for N-MYC-dependent promoter escape and pause release of Pol II. Aurora-A competes with binding of TFIIIC and RAD21 to N-MYC in vitro and antagonizes association of TOP2A, TFIIIC, and RAD21 with N-MYC during S phase, blocking N-MYC-dependent release of Pol II from the promoter. Inhibition of Aurora-A in S phase restores RAD21 and TFIIIC binding to chromatin and partially restores N-MYC-dependent transcriptional elongation. We propose that complex formation with Aurora-A controls N-MYC function during the cell cycle.

  17. R-ChIP Using Inactive RNase H Reveals Dynamic Coupling of R-loops with Transcriptional Pausing at Gene Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Xuan; Gu, Ying; Xiao, Rui; Shao, Changwei; Tang, Peng; Qian, Hao; Luo, Daji; Li, Hairi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Dong-Er; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-11-16

    R-loop, a three-stranded RNA/DNA structure, has been linked to induced genome instability and regulated gene expression. To enable precision analysis of R-loops in vivo, we develop an RNase-H-based approach; this reveals predominant R-loop formation near gene promoters with strong G/C skew and propensity to form G-quadruplex in non-template DNA, corroborating with all biochemically established properties of R-loops. Transcription perturbation experiments further indicate that R-loop induction correlates to transcriptional pausing. Interestingly, we note that most mapped R-loops are each linked to a nearby free RNA end; by using a ribozyme to co-transcriptionally cleave nascent RNA, we demonstrate that such a free RNA end coupled with a G/C-skewed sequence is necessary and sufficient to induce R-loop. These findings provide a topological solution for RNA invasion into duplex DNA and suggest an order for R-loop initiation and elongation in an opposite direction to that previously proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and the p25 activator of cyclin dependent kinase 5 increase pausing of mitochondria in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, M; Authelet, M; Dedecker, R; Brion, J P

    2010-06-02

    The complex bi-directional axoplasmic transport of mitochondria is essential for proper metabolic functioning of neurons and is controlled by phosphorylation. We have investigated by time-lapse imaging the effects of increased expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and of the p25 activator of cyclin dependent kinase 5 on mitochondria movements in mammalian cortical neurons and in PC12 cells. Both GSK-3beta and p25 increased the stationary behaviour of mitochondria in PC12 and in neurons, decreased their anterograde transport but did not affect the intrinsic velocities of mitochondria. The microtubule-associated tau proteins were more phosphorylated in GSK-3beta and p25 transfected neurons, but ultrastructural observation showed that these cells still contained microtubules and nocodazole treatment further reduced residual mitochondria movements in GSK-3beta or p25 transfected neurons, indicating that microtubule disruption was not the primary cause of increased mitochondrial stationary behaviour in GSK-3beta or p25 transfected neurons. Our results suggest that increased expression of GSK-3beta and p25 acted rather by decreasing the frequency of mitochondrial movements driven by molecular motors and that GSK-3beta and p25 might regulate these transports by controlling the time that mitochondria spend pausing, rather than their velocities. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  20. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  1. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  2. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  3. TTaPP: Together Take a Pause and Ponder: A Critical Thinking Tool for Exploring the Public/Private Lives of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnel, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    The broad use of social networking and user-generated content has increased the online footprint of many individuals. A generation of healthcare professionals have grown up with online search activities as part of their everyday lives. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have given the public new ways to share intimate details about their public and private lives and the lives of their friends and families. As a result, careproviders have the ability to find out more about their patients with just the tap of a key or the click of a mouse. This type of online searching for patient information is known as patient-targeted googling or PTG. This article provides an overview of the emergence of PTG, identifies the potential benefits and possible pitfalls of engaging in PTG, and explores current ethical frameworks that guide decisions about PTG. The article describes the development of a critical thinking tool developed by the Behavioral Health Ethics Committee at CHI Health, that can serve as a best-practice model for other hospitals and health systems. Called TTaPP (Together Take a Pause and Ponder), this tool is designed to help healthcare professionals across settings practice collaborative critical thinking skills as they consider the ethical questions of whether or not to engage in PTG. Finally, this article suggests areas for further study, including ways to prompt collaboration and appropriate documentation by maximizing electronic medical records systems, exploring the effectiveness of the TTaPP tool as a way to promote a culture of collaborative critical thinking practices, and the attitudes of patients and the public regarding PTG. Copyright 2018 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  5. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  6. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  8. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  9. Effects of transcription ability and transcription mode on translation: Evidence from written compositions, language bursts and pauses when students in grades 4 to 9, with and without persisting dyslexia or dysgraphia, compose by pen or by keyboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Beers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of transcription on translation products and processes of adolescent students in grades 4 to 9 with and without persisting specific language disabilities in written language (SLDs—WL. To operationalize transcription ability (handwriting and spelling and transcription mode (by pen on digital tablet or by standard US keyboard, diagnostic groups contrasting in patterns of transcription ability were compared while composing autobiographical (personal narratives by handwriting or by keyboarding: Typically developing students (n=15, students with dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling, n=20, and students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=19. They were compared on seven outcomes: total words composed, total composing time, words per minute, percent of spelling errors, average length of pauses, average number of pauses per minute, and average length of language bursts. They were also compared on automaticity of transcription modes—writing the alphabet from memory by handwriting or keyboarding (they could look at keys. Mixed ANOVAs yielded main effects for diagnostic group on percent of spelling errors, words per minute, and length of language burst. Main effects for transcription modes were found for automaticity of writing modes, total words composed, words per minute, and length of language bursts; there were no significant interactions. Regardless of mode, the dyslexia group had more spelling errors, showed a slower rate of composing, and produced shorter language bursts than the typical group. The total number of words, total time composing, words composed per minute, and pauses per minute were greater for keyboarding than handwriting, but length of language bursts was greater for handwriting. Implications of these results for conceptual models of composing and educational assessment practices are discussed.

  10. Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases’ 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the

  11. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  12. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  13. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne; Steinbach, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  14. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.

  15. Prolonged Intrauterine Retention of Foetal Bones after Midtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged retention of foetal bones in the uterus is a rare complication of induced abortion. We present the case of a 37 year old nullipara with retained foetal bones following a second trimester induced abortion. Accurate diagnosis and removal of the bony fragments led to restoration of fertility and subsequent delivery of a ...

  16. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, ML; Hoes, AW; Leufkens, HGM

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice, and

  17. The Prolonged Neonatal Admission: Implications for our National Children's Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGlacken-Byrne, SM

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children’s Hospital.\\r\

  18. The Importance of Prolonged Provocation in Drug Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Sara; Mosbech, Holger; Kappel, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug provocation is the "Gold Standard" in drug allergy investigation. Recent studies suggest that a negative drug provocation on first dose should be followed by a prolonged provocation over several days. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug allergy investigations on the basis of drug...

  19. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  20. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  1. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising ...

  2. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  3. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  5. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  6. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  7. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic Significance Of QT Interval Prolongation In Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic survival studies for heart-rate corrected QT interval in patients with chronic heart failure are few; although these patients are known to have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. This study was aimed at determining the mortality risk associated with prolonged QTc in Nigerians with heart failure. Ninety-six ...

  9. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  10. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  11. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  12. Inclusion rate and physiological effects of prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of incluusion of cocoa bean cake (CBC) on productive performance and physiological response of Isa Brown pullets to prolonged feeding of CBC were investigated. Dietary Inclusions or CBC (0, 50, 100 and 200g/ kg-1 diet) were monitored in typical poultry diets from day old to 51 weeks of age. Sexual maturity ...

  13. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  14. Identifying Molecular Targets For PTSD Treatment Using Single Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that can...SPS animals. Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is associated with neurocognitive impairments that have been attributed to functional deficits...and resilience. 2. KEYWORDS Post - traumatic stress disorder , Single Prolonged Stress , Neurobiological Mechanisms 5 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  15. Effect Of Prolonged Monocular Occlusion On Latent Nystagms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe authors recorded nystagmus during seeing with one eye in eight patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after two or three days of prolonged occlusion of the better eye (POBE). Before POBE, the slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was usually higher when the better eye was

  16. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  17. The efficacy of antipsychotics for prolonged delirium with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization.Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523 consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists. We analyzed data from 177 inpatients with delirium who received psychiatric medication. We defined an “early improvement group” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication, and a “prolonged group” with delirium lasting for >3 days. Among the 83 inpatients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we defined an “early improvement group with renal dysfunction” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication and a “prolonged group with renal dysfunction” with delirium lasting for >3 days. We then examined differences between groups for different categorical variables.Results: Dose of antipsychotic medication at end point was significantly lower in the prolonged group with renal dysfunction than in the early improvement group with renal dysfunction.Conclusion: The results suggest that maintaining a sufficient dose of antipsychotics from an early stage may prevent prolongation of delirium even in inpatients with renal dysfunction. Keywords: antipsychotic, prolonged delirium, chronic kidney disease, pharmacokinetics 

  18. Reperfusion injury protection during Basic Life Support improves circulation and survival outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaty, Guillaume; Lurie, Keith; Metzger, Anja; Lick, Michael; Bartos, Jason A; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott; Puertas, Laura; Pepe, Paul; Fowler, Raymond; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PC) using three intentional pauses at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in pigs when epinephrine (epi) is used before defibrillation. We hypothesized PC, performed during basic life support (BLS) in the absence of epinephrine, would reduce reperfusion injury and enhance 24h functional recovery. Prospective animal investigation. Animal laboratory Female farm pigs (n=46, 39±1kg). Protocol A: After 12min of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 28 pigs were randomized to four groups: (A) Standard CPR (SCPR), (B) active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device (ACD-ITD), (C) SCPR+PC (SCPR+PC) and (D) ACD-ITD CPR+PC. Protocol B: After 15min of VF, 18 pigs were randomized to ACD-ITD CPR or ACD-ITD+PC. The BLS duration was 2.75min in Protocol A and 5min in Protocol B. Following BLS, up to three shocks were delivered. Without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), CPR was resumed and epi (0.5mg) and defibrillation delivered. The primary end point was survival without major adverse events. Hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were also measured. Data are presented as mean±SEM. Protocol A: ACD-ITD+PC (group D) improved coronary perfusion pressure after 3min of BLS versus the three other groups (28±6, 35±7, 23±5 and 47±7 for groups A, B, C, D respectively, p=0.05). There were no significant differences in 24h survival between groups. LVEF 4h post ROSC was significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs ACD-ITD alone (52.5±3% vs. 37.5±6.6%, p=0.045). Survival rates were significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs. ACD-ITD alone (p=0.027). BLS using ACD-ITD+PC reduced post resuscitation cardiac dysfunction and improved functional recovery after prolonged untreated VF in pigs. 12-11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice......, and subsequently focused on several specific groups of patients who could be extremely vulnerable for drug-induced arrhythmias. We performed a case-control study in which patients (cases), hospitalized for nonatrial cardiac arrhythmias from 1987 to 1998, were compared with their matched controls regarding current...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...

  20. Prolonged Remission in Neuromyelitis Optica Following Cessation of Rituximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurtner, Kelley; Graves, Jennifer; Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Milazzo, Maria; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disease characterized by acute episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Several small, open-label studies suggest rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, prevents relapses in neuromyelitis optica; however, there is little consensus on timing or duration of treatment. Here we report four patients with severe relapsing neuromyelitis optica who were stabilized on rituximab and, after discontinuing treatment, continued to experience prolonged remission of their disease. Remission ranged from 4.5 to 10.5 years total, including 3 to 9 years off all therapies. The patients had sustained clinical responses despite normal B-lymphocyte levels and, in at least 2 patients, continued seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. These cases suggest that rituximab may induce prolonged remission in certain neuromyelitis optica patients, and they highlight the need for further elucidation of rituximab's mechanism in neuromyelitis optica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  2. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  3. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  4. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  5. A Case of QT Prolongation Associated with Panhypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Arpaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 37-year-old patient with panhypopituitarism who experienced symptoms and signs of hormonal insufficiency and QT prolongation on electrocardiogram without electrolyte disturbances. After hormonal (steroidal and thyroid replacement therapy electrocardiographic findings were normalized. Hormonal disorders should be considered as a cause of long QT intervals which may lead to torsade de pointes, even if plasma electrolyte levels are normal, because life-threatening arrhythmia is treatable by supplementation of the hormone that is lacking.

  6. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  7. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  8. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kristóf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. METHODS: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. RESULTS: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM. The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg significantly lengthened the QT(c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%. In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr and slow (I(Ks delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to and inward rectifier (I(K1 potassium currents were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.

  10. Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901

  11. Prolonged fever in peritoneal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, U.; Irwandi, S.; Habib, H.; Lim, H.; Pasha, M.; Janis, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Ginting, Y.; Effendy-Y S, R.

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal tuberculosis may lead to delayed diagnosis because of the nonspecific features such as fever, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, ascites, and weight loss. Here, wereported a case of prolonged fever and abdominal pain which was due to peritoneal tuberculosis. Initial examinations including acomplete blood test and serologic tests did not lead to the diagnosis. A final diagnosis was made by abdominal CT-scan and laparoscopy combined with histopathological studies. Antituberculous medications provided a good clinical response in this patient.

  12. The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Norman, R J; Buck, R H; Godlonton, J; Stevenson, K; Pittaway, D

    1990-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that potentially fatal hyponatremia can develop during prolonged exercise. To determine the incidence of hyponatremia in athletes competing in ultradistance events, we measured serum sodium levels in 315 of 626 (50%) runners who were treated for collapse after two 90 km ultramarathon footraces (total starters 20,335; total finishers 18,031) and in 101 of 147 (69%) finishers in a 186 km ultratriathlon. In both races the athletes drank fluids with low sodium chloride content (less than 6.8 mmol.l-1). Hyponatremia (serum sodium level less than 130 mmol.l-1) was identified in 27 of 315 (9%) collapsed runners in the 90 km races and in none of the triathletes. In response to diuretic therapy, the runner with the most severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level = 112 mmol.l-1) excreted in excess of 7.5 l dilute urine during the first 17 h of hospitalization. These data suggest that, although symptomatic hyponatremia occurs in less than 0.3% of competitors during prolonged exercise even when they ingest little sodium chloride, it is found in a significant proportion (9%) of collapsed runners. A regulated contraction of the extracellular fluid volume would explain why the majority of athletes maintain normal serum sodium levels even though they develop a significant sodium chloride deficit during prolonged exercise. Alternatively, sodium chloride losses during prolonged exercise may be substantially less than are currently believed. Physicians treating collapsed ultradistance athletes need to be aware that as many as 10% or more of such patients may be hyponatremic.

  13. Risk Factors of Prolonged Hospitalization in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Onur Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118

  14. Translating QT interval prolongation from conscious dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent F S; Smania, Giovanni; Yu, Huixin; Graf, Ramona; Chain, Anne S Y; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    In spite of screening procedures in early drug development, uncertainty remains about the propensity of new chemical entities (NCEs) to prolong the QT/QTc interval. The evaluation of proarrhythmic activity using a comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay does not fully account for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) differences in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between drug-specific parameters describing QT interval prolongation in dogs and in humans. Using estimates of the drug-specific parameter, data on the slopes of the PKPD relationships of nine compounds with varying QT-prolonging effects (cisapride, sotalol, moxifloxacin, carabersat, GSK945237, SB237376 and GSK618334, and two anonymized NCEs) were analysed. Mean slope estimates varied between -0.98 ms μM -1 and 6.1 ms μM -1 in dogs and -10 ms μM -1 and 90 ms μM -1 in humans, indicating a wide range of effects on the QT interval. Linear regression techniques were then applied to characterize the correlation between the parameter estimates across species. For compounds without a mixed ion channel block, a correlation was observed between the drug-specific parameter in dogs and humans (y = -1.709 + 11.6x; R 2  = 0.989). These results show that per unit concentration, the drug effect on the QT interval in humans is 11.6-fold larger than in dogs. Together with information about the expected therapeutic exposure, the evidence of a correlation between the compound-specific parameter in dogs and in humans represents an opportunity for translating preclinical safety data before progression into the clinic. Whereas further investigation is required to establish the generalizability of our findings, this approach can be used with clinical trial simulations to predict the probability of QT prolongation in humans. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, R; Dissanayake, D; Silva, F H D S; Dassanayake, M; de Silva, H J

    2015-03-01

    Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality. To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography. Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP. A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.

  16. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  17. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  18. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  19. Cardiovascular drugs inducing QT prolongation: facts and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Carlos A; Opezzo, Javier A W; Mayer, Marcos A; Höcht, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acquired QT syndrome is mainly caused by the administration of drugs that prolong ventricular repolarization. On the other hand, the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes is increased by numerous predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition, female sex, hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction. This adverse reaction is induced by different chemical compounds used for the treatment of a variety of pathologies, including arrhythmias. As it is known, antiarrhythmic agents and other cardiovascular drugs can prolong the QT interval, causing this adverse reaction. Of the 20 most commonly reported drugs, 10 were cardiovascular agents and these appeared in 348 of the reports (46%). Class Ia antiarrhythmic agents have frequently been linked to inducing arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes. Sotalol and amiodarone, class III antiarrhythmics, are known to prolong the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Due to the severity of events caused by the therapeutic use of these drugs, in this work of revision the cardiovascular drugs that present this property and the factors and evidence will be mentioned.

  20. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  1. PR Interval Prolongation and Cryptogenic Stroke: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Mayra; Tadi, Prasanna; Merkler, Alexander; Gialdini, Gino; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Navalkele, Digvijaya; Samai, Alyana; Nouh, Amre; Hussain, Mohammad; Goldblatt, Steven; Hemendinger, Morgan; Chu, Antony; Song, Christopher; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" has been recently proposed as a mechanism in cryptogenic stroke. A prolonged PR interval may reflect impaired atrial conduction and thus may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy. We aim to compare the prevalence of PR interval prolongation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) when compared with known non-cryptogenic non-cardioembolic stroke (NCNCS) subtypes. We used prospective ischemic stroke databases of 3 comprehensive stroke centers to identify patients 18 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke between December 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015. The main outcome was ischemic stroke subtype (CS versus NCNCS). We compared PR intervals as a continuous and categorical variable (PR interval prolongation and CS. We identified 644 patients with ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke (224 CS and 420 NCNCS). Patients with CS were more likely to have a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater when compared with those with NCNCS (23.2% versus 13.8%, P = .009). After adjusting for factors that were significant in univariate analyses, a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater was independently associated with CS (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70). The association was more pronounced when excluding patients on atrioventricular nodal blocking agents (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.44-4.83). A PR of 200 milliseconds or greater is associated with CS and may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Depressive disorders during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Kelly, Joanne; Duffner, Lisa A; Gungor, Gokay; Collins, Eileen G; Lanuza, Dorothy M; Hoffman, Leslie A; Tobin, Martin J

    2010-05-01

    Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival. A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders. Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; P = 0.007], functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, P = 0.03) and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, P = 0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61 vs. 33%, P = 0.0001), as was mortality (24 vs. 10%, P = 0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; P = 0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; P = 0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; P = 0.02) also predicted mortality. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who were being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death.

  4. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  5. Hemiplegic Migraine Presenting with Prolonged Somnolence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Saleh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.

  6. Intestinal ultrastructure after prolonged use of an elemental diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 3 diets (Purina, whole casein and hydrolyzed casein) on the morphological aspect of the intestinal mucosa has been studied in adult mice, irradiated with a single dose of 950 R or with 4 doses of 600 R. The experimental group receiving the hydrolyzed casein exhibited always the fastest recovery. 45 days after a single irradiation, some alterations of columnar cells were still noted in the other groups. The prolonged use of an hydrolyzed casein (6 months) did not alter the structure of the mucosal cells. (orig.) [de

  7. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  8. How long would SDH/SONET be prolonged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiyong; Mao, Qian

    2004-04-01

    As we all know, the increasing speed of data traffic is exceeding gradually from voice in today"s communication network. The main reason is the explosive of Internet. The controversy with IP over ATM/SDH/Optical becomes hotter and hotter, Many people in the telecommunication field are doubt: HOW LONG WOULD SDH/SONET BE PROLONGED? WHAT KIND OF SDH EQUIPMENTS COULD BE USED IN THE NETWORK? With the analysis from several aspects: services in the network, new development with SDH technology, market in transport equipment, This paper is considered that the SDH with some new features would be predominant transport technology in the recent years.

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences...... with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  10. Word finding deficitsin aphasia: diagnosis and treatment. Rotterdam Aphasia Therapy Study-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jong-Hagelstein (Marjolein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAphasia Imagine finding yourself all of a sudden alone in a Chinese city and not speaking or understanding Chinese. How do you ask for the way or read the signs, buy food and other necessities, watch tv or listen to the news, let alone have a social conversation with someone? This

  11. The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Comorbid Dissociation and Self-Harm: The Case of a Client With Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Hollie F; Wilks, Chelsey R; Miga, Erin M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-08-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Pagura et al., 2010). Preliminary studies have evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population and found positive outcomes for the integration of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE). This case study illustrates the implementation of a PE protocol into standard DBT treatment, specifically focusing on the management of self-harm and severe dissociation for a client with co-occurring PTSD and BPD. The client entered into treatment with severe and persistent dissociation and a recent history of self-harm, and the case includes consideration of two separate pauses in PTSD treatment related to elevated dissociation and self-harm behaviors. The client successfully completed the DBT PE protocol and results indicate significant improvements in PTSD symptoms as well as outcomes related to self-harm and dissociation. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of combining DBT with PE for clients with comorbid BPD and PTSD and exemplify how complex clients with BPD who present with severe dissociation and self-harm behavior can safely and successfully receive treatment for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  13. Risk Factors for Prolonged Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Oka

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD.An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698 were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4% respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD.Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD.In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes.

  14. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  15. Prolonged fasting impairs neural reactivity to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.

  16. Effect of prolonged exposure to low antigen concentration for sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Och, Francois M.M. van; Vandebriel, Rob J.; Jong, Wim H. de; Loveren, Henk van

    2003-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an assay in mice to identify potential allergens. Compounds that do not induce a stimulation index (SI)≥3 are not considered sensitizers. Of the chemicals that do, the SI of 3 is used as a benchmark, and indicates the sensitizing potency of a chemical. Compared to the exposure duration of the LLNA (3 days), real life exposure often lasts for months or years. We therefore investigated whether prolonged exposure to sensitizers at concentrations that do not induce a SI≥3 in the LLNA, were able to surpass this threshold. Mice were treated for 2 months at 7-day intervals with a range of concentrations of the known allergens ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine, BENZ), 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD). Both proliferative activity and cytokine production were established at day 60. Neither BENZ nor TMTD showed a significant increase in the proliferation rate compared to vehicle controls. Only DNCB at concentrations originally above the EC 3 a significant increase in proliferation was seen after prolonged exposure. No significant effect on IFN-γ and IL-4 production was observed for all three compounds compared. These findings indicate that for classification of sensitizers the shorter exposure period employed in the standard LLNA is sufficient, and longer periods of exposure have no bearing on this classification

  17. Survival without sequelae after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation after electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    "Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.

  18. Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung; Eum, Ki-Do; Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian; Lee, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Main selection criteria were lack of use of contraceptives and experienced pregnancy in recent past. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Prolonged TTP was measured by the "TTP questionnaire". After adjustment for confounding effects of demographic and life-style characteristics and benzene exposure, delayed TTP, defined by frequency of first-cycle pregnancy, was associated with one standard deviation (SD) increase of the effort-reward ratio in the chronically stressed group of married men (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) in logistic regression analysis. A similar, but somewhat weaker effect, was found for the overall group (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.47-0.94). Paternal stress at work, as measured by effort-reward imbalance, seemed to be associated with a decreased number of conceptions in the first menstrual cycle.

  19. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  20. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  1. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  3. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.

  4. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  5. Naloxone fails to prolong seizure length in ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K G; Pandurangi, A K

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in animals has been shown to enhance endogenous opiate systems. The anticonvulsant effects of ECS are also partially blocked by the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, leading some investigators to postulate that the anticonvulsant effects of ECS are mediated by activation of endogenous opiates. If such a phenomenon occurs in humans, then naloxone might prolong seizure length in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In the present study, nine patients were given 2.0 mg intravenous (i.v.) naloxone 2 minutes prior to one-half of their ECT treatments. Motor seizure length was measured via the cuff technique. EEG tracings were read by an investigator blind to naloxone status. There was no difference between the two groups in either EEG or nonblindly evaluated motor seizure length. It is concluded that a dose of 2 mg naloxone does not effectively increase seizure length in ECT.

  6. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  7. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 m...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....... in the brain at rest or after 15 min of exercise, but a small release of IL-6 was observed after 60 min of exercise in the first bout (0.06 +/- 0.03 ng min(-1)). This release of IL-6 from the brain was five-fold greater at the end of the second bout (0.30 +/- 0.08 ng min(-1); P

  8. Fractures and Fanconi syndrome due to prolonged sodium valproate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, N; Högler, W

    2011-06-01

    Sodium valproate (VPA) is commonly used to treat epilepsy in children. Renal dysfunction is a rare side eff ect but can present as tubulopathy such as Fanconi syndrome. We report on an 8-year-old disabled girl with myoclonic epilepsy who was referred for investigation of recurrent low impact fractures of the distal femur which were initially thought to be caused by her severe immobility. However, she was subsequently found to have hypophosphataemia secondary to Fanconi syndrome due to prolonged VPA use. After VPA withdrawal renal function and serum phosphate levels normalised and X-rays improved dramatically. The possibility of drug-induced osteoporosis and fractures should always be considered in disabled children, even in the presence of severe immobility.

  9. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  10. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  11. CNS fatigue provoked by prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to the brain. However, exercise with superimposed hyperthermia is not only a challenge to the brain it also provides an excellent model for studying factors of importance for central fatigue. Excessive heat storage within the brain appears to be the primary cause for the central fatigue during exercise......Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with central fatigue as indicated by an impaired ability to sustain maximal motor activation during prolonged voluntary efforts. Therefore, exercise in hot environments challenges not only to the cardiorespiratory and locomotive systems but also...... to aggravate central fatigue and degrade exercise performance. Hyperthermia mediated central fatigue may include other cerebral perturbations such as reduced perfusion of the brain, accumulation of ammonia or depletion of neuronal energy stores, but further research is needed to elucidate their possible...

  12. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  13. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  14. Efficacy of prolonged antimicrobial chemotherapy for brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, S; Karadima, D; Pneumaticos, S; Athanasiou, H; Pontikis, J; Zormpala, A; Sipsas, N V

    2011-05-01

    The standard treatment of brucellar spondylitis with a combination of two antibiotics for 6-12 weeks is associated with high rates of treatment failure and relapse. The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a treatment strategy based on the prolonged administration of a triple combination of suitable antibiotics. Eighteen patients with brucellar spondylitis were treated with a combination of at least three suitable antibiotics (doxycycline, rifampin, plus intramuscular streptomycin or cotrimoxazole or ciprofloxacin) until the completion of at least 6 months of treatment, when clinical, radiological and serology re-evaluation was performed. If necessary, the treatment was continued with additional 6-month cycles, until resolution or significant improvement of clinical and radiological findings, or for a maximum of 18 months. At presentation, the median age was 66 years (range, 42-85 years) with male predominance. The median duration of therapy was 48 weeks (range 24-72 weeks). Treatment was discontinued early because of side-effects in only one patient. Surgical intervention was required for three patients. At the end of treatment all patients had a complete response. After completion of treatment, all patients were followed up with regular visits. During the follow-up period (duration 1-96 months, median 36.5 months), no relapses were observed. In conclusion, prolonged (at least 6 months) administration of a triple combination of suitable antibiotics appears to be an effective treatment for brucellar spondylitis. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Prolonged neuroinflammation after lipopolysaccharide exposure in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qun Fu

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of several disease states ranging from neurodegeneration to sepsis but is also implicated in physiological processes like ageing. Non-resolving inflammation and prolonged neuroinflammation are unclear processes implicated in several conditions, including ageing. In this study we studied the long-term effects of endotoxemia, as systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection, focusing on the role of astrocyte activation and cytokine release in the brain of aged rats. A single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg or 0.9% saline was injected intraperitoneally in aged rats. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β and NF-κB p65 activation were measured systemically and in hippocampal tissue. Astrocytes and cytokines release in the CNS were detected via double immunofluorescence staining at different time-points up to day 30. Serum levels of TNFα and IL-1β were significantly increased acutely after 30 minutes (p<0.001 and up to 6 hours (p<0.001 following LPS-injection. Centrally, LPS-treated rats showed up-regulated mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. These changes associated with astrogliosis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, IL-1β immunoreactivity and elevated NF-κB p65 expression up to day 30 post LPS exposure. Overall, these data demonstrate that LPS induces prolonged neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. Hippocampal NF-κB p65 and excessive astrocytes-derived IL-1β release may play a pivotal role in regulating long-lasting neuroinflammation.

  16. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  17. Survival in Patients Receiving Prolonged Ventilation: Factors that Influence Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Mamary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged mechanical ventilation is increasingly common. It is expensive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to comprehensively characterize patients admitted to a Ventilator Rehabilitation Unit (VRU for weaning and identify characteristics associated with survival. Methods 182 consecutive patients over 3.5 years admitted to Temple University Hospital (TUH VRU were characterized. Data were derived from comprehensive chart review and a prospectively collected computerized database. Survival was determined by hospital records and social security death index and mailed questionnaires. Results Upon admission to the VRU, patients were hypoalbuminemic (albumin 2.3 ± 0.6 g/dL, anemic (hemoglobin 9.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, with moderate severity of illness (APACHE II score 10.7 + 4.1, and multiple comorbidities (Charlson index 4.3 + 2.3. In-hospital mortality (19% was related to a higher Charlson Index score ( P = 0.006; OR 1.08-1.6, and APACHE II score ( P = 0.016; OR 1.03-1.29. In-hospital mortality was inversely related to admission albumin levels ( P = 0.023; OR 0.17-0.9. The presence of COPD as a comorbid illness or primary determinant of respiratory failure and higher VRU admission APACHE II score predicted higher long-term mortality. Conversely, higher VRU admission hemoglobin was associated with better long term survival (OR 0.57-0.90; P = 0.0006. Conclusion Patients receiving prolonged ventilation are hypoalbuminemic, anemic, have moderate severity of illness, and multiple comorbidities. Survival relates to these factors and the underlying illness precipitating respiratory failure, especially COPD.

  18. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Campos Lobato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal surgeons often struggle to explain to administrators/payers reasons for prolonged length of stay (LOS. This study aim was to identify factors associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Design: The study population included patients from the 2007 American-College-of-Sur- geons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP database undergoing ileocolic resection, segmental colectomy, or anterior resection. The study population was divided into normal (below 75th percentile and prolonged LOS (above the 75th percentile. A multivariate analysis was performed using prolonged LOS as dependent variable and ACS- NSQIP variables as predictive variables. P-value < 0.01 was considered significant. Results: 12,269 patients with a median LOS of 6 (inter-quartile range 4-9 days were includ- ed. There were 2,617 (21.3% patients with prolonged LOS (median 15 days, inter-quartile range 13-22. 1,308 (50% were female, and the median age was 69 (inter-quartile range 57-79 years. Risk factors for prolonged LOS were male gender, congestive heart failure, weight loss, Crohn's disease, preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dL and hematocrit < 47%, base- line sepsis, ASA class ≥ 3, open surgery, surgical time ≥ 190 min, postoperative pneumonia, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, deep venous thrombosis, urinary-tract in- fection, systemic sepsis, surgical site infection and reoperation within 30-days from the primary surgery. Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Our results are useful for surgeons to explain prolonged LOS to administrators/payers who are critical of this metric. Resumo: Objetivo: Os cirurgiões proctologistas muitas vezes enfrentam dificuldades para explicar aos administradores/contribuintes as razões para o prolongamento do tempo de interna- ção hospitalar (TIH. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores associados ao aumen- to do TIH ap

  20. Validação de método para determinação das impurezas cascas e paus em café torrado e moído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumena Cunha Mendes

    Full Text Available Resumo A determinação de impurezas do café torrado e moído faz parte das análises que contribuem para assegurar o controle da qualidade do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o procedimento metodológico de microscopia para detecção e quantificação das impurezas cascas e paus em café torrado e moído. O método baseou-se no princípio da extração de gordura do café com solvente orgânico, eliminação do pó fino por peneiração e determinação por catação pelo uso de microscópio estereoscópico. Setenta amostras de café torrado e moído coletadas em estabelecimentos comerciais de Belo Horizonte, MG, tiveram as análises duplicadas por três analistas, totalizando 420 determinações, com os resultados expressos em porcentagens das impurezas cascas e paus. Os coeficientes de variação em condições de repetibilidade variaram de 7,0% a 27,9%, sendo considerados satisfatórios para microscopia. O fator analista tem forte influência nos parâmetros de precisão e exatidão do método. O método mostrou-se preciso a partir da concentração de 0,2% de impurezas. A exatidão do método foi satisfatória com a recuperação estando numa faixa aceitável. As incertezas variaram com a faixa de concentração de impurezas e tenderam a ser inversamente proporcionais. O método foi considerado adequado para análise destas impurezas do café torrado e moído e tem potencial para ser indicado nos procedimentos de fiscalização.

  1. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women's experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method: Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic an...

  2. AORN Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nancy L; Nelson, Audrey; Matz, Mary W; Lloyd, John

    2011-06-01

    Prolonged standing during surgical procedures poses a high risk of causing musculoskeletal disorders, including back, leg, and foot pain, which can be chronic or acute in nature. Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings provides recommendations for relieving the strain of prolonged standing, including the use of antifatigue mats, supportive footwear, and sit/stand stools, that are based on well-accepted ergonomic safety concepts, current research, and access to new and emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Prolong Cardiac Repolarization through Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Stan; Deurinck, Mark; Ju, Haisong; Traebert, Martin; McLean, LeeAnne; Marlowe, Jennifer; Emotte, Corinne; Tritto, Elaine; Tseng, Min; Shultz, Michael; Friedrichs, Gregory S

    2016-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of anticancer agents that modify gene expression by altering the acetylation status of lysine residues of histone proteins, thereby inducing transcription, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and cell death or apoptosis of cancer cells. In the clinical setting, treatment with HDAC inhibitors has been associated with delayed cardiac repolarization and in rare instances a lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The mechanism(s) of HDAC inhibitor-induced effects on cardiac repolarization is unknown. We demonstrate that administration of structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors to dogs causes delayed but persistent increases in the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc), an in vivo measure of cardiac repolarization, at timepoints far removed from the Tmax for parent drug and metabolites. Transcriptional profiling of ventricular myocardium from dogs treated with various HDAC inhibitors demonstrated effects on genes involved in protein trafficking, scaffolding and insertion of various ion channels into the cell membrane as well as genes for specific ion channel subunits involved in cardiac repolarization. Extensive in vitro ion channel profiling of various structural classes of HDAC inhibitors (and their major metabolites) by binding and acute patch clamp assays failed to show any consistent correlations with direct ion channel blockade. Drug-induced rescue of an intracellular trafficking-deficient mutant potassium ion channel, hERG (G601S), and decreased maturation (glycosylation) of wild-type hERG expressed by CHO cells in vitro correlated with prolongation of QTc intervals observed in vivo The results suggest that HDAC inhibitor-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization may be mediated in part by transcriptional changes of genes required for ion channel trafficking and localization to the sarcolemma. These data have broad implications for the development of these drug classes and

  4. Parto inducido por embarazo prolongado Induced delivery in prolonged gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Peña Abraham

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, explicativo y longitudinal sobre el comportamiento de la inducción del parto por embarazo prolongado en el Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico "Justo Legón Padilla", en el período comprendido entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2005.El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de los nacimientos por embarazo prolongado que se produjeron en el período, donde el grupo estudio estaba exclusivamente formado por las gestantes con trabajo de parto inducido (n=104; se estudiaron variables de la madre, del nacimiento y del producto de la concepción y a los datos obtenidos se les aplicó porcentaje. La edad materna más frecuente fue la del grupo de 20 - 35 años (65,5%; predominaron las nulíparas (40,4%, la vía del parto que predominó fue la transpelviana (42,3%; todos con un índice de Bishop >7 puntos La causa más frecuente de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo (23%; el embarazo prolongado no constituyó una causa importante de Apgar Bajo, en el parto distócico fue donde ocurrió el mayor número de morbilidad materna y neonatal (9,5%, no se encontró valor significativo en la macrosomía fetal y predominó el sexo femenino en los recién nacidos (65,3%.A retrospective, descriptive, explicative and longitudinal study about the behavior of the induction of labor in prolonged pregnancy was conducted at "Justo Legón Padilla" Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital during the period of January 2004 to December 2005. The whole sample was constituted by the totality of births in prolongad pregnancy during the period where the study group was exclusively formed by pregnants who underwent induced labor (n = 104.Variables of mother, birth and conception product were taken, and percentage method was applied to data collected. The group of most frequent maternal age was 20 - 35 (65,5%, prevailing nulliparous (40,4% and transpelvic labor (42,3%, having a Bishop index = 7. The most frequent cause of cesarean section

  5. Features of History, Anthropometric Data and Individual Functions of the Liver in Children with Prolonged Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Tyajka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neonatal jaundice is one of the urgent problems in neonatology. There is a tendency to increase the incidence of prolonged jaundice. The aim of our study was to explore the features of history, anthropometric data and some liver functions in children with prolonged jaundice. Materials and methods. The study involved 111 children with prolonged jaundice aged from 3 weeks to 3 months. In all children with prolonged jaundice, we have examined complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry (determination of total bilirubin and fractions, total protein, albumin, glucose and used instrumental methods of examination — ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and cranial ultrasonography, electrocardiography. Most children with prolonged jaundice were breastfed and were term infants. Results. Indicators of physical development at birth (body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference in children with prolonged jaundice and in healthy children had not statistically significant differences. Neonatal jaundice was prolonged in children, who were born from the first pregnancy, — 60 children (54.1 %. A high level of total and indirect bilirubin was accompanied by a low level of albumin in the blood serum of children with prolonged jaundice. Protein-synthesis function of the liver was reduced in children with prolonged jaundice.

  6. Are shame and self-esteem risk factors in prolonged grief after death of a spouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellmann, Thomas

    2018-07-01

    Although many single factors of prolonged grief have been identified in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of predictors is still lacking. This article argues that shame and low self-esteem, present risk factors in prolonged grief after spousal loss, based on a review of correlational studies. Using a practitioner-scientist approach, a developmental model of shame as a core factor in prolonged grief is proposed, outlining the progression from childhood relational trauma, to insecure attachment, shame, self-esteem contingent on spousal approval to eventual prolonged grief.

  7. Mean arterial pressure following prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, D; Lynn, A G; Binder, K

    2012-01-01

    benefit to its regulation. We examined MAP (Finometer) in eight trained (T) and eight untrained (UT) individuals prior to, and following, 120 min of cycling at 42 °C with (HYD) and without (DEHY) fluid replacement. Exercise during DEHY induced significant hyperthermia (T: 39.20 ± 0.52 °C vs UT: 38.70 ± 0......Prolonged exercise in the heat without fluid replacement represents a significant challenge to the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP). It is unknown, however, if MAP is equally challenged during the post-exercise period, and whether regular endurance exercise training can provide any.......36 °C, P = 0.941) and body weight losses (T: 3.4 ± 1.2% vs UT: 2.7 ± 0.9%, P = 0.332), which did not differ between groups. Although MAP was equally reduced 5 min into the post-exercise period of DEHY (T: -20 ± 11 mmHg vs UT: -22 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.800), its subsequent recovery was significantly different...

  8. Response of Escherichia coli to Prolonged Berberine Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budeyri Gokgoz, Nilay; Avci, Fatma Gizem; Yoneten, Kubra Karaosmanoglu; Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Ozkirimli, Elif; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kazan, Dilek; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2017-07-01

    Berberine is a plant-derived alkaloid possessing antimicrobial activity; unfortunately, its efflux through multidrug resistance pumps reduces its efficacy. Cellular life span of Escherichia coli is generally shorter with prolonged berberine exposure; nevertheless, about 30% of the cells still remain robust following this treatment. To elucidate its mechanism of action and to identify proteins that could be involved in development of antimicrobial resistance, protein profiles of E. coli cells treated with berberine for 4.5 and 8 hours were compared with control cells. A total of 42 proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with berberine for 8 hours when compared to control cells. In both 4.5 and 8 hours of berberine-treated cells, carbohydrate and peptide uptake regimens remained unchanged, although amino acid maintenance regimen switched from transport to synthesis. Defect in cell division persisted and this condition was confirmed by images obtained from scanning electron microscopy. Universal stress proteins were not involved in stress response. The significant increase in the abundance of elongation factors could suggest the involvement of these proteins in protection by exhibiting chaperone activities. Furthermore, the involvement of the outer membrane protein OmpW could receive special attention as a protein involved in response to antimicrobial agents, since the expression of only this porin protein was upregulated after 8 hours of exposure.

  9. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...

  10. Burst stimulation improves hemodynamics during resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond

    2009-02-01

    Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Six swine were studied that underwent 6-7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3-4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean+/-SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2+/-2.5 min. Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above prestimulation levels.

  11. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  12. Progranulin inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, A M; Al-Masri, A A; El Eter, E A; Hersi, A; Lateef, R; Mawlana, O

    2018-05-01

    Several adipokines secreted by adipose tissue have an anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic function. Recently identified adipokine progranulin was found to play a protective role in atherosclerosis. Bearing in mind the central role of platelets in inflammation and atherosclerosis, we aimed, in this study, to examine the effect of progranulin on platelet function and coagulation profile in rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were given increasing doses of progranulin (0.001 µg, 0.01 µg, and 0.1 µg) intraperitoneally, while the control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelet aggregation responses to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid were assessed. Administration of progranulin resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to both adenosine diphosphate, and arachidonic acid. Bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in all groups that received progranulin, in particular, the 0.1 µg dose, in comparison to the control group. This preliminary data is first suggesting that the antiplatelet and anticoagulant action of progranulin could have a physiological protective function against thrombotic disorders associated with obesity and atherosclerosis. However, these results merit further exploration.

  13. Predictors of successful weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Kuang; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2009-08-01

    For adult patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV, >/=21 days), successful weaning has been attributed to various factors. The purpose of this study was to describe patient outcomes, weaning rates and factors in successful weaning at a hospital-based respiratory care center (RCC) in Taiwan. This was a retrospective observational study performed in a 24-bed RCC over six years. A total of 1307 patients on PMV were included in the study. The overall survival rate was 62%. Fifty-six percent of patients were successfully weaned. Unsuccessfully weaned patients had higher MICU transfer rates, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, longer duration of RCC stay, higher rates of being bed-ridden prior to admission, increased hemodialysis rates, higher modified Glasgow Coma Scale scores, higher rapid shallow breathing index, lower inspiratory pressure at residual volume (PImax) and lower blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Factors found to be associated with unsuccessful weaning were length of RCC stay (OR=1.04, Pventilator independence can be achieved in an RCC setting as an alternative to ICU care. Factors associated with unsuccessful weaning included longer duration of RCC stay, elevated BUN levels and lower modified GCS scores, serum albumin and PImax levels.

  14. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival.

  15. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival

  16. Glucocorticoid augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy: rationale and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pratchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.

  17. Physiological Responses and Hedonics During Prolonged Physically Interactive Videogame Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E; Hafen, Paul S; Navalta, James

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to assess physiologic responses and hedonics (i.e., liking) during prolonged physically interactive videogame play. Participants (n = 24) completed three 30-minute videogame conditions on separate days in a random order. During two of the conditions participants played physically interactive videogames (Nintendo of America, Inc. [Redmond, WA] "Wii™ Fit" "Basic Run" and "Basic Step"). During the third condition participants played a traditional/sedentary game ("Tanks!"), which required minimal physical movement for gameplay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was assessed using indirect calorimetry throughout each condition and averaged every 5 minutes. Liking was assessed via visual analog scale at the 15- and 30-minute time points during each condition. Mean VO2 was significantly (P videogame (5.39 ± 1.0 mL/kg/minute, 1.5 ± 0.1 METs). "Basic Step" was also greater (P videogame conditions. Furthermore, because liking was similar across all gaming conditions, participants may be willing to substitute the physically interactive videogames in place of the traditional/sedentary game.

  18. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.

  19. Thermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during prolonged treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Nagle, F J; Mookerjee, S; Darr, K C; Ng, A V; Voss, S G; Napp, J P

    1987-02-01

    We examined the physiological responses to skin wetting during a 120-min level treadmill run to assess whether skin wetting would reduce the dehydration and the increase in core temperature associated with prolonged exercise. Testing was conducted in an environmental chamber (T = 29.5 degrees C, wind velocity = 3 m X sec-1) under two different humidity conditions (33 or 66% relative humidity). Ten male subjects performed two runs in each humidity condition; one served as a control run. The other included spraying the body with 50 ml of water (T = 29.5 degrees C) every 10 min. Spraying had no effect on rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate, oxygen consumption, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or percent change in plasma volume in both the humid and the dry conditions. Spraying produced a significant reduction in mean skin temperature (Tsk), which increased the (Tre - Tsk) gradient. At the same time, overall skin conductance (K) was decreased, presumably as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the low Tsk. Since heat transfer from the body's core to the skin is expressed by the equation: heat transfer = K X (Tre - Tsk) the spraying had no effect on heat transfer away from the core, and Tre remained unchanged.

  20. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death risk in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma I; Ackerman, Michael J; Shamoun, Fadi E; Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R; Love, William T; Cha, Stephen S; Bos, Johan M; Lester, Steven J

    2018-03-07

    Risk assessment for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains complex. The goal of this study was to assess electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived risk factors on SCD in a large HCM population Methods: Retrospective review of adults with HCM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1 December 2002 to 31 December 2012 was performed. Data inclusive of ECG and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor were assessed. SCD events were documented by ventricular fibrillation (VF) noted on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or appropriate VT or VF-terminating ICD shock. Overall, 1615 patients (mean age 53.7 ± 15.2 years; 943 males, 58.4%) were assessed, with mean follow-up 2.46 years and 110 SCD events. Via logistic regression (n = 820), the odds of SCD increased with increasing number of conventional risk factors. With one risk factor the OR was 4.88 (p  450 to this logistic regression model had OR 1.722 (p = .04, CI 1.01-2.937) to predict SCD. QTc ≥ 450 was a significant predictor for death (HR 1.88, p = .021, CI 1.10-3.20). There was no correlation between sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, first degree AV block, atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature atrial complexes, premature ventricular complexes, supraventricular tachycardia, PR interval, QRS interval and SCD. Prolonged QTc was a risk factor for SCD and death even when controlling for typical risk factors.

  1. Prolonged peritoneal gene expression using a helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limin; Shi, Chang-Xin; Ghayur, Ayesha; Zhang, Claire; Su, Je Yen; Hoff, Catherine M; Margetts, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. The causes of EPS are not well defined and are likely multifactorial. A suitable animal model would facilitate research into the pathophysiology and treatment of EPS. We developed a helper-dependent adenovirus that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1; HDAdTGF-beta1). Mice were administered HDAdTGF-beta1 via intraperitoneal injection and the response was compared with mice administered either first-generation adenovirus expressing TGF-beta1 (AdTGF-beta1) or control adenovirus (AdGFP). HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice continued to express the GFP reporter transgene to day 74, the end of the observation period. Transgene expression lasted less than 28 days in the animals treated with first-generation adenoviruses. Animals treated with first-generation AdTGF-beta1 demonstrated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis at day 7, with almost complete resolution by day 28. The HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice demonstrated progressive peritoneal fibrosis with adhesion formation and encapsulation of bowels. Weight gain was significantly reduced in animals treated with HDAdTGF-beta1 compared to both the control-treated animals and the AdTGF-beta1-treated animals. Inflammation was not a major component of the fibroproliferative response. Peritoneal administration of a first-generation AdTGF-beta1 leads to transient gene expression, resulting in a resolving fibrotic response and histology similar to that seen in simple peritoneal sclerosis. Prolonged TGF-beta1 expression induced by the helper-dependent HDAdTGF-beta1 led to changes in peritoneal morphology resembling EPS. This suggests that TGF-beta1 may be a contributing factor in both simple peritoneal sclerosis and EPS. This model will be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of EPS and evaluation of potential treatment.

  2. Thioredoxin priming prolongs lung allograft survival by promoting immune tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Hu

    Full Text Available Tolerance to allograft antigen is the major challenge and final goal of transplant medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx priming of donor lung significantly protected allogeneic lung graft. To determine whether Trx priming of donor lung inhibits allograft rejection, extends allograft survival and induces immune tolerance, orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed from Lewis to Sprague-Dawley rats without immunosuppression. Donor lungs were primed with Trx at 4°C for 4 hr prior to transplantation. After up to 37 days post-transplantation, allograft lung morphology, recipient T cell and humoral alloantigen-specific immune responses were examined. We found that Trx-primed lungs exhibited much reduced acute rejection and associated lung injuries resulting in loss of graft functional area at 5-37 days post-transplant in contrast to the control groups. CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts responded to the stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs of donor origin, in contrast to DCs from the third party, with significantly reduced proliferation. Consistent with above findings, we observed that CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleen cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts were significantly increased compared to controls, and CD4+ T cells from the recipients with Trx-primed grafts produced much higher levels of immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10 when stimulated with allogeneic donor DCs. In addition, humoral immune tolerance was also induced as there was no significant increase levels of serum antibodies against donor antigens in Trx-lung recipients when re-challenged with allogeneic donor antigens. Our results demonstrate that one-time Trx-priming of donor lung grafts prior to transplantation significantly prolongs the survival of the grafts through inducing or promoting cellular and humoral alloantigen-specific immune tolerance, which might be associated with the induction of

  3. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Unintended Prolonged Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Brummett, Chad M; Sullivan, Mark D; Goesling, Jenna; Tilburt, Jon C; Merlin, Jessica S; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Wasan, Ajay D; Clauw, Daniel J; Warner, David O

    2017-12-01

    An urgent need exists to better understand the transition from short-term opioid use to unintended prolonged opioid use (UPOU). The purpose of this work is to propose a conceptual framework for understanding UPOU that posits the influence of 3 principal domains that include the characteristics of (1) individual patients, (2) the practice environment, and (3) opioid prescribers. Although no standardized method exists for developing a conceptual framework, the process often involves identifying corroborative evidence, leveraging expert opinion to identify factors for inclusion in the framework, and developing a graphic depiction of the relationships between the various factors and the clinical problem of interest. Key patient characteristics potentially associated with UPOU include (1) medical and mental health conditions; (2) pain etiology; (3) individual affective, behavioral, and neurophysiologic reactions to pain and opioids; and (4) sociodemographic factors. Also, UPOU could be influenced by structural and health care policy factors: (1) the practice environment, including the roles of prescribing clinicians, adoption of relevant practice guidelines, and clinician incentives or disincentives, and (2) the regulatory environment. Finally, characteristics inherent to clinicians that could influence prescribing practices include (1) training in pain management and opioid use; (2) personal attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the risks and benefits of opioids; and (3) professionalism. As the gatekeeper to opioid access, the behavior of prescribing clinicians directly mediates UPOU, with the 3 domains interacting to determine this behavior. This proposed conceptual framework could guide future research on the topic and allow plausible hypothesis-based interventions to reduce UPOU. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prolonged Adaptive Evolution of a Defensive Gene in the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausher, Mark D; Huang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Although plants and their natural enemies may coevolve for prolonged periods, little is known about how long individual plant defensive genes are involved in the coevolutionary process. We address this issue by examining patterns of selection on the defensive gene threonine deaminase (TD). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has two copies of this gene. One performs the canonical housekeeping function in amino acid metabolism of catalyzing the first reaction in the conversion of threonine to isoleucine. The second copy functions as an antinutritive defense against lepidopteran herbivores by depleting threonine in the insect gut. Wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) also contains a defensive copy. We show that a single copy of TD underwent two or three duplications near the base of the Solanaceae. One copy retains the housekeeping function, whereas a second copy evolved defensive functions. Positive selection occurred on the branch of the TD2 gene tree subtending the common ancestor of the Nicotianoideae and Solanoideae. It also occurred within the Solanoideae clade but not within the Nicotianoideae clade. Finally, it occurred on most branches leading from the common ancestor to S. lycopersicum. Based on recent calibrations of the Solanaceae phylogeny, TD2 experienced adaptive substitutions for a period of 30-50 My. We suggest that the most likely explanation for this result is fluctuating herbivore abundances: When herbivores are rare, relaxed selection increases the likelihood that slightly disadvantageous mutations will be fixed by drift; when herbivores are common, increased selection causes the evolution of compensatory adaptive mutations. Alternative explanations are also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Safety and tolerability of prolonged-release nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birjmohun, R. S.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Poldermans, D.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Hostalek, U.; Assmann, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of prolonged -release nicotinic acid (Niaspan*) added to statin therapy in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: This was a 6-month, prospective, observational, multicentre, open-label evaluation of prolonged-release nicotinic acid

  7. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation : comparison of European Union and United States drug labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, Miriam J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Mol, Peter G M; De Bruin, Marie L.

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approved

  8. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation : Comparison of European Union and United States drug labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, Miriam J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Rutten, Frans H.; Hoes, Arno W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Mol, Peter G. M.; De Bruin, Marie L.

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approved

  9. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  10. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  11. Levofloxacin-Induced QTc Prolongation Depends on the Time of Drug Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervezee, L; Gotta, V; Stevens, J; Birkhoff, W; Kamerling, Imc; Danhof, M; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing a drug's potential to prolong the QTc interval on an electrocardiogram is essential for the correct evaluation of its safety profile. To explore the effect of dosing time on drug-induced QTc prolongation, a randomized, crossover, clinical trial was conducted in

  12. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  13. High frequency of pertussis in older children and adolescents with prolonged cough in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Aslı; Kurugöl, Zafer; Aydemir, Şöhret; Gürsel, Derya; Koturoğlu, Güldane

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of B. pertussis infection among Turkish children with prolonged cough. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 7-18 year old children, presenting with prolonged cough of two to four weeks' duration. Specimens were examined for B. pertussis by PCR. Of 101 children with prolonged cough, 20 (19.8%) had a positive PCR testing for B. pertussis. Children who were vaccinated ≥5 years previously had a 6.13-fold higher risk of PCR-confirmed pertussis than those who were vaccinated pertussis (paroxysmal cough, whooping and post-tussive vomiting) were seen in 30%, 15% and 25% of the patients with positive PCR, respectively; 55% of them had only a prolonged cough without any classic symptoms. Pertussis is common among Turkish children with prolonged cough, even after implementation of a fifth dose of pertussis vaccination and despite high vaccination coverage.

  14. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  15. Effects of hydrogen rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ponte, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Nicola; Nigris, Daniele; Lazzer, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies showed a positive effect of hydrogen rich water (HRW) intake on acid-base homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. In a cross over single-blind protocol, 8 trained male cyclists (age [mean±SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 52.6±4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7.6, oxidation/reduction potential [ORP] +230 mV, free hydrogen content 0 ppb) or HRW (pH 9.8, ORP -180 mV, free Hydrogen 450 ppb). Tests were performed at baseline and after each period of 2 weeks of treatment. The treatments were counter-balanced and the sequence randomized. The 30-minute intermittent cycling trial consisted in 10 3-minute blocks, each one composed by 90 seconds at 40% V̇O2max, 60 seconds at 60% V̇O2max, 16 seconds all out sprint, and 14 seconds active recovery. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), heart rate and power output were measured during the whole test, while mean and peak power output (PPO), time to peak power and Fatigue Index (FI) were determined during all the 16 seconds sprints. Lactate, pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were determined at rest and after each sprint on blood obtained by an antecubital vein indwelling catheter. In the PLA group, PPO in absolute values decreased significantly at the 8th and 9th of 10 sprints and in relative values, ΔPPO, decreased significantly at 6th, 8th and 9th of 10 sprints (by mean: -12±5%, Pmay help to maintain PPO in repetitive sprints to exhaustion over 30 minutes.

  16. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  17. Electrocardiographic PR prolongation and atrial fibrillation risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shu; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiographic PR interval prolongation is considered a benign condition, but recent studies have challenged the notion by demonstrating that prolonged PR interval is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the evidence supporting an association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE database (from inception to May 2014) supplemented by manual searches of references of relevant retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included with hazard ratio (HR) of prolonged PR interval for incident AF. The search strategy yielded 6 cohort studies meeting eligibility criteria. A total of 328,932 participants were included, with 14,191 participants suffering from AF during follow-up. Pooled HRs of prolonged PR interval for incident AF was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.49) using random-effect model (I(2) = 30%). There was a significant difference of combined HRs between studies with and without adjustment for taking of AV nodal blocking agents in subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of the results. Prolonged PR interval is not a totally benign condition but an independent risk factor for AF incidence. The mechanisms underlying the association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence need further research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Does a 'tight' hamstring predict low back pain reporting during prolonged standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftry, Sean M; Marshall, Paul W M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hamstring passive stiffness and extensibility in asymptomatic individuals with the reporting of low back pain during 2-h prolonged standing. Twenty healthy participants with no history of low back pain (mean±SD, age 22.6±2.7 years, height 1.74±0.09 m, weight 76.2±14.8 kg). Low back pain (VAS score; mm) was continuously monitored during 2-h prolonged standing. Hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, and stretch tolerance were measured before and after prolonged standing using an instrumented straight leg raise (iSLR). Ten participants reported a clinically relevant increase (Δ VAS>10mm) in low back pain during prolonged standing. Hamstring extensiblity (leg°(max)), passive stiffness (Nm.°(-1)), and stretch tolerance (VAS; mm) were no different between pain developers and non-pain developers. No changes in hamstring measures were observed following 2-h prolonged standing. No relationship was observed in this study between measures of hamstring extensibility and the reporting of low back pain during prolonged standing. There is no evidence to recommend hamstring extensibility interventions (i.e. passive stretching) as a means of reducing pain reporting in occupations requiring prolonged standing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Tang

    Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.

  20. Ventricular Cycle Length Characteristics Estimative of Prolonged RR Interval during Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIACCIO, EDWARD J.; BIVIANO, ANGELO B.; GAMBHIR, ALOK; EINSTEIN, ANDREW J.; GARAN, HASAN

    2014-01-01

    Background When atrial fibrillation (AF) is incessant, imaging during a prolonged ventricular RR interval may improve image quality. It was hypothesized that long RR intervals could be predicted from preceding RR values. Methods From the PhysioNet database, electrocardiogram RR intervals were obtained from 74 persistent AF patients. An RR interval lengthened by at least 250 ms beyond the immediately preceding RR interval (termed T0 and T1, respectively) was considered prolonged. A two-parameter scatterplot was used to predict the occurrence of a prolonged interval T0. The scatterplot parameters were: (1) RR variability (RRv) estimated as the average second derivative from 10 previous pairs of RR differences, T13–T2, and (2) Tm–T1, the difference between Tm, the mean from T13 to T2, and T1. For each patient, scatterplots were constructed using preliminary data from the first hour. The ranges of parameters 1 and 2 were adjusted to maximize the proportion of prolonged RR intervals within range. These constraints were used for prediction of prolonged RR in test data collected during the second hour. Results The mean prolonged event was 1.0 seconds in duration. Actual prolonged events were identified with a mean positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% in the test set. PPV was >80% in 36 of 74 patients. An average of 10.8 prolonged RR intervals per 60 minutes was correctly identified. Conclusions A method was developed to predict prolonged RR intervals using two parameters and prior statistical sampling for each patient. This or similar methodology may help improve cardiac imaging in many longstanding persistent AF patients. PMID:23998759

  1. Psychotropic Pharmacotherapy Associated With QT Prolongation Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; McNeal, Catherine J; Banchs, Javier E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2018-04-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for depression and commonly used for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evaluation of the risk for QT prolongation among other psychotropic drugs for individuals with PTSD remains limited. Explore psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among veterans with PTSD. Patients in the Veterans Health Administration in 2006-2009 with PTSD and QT prolongation (176 cases) were matched 1:4 on age, gender, visit date and setting, and physical comorbidity. Classification trees assessed QT prolongation risk among prescribed medications (n=880). Receipt of any drug with known risk of QT prolongation varied by group (23% QT cases vs 15% control, prisks included ziprasidone (3% vs 1%, p=0.02) and buspirone (6% vs 2%, p=0.01). Increased risk was not observed for the SSRIs, citalopram and fluoxetine. Classification trees found that sotalol and amitriptyline carried greater risk among cardiac patients and methadone, especially if prescribed with quetiapine, among noncardiac patients. Per adjusted survival model, patients with QT prolongation were at increased risk for death (hazard ratio=1.60; 95% CI=1.04-2.44). Decision models are particularly advantageous when exploring nonlinear relationships or nonadditive interactions. These findings may potentially affect clinical decision-making concerning treatment for PTSD. For patients at higher risk of QT prolongation, antidepressants other than amitriptyline should be considered. Medications for comorbid conditions should also be closely monitored for heightened QT prolongation risk.

  2. The Significance of Prolonged and Saddleback Fever in Hospitalised Adult Dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Hl Ng

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of them were male with a median age of 34 years. Prolonged fever (fever > 7 days duration was present in 572 (20.1% of patients. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, dengue shock syndrome (DSS and severe dengue (SD were significantly more likely to occur in patients with prolonged fever. Mucosal bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, rash, clinical fluid accumulation, hepatomegaly, nosocomial infection, leukopenia, higher neutrophil count, higher hematocrit, higher alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, higher creatinine, lower protein and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT were significantly associated with prolonged fever but not platelet count or prothrombin time (PT. Saddleback fever was present in 165 (5.8%. Although DHF and SD were more likely to occur in patients in those with saddleback fever, DSS was not. Compared with prolonged fever, saddleback fever did not show many significant associations except for diarrhea, abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, hematocrit and platelet change, and lower systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrates that prolonged fever may be associated with various warning signs and more severe forms of dengue (SD, DSS, DHF, while saddleback fever showed associations with DHF and SD but not DSS. The presence of prolonged or saddleback fever in dengue patients should therefore

  3. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women’s experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic and obstetric background, birth outcome and women’s feelings and experiences of birth. The prevalence of prolonged labour, as defined by a documented ICD-code and inspection of partogram was calculated. Four groups were identified; women with prolonged labour as identified by documented ICD-codes or by partogram inspection but no ICD-code; women with normal labour augmented with oxytocin or not. Results Every fifth woman experienced a prolonged labour. The prevalence with the documented ICD-code was (13%) and without ICD-code but positive partogram was (8%). Seven percent of women with prolonged labour were not treated with oxytocin. Approximately one in three women (28%) received oxytocin augmentation despite having no evidence of prolonged labour. The length of labour differed between the four groups of women, from 7 to 23 hours. Women with a prolonged labour had a negative birth experience more often (13%) than did women who had a normal labour (3%) (P women with prolonged labour were emergency Caesarean section (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and to strongly agree with the following statement ‘My birth experience made me decide not to have any more children’ (OR 41.3, 95% CI 4.9-349.6). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with normal labour were less agreement with the statement ‘It was exiting to give birth’ (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.34-0.5). Conclusions There is need for increased clinical skill in identification and classification

  4. Performance and brain electrical activity during prolonged confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Lorenz, J; Manzey, D

    1996-01-01

    to be associated with an increasing demand on perceptual cue utilization required by the tracking performance. In one subject marked attenuation of alpha power occurred during the first half of the confinement period, where he also scored the highest fatigue ratings. A striking increase in fronto-central theta activity was observed in the same subject after six weeks of isolation. The change was associated with an efficient rather than a degraded task performance, and a high rating of the item "concentrated" and a low rating of the item "fatigued." This finding supports the hypothesis that the activation state associated with increased fronto-central theta activity accompanies efficient performance of demanding mental tasks. The usefulness of standardized laboratory tasks as monitoring instruments is demonstrated by the direct comparability with results of studies obtained from other relevant research applications using the same tasks. The feasibility of a self-administered integrated psychophysiological assessment of the individual state was illustrated by the nearly complete collection of data. The large number of individual data collected over the entire period permitted application of quantitative single-subject analysis, allowing reliable determination of changes in the individual state in the course of time. It thus appears that this assessment technique can be adapted for in-flight monitoring of astronauts during prolonged spaceflights. Parallel EEG recording can provide relevant supplementary information for diagnosing the individual activation state associated with task performance. The existence of large individual differences in the generation of task-sensitive EEG rhythms forms an important issue for further studies.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  6. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release tacrolimus and implications for use in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria G; Undre, Nasrullah; Keirns, James; Fitzsimmons, William E; Brown, Malcolm; First, M Roy

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged-release tacrolimus was developed as a once-daily formulation with ethylcellulose as the excipient, resulting in slower release and reduction in peak concentration (Cmax ) for a given dose compared with immediate-release tacrolimus, which is administered twice daily. This manuscript reviews pharmacokinetic information on prolonged-release tacrolimus in healthy subjects, in transplant recipients converted from immediate-release tacrolimus, and in de novo kidney and liver transplant recipients. As with the immediate-release formulation, prolonged-release tacrolimus shows a strong correlation between trough concentration (Cmin ) and area under the 24-hour time-concentration curve (AUC24 ), indicating that trough whole blood concentrations provide an accurate measure of drug exposure. We present the pharmacokinetic similarities and differences between the two formulations, so that prescribing physicians will have a better understanding of therapeutic drug monitoring in patients receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patients with prolonged effect of succinylcholine or mivacurium had novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Sine; Færk, Gitte; Bundgaard, Jens R.

    2016-01-01

    with prolonged duration of action to succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients were studied if they had equivocal phenotypes on the basis of BChE activity, biochemical inhibitor reactions and with pedigree if possible. Complete nucleotide sequencing was performed to describe the genotype and pedigree was used......Introduction Mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE) can result in prolonged duration of action of the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium, as BChE hydrolyses these drugs. Hereditary low BChE activity can cause extensively prolonged apnoea during general...... anaesthesia when these drugs are used. The aim of this study was to describe novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients who have experienced prolonged duration of action of mivacurium or succinylcholine. Methods The Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit registers patients...

  8. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of a Provincial Prolonged-Ventilation Weaning Centre: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing numbers of critically ill patients require prolonged mechanical ventilation and experience difficulty with weaning. Specialized centres may facilitate weaning through focused interprofessional expertise with an emphasis on rehabilitation.

  9. Chemical pleurodesis for prolonged postoperative air leak in primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung How

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Chemical pleurodesis using OK-432 or minocycline is safe and convenient for prolonged air leak after thoracoscopic treatment for PSP. Our experience suggested that OK-432 may be more effective than minocycline in reducing air leak.

  10. The stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhtaev, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    This book studies the stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation, pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness, action hematosis stimulators in short-term irradiation conditions

  11. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Asano

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough.

  12. Ciprofloxacin does not Prolong the QTc Interval : A Clinical Study in ICU Patients and Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Woldman, Evelien; Pereboom, Marieke; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje; Van Gemeren, Claudia; Becker, Matthijs Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ciprofloxacin may prolong the QT interval and increase the risk of Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin in patients with additional risks may elevate the risk of QTc interval prolongation. We prospectively assessed whether intravenous ciprofloxacin prolongs

  13. Safety and efficacy of prolonged epidural analgesia after oncologic colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Garyaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates effective thoracic epidural analgesia by ropivacain 0.2 %, phentanyl 2 mkg/ml, adrenaline 2 mkg/ml in single-use infusion pumps in 124 patients, who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer. Safe, effective and controllable analgesia was observed during surgery and postoperative period. Prolonged analgesia facilitates early rehabilitation and improves gastrointestinal peristaltic activity.  Prolonged epidural analgesia is the recommended method of analgesia in this group of patients.

  14. Nationwide analysis of prolonged hospital stay and readmission after elective ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death <30 days after elective ventral hernia repair.......Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death

  15. Dose formation and hematologic effects with prolonged internal exposure of rats by isotope 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sova, O.A.; Drozd, Yi.P.

    2013-01-01

    Processes in single dose formation and long-term domestic revenue 131 I in rats was investigated. Original method of estimating absorbed doses in hemacyte for macro-dosemeters indicators was proposed. Dose factors for hemacyte and the dynamics of the blood-forming organs doses for prolonged two cases of prolonged exposure was calculated. Hematologic effects were studied for two variants of entry of the isotope. Peculiarities of doses formation and identified hematological effects are discussed

  16. Unfavourable effect of prolonged treatment with antithyroid drugs on radioiodine therapy outcome in Graves' hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Sekulić, Vladan; Zečević, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy (RIT) of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) is usually recommended after failure of primary therapy with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), which are commonly prescribed for up to 18-24 months. However, in our region, the prolonged ATDs treatment of the disease is very common. Thus, we assessed the efficacy of RIT after prolonged continual pretreatment with ATDs in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Therapy outcome using a single dose of radioiodine was evaluated after one year in 91 patients (f/m...

  17. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...... of the study was to assess the clinical significance of genetic variants in butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients with a suspected prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine after ECT....

  18. Prolonged grief: where to after Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Although there is much evidence for the construct of prolonged grief, there was much controversy over the proposal to introduce a prolonged grief diagnosis into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), and it was finally rejected as a diagnosis in DSM-5. This review outlines the evidence for and against the diagnosis, and highlights the implications of the DSM-5 decision. Convergent evidence indicates that prolonged grief characterized by persistently severe yearning for the deceased is a distinct construct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, is associated with marked functional impairment, is responsive to targeted treatments for prolonged grief, and has been validated across different cultures, age groups, and types of bereavement. Although DSM-5 has rejected the construct as a formal diagnosis, evidence continues to emerge on related mechanisms, including maladaptive appraisals, memory and attentional processes, immunological and arousal responses, and neural circuitry. It is most likely that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will introduce a diagnosis to recognize prolonged grief, even though DSM-5 has decided against this option. It is probable that the DSM-5 decision may result in more prolonged grief patients being incorrectly diagnosed with depression after bereavement and possibly incorrectly treated. The DSM-5 decision is unlikely to impact on future research agendas.

  19. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  20. Com quantos paus se faz uma canoa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Andrade Paraizo

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, pretendo trabalhar com o conto /tA terceira margem do rio", no contexto do livro Primeiras Estórias, de João Guimarães Rosa, confrontando-o com ofilme de Nelson Pereira dos Santos e a música de Milton Nascimento e Caetano Veloso, ambos com o mesmo nome. Os três trabalhos nos mostram o efeito de repetição no processo narrativo.

  1. A time to pause and ponder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer; Spencer, Christopher

    @bolton.ac.uk) will build on his work with teacher educators, self-reflection as professional development and practice (Spencer, 2015). This study considers how to maintain and continue to develop professional skills and knowledge, where teacher educators systematically reflect on among other things...... Thyself: Self-Reflection and Judgement of the Teachers of Teachers” (presentation to the ‘Reflective Learning and Teaching for Thinking’ TIG @ ETEN 2015 http://www.jeten-online.org/index.php/jeten/article/view/91/116...

  2. Menafsir Dekonstruksi Derida dalam Sosok Paus Fransiskus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Fios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Derida is a phenomenal philosopher through his philosophy of deconstruction theory. Derida showed systematically the death of structuralism. His speech shocked the world of academics in France and almost all of America and Europe. Deconstruction is a new way of reading the text, by shifting the core of a text to the side, and put the idea on the edge (the unnoticed, hidden ideas to the center or importance. Derida rejected dichotomous, binary opposition, bipolarity, thinking model or ways of thinking that one is privileging and marginalizing other ideas. Derida thought the model that would proclaim democratic, open, and dynamic diversity that would make room for multiple interpretations of meaning or open horizon that tolerate differences in interpretation of a text. What was conceptualized by Derida is found legitimacy in practical adequacy in the figure of Pope Francis, the Catholic Church's highest leader. Francis shows a deconstructive way to lead contemporary Catholic Church. Francis has opened a new, broader, and other meaning in looking the praxis of the Church. He does not prioritize elitist lifestyle, yet puts a simple and frugal lifestyle. He changes conservative theology into progressive-liberal theology. He realized Church needs not theology but a living testimony of a good, caring, generous, compassion life that does not use religion for immoral behavior, dehumanization, and corruption. Derida did philosophical deconstruction, Francis did spiritual-leadership deconstruction. What unites both of them is a word called "deconstruction".  

  3. A Pause in the Impatience of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues that “speed,” or lack thereof, lies at the heart of much that has been written about bureaucracy generally, and about Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy in particular. On the one hand, within sociology and social theory, Weber is regarded as one of the chief critics of bureaucr...

  4. A Time to Pause and Ponder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer; Spencer, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the authors share experiences from teacher education in the UK and Denmark. They apply methodologies for supporting teacher students from initial exposure to the classroom setting, through training programmes and into the early stages of their professional work. They use Frankl...

  5. Hyperglycemia and subsequent torsades de pointes with marked QT prolongation during refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takashi; Kubota, Tomoki; Takasugi, Nobuhiro; Kitagawa, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takahiro; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    A fatal cardiac complication can occasionally present in malnourished patients during refeeding; this is known as refeeding syndrome. However, to our knowledge, hyperglycemia preceding torsades de pointes with QT prolongation during refeeding has not been reported. In the present study, we present a case in which hyperglycemia preceded torsades de pointes with QT prolongation during refeeding. The aim of this study was to determine the possible mechanism underlying QT prolongation during refeeding and indicate how to prevent it. A 32-y-old severely malnourished woman (body mass index 14.57 kg/m 2 ) was admitted to the intensive care unit of our institution after resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. She was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Although no obvious electrolyte abnormalities were observed, her blood glucose level was 11 mg/dL. A 12-lead electrocardiogram at admission showed sinus rhythm with normal QT interval (QTc 0.448). Forty mL of 50% glucose (containing 20 g of glucose) was intravenously injected, followed by a drip infusion of glucose to maintain blood glucose level within normal range. After 9 h, the patient's blood glucose level increased to 569 mg/dL. However, after 38 h, an episode of marked QT prolongation (QTc 0.931) followed by torsades de pointes developed. Hyperglycemia during refeeding can present with QT prolongation; consequently, monitoring blood glucose levels may be useful in avoiding hyperglycemia, which can result in QT prolongation. Furthermore, additional monitoring of QT intervals using a 12-lead electrocardiogram should allow the early detection of QT prolongation when glucose solution is administered to a malnourished patient with (severe) hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of spontaneous recovery of fear by mGluR5 after prolonged extinction training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Mao

    Full Text Available Fear behavior is vital for survival and involves learning contingent associations of non-threatening cues with aversive stimuli. In contrast, excessive levels of fear can be maladaptive and lead to anxiety disorders. Generally, extensive sessions of extinction training correlates with reduced spontaneous recovery. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term inhibition of fear recovery following repeated extinction training are not fully understood. Here we show that in rats, prolonged extinction training causes greater reduction in both fear-potentiated startle and spontaneous recovery. This effect was specifically blocked by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5, but not by mGluR1 antagonists and by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Similar inhibition of memory recovery following prolonged extinction training was also observed in mice. In agreement with the instrumental role of mGluR5 in the prolonged inhibition of fear recovery, we found that FMR1-/- mice which exhibit enhanced mGluR5-mediated signaling exhibit lower spontaneous recovery of fear after extinction training than wild-type littermates. At the molecular level, we discovered that prolonged extinction training reversed the fear conditioning-induced increase in surface expression of GluR1, AMPA/NMDA ratio, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97. Accordingly, delivery of Tat-GluR2(3Y, a synthetic peptide that blocks AMPA receptor endocytosis, inhibited prolonged extinction training-induced inhibition of fear recovery. Together, our results demonstrate that prolonged extinction training results in the mGluR5-dependent long-term inhibition of fear recovery. This effect may involve the degradation of original memory and may explain the beneficial effects of prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of phobias.

  7. Inhibition of spontaneous recovery of fear by mGluR5 after prolonged extinction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng-Chun; Chang, Chih-Hua; Wu, Chia-Chen; Orejarena, M Juliana; Orejanera, Maria Juliana; Manzoni, Olivier J; Gean, Po-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Fear behavior is vital for survival and involves learning contingent associations of non-threatening cues with aversive stimuli. In contrast, excessive levels of fear can be maladaptive and lead to anxiety disorders. Generally, extensive sessions of extinction training correlates with reduced spontaneous recovery. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term inhibition of fear recovery following repeated extinction training are not fully understood. Here we show that in rats, prolonged extinction training causes greater reduction in both fear-potentiated startle and spontaneous recovery. This effect was specifically blocked by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), but not by mGluR1 antagonists and by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Similar inhibition of memory recovery following prolonged extinction training was also observed in mice. In agreement with the instrumental role of mGluR5 in the prolonged inhibition of fear recovery, we found that FMR1-/- mice which exhibit enhanced mGluR5-mediated signaling exhibit lower spontaneous recovery of fear after extinction training than wild-type littermates. At the molecular level, we discovered that prolonged extinction training reversed the fear conditioning-induced increase in surface expression of GluR1, AMPA/NMDA ratio, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97). Accordingly, delivery of Tat-GluR2(3Y), a synthetic peptide that blocks AMPA receptor endocytosis, inhibited prolonged extinction training-induced inhibition of fear recovery. Together, our results demonstrate that prolonged extinction training results in the mGluR5-dependent long-term inhibition of fear recovery. This effect may involve the degradation of original memory and may explain the beneficial effects of prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of phobias.

  8. Grading of Emphysema Is Indispensable for Predicting Prolonged Air Leak After Lung Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Taiga; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of quantitative computed tomography-based grading of emphysema for predicting prolonged air leak after thoracoscopic lobectomy. A consecutive series of 284 patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer was retrospectively reviewed. Prolonged air leak was defined as air leaks lasting 7 days or longer. The grade of emphysema (emphysema index) was defined by the proportion of the emphysematous lung volume (less than -910 HU) to the total lung volume (-600 to -1,024 HU) by a computer-assisted histogram analysis of whole-lung computed tomography scans. The mean length of chest tube drainage was 1.5 days. Fifteen patients (5.3%) presented with prolonged air leak. According to a receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, the emphysema index was the best predictor of prolonged air leak, with an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.98). An emphysema index of 35% or greater was the best cutoff value for predicting prolonged air leak, with a negative predictive value of 0.99. The emphysema index was the only significant predictor for the length of postoperative chest tube drainage among conventional variables, including the pulmonary function and resected lobe, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Prolonged air leak resulted in an increased duration of hospitalization (p leak that adversely influences early postoperative outcomes. We must take new measures against prolonged air leak in quantitative computed tomography-based high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sidestep and crossover lower limb kinematics during a prolonged sport-like agility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Danielle; Reidinger, Kellie; Szymialowicz, Rebecca; Martin, Thomas; Dione, Donald; Feinn, Richard; Wallace, David; Garbalosa, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes occur more often towards the end of athletic competitions. However, the exact mechanisms of how prolonged activity increases the risk for ACL injuries are not clear. To determine the effect of prolonged activity on the hip and knee kinematics observed during self-selected cutting maneuvers performed in a timed agility test. Nineteen female Division I collegiate soccer players completed a self-selected cutting agility test until they were unable to meet a set performance time (one standard deviation of the average baseline trial). Using the 3D dimensional coordinate data the cut type was identified by the principle investigators. The 3D hip and knee angles at 32ms post heel strike were analyzed using a two-factor, linear mixed model to assess the effect of prolonged activity and cut type on the recorded mean hip and knee angles. Athletes performed either sidestep or crossover cuts. An effect of cut type and prolonged activity was seen at the hip and knee. During the prolonged activity trials, the knee was relatively more adducted and both the hip and knee were less flexed than during the baseline trials regardless of cut type. Regardless of activity status, during sidestep cuts, the hip was more internally rotated and abducted, and less flexed than during crossover cuts while the knee was more abducted and less flexed during the sidestep than crossover cuts. During a sport-like agility test, prolonged activity appears to predispose the athlete to position their knee in a more extended and abducted posture and their hip in a more extended posture. This position has been suggested to place stress on the ACL and potentially increase the risk for injury. Clinicians may want to consider the effects of prolonged activity on biomechanical risk factors for sustaining ACL injuries in the design of intervention strategies to prevent ACL injuries. Level 4.

  10. A Multicenter Evaluation of Prolonged Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Adult ICUs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom; Olsen, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in adult ICUs in the United States. Our secondary objective is to examine the relationship between the prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate and certain ICU characteristics. Multicenter, prospective, observational, 72-hour snapshot study. Sixty-seven ICUs from 32 hospitals in the United States. Nine hundred ninety-eight patients admitted to the ICU between midnight on June 20, 2011, and June 21, 2011, were included in the study. None. Antibiotic orders were categorized as prophylactic, definitive, empiric, or prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy was defined as empiric antibiotics that continued for at least 72 hours in the absence of adjudicated infection. Standard definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to determine infection. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was determined as the ratio of the total number of empiric antibiotics continued for at least 72 hours divided by the total number of empiric antibiotics. Univariate analysis of factors associated with the ICU prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was conducted using Student t test. A total of 660 unique antibiotics were prescribed as empiric therapy to 364 patients. Of the empiric antibiotics, 333 of 660 (50%) were continued for at least 72 hours in instances where Centers for Disease Control and Prevention infection criteria were not met. Suspected pneumonia accounted for approximately 60% of empiric antibiotic use. The most frequently prescribed empiric antibiotics were vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. ICUs that utilized invasive techniques for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia had lower rates of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy than those that did not, 45.1% versus 59.5% (p = 0.03). No other institutional factor was significantly associated with prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate. Half of all

  11. [Diagnosis of congenital endocrinological disease in newborns with prolonged jaundice and hypoglycaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braslavsky, D; Keselman, A; Chiesa, A; Bergadá, I

    2012-03-01

    The association of prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia may be secondary to an endocrinological disease. Pituitary insufficiency and primary adrenal insufficiency are the most likely endocrine diseases that need to be ruled out. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of thirteen patients referred to the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez between years 2003 and 2008 due to prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia secondary to pituitary insufficiency in twelve patients, and in one secondary to primary adrenal insufficiency. All patients had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Ten patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and six also had elevated transaminases. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency was observed in the twelve hypopituitarism patients. Hormonal replacement normalised liver function and resolved the prolonged jaundice in all the patients. None of them underwent liver biopsy. Hypoglycaemia also remitted after hormonal therapy. Prolonged or cholestatic jaundice associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia is highly likely to be due to pituitary hormone deficiency or primary adrenal insufficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment of these children reverts the prolonged jaundice and prevents morbidity and mortality due to recurrent hypoglycaemia and hormone deficiencies. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  13. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  14. Prolonged labour associated with lower expression of syndecan 3 and connexin 43 in human uterine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmström Anders

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged labour is associated with greater morbidity and mortality for mother and child. Connexin 43 is a major myometrial gap junction protein found in human myometrium. Syndecan 3 seems to prevail in the human uterus among heparan sulphate proteoglycans, showing the most significant increase during labour. The aims of the present study were to investigate syndecan 3 and connexin 43 mRNA expressions and protein distributions in human uterine tissue during normal and prolonged labour. Methods Uterine isthmic biopsies were collected from non-pregnant (n = 7, term pregnant women not in labour (n = 14, in normal labour (n = 7 and in prolonged labour (n = 7. mRNA levels of syndecan 3 and connexin 43 were determined by real time RT-PCR. The localization and expression were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Results In women with prolonged labour, the mRNA expressions of syndecan 3 and Connexin 43 were considerably lower than the expression level at normal labour (p Conclusion The high expression of syndecan 3 and connexin 43 and their co-localization to the smooth muscle bundles during normal labour, together with the significant reduction in prolonged labour, may indicate a role for these proteins in the co-ordination of myometrial contractility.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Benjamin T; Oehlert, Mary E; Krieshok, Thomas S; Lichtenberg, James W

    2018-04-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in conditions reflective of current clinical practice within the Veterans Health Administration. Method This study involved a retrospective review of 2030 charts. A total of 750 veterans from 10 U.S. states who received cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure in individual psychotherapy were included in the study (participants in cognitive processing therapy, N = 376; participants in prolonged exposure, N = 374). The main dependent variable was self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as measured by total scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The study used multilevel modeling to evaluate the absolute and relative effectiveness of both treatments and determine the relationship between patient-level variables and total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores during treatment. Results Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were equally effective at reducing total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores. Veterans who completed therapy reported significantly larger reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist than patients who did not complete therapy. There were no significant differences in the improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with respect to age and three racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were shown to be effective in conditions highly reflective of clinical practice and with a highly diverse sample of veterans. Challenges related to dropout from trauma focused therapy should continue to be researched.

  16. Primiparous women's preferences for care during a prolonged latent phase of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ängeby, Karin; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate primiparous women's preferences for care during a prolonged latent phase of labour. A qualitative study based on focus groups and individual interviews and analysed with inductive content analysis. Sixteen primiparous women with a prolonged latent phase of labour >18 hours were interviewed in five focus groups (n = 11) or individually (n = 5). One main category emerged "Beyond normality - a need of individual adapted guidance in order to understand and manage an extended latent phase of labour" which covers the women's preferences during the prolonged latent phase. Five categories were generated from the data: "A welcoming manner and not being rejected", "Individually adapted care", "Important information which prepares for reality and coping", "Participation and need for feedback" and "Staying nearby the labour ward or being admitted for midwifery support". Women with a prolonged latent phase of labour sought to use their own resources, but their needs for professional support increased as time passed. A welcoming attitude from an available midwife during the latent phase created a feeling of security, and personally adapted care was perceived positively. Women with a prolonged latent phase of labour preferred woman-centred care. Midwives play an important role in supporting these women. Women's need for midwifery-support increases as the time spent in latent phase increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolonged minor allograft survival in intravenously primed mice--a test of the veto hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that veto cells are responsible for the prolonged survival of minor allografts of skin that is observed in recipients primed intravenously with spleen cells from mice syngeneic with the skin donors. This prolonged survival was observed for each of several minor histocompatibility (H) antigens and is antigen-specific. Gamma radiation (3300 rads) abolished the ability of male spleen cells infused i.v. to delay the rejection of male skin grafts (H-Y antigen) on female recipients. However, depletion of Thy-1+ cells from the i.v. infusion failed to abolish the ability to prolong male skin graft survival. Furthermore, the prolonged survival accorded to B6 (H-2b) male skin grafts on CB6F1 (H-2b/H-2d) female recipients given i.v. infusions of B6 male spleen cells extended to BALB/c (H-2d) male skin grafts as well, indicating a lack of MHC restriction. Thus, prolongation of minor allograft survival by i.v. infusion of minor H antigen-bearing spleen cells appears not to depend on veto T cells that others have found to be responsible for the suppression of CTL generation

  18. Qt interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Majeed, S.M.I.; Khan, M.A.; Majeed, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association of QTc interval prolongation with ventricular arrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2013 to August 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty three heart failure patients were monitored for 48 hours using ambulatory holter electrocardiography recorders. Digital ECG data was analyzed for QTc interval along with frequency and severity of arrhythmias. Association of prolonged QTc interval with ventricular arrhythmias and severity of arrhythmias was analyzed. Results: Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 79.2% patients. QT analysis revealed that 69.8% patients had prolonged QTc interval, 86.4% patients with prolonged QTc had ventricular arrhythmias. Of these 66% patients were found to have severe ventricular arrhythmias. Comparison of mean QTc interval of our study population with a reference value showed significantly higher QTc interval of our study group than the test value. Conclusion: Arrhythmia frequency and severity significantly increases with an increase in QTc interval in heart failure demonstrating association of prolonged QTc interval with high risk of severe ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in chronic heart failure. (author)

  19. Lack of skeletal muscle IL-6 influences hepatic glucose metabolism in mice during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren

    2017-01-01

    The liver is essential in maintaining and regulating glucose homeostasis during prolonged exercise. IL-6 has been shown to be secreted from skeletal muscle during exercise and has been suggested to signal to the liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle...... IL-6 on hepatic glucose regulation and substrate choice during prolonged exercise. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice (age, 12-14 wk) and littermate lox/lox (Control) mice were either rested (Rest) or completed a single bout of exercise for 10, 60, or 120 min, and the liver....... Furthermore, IL-6 MKO mice had higher hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)Ser232 and PDHSer300 phosphorylation than control mice at rest. In conclusion, hepatic gluconeogenic capacity in mice is increased during prolonged exercise independent of muscle IL-6. Furthermore, Skeletal muscle IL-6 influences...

  20. Protection of Dentate Hilar Cells from Prolonged Stimulation by Intracellular Calcium Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    1989-10-01

    Prolonged afferent stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus in vivo leads to degeneration only of those cells that lack immunoreactivity for the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin. In order to test the hypothesis that calcium binding proteins protect against the effects of prolonged stimulation, intracellular recordings were made in hippocampal slices from cells that lack immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins. Calcium binding protein--negative cells showed electrophysiological signs of deterioration during prolonged stimulation; cells containing calcium binding protein did not. When neurons without calcium binding proteins were impaled with microelectrodes containing the calcium chelator BAPTA, and BAPTA was allowed to diffuse into the cells, these cells showed no deterioration. These results indicate that, in a complex tissue of the central nervous system, an activity-induced increase in intracellular calcium can trigger processes leading to cell deterioration, and that increasing the calcium binding capacity of a cell decreases its vulnerability to damage.

  1. Analysis of Relationship between Levofloxacin and Corrected QT Prolongation Using a Clinical Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Man Young; Kim, Eun Yeob; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Woojae; Kim, Ku Sang; Sheen, Seung Soo; Lim, Hong Seok; Park, Rae Woong

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether or not levofloxacin has any relationship with QT prolongation in a real clinical setting by analyzing a clinical data warehouse of data collected from different hospital information systems. Electronic prescription data and medical charts from 3 different hospitals spanning the past 9 years were reviewed, and a clinical data warehouse was constructed. Patients who were both administrated levofloxacin and given electrocardiograms (ECG) were selected. The correlations between various patient characteristics, concomitant drugs, corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, and the interval difference in QTc before and after levofloxacin administration were analyzed. A total of 2,176 patients from 3 different hospitals were included in the study. QTc prolongation was found in 364 patients (16.7%). The study revealed that age (OR 1.026, p data seem to be essential to adverse drug reaction surveillance in future.

  2. QT Prolongation Complicated with Torsades de Pointes in Prosthetic Mitral Valve Endocarditis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 49-year-old male patient with prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. He was asymptomatic until the end of January 2012, when he was admitted to our hospital emergency unit because of syncope, fever, and suspicion of endocarditis. Cardiologic evaluation was requested and the transthoracic (TTE and transesophageal (TEE echocardiograms revealed vegetations on the prosthetic mitral valve. All cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The corrected QT (QTc interval was markedly prolonged upon admission (QTc 540 ms. He experienced torsades de pointes (TdP several times and he was recovered after bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The clinical course and the long QTc interval with deep inverted T wave were completely normalized 4 weeks after. He continued on triple antibiotic therapy for 45 days with a good revolution. The clinical features and the possible mechanisms of QT prolongation (inflammation, infection of this patient are discussed.

  3. Life Threatening Severe QTc Prolongation in Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus due to Hydroxychloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. O’Laughlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a syncopal episode resulting from significant QT interval prolongation in a patient on hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and end stage renal disease. The patient had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for two years prior to presentation. After thorough workup for secondary causes of QT interval prolongation hydroxychloroquine was discontinued and the patient’s QT interval shortened. The patient was treated with mexiletine to prevent sudden ventricular arrhythmias, which was unique compared to other documented cases in which lidocaine was used. The patient was noted to have mild prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram prior to initiation of hydroxychloroquine therapy which was exacerbated by its use and may have been caused due to toxicity from underlying renal failure.

  4. Mesenteric venous thrombosis after prolonged air travel-a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Salas-Coronas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of acute mesenteric venous thrombosis after a long distance flight in a traveller presenting with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting within 48 h of prolonged immobility situation. Venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and venous thromboembolism has been clearly associated with prolonged air travel (economy class syndrome. Thrombosis was diagnosed by computed tomography of the abdomen, and after starting anticoagulant therapy with acenocumarol, symptoms yielded completely in a few weeks. The study of thrombophilia was negative, although the existence of two first-degree relatives (mother and grandmother with a history of venous thrombosis with a history of venous thrombosis makes it likely a situation of inherited thrombophilia. Although exceptional, mesenteric venous thrombosis should be considered in travellers with acute abdominal pain after prolonged air travel when there are thrombophilic conditions.

  5. The Winter Procedure as Management for Prolonged Low-Flow Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Lin Hsiao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a prolonged penile erection that is not associated with sexual stimulation. Although the time course has not been formally defined, it is usually considered to be one that lasts for more than 4–6 hours. Low-flow (ischemic priapism is usually associated with sickle cell disease, hemoglobinopathies, neoplastic syndrome, anticoagulant therapy, psychotropic medication or idiopathic causes. Here, we report a case of prolonged low-flow priapism lasting for 2 weeks, which was successfully treated with the Winter procedure after several attempts of conservative treatment. Although the potency remains unclear and the patient needs a longer period of follow-up, the case reported here still shows that prolonged low-flow priapism can be successfully treated with the Winter procedure when conservative treatments fail.

  6. Attachment style dimensions can affect prolonged grief risk in caregivers of terminally ill patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Galli, Federico; Morelli, Emanuela; Cappelluti, Roberta; Penco, Italo; Aceto, Paola; Lombardo, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive role of attachment dimensions on the risk of prolonged grief. Sixty caregivers of 51 terminally ill patients with cancer who had been admitted in a hospice were selected. Caregivers were interviewed using Attachment Scale Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Prolonged Grief Disorder 12 (PG-12). The consort caregivers showed higher PG-12 level compared to the sibling caregivers. Anxiety, depression, need for approval, and preoccupation with relationships levels were significantly correlated with PG-12 scores. Female gender, high levels of depression, and preoccupation with relationships significantly predicted higher levels of prolonged grief risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming ('gamer's thrombosis'): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Cheng Leon; Burbridge, Hayley; Wong, Conroy

    2013-10-08

    The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers.

  8. Ageing is associated with a prolonged fever response in human endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Karen S.; Kemp Bruunsgaard, Helle; Hansen, Christian Muff

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an age-associated impaired acute-phase response exists. Nine healthy elderly volunteers (median, 66 years; range, 61 to 69 years) and eight young controls (median, 24 years; range, 20 to 27 years) were given an intravenous bolus of endotoxin (2......-alpha and sTNFR-I levels and prolonged increased levels of sTNFR-I. Monocyte concentrations decreased in both groups, with the elderly group showing a more rapid decrease and a slower subsequent increase than did the young group. Furthermore, the elderly group had a more rapid increase in C-reactive protein...... levels than did the young group. In conclusion, ageing is associated with an altered acute-phase response including initial hyperreactivity, prolonged inflammatory activity, and prolonged fever response....

  9. Prolonged fever and involuntary weight loss as manifestations of bacterial endocarditis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmawati, N. M. D. D.; Merati, T. P.; Somia, A.; Utama, S.; Gayatri, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We reported an unusual presentation of prolonged fever and involuntary weight loss in older adult as a manifestation of infective bacterial endocarditis. The patient had pre-existing compensated asymptomatic valvular heart disease without treatment. A positive fecal occult blood test is prompting an investigation of malignancy of gastrointestinal as one of other possible cause of prolonged fever with wasting, evaluation of HIV serostatus shows seronegative. The case fulfilled criteria for definitive infective endocarditis: one major criterion of positive blood culture for Streptococcus mitis, which was one of viridans group streptococci and three minor criteria of fever at least 38°Celsius, immunologic phenomena in the form of glomerulonephritis, and a predisposing heart condition. One course of third-generation cephalosporin successfully cleared the Streptococcus mitis infection proven by culture. Infective endocarditis should be considered as one of the causes of prolonged fever with wasting, especially in cases with the previous history of heart disease.

  10. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming (‘gamer’s thrombosis’): a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. Case presentation A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Conclusions Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers. PMID:24192285

  11. Vision and Vestibular System Dysfunction Predicts Prolonged Concussion Recovery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Christina L; Master, Stephen R; Wiebe, Douglas J; Storey, Eileen P; Lockyer, Julia E; Podolak, Olivia E; Grady, Matthew F

    2018-03-01

    Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. A subspecialty pediatric concussion program. Four hundred thirty-two patient records were abstracted. Presence of vision or vestibular dysfunction upon presentation to the subspecialty concussion program. The main outcome of interest was time to clinical recovery, defined by discharge from clinical follow-up, including resolution of acute symptoms, resumption of normal physical and cognitive activity, and normalization of physical examination findings to functional levels. Study subjects were 5 to 18 years (median = 14). A total of 378 of 432 subjects (88%) presented with vision or vestibular problems. A history of motion sickness was associated with vestibular dysfunction. Younger age, public insurance, and presence of headache were associated with later presentation for subspecialty concussion care. Vision and vestibular problems were associated within distinct clusters. Provocable symptoms with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and smooth pursuits and abnormal balance and accommodative amplitude (AA) predicted prolonged recovery time. Vision and vestibular problems predict prolonged concussion recovery in children. A history of motion sickness may be an important premorbid factor. Public insurance status may represent problems with disparities in access to concussion care. Vision assessments in concussion must include smooth pursuits, saccades, near point of convergence (NPC), and accommodative amplitude (AA). A comprehensive, multidomain assessment is essential to predict prolonged recovery time and enable active intervention with specific school accommodations and targeted rehabilitation.

  12. Mitigating prolonged QT interval in cancer nanodrug development for accelerated clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amalendu P; Mukerjee, Anindita; Helson, Lawrence; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2013-12-14

    Cardiac toxicity is the foremost reason for drug discontinuation from development to clinical evaluation and post market surveillance [Fung 35:293-317, 2001; Piccini 158:317-326 2009]. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has rejected many potential pharmaceutical agents due to QT prolongation effects. Since drug development and FDA approval takes an enormous amount of time, money and effort with high failure rates, there is an increased focus on rescuing drugs that cause QT prolongation. If these otherwise safe and potent drugs were formulated in a unique way so as to mitigate the QT prolongation associated with them, these potent drugs may get FDA approval for clinical use. Rescuing these compounds not only benefit the patients who need them but also require much less time and money thus leading to faster clinical translation. In this study, we chose curcumin as our drug of choice since it has been shown to posses anti-tumor properties against various cancers with limited toxicity. The major limitations with this pharmacologically active drug are (a) its ability to prolong QT by inhibiting the hERG channel and (b) its low bioavailability. In our previous studies, we found that lipids have protective actions against hERG channel inhibition and therefore QT prolongation. Results of the manual patch clamp assay of HEK 293 cells clearly illustrated that our hybrid nanocurcumin formulation prevented the curcumin induced inhibition of hERG K+ channel at concentrations higher than the therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. Comparing the percent inhibition, the hybrid nanocurcumin limited inhibition to 24.8% at a high curcumin equivalent concentration of 18 μM. Liposomal curcumin could only decrease this inhibition upto 30% only at lower curcumin concentration of 6 μM but not at 18 μM concentration. Here we show a curcumin encapsulated lipopolymeric hybrid nanoparticle formulation which could protect against QT prolongation and also render increased

  13. Marked QTc prolongation and Torsades de Pointes in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Enea Lazzerini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that in chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIA, QTc prolongation is frequent and correlates with systemic inflammatory activation. Notably, basic studies demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines induce profound changes in potassium and calcium channels resulting in a prolonging effect on cardiomyocyte action potential duration (APD, thus on the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that in RA patients the risk of SCD is significantly increased when compared to non-RA subjects. Conversely, to date no data are available about Torsades de Pointes (TdP prevalence in CIA, and the few case reported considered CIA only an incidental concomitant disease, not contributing factor to TdP development.We report three patients with active CIA developing marked QTc prolongation, in two cases complicated with TdP degenerating to cardiac arrest. In these patients, a blood sample was obtained within 24h from TdP/marked QTc prolongation occurrence and levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1 were evaluated. In all three cases, IL-6 was markedly elevated, ~10 to 100 times more than reference values. Moreover, one patient also showed high circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1. In conclusion, active CIA may represent a currently overlooked QT-prolonging risk factor, potentially contributing in the presence of other classical risk factors to TdP occurrence. In particular, a relevant role may be played by elevated circulating IL-6 levels via direct electrophysiological effects on the heart. This observation should be carefully kept in mind, particularly when recognizable risk factors are already present and/or the addition of QT-prolonging drugs is required.

  14. Management of children with prolonged diarrhea [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded.

  15. Prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in post-weaned elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A; Nishiyama, Akira; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Elephant seals naturally experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In humans, rats and mice, prolonged food deprivation activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increases oxidative damage. In elephant seals, prolonged fasting activates RAS without increasing oxidative damage likely due to an increase in antioxidant defenses. The mechanism leading to the upregulation of antioxidant defenses during prolonged fasting remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated whether prolonged fasting activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which controls the expression of antioxidant genes, and if such activation is potentially mediated by systemic increases in RAS. Blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from seals fasting for 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Nrf2 activity and nuclear content increased by 76% and 167% at week 7. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were 5000% and 250% higher at week 7 than at week 1. Phosphorylation of Smad2, an effector of Ang II and TGF signaling, increased by 120% at week 7 and by 84% in response to intravenously infused Ang II. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) mRNA expression, which is controlled by smad proteins, increased 430% at week 7, while Nox4 protein expression, which can activate Nrf2, was 170% higher at week 7 than at week 1. These results demonstrate that prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in elephant seals and that RAS stimulation can potentially result in increased Nox4 through Smad phosphorylation. The results also suggest that Nox4 is essential to sustain the hormetic adaptive response to oxidative stress in fasting seals.

  16. Mucositis and oral infections secondary to gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M. Sampson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged neutropenia are at risk for a variety of complications and infections including the development of mucositis and oral ulcers. The changes in oral flora during chemotherapy and its effects on the development of infections of the oral cavity have been studied with inconsistent results. However, there is evidence that supports the colonization of gram negative rods in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this report, we present two leukemic patients who developed oral ulcers secondary to multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is important to suspect multi-drug resistant gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia who develop gum infections despite appropriate antibiotic coverage.

  17. QT Interval Prolongation as a Biomarker for Torsades de Pointes and Sudden Death in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Sides

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolongation of the QT interval on the surface 12-lead electrocardiogram is widely accepted as a biomarker for the potential of a drug to produce torsades de pointes and/or sudden death. Detection of drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval in animals and man is frequently confounded by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that limit the ability to detect a true drug effect. In particular drugs that increase heart rate show an apparent increase in QT interval that confounds assessment of a true drug effect on cardiac ventricular repolarization. The basis for the use of the QT interval as a biomarker will be examined.

  18. Interrupting Prolonged Sitting with Regular Activity Breaks does not Acutely Influence Appetite: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn M. Mete; Tracy L. Perry; Jillian J. Haszard; Ashleigh R. Homer; Stephen P. Fenemor; Nancy J. Rehrer; C. Murray Skeaff; Meredith C. Peddie

    2018-01-01

    Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.9)) completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT), and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB). Standardized meals were provided throughout the in...

  19. Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brtalik, Douglas; Stopyra, Jason; Hannum, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection. We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. We describe a 30-year-old male who presented to the emergency department after a brief cardiac arrest after injecting poison hemlock. The patient had return of spontaneous circulation in the emergency department but had prolonged muscular weakness and encephalopathy later requiring tracheostomy. Intravenous injection of poison hemlock alkaloids can result in significant toxicity, including cardiopulmonary arrest, prolonged weakness, and encephalopathy.

  20. Subtleties in practical application of prolonged infusion of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J; Lipman, Jeffrey; Carlier, Mieke; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged infusion (PI) of β-lactam antibiotics is increasingly used in order to optimise antibiotic exposure in critically ill patients. Physicians are often not aware of a number of subtleties that may jeopardise the treatment. In this clinically based paper, we stress pragmatic issues, such as the importance of a loading dose before PI, and discuss a number of important practicalities that are mandatory to benefit from the pharmacokinetic advantages of prolonged β-lactam antibiotic administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolonged bone marrow T1-relaxation in patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Grube, T; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    In vitro as well as in vivo studies have shown prolonged T1 relaxation times in patients with acute leukemia. The mechanism behind this finding is not known. In order to evaluate if this was specific for leukemia we examined eight patients with polycythemia vera, representing a condition with a r......In vitro as well as in vivo studies have shown prolonged T1 relaxation times in patients with acute leukemia. The mechanism behind this finding is not known. In order to evaluate if this was specific for leukemia we examined eight patients with polycythemia vera, representing a condition...

  2. Levofloxacin?Induced QTc Prolongation Depends on the Time of Drug Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kervezee, L; Gotta, V; Stevens, J; Birkhoff, W; Kamerling, IMC; Danhof, M; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing a drug's potential to prolong the QTc interval on an electrocardiogram is essential for the correct evaluation of its safety profile. To explore the effect of dosing time on drug-induced QTc prolongation, a randomized, crossover, clinical trial was conducted in which 12 healthy male subjects received levofloxacin at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00. Using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach to account for variations in ...

  3. Hydroelectrolytic and hormonal modifications related to prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, A.; Dupui, Ph.; Fanjaud, G.; Bes, A.; Moatti, J. P.; Gharrib, Cl.

    The effects of prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position (-4° head down) on electrolyte balance were studied in 4 young volunteers. An increase was noted in sodium excretion during the first 4 days. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone varied in parallel manner during the same period. Potassium balance and creatinine clearance were not significantly modified. In light of these data we feel that prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position constitutes an effective way to simulate on earth metabolic and hormonal modifications occurring in man under weightlessness conditions.

  4. Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

  5. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (pexercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperatur...

  7. Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss : Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; J Djelantik, A A A Manik; Smid, Geert E

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify (a) subgroups among people confronted with unnatural/violent loss characterized by different symptoms profiles of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression, and (b) socio-demographic, loss-related, and cognitive variables associated with subgroup membership. We used

  8. Prolonged employment of older workers : determinants of managers' decisions regarding hiring, retention and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged and productive employment of older workers is a necessary condition to maintain welfare and social security systems threatened by ageing populations. Despite this importance, the labour market position of older workers is much worse than that of workers in primal age. Yet not much is known

  9. Prolonged employment of older workers: determinants of managers' decisions regarding hiring, retention and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged and productive employment of older workers is a necessary condition to maintain welfare and social security systems threatened by ageing populations. Despite this importance, the labour market position of older workers is much worse than that of workers in primal age. Yet not much is known

  10. Linguistic and Psychological Perspectives on Prolonged Periods of Silence in Dual-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Emmanuelle; de Jonge, Maretha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an examination of the literature on prolonged periods of silence in children from the perspective of two different scientific fields. The aim is to call attention to the inherent complexity of the factors that may be involved in the etiology of mutistic behavior during child development. Medical and linguistic literature…

  11. Effectiveness of a prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation measure for high-frequency offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, N.; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Heijden, P. G M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incapacitation effect and the impact on post-release recidivism of a measure combining prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation, the ISD measure for high frequency offenders (HFOs) was compared to the standard practice of short-term imprisonment. Methods: We applied a

  12. Prolonged Stay in the Intensive Care Unit: a Report of 2 Cases | Tobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and impact on patients' morbidity and mortality. We present a report of two cases of prolonged stay in the ICU (32 and 39 days respectively) with emphasis on the course of illness and intervention. The role of serial arterial blood gas analysis, early tracheostomy and the presence of a dedicated consultant in the unit in the ...

  13. Does Prolonged Therapy with a Long-Acting Stimulant Suppress Growth in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…

  14. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  15. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  16. A note on the random walk theory of recoil movement in prolonged ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, Ismo

    1994-01-01

    A characteristic function is derived for the probability distribution of final positions of recoil atoms in prolonged ion bombardment of dense matter. The derivation is done within the framework of Poissonian random walk theory using a jump distribution, which is somewhat more general than those studied previously. ((orig.))

  17. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive prolonged exercise training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, L.J.C.; Tipton, K.D.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Meeusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response prolonged

  18. Historical space weather monitoring of prolonged aurora activities in Japan and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Isobe, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Yamamoto, Kazuaki; Takei, Masako; Terashima, Tsuneyo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Great magnetic storms are recorded as aurora sightings in historical documents. The earliest known example of "prolonged" aurora sightings, with aurora persistent for two or more nights within a 7 day interval at low latitudes, in Japan was documented on 21-23 February 1204 in Meigetsuki, when a big sunspot was also recorded in China. We have searched for prolonged events over the 600 year interval since 620 in Japan based on the catalogue of Kanda and over the 700 year interval since 581 in China based on the catalogues of Tamazawa et al. (2017) and Hayakawa et al. (2015). Before the Meigetsuki event, a significant fraction of the 200 possible aurora sightings in Sòng dynasty (960-1279) of China was detected at least twice within a 7 day interval and sometimes recurred with approximately the solar rotation period of 27 days. The majority of prolonged aurora activity events occurred around the maximum phase of solar cycles rather than around the minimum, as estimated from the 14C analysis of tree rings. They were not reported during the Oort Minimum (1010-1050). We hypothesize that the prolonged aurora sightings are associated with great magnetic storms resulting from multiple coronal mass ejections from the same active region. The historical documents therefore provide useful information to support estimation of great magnetic storm frequency, which are often associated with power outages and other societal concerns.

  19. Does Unconscious Stress Play a Role in Prolonged Cardiovascular Stress Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J.F.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kruizinga, I.; Radstaak, M.; Verkuil, B.; Quirin, M.R.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent insights, humans might not be aware of a substantial part of their cognitive stress representations while these still have prolonged physiological effects. Unconscious stress' can be measured by implicit affect (IA) tests. It was shown that IA predicts physiological stress

  20. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  1. Low liver stiffness among cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B after prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weiland, Ola; Leutscher, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and short-term clinical trials have suggested that treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may lead to improvement of cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to measure liver stiffness in patients diagnosed with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to prolonged treatment...

  2. Preservation of cardiac function by prolonged action potentials in mice deficient of KChIP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Aistrup, Gary L; Koivumäki, Jussi T

    2015-01-01

    to the preservation of contractile function. Detailed analysis of current kinetics shows that only ICa,L density is reduced, and immunoblots demonstrate unaltered CaV1.2 and CaVβ2 protein levels. Computer modeling suggests that delayed repolarization would prolong the period of Ca(2+) entry into the cell, thereby...

  3. Implementation of Prolonged Exposure in the Army: Is Consultation Necessary for Effective Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    to hiring websites and local advertisements , and several candidates were identified. An initial part-time offer was made to Loreli Leos, LPC in July...2015). Prolonged exposure vs eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs waiting list for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a

  4. A study of immunological reactions in dogs exposed to prolonged chronic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Grigoryev, Y. G.; Markelov, B. A.; Skryabin, A. S.; Zemskov, V. M.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Veysfeyler, Y. K.; Iokai, I.

    1974-01-01

    Immunomorphological studies on dog tissues exposed to long term gamma irradiation show that the number of cells containing antibodies increased and that the blast transformation reaction was activated. Prolonged radiation did not cause a reliable change in the synthesis of nucleic acids in spleen cells.

  5. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...

  6. Prolonging the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum through the addition of prebiotics into the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2011-08-01

    This article reports on the effects of prebiotics on the growth/death kinetics, metabolism, and biomass production by 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (c19 and DSMZ 2601, isolated from table olives and purchased from a Public Collection, respectively). The research was divided into 3 different steps, in order to highlight the optimal combination for cell viability and experiments were performed under the conditions of an accelerated shelf life test; thus, 3 combinations were pointed out (fructooligosaccharides [FOS], 5 g/L; glucose + inulin, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L; glucose + FOS, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L). A sample containing only glucose was used as control. The results highlighted that the 3 combinations aforementioned prolonged cell viability over the time both under low and high inoculum conditions (3 and 9 log CFU/mL, respectively); however, FOS alone caused a reduction of biomass production, even if cell number was not affected by this compound. Therefore, as a final result of this research, the combination glucose + FOS could be proposed as a suitable mean to achieve an optimal production of biomass and prolong cell viability over the time. Food producers require a prolonged viability of probiotic bacteria in functional foods; this goal is usually achieved by refrigeration. In this article, the prolongation of cell viability through the addition of prebiotics was proposed. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Reverse airflow in certain chest drains may be misinterpreted as prolonged air leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouby, Anna; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged air leakage is common after lung resection. We observed that during deep inspiration some patients were able to empty the water-seal of commercial chest drainage systems and retract air back into the chest tube, which subsequently escaped during the following expiration, mimicking "true...

  8. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Vojejkova, Yi.M.; Dzhaman, N.Yi.; Yudyina, O.Yu.; Yindik, V.M.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  9. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in

  10. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  11. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  12. Correlation of prolonged QT interval and severity of cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarique, S.; Sarwar, S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine correlation between prolonged QT interval and severity of disease in patients of cirrhosis of liver. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Patients and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients of cirrhosis were included. Baseline haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score was determined for all patients to document stage of liver disease. Corrected QT interval was determined from electrocardiography of each patient using QT cirrhosis formula. Correlation between QT interval and MELD score was determined using Pearson correlation and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: One hundred and seventeen included patients had mean age of 53.58 (+- 12.11) while male to female ratio was 1.78/1 (75 / 42). Mean MELD score was 17.08 (+- 6.54) in study patients varying between 6 and 37 while mean corrected QT interval was 0.44 seconds (+- 0.06). Pearson correlation revealed no significant relation between severity of liver disease as determined with MELD score and prolonged QT interval (p value 0.18) Area under curve with ROC curve for correlation between prolonged QT interval and severity of liver disease was 0.42. Conclusion: Prolonged QT interval is not an indicator of severity of disease in cirrhosis of liver. (author)

  13. Prolongation of rat islet allograft survival by direct ultraviolet irradiation of the graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, H.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of rat dendritic cells completely abrogated their allostimulatory capacity in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Rat islets of Langerhans similarly irradiated remained hormonally functional when transplanted into syngeneic diabetic rats. Allogeneic transplantation across a major histocompatibility barrier of islets initially treated in vitro with ultraviolet irradiation resulted in prolonged allograft survival without the use of any immunosuppressive agents

  14. Prolonged survival of a cat diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Timothy B; Heading, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old, neutered male, British shorthair cat was presented with inappetence, vomiting, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. An exploratory celiotomy identified enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Immunohistochemistry of lymph node biopsies confirmed feline infectious peritonitis. This patient had a prolonged survival of 787 d after initial presentation.

  15. THE PARTICULARITIES OF PROLONGED CULTIVATION OF PLANTS-REGENERANTS OF TOMATO INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Miroshnichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The particularities of the changes of the morphological parameters of plants-regenerants of tomato hybrids F1 during prolonged cultivation in conditions of in vitro have been studied. The cultivation during 12 passages in hormoneless MS medium does not lead to somaclonal variants, but act to raise the increasing of coefficient of variability of plants-regenerants features. 

  16. Impact of Father Absence: III. Problems of Family Reintegrating Following Prolonged Father Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stewart L.; and others

    A three-phase, longitudinal study at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., of family problems with prolonged father absence indicates that there is (1) continuing family growth beyond the situational crisis, (2) active re-examination of roles and values, and (3) heightened awareness of family strength and resourcefulness during the…

  17. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  18. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Folke, Fredrik; Kragholm, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: It is unclear whether prolonged resuscitation can result in successful outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). We assessed associations between duration of pre-hospital resuscitation on survival and functional outcome following OHCA in patients achieving pre-hospital return...

  19. What prolongs a butterfly's life?: Trade-offs between dormancy, fecundity and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Haeler

    Full Text Available In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies' life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h, thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13. Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels.

  20. Erythromycin potentiates PR interval prolonging effect of verapamil in the rat: A pharmacodynamic drug interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, Yaman; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2006-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics account for many drug interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest interactions between the two resulting in severe side effects. We studied the interaction between verapamil and erythromycin in the rat to see whether it occurs at the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic level. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received doses of 1 mg/kg verapamil or 100 mg/kg erythromycin alone or in combination (n = 6/group). Serial blood samples (0-6 h) were taken for determination of the drug concentrations using HPLC. Electrocardiograms were recorded (0-6 h) through subcutaneously inserted lead II. Binding of the drugs to plasma proteins was studied using spiked plasma. Verapamil prolonged PR but not QT interval. Erythromycin prolonged QT but not PR interval. The combination resulted in a significant increase in PR interval prolongation and AV node blocks but did not further prolong QT interval. Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of neither drug were altered by the other. Our rat data confirm the anecdotal human case reports that combination of erythromycin and verapamil can result in potentiation of the cardiovascular response. The interaction appears to be at the pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic level hence may be extrapolated to other calcium channel antagonists

  1. Etiologies of Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common condition among neonates. Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs when jaundice persists beyond two weeks in term neonates and three weeks in preterm neonates. This study aimed to determine the etiologies of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants admitted to the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on all infants diagnosed with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia during 2007-2012 in the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Demographic characteristics of infants, physical examination and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed to determine the etiologies of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Results: In total, 100 infants diagnosed with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled in this study, including 49 male and 51 female neonates with mean age of 20±1 days and mean bilirubin level of 17.5±4.0 mg/dL. Main causes of hyperbilirubinemia were urinary tract infection, ABO incompatibility, hypothyroidism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in 14%, 5%, 6% and 5% of neonates, respectively. Moreover, unknown etiologies, such as breastfeeding, were detected in 70% of the studied infants. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, determining the main causes of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates is of paramount importance. In the majority of cases, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with physiological factors, such as breastfeeding.

  2. Prolonged Leptospira Urinary Shedding in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of leptospirosis in a previously healthy girl following a trip to Costa Rica. While she was clinically asymptomatic, she had spirochetes cultured from her urine six weeks following her trip. Prolonged urinary shedding following infection with Leptospira is possible in humans and often has subtle manifestations in children.

  3. High free thyroxine levels are associated with QTc prolongation in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Noord (Charlotte); W.M. van der Deure (Wendy); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); A. Hofman (Albert); T.J. Visser (Theo); J.A. Kors (Jan); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe literature on the effect of excess thyroid hormone on ventricular repolarization is controversial. To study whether free thyroxine (T4) and TSH are associated with QTc prolongation we conducted population-based cohort study. This study was conducted as part of the Rotterdam Study and

  4. Neural Circuits via Which Single Prolonged Stress Exposure Leads to Fear Extinction Retention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R.; Staib, Jennifer M.; David, Nina P.; Keller, Samantha M.; DePietro, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions…

  5. Coexistence of Ureaplasma and chorioamnionitis is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Euiseok; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Su Yeong; Sung, Tae-Jung; Kim, Haeryoung; Park, Kyoung Un; Kim, Han-Suk; Kim, Beyong Il; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Both histologic chorioamnionitis (HCAM) and Ureaplasma infection are considered important contributors to perinatal lung injury. We tested the hypothesis that coexistence of maternal HCAM and perinatal Ureaplasma exposure increases the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation in extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all ELBW infants born between January 2008 and December 2013 at a single academic center. Placental pathology and gastric fluid Ureaplasma data were available for all infants. Culture and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect Ureaplasma in gastric fluid. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was defined as mechanical ventilation that began within 28 days after birth and continued. Of 111 ELBW infants enrolled, 84 survived beyond 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and were included in the analysis. Eighteen infants (21.4%) had both HCAM and Ureaplasma exposure. Seven infants (8.3%) required mechanical ventilation beyond 36 weeks of PMA. Coexistence of HCAM and Ureaplasma in gastric fluid was significantly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation after adjustment for gestational age, sex, mode of delivery, and use of macrolide antibiotics (OR, 8.7; 95%CI: 1.1-67.2). Coexistence of maternal HCAM and perinatal Ureaplasma exposure significantly increases the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation in ELBW infants. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. The effect of interruptions and prolonged treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Choy, Damon T.K.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Wu, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of interruptions and prolonged overall treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the significance of timing of interruption was investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment records of 229 patients treated with continuous course (CC) and 567 patients treated with split course (SC) radiotherapy for nonmetastatic NPC were reviewed. Overall treatment time without inclusion of time for boost was calculated. Treatment that extended 1 week beyond scheduled time was considered prolonged. Outcome in patients who completed treatment 'per schedule' were compared with those who had 'prolonged' treatment. Because of known patient selection bias between CC and SC, patients on the two schedules were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis was performed for patients on SC. Total number of days of interruption, age, sex, T and N stage, and the use of boost were tested for the whole SC group. Analysis on the effect of timing of interruption was performed in a subgroup of 223 patients on SC who had a single unplanned interruption. Timing of interruption, either before or after the fourth week for the unplanned interruption, was tested in addition to the other variables in multivariate analysis for this subgroup of SC. Results: Twenty-seven (11.8%) patients on CC and 96 (16.9%) patients on SC had prolonged treatment. Patients on SC who had prolonged treatment had significantly poorer loco-regional control rate and disease free survival when compared with those who completed radiotherapy per schedule (p = 0.0063 and 0.001, respectively, with adjustment for stage). For CC, the effect of prolonged treatment on outcome was not significant. The small number of events for patients on CC probably account for the insignificant finding. The number of days of interruption was confirmed as prognostic factor, independent of T and N stages, for loco-regional control and disease-free survival in multivariate analysis for SC. The hazard rate for loco

  7. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kuniko; Asai, Atsushi; Bito, Seiji

    2013-12-09

    In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: "What is a life-prolonging treatment?" A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient's lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects

  8. Causes of prolonged hospitalization among general internal medicine patients of a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangkriengsin, Darat; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2014-03-01

    Unnecessary days of prolonged hospitalization may lead to the increase in hospital-related complications and costs, especially in tertiary care center Currently, there have not been many studies about the causes of prolonged hospitalization. Some identified causes could, however, be prevented and improved. To identify the prevalence, causes, predictive factors, prognosis, and economic burden of prolonged hospitalization in patients who had been in general internal medicine wards of the tertiary care center for 7 days or more. Retrospective chart review study was conducted among all patients who were admitted for 7 days or more in general internal medicine wards of Siriraj Hospital, the largest tertiary care center in Thailand. The period of this study was from 1 August 2012 to 30 September 2012. Demographic data, principle diagnosis, comorbid diseases, complications, discharge status, total costs of admission and percentage of reimbursement were collected. The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 7, 14, 30, and 90 were assessed. Five hundred and sixty-two charts were reviewed. The average length of stay was 25.9 days. The two most common causes of prolonged admission at day 7 were treatment of main diagnosed disease with stable condition (27.6%) and waiting for completion of intravenous antibiotics administration with stable condition (19.5%). The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 14 were unstable condition from complications (22.6%) and those waiting for completion of intravenous antibiotics administration with stable condition (15.8%). The causes of prolonged admission at day 30 were unstable conditions from complications (25.6%), difficulty weaning or ventilator dependence (17.6%), and caregiver problems (15.2%). The causes of prolonged hospitalization at day 90 were unstable condition from complications (30.0%), caregiver problems (30.0%), and palliative care (25.0%). Poor outcomes were shown in the patients admitted more than 90 days. Percentage

  9. Prevention of Pazopanib-Induced Prolonged Cardiac Repolarization and Proarrhythmic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Akman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pazopanib (PZP may induce prolonged cardiac repolarization and proarrhythmic effects, similarly to other tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Objectives: To demonstrate PZP-induced prolonged cardiac repolarization and proarrhythmic electrophysiological effects and to investigate possible preventive effects of metoprolol and diltiazem on ECG changes (prolonged QT in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 6. The first group (normal group received 4 mL of tap water and the other groups received 100 mg/kg of PZP (Votrient® tablet perorally, via orogastric tubes. After 3 hours, the following solutions were intraperitoneally administered to the animals: physiological saline solution (SP, to the normal group and to the second group (control-PZP+SP group; 1 mg/kg metoprolol (Beloc, Ampule, AstraZeneca, to the third group (PZP+metoprolol group; and 1mg/kg diltiazem (Diltiazem, Mustafa Nevzat, to the fourth group (PZP+diltiazem group. One hour after, and under anesthesia, QTc was calculated by recording ECG on lead I. Results: The mean QTc interval values were as follows: normal group, 99.93 ± 3.62 ms; control-PZP+SP group, 131.23 ± 12.21 ms; PZP+metoprolol group, 89.36 ± 3.61 ms; and PZP+diltiazem group, 88.86 ± 4.04 ms. Both PZP+metoprolol and PZP+diltiazem groups had significantly shorter QTc intervals compared to the control-PZP+SP group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Both metoprolol and diltiazem prevented PZP-induced QT interval prolongation. These drugs may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for the prolonged QTc interval associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor use.

  10. Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation as a Predictor of Mortality After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zamora, Maria Dolores; Gordillo-Brenes, Antonio; Banderas-Bravo, Esther; Arboleda-Sánchez, José Andrés; Hinojosa-Pérez, Rafael; Aguilar-Alonso, Eduardo; Herruzo-Aviles, Ángel; Curiel-Balsera, Emilio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Rivera-Fernández, Ricardo

    2018-05-01

    Mortality among the small percentage of cardiac surgery patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation is high, but this issue appears to be inadequately addressed in guidelines. This study is a retrospective analysis of prospective, multi-center, and observational study in Spain including all adults undergoing cardiac surgery in 3 Andalusian hospitals between June 2008 and December 2012. The study included 3,588 adults with mean ± SD age of 63.5 ± 12.8 y and with median (interquartile range) EuroSCORE of 5 (3-7) points. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 24 h) was required by 415 subjects (11.6%), with ICU mortality of 44.3% (184 subjects), and was not required by 3,173 subjects (88.4%), with ICU mortality of 3.1% (99 subjects, P mechanical ventilation was associated with more complications and was required by 4.5% of subjects with a EuroSCORE 10. In the multivariable analysis, ICU mortality was associated with illness severity, duration of bypass surgery, surgery type, and prolonged mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 15.19, 95% CI 11.56-22.09). The main cause of death was multiple organ failure and sepsis in subjects who required prolonged mechanical ventilation (50.3%) and cardiogenic shock in those who did not (59.2%). Prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation was required by 10-20% of cardiac surgery subjects, who constitute a specific group that represents most of the postoperative mortality, which is associated with multiple organ failure and sepsis. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. The hemodynamic effects of prolonged respiratory alkalosis in anesthetized newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundi, K; Barrington, K J; Henderson, C; Allen, R G; Finer, N N

    2000-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prolonged alkalosis decreases cardiac output and, furthermore, exacerbates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, as respiratory alkalosis is frequently induced as a therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn despite a lack of controlled evidence of improved outcomes. Potential adverse effects of prolonged alkalosis have been demonstrated. Two groups (control, n = 6, and hypocapnic alkalosis, n = 6) of 1-3 day old fentanyl-anesthetized, vecuronium-paralyzed piglets were instrumented to measure cardiac index (CI) and mean systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures. Baseline values were recorded. Alveolar hypoxia was then induced to achieve an arterial oxygen saturation of between 50 and 60% for 15 min. Respiratory alkalosis was then induced, by increasing ventilation to achieve a pH between 7.55-7.60, and was continued for 240 min. Inspired carbon dioxide was used with hyperventilation in the control group to maintain pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) at 35-45 mmHg and pH of 7.35-7.45. Hypoxia was induced again at 15 and 240 min. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances (PVR and SVR) were calculated. Prolonged alkalosis led to a significant and progressive fall in mean MAP from 61 (SD 7) mmHg at the start of the study falling to 50 (SD 6.9, p = 0.043), with no effect on CI. Calculated SVR decreased (0.45 SD 0.03 vs 0.36 SD 0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the variables in the control group. Neither acute nor prolonged respiratory alkalosis had a significant effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Prolonged hyperventilation leads to systemic hypotension, however it does not exacerbate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  13. Prolonged sitting in cars: prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Merom, Dafna; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Corpuz, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Owen, Neville

    2012-10-01

    Prolonged sitting is detrimentally associated with health outcomes. However, the prevalence and characteristics of those who sit in cars for long periods are not well understood. This study examined the population prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends for prolonged sitting in cars among adults. Using the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Area Household Travel Survey, the prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars (≥2 h/day) was calculated for four 3-year periods (1997-99, 2000-02, 2003-05, and 2006-08) for each population subgroup. Trends were calculated as the mean change in prevalence between adjacent survey periods. Cars were used for 66% of the total trips recorded (n=336,505). The prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars was 16-18% in men, and 10-12% in women. Relatively higher prevalence rates were found among middle-age groups (men: 20-22%, women: 12-15%), full-time workers (men: 21-24%, women: 14-15%), those with higher income (men: 21-25%, women: 14-16%), couples with children (men: 20-21%, women: 12-14%), and those living in outer suburbs (men: 20-23%, women: 12-13%). Trends were stable in men, but increasing in women. Several subgroups (older age; living in regional suburbs) also showed increasing trends. These findings provide evidence to inform integrated approaches to measurement and policy development on prolonged car use among the public health, urban planning, and transport sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes before 24 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Jane E; Colaizy, Tarah T; Nuangchamnong, Nina; O'Brien, Emily A; Fleener, Diedre K; Rijhsinghani, Asha; Klein, Jonathan M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in the era of antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant, and inhaled nitric oxide. A single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates born from 2002-2011 after prolonged (1 week or more) preterm (less than 24 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes was performed. The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Neonates whose membranes ruptured less than 24 hours before delivery (n=116) were matched (2:1) on gestational age at birth, sex, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure with neonates whose membranes ruptured 1 week or more before delivery (n=58). Analysis used conditional logistic regression for categorical data and Wilcoxon signed rank test for continuous data. The prolonged preterm PROM exposed and unexposed cohorts had survival rates of 90% and 95%, respectively, although underpowered to assess the statistical significance (P=.313). Exposed neonates were more likely have pulmonary hypoplasia (26/58 exposed, 1/114 unexposed, Prupture (20.4 weeks exposed, 22.3 weeks unexposed, P=.189), length of rupture (3.7 weeks exposed, 6.4 weeks unexposed, P=.717), and lowest maximal vertical pocket before 24 weeks of gestation (0 cm exposed, 1.4 cm unexposed, P=.114) did not discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors after exposure to prolonged preterm PROM. With antenatal steroid exposure and aggressive pulmonary management, survival to discharge after prolonged preterm PROM was 90%. Pulmonary morbidities were common. Of note, the data were limited to women who remained pregnant 1 week or longer after rupture of membranes.

  15. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  16. Donor Diabetes and Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase the Risk of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggenwirth, Isabel M A; Dolgin, Natasha H; Porte, Robert J; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Martins, Paulo N A

    BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after

  17. Prolonged non-metabolic heart rate variability reduction as a physiological marker of psychological stress in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Lane, R.D.; Thayer, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prolonged cardiac activity that exceeds metabolic needs can be detrimental for somatic health. Psychological stress could result in such "additional cardiac activity." PURPOSE In this study, we examined whether prolonged additional reductions in heart rate variability (AddHRVr) can be

  18. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cros, C., E-mail: caroline.cros@hotmail.co.uk [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Skinner, M., E-mail: Matthew.Skinner@astrazeneca.com [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Moors, J. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Lainee, P. [Sanofi-Aventis R and D, 371, rue du Pr Joseph Blayac, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 04 (France); Valentin, J.P. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two

  19. Effects of drought and prolonged winter on Townsend's ground squirrel demography in shrubsteppe habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Olson, Gail S.; Schooley, Robert L.; Corn, Janelle G.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    During a mark–recapture study of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) on 20 sites in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho, in 1991 through 1994, 4407 animals were marked in 17639 capture events. This study of differences in population dynamics of Townsend's ground squirrels among habitats spanned a drought near the extreme of the 130-yr record, followed by prolonged winter conditions.Townsend's ground squirrels have a short active season (≈4 mo) in which to reproduce and store fat for overwintering. Their food consists largely of succulent grasses and forbs in this dry shrubsteppe and grassland habitat. The drought in the latter half of the 1992 active season produced early drying of Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda) and was associated with low adult and juvenile body masses prior to immergence into estivation/hibernation. The following prolonged winter was associated with late emergence of females in 1993. Early-season body masses of adults were low in 1993 relative to 1992, whereas percentage of body fat in males was relatively high. These weather patterns in spring 1992 and winter 1993 also resulted in reduced adult persistence through the ≈7-mo inactive period, especially for adult females, and near-zero persistence of >1200 juveniles. Consequently, densities of Townsend's ground squirrels across the 20 livetrap sites declined.The demographic effects of drought and prolonged winter lasted at least through the subsequent breeding season. Adult females that survived these weather extremes produced fewer emergent young per female than did adult females prior to the event. Prior to the drought/prolonged winter, yearling female body masses were higher than, or indistinguishable from, those of adults. Females produced in 1993 had lower body masses as yearlings than did adult females.Demographic response to the drought and prolonged winter varied with habitat; ground squirrels in sagebrush habitat showed less decline

  20. Proliferation and differentiation of adipose tissue in prolonged lean and obese critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Chloë; Vander Perre, Sarah; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-12-01

    In prolonged non-obese critically ill patients, preservation of adipose tissue is prioritized over that of the skeletal muscle and coincides with increased adipogenesis. However, we recently demonstrated that in obese critically ill mice, this priority was switched. In the obese, the use of abundantly available adipose tissue-derived energy substrates was preferred and counteracted muscle wasting. These observations suggest that different processes are ongoing in adipose tissue of lean vs. overweight/obese critically ill patients. We hypothesize that to preserve adipose tissue mass during critical illness, adipogenesis is increased in prolonged lean critically ill patients, but not in overweight/obese critically ill patients, who enter the ICU with excess adipose tissue. To test this, we studied markers of adipogenesis in subcutaneous and visceral biopsies of matched lean (n = 24) and overweight/obese (n = 24) prolonged critically ill patients. Secondly, to further unravel the underlying mechanism of critical illness-induced adipogenesis, local production of eicosanoid PPARγ agonists was explored, as well as the adipogenic potential of serum from matched lean (n = 20) and overweight/obese (n = 20) critically ill patients. The number of small adipocytes, PPARγ protein, and CEBPB expression were equally upregulated (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill patients. Gene expression of key enzymes involved in eicosanoid production was reduced (COX1, HPGDS, LPGDS, ALOX15, all p ≤ 0.05) or unaltered (COX2, ALOX5) during critical illness, irrespective of obesity. Gene expression of PLA2G2A and ALOX15B was upregulated in lean and overweight/obese patients (p ≤ 0.05), whereas their end products, the PPARγ-activating metabolites 15s-HETE and 9-HODE, were not increased in the adipose tissue. In vitro, serum of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill

  1. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, C.; Skinner, M.; Moors, J.; Lainee, P.; Valentin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I Na ) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I Na , this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E max 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two out of three

  2. Prolonged Delayed Graft Function Is Associated with Inferior Patient and Kidney Allograft Survivals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Veras de Sandes-Freitas

    Full Text Available It is unclear if there is an association between the duration of delayed graft function (DGF and kidney transplant (KT outcomes. This study investigated the impact of prolonged DGF on patient and graft survivals, and renal function one year after KT. This single center retrospective analysis included all deceased donor KT performed between Jan/1998 and Dec/2008 (n = 1412. Patients were grouped in quartiles according to duration of DGF (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and >15 days, designated as prolonged DGF. The overall incidence of DGF was 54.2%. Prolonged DGF was associated with retransplantation (OR 2.110, CI95% 1.064-4.184,p = 0.033 and more than 3 HLA mismatches (OR 1.819, CI95% 1.117-2.962,p = 0.016. The incidence of acute rejection was higher in patients with DGF compared with those without DGF (36.2% vs. 12.2%, p<0.001. Compared to patients without DGF, DGF(1-5, DGF(6-10, and DGF(11-15, patients with prolonged DGF showed inferior one year patient survival (95.2% vs. 95.4% vs. 95.5% vs. 93.4% vs. 88.86%, p = 0.003, graft survival (91% vs. 91.4% vs. 92% vs. 88.7% vs. 70.5%, p<0.001, death-censored graft survival (95.7% vs. 95.4% vs. 96.4% vs. 94% vs. 79.3%, p<0.001, and creatinine clearance (58.0±24.6 vs. 55.8±22.2 vs. 53.8±24.1 vs. 53.0±27.2 vs. 36.8±27.0 mL/min, p<0.001, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that prolonged DGF was an independent risk factor for graft loss (OR 3.876, CI95% 2.270-6.618, p<0.001, death censored graft loss (OR 4.103, CI95% 2.055-8.193, p<0.001, and death (OR 3.065, CI95% 1.536-6.117, p = 0.001. Prolonged DGF, determined by retransplantation and higher HLA mismatches, was associated with inferior renal function, and patient and graft survivals at one year.

  3. Case of a woman with acromegaly whose presenting complaint was prolonged post-partum amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomomi; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Moriyama, Masayuki; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of a woman who was incidentally diagnosed with acromegaly after referral for prolonged post-partum amenorrhea. A 25-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, had a normal transvaginal delivery and breastfeeding had been discontinued more than a year after delivery. Thereafter, spontaneous menstruation did not restart and she underwent hormonal therapy. Subsequently, she was referred to our university hospital for prolonged amenorrhea. Hormonal examination revealed severe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (luteinizing hormone 0.5 mIU/mL, follicle-stimulating hormone amenorrhea, which revealed mass lesions extending from the pituitary fossa to the suprasellar area with similar signal intensity as the gray matter. In addition, bitemporal hemianopsia was observed on campimetry. After further examination, the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, J.A.; Buttedahl, O.I.; Skaats, C.D.; Terada, K.; Woodard, R.W.

    1977-02-01

    The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported

  5. Acute and prolonged complement activation in the central nervous system during herpes simplex encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta E; Studahl, Marie; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-06-15

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we investigated the acute and prolonged complement system activity in HSE patients, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for numerous complement components (C). We found increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of C3a, C3b, C5 and C5a in HSE patients compared with healthy controls. C3a and C5a concentrations remained increased also compared with patient controls. Our results conclude that the complement system is activated in CNS during HSE in the acute phase, and interestingly also in later stages supporting previous reports of prolonged inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. THE ROLE OF WORK AND LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN WORKING LIFE PROLONGATION: CASE SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen, SIROK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  9. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee: a non-traumatic injury with prolonged recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Renner, Jordan B; Spang, Jeffrey T; Rubin, Janet E

    2015-06-08

    Subchondral insufficiency fractures are non-traumatic fractures that occur immediately below the cartilage of a joint. Although low bone density may be present concurrently, it is not the underlying cause of subchondral insufficiency fractures in the majority of patients. Patients with subchondral insufficiency fracture characteristically have unremarkable plain radiographs, while MRI examination may reveal extensive bone marrow oedema and subchondral bone collapse. This article presents a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman, a physician, who had subchondral insufficiency fractures of the knee associated with prolonged standing during clinical work. She was treated with partial weight bearing on crutches until 14 months after the injury, viscosupplementation at 4 months to treat osteoarthritis and teriparatide treatment to improve bone healing at 7 months. By 26 months after the injury, she tolerated independent walking with a fabric knee support but still experienced mild posterolateral knee pain and numbness on prolonged standing. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Spreading depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and are associated with poor outcome in brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Bullock, M Ross

    2011-01-01

    , although prolonged events have not been observed in animal models. To determine whether detrimental penumbral-type depolarizations occur in human brain trauma, we analysed electrocorticographic recordings obtained by subdural electrode-strip monitoring during intensive care. Of 53 patients studied, 10......Cortical spreading depolarizations occur spontaneously after ischaemic, haemorrhagic and traumatic brain injury. Their effects vary spatially and temporally as graded phenomena, from infarction to complete recovery, and are reflected in the duration of depolarization measured by the negative direct...... current shift of electrocorticographic recordings. In the focal ischaemic penumbra, peri-infarct depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and cause progressive recruitment of the penumbra into the core infarct. In traumatic brain injury, the effects of spreading depolarizations are unknown...

  11. MRI patterns in prolonged low response states following traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Peter D; Mabry, Jennifer L; Gurka, Matthew J; Buck, Marcia L; Boatwright, Evelyn; Blackman, James A

    2007-01-01

    To explore the relationship between location and pattern of brain injury identified on MRI and prolonged low response state in children post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). This observational study compared 15 children who spontaneously recovered within 30 days post-TBI to 17 who remained in a prolonged low response state. 92.9% of children with brain stem injury were in the low response group. The predicted probability was 0.81 for brain stem injury alone, increasing to 0.95 with a regional pattern of injury to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Low response state in children post-TBI is strongly correlated with two distinctive regions of injury: the brain stem alone, and an injury pattern to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. This study demonstrates the need for large-scale clinical studies using MRI as a tool for outcome assessment in children and adolescents following severe TBI.

  12. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving

  13. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...... randomized to receive simultaneous subcutaneous injections of bupivacaine microcapsules with dexamethasone and bupivacaine microcapsules without dexamethasone in each calf. Local analgesia was assessed with a validated human pain model; main parameters evaluated were thermal, mechanical, and pain detection...... curve [AUC]) were considered best estimate of analgesia. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The addition of dexamethasone significantly prolonged local analgesia of bupivacaine microcapsules without influence...

  14. Effect of prolonged gelling time on the intrinsic properties of barium alginate microcapsules and its biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Kollarikova, Gabriella; Qi, Meirigeng; Lacik, Igor; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J; Tuch, Bernard E

    2011-01-01

    Pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO) may be attributed to an immune response against microcapsules themselves or to antigen shedding through microcapsule pores from encapsulated islet tissue. Modification of microcapsules aimed at reducing pore size should prevent PFO and improve graft survival. This study investigated the effect of increased gelling time (20 vs. 2 min) in barium chloride on intrinsic properties of alginate microcapsules and tested their biocompatibility in vivo. Prolonged gelling time affected neither permeability nor size of the microcapsules. However, prolonged gelling time for 20 min produced brittle microcapsules compared to 2 min during compression test. Encapsulation of human islets in both types of microcapsules affected neither islet viability nor function. The presence of PFO when transplanted into a large animal model such as baboon and its absence in small animal models such as rodents suggest that the host immune response towards alginate microcapsules is species rather than alginate specific.

  15. [Prolonged diarrhea and weight loss after a biking trip from Tibet to Nepal: infection with Cyclospora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, E; Kager, P A

    2002-08-10

    A 39-year-old man, who had made a cycling tour from Tibet to Nepal, visited the outpatients' clinic one month later because of prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and serious weight loss. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis and the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) with good result. C. cayetanensis has only recently been discovered as a protozoal cause of diarrhoea. Infections are primarily reported from areas with a low hygienic standard e.g. Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent (Nepal), Indonesia and South-East Asia. Clinical symptoms of infection are diarrhoea (usually watery), abdominal cramps and discomfort. The infection can have a prolonged course. Diagnosis is made by parasitological examination of the stool (one should be cautious not to confuse with cryptosporidia) and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective.

  16. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Schnack; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well documented, but the optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis after surgery...... evaluating prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH as compared to control or placebo. 133 studies were found in the searches, of which only 4 were found eligible for inclusion, and 129 were excluded. The incidence of overall VTE after major abdominal or pelvic surgery was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 11...... significant reduction of even the incidence of symptomatic VTE from 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% - 3.4%) in the control group to 0.2 % (95% CI 0.0% - 1.2%) in patients receiving prolonged thromboprophylaxis, Peto Odds ratio 0.22 (95% CI 0.06 -0.80), P = 0.02. The respective incidence of bleeding in the control and LMWH...

  17. Prolonged-release melatonin versus placebo for benzodiazepine discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Lindschou, Jane; Winkel, Per

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed if prolonged-release melatonin can facilitate withdrawal of long-term benzodiazepine usage in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. METHODS: Randomised, placebo-controlled, blinded, parallel superiority trial of 24 weeks duration. Participants were randomised...... to prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg daily versus matching placebo and were continuously guided to gradually reduce their usual benzodiazepine dosage. The primary outcome was mean benzodiazepine daily dosage at 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included pattern of benzodiazepine dosage over time, benzodiazepine...... cessation proportion, and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 86 patients (21-74 years) were enrolled: 42 were randomised to melatonin versus 44 to placebo. We found no significant effect of melatonin on mean benzodiazepine dosage at 24 weeks (melatonin group 8.01 mg versus placebo group...

  18. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  19. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  20. QT interval prolongation in users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in an elderly surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haelst, Ingrid M M; van Klei, Wilton A; Doodeman, Hieronymus J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and the occurrence of QT interval prolongation in an elderly surgical population. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients (> 60 years) scheduled for outpatient...... preanesthesia evaluation in the period 2007 until 2012. The index group included elderly users of an SSRI. The reference group of nonusers of antidepressants was matched to the index group on sex and year of scheduled surgery (ratio, 1:1). The primary outcome was the occurrence of QT interval prolongation shown...... on electrocardiogram. The QT interval was corrected for heart rate (QTc interval). The secondary outcome was the duration of the QTc interval. The outcomes were adjusted for confounding by using regression techniques. RESULTS: The index and reference groups included 397 users of an SSRI and 397 nonusers, respectively...

  1. Prolonged Shedding of Human Coronavirus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Risk Factors and Viral Genome Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Chikara; Greninger, Alexander L; Waghmare, Alpana A; Kuypers, Jane M; Shean, Ryan C; Xie, Hu; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stevens-Ayers, Terry L; Jerome, Keith R; Englund, Janet A; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Recent data suggest that human coronavirus (HCoV) pneumonia is associated with significant mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Investigation of risk factors for prolonged shedding and intrahost genome evolution may provide critical information for development of novel therapeutics. We retrospectively reviewed HCT recipients with HCoV detected in nasal samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HCoV strains were identified using strain-specific PCR. Shedding duration was defined as time between first positive and first negative sample. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors for prolonged shedding (≥21 days). Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was conducted when ≥4 samples with cycle threshold values of Genome changes were consistent with the expected molecular clock of HCoV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Is prolonged cold ischemia a contraindication to using kidneys from acute kidney injury donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Gautreaux, Michael D; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Stratta, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) on the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) renal grafts, we therefore performed a single-center retrospective analysis in adult patients receiving kidney transplantation (KT) from AKI donors. Outcomes were stratified according to duration of CIT. A total of 118 patients receiving AKI grafts were enrolled. Based on CIT, patients were stratified as follows: (i) 20 hours (P = NS). In the nine patients with CIT >40 hours, the 4-year DCGS rate was 100%. We conclude that prolonged CIT in AKI grafts may not adversely influence outcomes and so discard of AKI kidneys because of projected long CIT is not warranted when donors are wisely triaged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Potentiation of ghrelin signaling attenuates cancer anorexia–cachexia and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Uezono, Y; Minami, K; Yamaguchi, T; Niijima, A; Yada, T; Maejima, Y; Sedbazar, U; Sakai, T; Hattori, T; Kase, Y; Inui, A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut–brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective treatment for cancer anorexia–cachexia. We show that both ghrelin insufficiency and resistance were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) decreased the plasma level of acyl ghrelin, and its receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, increased food intake of these rats. The serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) antagonist SB242084 decreased hypothalamic CRF level and improved anorexia, gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and body weight loss. The ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 worsened anorexia and hastened death in tumor-bearing rats. Ghrelin attenuated anorexia–cachexia in the short term, but failed to prolong survival, as did SB242084 administration. In addition, the herbal medicine rikkunshito improved anorexia, GI dysmotility, muscle wasting, and anxiety-related behavior and prolonged survival in animals and patients with cancer. The appetite-stimulating effect of rikkunshito was blocked by (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Active components of rikkunshito, hesperidin and atractylodin, potentiated ghrelin secretion and receptor signaling, respectively, and atractylodin prolonged survival in tumor-bearing rats. Our study demonstrates that the integrated mechanism underlying cancer anorexia–cachexia involves lowered ghrelin signaling due to excessive hypothalamic interactions of 5-HT with CRF through the 5-HT2cR. Potentiation of ghrelin receptor signaling may be an attractive treatment for anorexia, muscle wasting and prolong survival in patients with cancer anorexia–cachexia. PMID:22832525

  4. Prolongation structure and linear eigenvalue equations for Einstein-Maxwell fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, D.; Neugebauer, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Einstein-Maxwell equations for stationary axisymmetric exterior fields are shown to be the integrability conditions of a set of linear eigenvalue equations for pseudopotentials. Using the method of Wahlquist and Estabrook (J. Math Phys.; 16:1 (1975)) it is shown that the prolongation structure of the Einstein-Maxwell equations contains the SU(2,1) Lie algebra. A new mapping of known solutions to other solutions has been found. (author)

  5. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

  6. Reference intervals for glucose, beta-cell polypeptides and counterregulatory factors during prolonged fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wildner-Christensen, M; Eshøj, O

    2001-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for the pancreatic beta-cell response and the counterregulatory hormone response to prolonged fasting, we studied 33 healthy subjects (16 males, 17 females) during a 72-h fast. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels decreased (P ... of counterregulatory factors increased during the fast [P fasting (P ... decreased from the second to third day of fasting (P = 0.03). Males had higher glucose and glucagon levels and lower FFA levels during the fast (P

  7. Uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate level is associated with prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hua Tang

    Full Text Available Total mortality and sudden cardiac death is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In CKD patients, the protein-bound uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate (IS is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association have yet to be elucidated. The relationship between IS and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters was investigated in a prospective observational study among early CKD patients. IS arrhythmogenic effect was evaluated by in vitro cardiomyocyte electrophysiological study and mathematical computer simulation. In a cohort of 100 early CKD patients, patients with corrected QT (QTc prolongation had higher IS levels. Furthermore, serum IS level was independently associated with prolonged QTc interval. In vitro, the delay rectifier potassium current (IK was found to be significantly decreased after the treatment of IS in a dose-dependent manner. The modulation of IS to the IK was through the regulation of the major potassium ion channel protein Kv 2.1 phosphorylation. In a computer simulation, the decrease of IK by IS could prolong the action potential duration (APD and induce early afterdepolarization, which is known to be a trigger mechanism of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In conclusion, serum IS level is independently associated with the prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients. IS down-regulated IK channel protein phosphorylation and the IK current activity that in turn increased the cardiomyocyte APD and QTc interval in vitro and in the computer ORd model. These findings suggest that IS may play a role in the development of arrhythmogenesis in CKD patients.

  8. Effects of Prolonged Standing on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Lovelace-Chandler, Venita; Zabel, Reta J.; McMillan, Amy Gross

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During…

  9. Torsades de Pointes associated with QT prolongation after catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yae Min Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with Torsades de Pointes (TdP. Aggravation of prolonged QT interval which is most likely due to neural modulation by catheter ablation, played major role in the initiation of TdP. The patient was successfully treated with isoproterenol during acute stage and discharged after stabilization without implantation of permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

  10. Prolonged Dyspnea after Interscalene Block: Attributed to Undiagnosed Addison's Disease and Myasthenia Gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Skedros, John G.; Kiser, Casey J.; Mendenhall, Shaun D.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a patient who had a series of daily interscalene nerve blocks to treat pain following a shoulder manipulation for postsurgical stiffness. She experienced acute respiratory compromise that persisted for many weeks. All typical and unusual causes of these symptoms were ruled out. Her treating pulmonologist theorized that the ipsilateral carotid body had been injured. However, it was subsequently determined that the constellation of symptoms and their prolonged duration wer...

  11. Specific features of the hemorrhagic syndrome manifestation under chronic, prolonged and acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlashchenko, N.I.; Gorlov, V.G.; Maksimova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    To make the hemorrhagic syndrome manifest itself, two phenomena are necessary to coincide in time, they are: a fall in the elasticity of the vascular wall and reduction in the amount of thrombocytes in blood. Depending upon the radiation dose, the vascular wall and the thrombocytic function may be either simultaneously impaired after acute exposure) or dissociated (following prolonged irradiation). Chronic irradiation at small (subliminal) dose rates fails to induce hemorrhagic disorders and death of rats caused by pathologic hemophilia

  12. Computer users at risk: Health disorders associated with prolonged computer use

    OpenAIRE

    Abida Ellahi; M. Shahid Khalil; Fouzia Akram

    2011-01-01

    By keeping in view the ISO standards which emphasize the assessment of use of a product, this research aims to assess the prolonged use of computers and their effects on human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between extent of computer use (per day) and carpal tunnel syndrome, computer stress syndrome, computer vision syndrome and musculoskeletal problems. The second objective was to investigate the extent of simultaneous occurrence of carpal tunnel syndr...

  13. Prolonged vertigo and ataxia after mandibular nerve block for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Chaturvedi; H H Dash

    2011-01-01

    Common complications of neurolytic mandibular nerve block are hypoesthesia, dysesthesia, and chemical neuritis. We report a rare complication, prolonged severe vertigo and ataxia, after neurolytic mandibular blockade in a patient suffering from trigeminal neuralgia. Coronoid approach was used for right sided mandibular block. After successful test injection with local anesthetic, absolute alcohol was given for neurolytic block. Immediately after alcohol injection, patient developed nausea and...

  14. QT interval prolongation related to psychoactive drug treatment: a comparison of monotherapy versus polytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinelli Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several antipsychotic agents are known to prolong the QT interval in a dose dependent manner. Corrected QT interval (QTc exceeding a threshold value of 450 ms may be associated with an increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. Antipsychotic agents are often given in combination with other psychotropic drugs, such as antidepressants, that may also contribute to QT prolongation. This observational study compares the effects observed on QT interval between antipsychotic monotherapy and psychoactive polytherapy, which included an additional antidepressant or lithium treatment. Method We examined two groups of hospitalized women with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder in a naturalistic setting. Group 1 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with antipsychotic monotherapy (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or clozapine and Group 2 was composed of nineteen hospitalized women treated with an antipsychotic (either haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine with an additional antidepressant (citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or clomipramine or lithium. An Electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out before the beginning of the treatment for both groups and at a second time after four days of therapy at full dosage, when blood was also drawn for determination of serum levels of the antipsychotic. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA, Fisher Exact Test and Indipendent T Test. Results Mean QTc intervals significantly increased in Group 2 (24 ± 21 ms however this was not the case in Group 1 (-1 ± 30 ms (Repeated measures ANOVA p Conclusions No significant prolongation of the QT interval was found following monotherapy with an antipsychotic agent, while combination of these drugs with antidepressants caused a significant QT prolongation. Careful monitoring of the QT interval is suggested in patients taking a

  15. SU119. Internalized Stigma in Adults With Early-Phase vs Prolonged Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Vohs, Jenifer; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip; Leonhardt, Bethany; Lysaker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: While internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one’s illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or quality of life over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with quality of life or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Methods: Individuals with early-phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and quality of life. Results: Controlling for education, race, and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Internalized stigma was negatively related to quality of life and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early-phase psychosis. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences, and social withdrawal also deferentially related to symptoms and quality of life across the 2 samples. Conclusion: Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Further, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those in their early phase of psychosis.

  16. Prolonged Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Suppresses Homologous Recombination Repair in Human Lung Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Qin, Qin; Kelly, Deborah F; Prakash, Rohit; Vanoli, Fabio; Jasin, Maria; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-09-01

    Genomic instability is one of the primary models of carcinogenesis and a feature of almost all cancers. Homologous recombination (HR) repair protects against genomic instability by maintaining high genomic fidelity during the repair of DNA double strand breaks. The defining step of HR repair is the formation of the Rad51 nucleofilament, which facilitates the search for a homologous sequence and invasion of the template DNA strand. Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a human lung carcinogen, induces DNA double strand breaks and chromosome instability. Since the loss of HR repair increases Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability, we investigated the effect of extended Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair. We show acute (24 h) Cr(VI) exposure induces a normal HR repair response. In contrast, prolonged (120 h) exposure to particulate Cr(VI) inhibited HR repair and Rad51 nucleofilament formation. Prolonged Cr(VI) exposure had a profound effect on Rad51, evidenced by reduced protein levels and Rad51 mislocalization to the cytoplasm. The response of proteins involved in Rad51 nuclear import and nucleofilament formation displayed varying responses to prolonged Cr(VI) exposure. BRCA2 formed nuclear foci after prolonged Cr(VI) exposure, while Rad51C foci formation was suppressed. These results suggest that particulate Cr(VI), a major chemical carcinogen, inhibits HR repair by targeting Rad51, causing DNA double strand breaks to be repaired by a low fidelity, Rad51-independent repair pathway. These results further enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability and thus, carcinogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Implantable microencapsulated dopamine (DA): prolonged functional release of DA in denervated striatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, A; Hjorth, S; Mason, D; Dillon, L; Tice, T

    1990-01-01

    Biodegradable controlled-release microcapsule systems made with the biocompatible biodegradable polyester excipient poly [DL-lactide-co-gly-colide] constitute an exciting new technology for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The present study describes functional observations indicating that implantation of dopamine (DA) microcapsules encapsulated within two different polymer excipients into denervated striatal tissue assures a prolonged release of the transmitter in vivo. This technology has a considerable potential for basic and possibly clinical research.

  18. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  19. ON A PROLONGATION CONSTRUCTION FOR LOCAL NON-DIVERGENT VECTOR FIELDS ON Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lukatsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a prolongation of non-divergent vector field, defined in a vicinity of zero in Rn t, to a finite non-divergent vector field on Rn is considered. Explicit formulas for the elements of the simple Lie algebra of non-divergent vector from the well-known Cartan series are obtained. This construction allows to move from the Euler equations for the ideal incompressible fluid to the Euler equations on finite-dimensional Lie groups.

  20. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  1. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Katharine; Rong, Hou; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard; Loeffler, I.Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over a...

  2. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Lequaglie Cosimo; Giudice Gabriella; Marasco Rita; Morte Aniello; Gallo Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary air leaks are common complications of lung resection and result in prolonged hospital stays and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, compared with standard care, the use of a synthetic polyethylene glycol matrix (CoSeal®) could reduce air leaks detected by means of a digital chest drain system (DigiVent™), in patients undergoing lung resection (sutures and/or staples alone). Methods Patients who intraoperatively showed moderate o...

  4. Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequaglie, Cosimo; Giudice, Gabriella; Marasco, Rita; Morte, Aniello Della; Gallo, Massimiliano

    2012-10-08

    Pulmonary air leaks are common complications of lung resection and result in prolonged hospital stays and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, compared with standard care, the use of a synthetic polyethylene glycol matrix (CoSeal®) could reduce air leaks detected by means of a digital chest drain system (DigiVent™), in patients undergoing lung resection (sutures and/or staples alone). Patients who intraoperatively showed moderate or severe air leaks (evaluated by water submersion tests) were intraoperatively randomized to receive just sutures/staples (control group) or sutures/staples plus CoSeal® (sealant group). Differences among the groups in terms of air leaks, prolonged air leaks, time to chest tube removal, length of hospital stay and related costs were assessed. In total, 216 lung resection patients completed the study. Nineteen patients (18.1%) in the control group and 12 (10.8%) patients in the sealant group experienced postoperative air leaks, while a prolonged air leak was recorded in 11.4% (n=12) of patients in the control group and 2.7% (n=3) of patients in the sealant group. The difference in the incidence of air leaks and prolonged air leaks between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.0002 and p=0.0013). The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the sealant group (4 days) than the control group (8 days) (p=0.0001). We also observed lower costs in the sealant group than the control group. The use of CoSeal® may decrease the occurrence and severity of postoperative air leaks after lung resection and is associated with shorter hospital stay. Not registered. The trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the IRCCS-CROB Basilicata Regional Cancer Institute, Rionero in Vulture, Italy.

  5. Strategies to reduce the risk of drug-induced QT interval prolongation: a pharmaceutical company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, C E; Valentin, J-P; Hammond, T G

    2008-08-01

    Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval is having a significant impact on the ability of the pharmaceutical industry to develop new drugs. The development implications for a compound causing a significant effect in the 'Thorough QT/QTc Study' -- as defined in the clinical regulatory guidance (ICH E14) -- are substantial. In view of this, and the fact that QT interval prolongation is linked to direct inhibition of the hERG channel, in the early stages of drug discovery the focus is on testing for and screening out hERG activity. This has led to understanding of how to produce low potency hERG blockers whilst retaining desirable properties. Despite this, a number of factors mean that when an integrated risk assessment is generated towards the end of the discovery phase (by conducting at least an in vivo QT assessment) a QT interval prolongation risk is still often apparent; inhibition of hERG channel trafficking and partitioning into cardiac tissue are just two confounding factors. However, emerging information suggests that hERG safety margins have high predictive value and that when hERG and in vivo non-clinical data are combined, their predictive value to man, whilst not perfect, is >80%. Although understanding the anomalies is important and is being addressed, of greater importance is developing a better understanding of TdP, with the aim of being able to predict TdP rather than using an imperfect surrogate marker (QT interval prolongation). Without an understanding of how to predict TdP risk, high-benefit drugs for serious indications may never be marketed.

  6. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to...

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder after weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Duffner, Lisa A; Collins, Eileen G; Lanuza, Dorothy M; Hoffman, Leslie A; Tobin, Martin J

    2010-12-01

    Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation may be associated with mental discomfort. It is not known whether such discomfort is linked with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accordingly, we investigated whether PTSD occurs in patients after weaning from prolonged ventilation. We also determined whether administering a questionnaire would identify patients at risk for developing PTSD. A prospective longitudinal study of patients transferred to a long-term acute-care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken: 72 patients were studied 1 week after weaning, and 41 patients were studied again 3 months later. An experienced psychologist conducted a structured clinical interview 3 months after weaning to establish a diagnosis of PTSD. To assess for the presence of PTSD-related symptoms, the post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS-10) questionnaire was administered 1 week after weaning and 3 months later. The psychologist diagnosed PTSD in 12% of patients 3 months after ventilator weaning. Patients who developed PTSD were more likely to have a previous history of psychiatric disorders (P 20 one week after weaning reliably identified patients who were diagnosed with PTSD 3 months later: sensitivity 1.0; specificity 0.76; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.91. PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of patients who were weaned from prolonged ventilation. A PTSS-10 score >20 one week after weaning identified patients diagnosed with PTSD 3 months later. This finding suggests that a simple questionnaire administered before hospital discharge can identify patients at risk for developing PTSD.

  8. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P

    2007-01-01

    HuEpo treatment VO2max increased (Ptime-to-exhaustion (80% VO2max) was increased by 54.0 and 54.3% (Ptime point...... week 11), TTE was decreased by 26.8% as compared to pre rHuEpo administration. In conclusion, in healthy non-athlete subjects rHuEpo administration prolongs submaximal exercise performance by about 54% independently of the approximately 12% increase in VO2max....

  9. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  10. Analysis of NPP pipes and equipment damage in life time prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to calculate the probability of pipes and equipment failure taking account of both the service records of the structures under various conditions and their aging. The parameters characterizing applied loads, failures, as well as metal strength, mechanical and thermal properties serve as the arbitrary values used in the described procedure. Paper presents an example of the probability calculation of failure of the RBMK emergency feed pump recirculation pipes when their service life is prolonged [ru

  11. Prolonged hemodynamic response during incidental facial emotion processing in inter-episode bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ethan S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Nonterah, Camilla; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    This fMRI study examined whether hemodynamic responses to affectively-salient stimuli were abnormally prolonged in remitted bipolar disorder, possibly representing a novel illness biomarker. A group of 18 DSM-IV bipolar I-diagnosed adults in remission and a demographically-matched control group performed an event-related fMRI gender-discrimination task in which face stimuli had task-irrelevant neutral, happy or angry expressions designed to elicit incidental emotional processing. Participants' brain activation was modeled using a "fully informed" SPM5 basis set. Mixed-model ANOVA tested for diagnostic group differences in BOLD response amplitude and shape within brain regions-of-interest selected from ALE meta-analysis of previous comparable fMRI studies. Bipolar-diagnosed patients had a generally longer duration and/or later-peaking hemodynamic response in amygdala and numerous prefrontal cortex brain regions. Data are consistent with existing models of bipolar limbic hyperactivity, but the prolonged frontolimbic response more precisely details abnormalities recognized in previous studies. Prolonged hemodynamic responses were unrelated to stimulus type, task performance, or degree of residual mood symptoms, suggesting an important novel trait vulnerability brain dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Bipolar patients also failed to engage pregenual cingulate and left orbitofrontal cortex-regions important to models of automatic emotion regulation-while engaging a delayed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex response not seen in controls. These results raise questions about whether there are meaningful relationships between bipolar dysfunction of specific ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions believed to automatically regulate emotional reactions and the prolonged responses in more lateral aspects of prefrontal cortex.

  12. Effect of prolonging radiation delivery time on retention of gammaH2AX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Banáth, Judit P; Duzenli, Cheryl; Olive, Peggy L

    2008-01-01

    Compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy, IMRT requires significantly more time to deliver the dose. Prolonging dose delivery potentially increases DNA repair which would reduce the biological effect. We questioned whether retention of γH2AX, a measure of lack of repair of DNA damage, would decrease when dose delivery was protracted. Exponentially growing SiHa cervical carinoma cells were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a water tank using a VarianEX linear accelerator. Cells held at 37°C received 2 Gy in 0.5 min and 4 Gy in 1 min. To evaluate effect of dose delivery prolongation, 2 and 4 Gy were delivered in 30 and 60 min. After 24 h recovery, cells were analyzed for clonogenic survival and for residual γH2AX as measured using flow cytometry. Increasing the dose delivery time from 0.5 or 1 min to 30 or 60 min produced a signficant increase in cell survival from 0.45 to 0.48 after 2 Gy, and from 0.17 to 0.20 after 4 Gy. Expression of residual γH2AX decreased from 1.27 to 1.22 relative to background after 2 Gy and 1.46 to 1.39 relative to background after 4 Gy, but differences were not statistically significant. The relative differences in the slopes of residual γH2AX versus dose for acute versus prolonged irradiation bordered on significant (p = 0.055), and the magnitude of the change was consistent with the observed increase in surviving fraction. These results support the concept that DNA repair underlies the increase in survival observed when dose delivery is prolonged. They also help to establish the limits of sensitivity of residual γH2AX, as measured using flow cytometry, for detecting differences in response to irradiation

  13. Prolonged ultraviolet light-induced erythema and the cutaneous carcinoma phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.; Parrish, J.A.; Haynes, H.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Pathak, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A considerable amount of evidence exists in support of the role of ultraviolet radiation as a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer, both melanoma and carcinoma types. On the basis of epidemiologic studies a phenotype has been described which helps to identify the persons who are more susceptible to skin cancer. In an attempt to further define this population, patients with cutaneous carcinoma and a normal control group were exposed to artificial ultraviolet light (UVL) and the erythema and tanning responses of each group were measured over a 21-day period. UVL-induced erythema was prolonged in a significantly higher percentage of patients with skin cancer than in control patients, lasting two to three weeks after single exposures to 6 and 8 times the patient's minimal erythema dose. The presence of prolonged erythema correlated with this history of previous skin cancer but did not correlate with other established risk factors for cutaneous carcinoma, i.e., fair skin, light hair and light eyes, easy sunburning and poor tanning, and Celtic ancestry. Prolonged erythema following UVL radiation may therefore represent an additional risk factor and help to identify the skin cancer-susceptible population

  14. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of prolonged febrile states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaruskova, M.; Belohlavek, O.

    2006-01-01

    The role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients whose main symptom is prolonged fever has not yet been defined. We addressed this topic in a retrospective study. A total of 124 patients (referred between May 2001 and December 2004) with fever of unknown origin or prolonged fever due to a suspected infection of a joint or vascular prosthesis were included in the study. The patients underwent either FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT scanning. Sixty-seven patients had a negative focal FDG-PET finding; in this group the method was regarded as unhelpful in determining a diagnosis, and no further investigation was pursued. We tried to obtain clinical confirmation for all patients with positive PET findings. Fifty-seven (46%) patients had positive FDG-PET findings. In six of them no further clinical information was available. Fifty-one patients with positive PET findings and 118 patients in total were subsequently evaluated. Systemic connective tissue disease was confirmed in 17 patients, lymphoma in three patients, inflammatory bowel disease in two patients, vascular prosthesis infection in seven patients, infection of a hip or knee replacement in seven patients, mycotic aneurysm in two patients, abscess in four patients and AIDS in one patient. In eight (16%) patients the finding was falsely positive. FDG-PET or PET/CT contributed to establishing a final diagnosis in 84% of the 51 patients with positive PET findings and in 36% of all 118 evaluated patients with prolonged fever. (orig.)

  15. Effect of prolonged isothermal heat treatment on the mechanical behavior of advanced NANOBAIN steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishan, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural evolution and consequent changes in strength and ductility of advanced NANOBAIN steel during prolonged isothermal heat-treatment stages were investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured bainite were not expected to be influenced by extending the heat-treatment time beyond the optimum value because of the autotempering phenomenon and high tempering resistance. However, experimental results indicated that the microstructure was thermodynamically unstable and that prolonged austempering resulted in carbon depletion from high-carbon retained austenite and carbide precipitations. Therefore, austenite became thermally less stable and partially transformed into martensite during cooling to room temperature. Prolonged austempering did not lead to the typical tempering sequence of bainite, and the sizes of the microstructural constituents were independent of the extended heat-treatment times. This independence, in turn, resulted in almost constant ultimate tensile strength values. However, microstructural variations enhanced the yield strength and the hardness of the material at extended isothermal heat-treatment stages. Finally, although microstructural changes decreased the total elongation and impact toughness, considerable combinations of mechanical properties could still be achieved.

  16. Prolonged ventilation post cardiac surgery - tips and pitfalls of the prediction game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Piotr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few available models aim to identify patients at risk of prolonged ventilation after cardiac surgery. We compared prediction models developed in ICU in two adjacent periods of time, when significant changes were observed both in population characteristics and the perioperative management. Methods We performed a retrospective review of two cohorts of patients in our department in two subsequent time periods (July 2007 - December 2008, n = 2165; January 2009 - July 2010, n = 2192. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and the individual patient consent was not required. Patients were divided with regard to ventilation time of more or less than 48 hours. Preoperative and procedure-related variables for prolonged ventilation were identified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each cohort. Results Most recent patients were older, with more co-morbidities, more frequently undergoing off-pump surgery. At the beginning of 2009 we also changed the technique of postoperative ventilation. Percentage of patients with prolonged ventilation decreased from 5.7% to 2.4% (p Conclusions Prediction models for postoperative ventilation should be regularly updated, particularly when major changes are noted in patients' demographics and surgical or anaesthetic technique.

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors for Prolonged Hospitalization and Readmission after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, Andrés M; Brant, Jason A; Newman, Jason G; Hatten, Kyle M; Cannady, Steven B; Fischer, John P; Lee, John Y K; Adappa, Nithin D

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the incidence and factors associated with 30-day readmission and to analyze risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Retrospective longitudinal claims analysis. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The database of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for patients who underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (Current Procedural Terminology code 61548 or 62165) between 2005 and 2014. Patient demographic information, indications for surgery, and incidence of hospital readmission and length of stay were reviewed. Risk factors for readmission and prolonged length of stay, defined as >75th percentile for the cohort, were identified through logistic regression modeling. A total of 1006 patients were included for analysis. Mean hospital length of stay after surgery was 4.1 ± 0.2 days. Predictors of prolonged length of stay were operative time (P surgery between 2012 and 2014, 7.2% (n = 38) required hospital readmission. History of congestive heart failure (CHF) was a predictor of hospital readmission (P = 0.03, OR = 12.7, 95% CI = 1.1-144.0). This review of a large validated surgical database demonstrates that CHF is an independent predictor of hospital readmission after transsphenoidal surgery. Although CHF is a known risk factor for postoperative complications, it poses unique challenges to patients with potential postoperative pituitary dysfunction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Risk factors for prolonged hospital stay after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Kelen de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of the patient and the coronary artery bypass grafting may predispose individuals to prolonged hospitalization, increasing costs and morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate individual and perioperative risk factors of prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units and wards. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 104 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients hospitalized >3 days in the intensive care unit or >7 days in the ward were considered for the study. The association between variables was estimated by the chi-square test, odds ratio and logistic regression; P 3 days in the intensive care unit occurred for 22.1% of patients and >7 days in the ward for 27.9%. Among preoperative factors, diabetes (OR=3.17 and smoking (OR=4.07 were predictors of prolonged intensive care unit stay. Combining the pre-, intra-and postoperative variables, only mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours (OR=6.10 was predictive of intensive care unit outcome. For the ward outcome, the preoperative predictor was left ventricular ejection fraction 24 hours for the intensive care unit and presence of infection for the ward.

  19. Effect of prolonged stress on the adrenal hormones of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Izawa, Shuhei; Saito, Keisuke; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nomura, Shinobu; Shimada, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged stress on the salivary adrenal hormones (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], DHEA-sulfate [DHEA-S]) of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The participants were female college students, including 10 with IBS and 16 without IBS (control group), who were scheduled for a 2-week teaching practice at a kindergarten. Participants were asked to collect saliva for determining adrenal hormones immediately and 30 min after awakening and before sleep, 2 weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice. Regarding cortisol/DHEA ratio, significantly increased levels were found during the first week of the practice, and a significant interaction between group and time was found; the ratio at 30 min after awakening in the IBS group was higher than that in the control group. For the other adrenal hormone indexes, no significant differences due to the presence of IBS were found. Individuals with IBS showed an elevated cortisol/DHEA ratio after awakening compared with individuals without IBS, and the elevated ratio peaked under the prolonged stress. The present study suggests that the cortisol effect is dominant in individuals with IBS under prolonged stress.

  20. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  1. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  2. Endoscopic stent suture fixation for prevention of esophageal stent migration during prolonged dilatation for achalasia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, E; Asari, R; Paireder, M; Lenglinger, J; Schoppmann, S F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare endoscopic stent suture fixation with endoscopic clip attachment or the use of partially covered stents (PCS) regarding their capability to prevent stent migration during prolonged dilatation in achalasia. Large-diameter self-expanding metal stents (30 mm × 80 mm) were placed across the gastroesophageal junction in 11 patients with achalasia. Stent removal was scheduled after 4 to 7 days. To prevent stent dislocation, endoscopic clip attachment, endoscopic stent suture fixation, or PCS were used. The Eckardt score was evaluated before and 6 months after prolonged dilatation. After endoscopic stent suture fixation, no (0/4) sutured stent migrated. When endoscopic clips were used, 80% (4/5) clipped stents migrated (p = 0.02). Of two PCS (n = 2), one migrated and one became embedded leading to difficult stent removal. Technical adverse events were not seen in endoscopic stent suture fixation but were significantly correlated with the use of clips or PCS (r = 0.828, p = 0.02). Overall, 72% of patients were in remission regarding their achalasia symptoms 6 months after prolonged dilatation. Endoscopic suture fixation of esophageal stents but not clip attachment appears to be the best method of preventing early migration of esophageal stents placed at difficult locations such as at the naive gastroesophageal junction. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Heart Rate Variability Frequency Domain Alterations among Healthy Nurses Exposed to Prolonged Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchini, Rossana; Veronesi, Giovanni; Bonzini, Matteo; Gianfagna, Francesco; Dashi, Oriana; Ferrario, Marco Mario

    2018-01-11

    The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: "prolonged high stress" (PHS), "recent high stress" (RHS) and "stable low stress" (SLS). A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD) and a subsequent resting day (RD). Statistically significantly lower ( p working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.

  4. Ambient but not local lactate underlies neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Shu, Hong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Neurons require a nearly constant supply of ATP. Glucose is the predominant source of brain ATP, but the direct effects of prolonged glucose deprivation on neuronal viability and function remain unclear. In sparse rat hippocampal microcultures, neurons were surprisingly resilient to 16 h glucose removal in the absence of secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal survival and synaptic transmission were unaffected by prolonged removal of exogenous glucose. Inhibition of lactate transport decreased microculture neuronal survival during concurrent glucose deprivation, suggesting that endogenously released lactate is important for tolerance to glucose deprivation. Tandem depolarization and glucose deprivation also reduced neuronal survival, and trace glucose concentrations afforded neuroprotection. Mass cultures, in contrast to microcultures, were insensitive to depolarizing glucose deprivation, a difference attributable to increased extracellular lactate levels. Removal of local astrocyte support did not reduce survival in response to glucose deprivation or alter evoked excitatory transmission, suggesting that on-demand, local lactate shuttling is not necessary for neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose removal. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenously produced lactate available globally in the extracellular milieu sustains neurons in the absence of glucose. A better understanding of resilience mechanisms in reduced preparations could lead to therapeutic strategies aimed to bolster these mechanisms in vulnerable neuronal populations. PMID:29617444

  5. Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard van der Vries

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals tend to suffer from influenza longer with more serious complications than otherwise healthy patients. Little is known about the impact of prolonged infection and the efficacy of antiviral therapy in these patients. Among all 189 influenza A virus infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ErasmusMC, 71 were hospitalized, since the start of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We identified 11 (15% cases with prolonged 2009 pandemic virus replication (longer than 14 days, despite antiviral therapy. In 5 out of these 11 (45% cases oseltamivir resistant H275Y viruses emerged. Given the inherent difficulties in studying antiviral efficacy in immunocompromised patients, we have infected immunocompromised ferrets with either wild-type, or oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y 2009 pandemic virus. All ferrets showed prolonged virus shedding. In wild-type virus infected animals treated with oseltamivir, H275Y resistant variants emerged within a week after infection. Unexpectedly, oseltamivir therapy still proved to be partially protective in animals infected with resistant virus. Immunocompromised ferrets offer an attractive alternative to study efficacy of novel antiviral therapies.

  6. Does unconscious stress play a role in prolonged cardiovascular stress recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, J F; Geurts, S A E; Kruizinga, I; Radstaak, M; Verkuil, B; Quirin, M; Kompier, M A J

    2014-08-01

    According to recent insights, humans might not be aware of a substantial part of their cognitive stress representations while these still have prolonged physiological effects. 'Unconscious stress' can be measured by implicit affect (IA) tests. It was shown that IA predicts physiological stress responses, in fact better than explicit ('conscious') affect. It is not known yet whether IA is associated with concurrent prolonged stress responses. In two studies (n = 62 and 123), anger harassment was used to induce stress. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously. During BP and HR recovery, IA was measured by an 'anger' version of the implicit association test (IAT) or the implicit positive and negative affect test (IPANAT). Blood pressure and HR increased during anger harassment and recovery afterwards. When using the IPANAT BP recovery levels were lower when positive IA was high and higher when negative IA was high, independent of explicit affect and rumination. These results were not found using the IAT. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological stress recovery is associated with IA. This is in line with the theory that unconscious stress is responsible for a-possibly considerable-part of unhealthy prolonged stress-related physiological activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reversal of prolonged rocuronium neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an obstetric patient with transverse myelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weekes, G

    2010-07-01

    A 38-year-old wheelchair-bound primigravida with transverse myelitis presented at 38 weeks of gestation for elective caesarean section. Transverse myelitis, which is characterised by bilateral inflammation of the spinal cord and myelin destruction, is associated with myopathy, autonomic dysreflexia and pulmonary aspiration. Regional anaesthesia was contraindicated in this case as the patient had undergone two previous lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Rocuronium 1.2 mg\\/kg was used to facilitate rapid intubating conditions. The caesarean section proceeded uneventfully, but even after administration of neostigmine the patient exhibited prolonged neuromuscular blockade. After 3 h and 15 min sugammadex was obtained to reverse neuromuscular blockade; the drug was not stocked in our hospital. Sugammadex 4 mg\\/kg resulted in complete reversal of blockade after 2 min. We believe that myopathy associated with transverse myelitis led to the prolonged duration of action of rocuronium. Sugammadex is a relatively new drug with few reported side effects. In this case it was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and prevented prolonged postoperative ventilatory support.

  8. Reversal of prolonged rocuronium neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an obstetric patient with transverse myelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weekes, G

    2012-02-01

    A 38-year-old wheelchair-bound primigravida with transverse myelitis presented at 38 weeks of gestation for elective caesarean section. Transverse myelitis, which is characterised by bilateral inflammation of the spinal cord and myelin destruction, is associated with myopathy, autonomic dysreflexia and pulmonary aspiration. Regional anaesthesia was contraindicated in this case as the patient had undergone two previous lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Rocuronium 1.2 mg\\/kg was used to facilitate rapid intubating conditions. The caesarean section proceeded uneventfully, but even after administration of neostigmine the patient exhibited prolonged neuromuscular blockade. After 3 h and 15 min sugammadex was obtained to reverse neuromuscular blockade; the drug was not stocked in our hospital. Sugammadex 4 mg\\/kg resulted in complete reversal of blockade after 2 min. We believe that myopathy associated with transverse myelitis led to the prolonged duration of action of rocuronium. Sugammadex is a relatively new drug with few reported side effects. In this case it was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and prevented prolonged postoperative ventilatory support.

  9. Parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify physical parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Eighteen patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed on patients lying in a supine position. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed in synchronization with expiration and released with inspiration. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Results] The mean tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was higher than that at rest (430.6 ± 127.1 mL vs. 344.0 ± 94.3 mL). The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was correlated with weight, days of ventilator support, dynamic compliance and abdominal expansion. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that weight (β = 0.499), dynamic compliance (β = 0.387), and abdominal expansion (β = 0.365) were factors contributing to the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] Expiratory abdominal compression increased the tidal volume in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was influenced by each of the pulmonary conditions and the physical characteristics.

  10. Prolonged release matrix tablet of pyridostigmine bromide: formulation and optimization using statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolourchian, Noushin; Rangchian, Maryam; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and optimize a prolonged release matrix formulation of pyridostigmine bromide, an effective drug in myasthenia gravis and poisoning with nerve gas, using hydrophilic - hydrophobic polymers via D-optimal experimental design. HPMC and carnauba wax as retarding agents as well as tricalcium phosphate were used in matrix formulation and considered as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique and the percentage of drug released at 1 (Y(1)), 4 (Y(2)) and 8 (Y(3)) hours were considered as dependent variables (responses) in this investigation. These experimental responses were best fitted for the cubic, cubic and linear models, respectively. The optimal formulation obtained in this study, consisted of 12.8 % HPMC, 24.4 % carnauba wax and 26.7 % tricalcium phosphate, had a suitable prolonged release behavior followed by Higuchi model in which observed and predicted values were very close. The study revealed that D-optimal design could facilitate the optimization of prolonged release matrix tablet containing pyridostigmine bromide. Accelerated stability studies confirmed that the optimized formulation remains unchanged after exposing in stability conditions for six months.

  11. [Prolonged desensitization pretreatment for in vitro fertilization in women with polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, W; Czech, R; Redźko, S; Wasilewski, T; Mrugacz, G; Wołczyński, S; Pietrewicz, P; Grochowski, D; Szamatowicz, M

    2000-09-01

    To analyse the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with severe polycystic ovary disease (PCD), stimulated after prolonged pituitary desensitization in comparison with regular long protocol therapy. The results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), fertilization rate, early embryo development parameters and clinical pregnancy rates were compared depending on the duration of pituitary desensitization before gonadotropin administration. A total of 60 patients with severe PCOD were desensitized with GnRH agonist up to 30 days before COH. The results were compared with the group of 213 patients with mild PCOD treated with regular long protocol (control). We observed a slightly higher rate of mature oocytes MII as well as the number of embryos obtained in the control group, however the pregnancy rate in the group with prolonged desensitization was significantly higher (50%) in comparison to the control group (33.8%). The prolonged pituitary desensitization before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation gives better chance for obtaining pregnancy in patients with severe PCOD. It could be recommended facing previous treatment failure.

  12. Heart Rate Variability Frequency Domain Alterations among Healthy Nurses Exposed to Prolonged Work Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Borchini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF and Low Frequency (LF powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: “prolonged high stress” (PHS, “recent high stress” (RHS and “stable low stress” (SLS. A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD and a subsequent resting day (RD. Statistically significantly lower (p < 0.02 HF and LF means were found in PHS and RHS nurses during the working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p < 0.05, but not in PHS nurses. LF means did not show any substantial increases in the resting periods, in the PHS group with geometric means lower when compared to SLS, in the non-working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.

  13. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Bazrgar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results: Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%, while 2(6.7% were diploid, and 2(6.7% were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5% were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5% were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05; however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion: Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells.

  14. Prolonged maintenance of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia by brief daily vibration stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kee; Schattschneider, Jörn; Lee, Inhyung; Chung, Kyungsoon; Baron, Ralf; Chung, Jin Mo

    2007-05-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that central sensitization initiated by nociceptive input can be maintained by repeated brief innocuous peripheral inputs. Capsaicin was injected intradermally into the hind paw of adult rats. Three different types of daily cutaneous mechanical stimulations (vibration, soft brush, or pressure) were applied to the capsaicin-injected paw for a period of 2 weeks. Daily stimulation consisted of a 10-s stimulation repeated every 30s for 30 min. Foot withdrawal thresholds to von Frey stimuli applied to the paw were measured once a day for 4 weeks. The capsaicin-only group (control rats without daily stimulation) showed hyperalgesia lasting for 3 days. In contrast, hyperalgesia persisted for 2 weeks in the group that received vibration stimulation. Neither the soft brush nor the pressure group showed a significant difference in mechanical threshold from the control group (capsaicin only). The vibration-induced prolonged hyperalgesia was significantly reduced by systemic injection of ifenprodil, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but it was not influenced by either an AMPA-receptor blocker or a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Furthermore, a dorsal column lesion did not interfere with the prolongation of hyperalgesia. Data suggest that vibration-induced prolongation of hyperalgesia is mediated by spinal NMDA-receptors, and a similar mechanism may underlie some forms of chronic pain with no obvious causes, such as complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1).

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acquires Limited Genetic Diversity in Prolonged Infections, Reactivations and Transmissions Involving Multiple Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB has limited ability to acquire variability. Analysis of its microevolution might help us to evaluate the pathways followed to acquire greater infective success. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS in the analysis of the transmission of MTB has elucidated the magnitude of variability in MTB. Analysis of transmission currently depends on the identification of clusters, according to the threshold of variability (<5 SNPs between isolates.Objective: We evaluated whether the acquisition of variability in MTB, was more frequent in situations which could favor it, namely intrapatient, prolonged infections or reactivations and interpatient transmissions involving multiple sequential hosts.Methods: We used WGS to analyze the accumulation of variability in sequential isolates from prolonged infections or translations from latency to reactivation. We then measured microevolution in transmission clusters with prolonged transmission time, high number of involved cases, simultaneous involvement of latency and active transmission.Results: Intrapatient and interpatient acquisition of variability was limited, within the ranges expected according to the thresholds of variability proposed, even though bursts of variability were observed.Conclusions: The thresholds of variability proposed for MTB seem to be valid in most circumstances, including those theoretically favoring acquisition of variability. Our data point to multifactorial modulation of microevolution, although further studies are necessary to elucidate the factors underlying this modulation.

  16. Optimism in prolonged grief and depression following loss: A three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A

    2015-06-30

    There is considerable evidence that optimism, the predisposition to have generalized favorable expectancies for the future, is associated with numerous desirable outcomes. Few studies have examined the association of optimism with emotional distress following the death of a loved one. Doing so is important, because optimism may be an important target for interventions for post-loss psychopathology. In the current study, we examined the degree to which optimism, assessed in the first year post-loss (Time 1, T1), was associated with symptom levels of prolonged grief and depression six months (Time 2, T2) and fifteen months (Time 3, T3) later, controlling for baseline symptoms and also taking into account positive automatic cognitions at T1. Findings showed that higher optimism at T1 was associated with lower concurrent prolonged grief and depression severity. Higher optimism at T1 was also inversely related with depression symptom severity at T2 and T3, but not prolonged grief severity at T2 and T3. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare acquired hemostatic disorders as a cause of prolonged bleeding – presentation of two case reports

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    Polona Novak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDPatient’s anamnesis is of primary importance in determining hemostatic disorders. Based on anamnestic data, a clinician may decide for further laboratory tests. We must consider an acquired bleeding disorder in a patient with unusual, unexpected and prolonged bleeding episodes. In this article we will describe two rare acquired hemostatic disordes.TWO CASE REPORTSOur first patient had prolonged bleeding after a pacemaker implantation. We diagnosed him with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Further on, the patient required a planned surgical procedure. In our second case we describe a patient with unusual and excessive skin bruising and prolonged bleeding after teeth extractions. He was diagnosed with acquired hemophilia.CONCLUSIONIn the assessment of a patient with a potential acquired bleeding disorder we must first rule out the most common causes, such as iatrogenic ones. But, because of high morbidity and mortality rates, we must also be aware of some rare acquired bleeding disorders. In case of uncertainty, we should consult with a hematologist.

  18. PARP Inhibition Attenuates Histopathological Lesion in Ischemia/Reperfusion Renal Mouse Model after Cold Prolonged Ischemia

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    Raimundo M. G. del Moral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1+/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinylbutoxyl]-1(2H-isoquinolinone (DPQ at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ. We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation.

  19. Prolonged local anesthetic action through slow release from poly (lactic acid co castor oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a new formulation of bupivacaine loaded in an injectable fatty acid based biodegradable polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) in prolonging motor and sensory block when injected locally. The polyesters were synthesized from DL: -lactic acid and castor oil with feed ratio of 4:6 and 3:7 w/w. Bupivacaine was dispersed in poly(fatty ester) liquid and tested for drug release in vitro. The polymer p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 10% bupivacaine was injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice and the duration of sensory and motor nerve blockade was measured. The DL: -lactic acid co castor oil p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 released 65% of the incorporated bupivacaine during 1 week in vitro. Single injection of 10% bupivacaine loaded into this polymer caused motor block that lasted 24 h and sensory block that lasted 48 h. Previously we developed a ricinoleic acid based polymer with incorporated bupivacaine which prolonged anesthesia to 30 h. The new polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 provides slow release of effective doses of the incorporated local anesthetic agent and prolongs anesthesia to 48 h.

  20. P6 Electroacupuncture Improved QTc Interval Prolongation by Upregulation of Connexin43 in Droperidol Treated Rats

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    Feng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigated the effect of P6 EA on droperidol-induced QTc interval prolongation and Cx43 expression in ventricular muscle of rats. Methods. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into control group (C, droperidol group (D, or EA group (E. C group rats were injected with normal saline. D group rats were injected with droperidol 0.13 mg/kg. E group rats were pretreated with EA at left P6 acupoint for 30 min and then injected with droperidol (0.13 mg/kg. QTc intervals were recorded at lead II in ECG within 120 min. Cx43 expression was measured by RT-PCR and western blotting. Result. Droperidol significantly prolonged QTc intervals compared with controls at 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, and 30 min (P0.05. Conclusion. P6 EA could improve QTc interval prolongation induced by droperidol, which may relate to upregulation of Cx43 mRNA and protein. Antiemetic dose of droperidol had minor effects on Cx43 mRNA and protein expression at 120 min.