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Sample records for prolonged time periods

  1. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kerr

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2 in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b 2 minutes walking every hour; and c 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second

  2. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

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    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Routine maintenance prolongs ESP time between failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, T.; Lannom, R.W.; Divine, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that routine maintenance of electric submersible motors (ESPs) significantly lengthened the mean time between motor failures (MTBF), decreased operating costs, and extended motor run life in the Sacroc Unit of the Kelly-Snyder field in West Texas. After the oil price boom of the early 1980s. rapidly eroding profit margins from producing properties caused a much stronger focus on reducing operating costs. In Sacroc, ESP operating life and repair costs became a major target of cost reduction efforts. The routine ESP maintenance program has been in place for over 3 years

  4. Fellatio by fruit bats prolongs copulation time.

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    Min Tan

    Full Text Available Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mate's penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the male's penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mate's penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx.

  5. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  6. Prebiotics enhance survival and prolong the retention period of specific probiotic inocula in an in vivo murine model.

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    Su, P; Henriksson, A; Mitchell, H

    2007-12-01

    To identify novel prebiotics that could be used to maintain persistence of three representative probiotic strains in vivo. Test mice were treated with prebiotics soybean oligosaccharide (SOS), fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or inulin, followed by probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10 (L10), Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94 (B94) or Lactobacillus casei L26 LAFTI (L26). Faecal samples were then collected and analysed using selective medium and PCR analysis to determine the presence of the probiotic strains. In contrast to the control groups, in mice fed prebiotics, the survival and retention time of the test probiotics was increased extensively. SOS and FOS prolonged the retention period of L10 from 24 to 30 h. Of the three prebiotics, FOS gave the best result with B94, prolonging the retention period from 3 to > or =10 days. Of the three prebiotics, inulin gave the best result for L26, prolonging the retention period from 2 to > or =6 days. The prebiotics SOS, FOS and inulin significantly enhance survival and prolong the retention period of L10, B94 and L26 in vivo. Our results demonstrate the potential use of FOS, inulin and SOS as prebiotics in conjunction with the probiotic strains L10, B94 and L26 for new synbiotic products.

  7. Linguistic and Psychological Perspectives on Prolonged Periods of Silence in Dual-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Emmanuelle; de Jonge, Maretha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an examination of the literature on prolonged periods of silence in children from the perspective of two different scientific fields. The aim is to call attention to the inherent complexity of the factors that may be involved in the etiology of mutistic behavior during child development. Medical and linguistic literature…

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor predicts prolonged relapse-free period in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Iezzi, Ennio; Marfia, Girolama A; Simonelli, Ilaria; Musella, Alessandra; Mandolesi, Georgia; Fresegna, Diego; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Furlan, Roberto; Finardi, Annamaria; Mataluni, Giorgia; Landi, Doriana; Gilio, Luana; Centonze, Diego; Buttari, Fabio

    2018-04-14

    In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS. In addition, immune cells may promote brain repair during the post-acute phases, by secreting different growth factors involved in neuronal and oligodendroglial cell survival. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a neurotrophic factor that could be particularly involved in clinical recovery. Indeed, PDGF promotes long-term potentiation of synaptic activity in vitro and in MS and could therefore represent a key factor improving the clinical compensation of new brain lesions. The aim of the present study is to explore whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PDGF concentrations at the time of diagnosis may influence the clinical course of RR-MS. At the time of diagnosis, we measured in 100 consecutive early MS patients the CSF concentrations of PDGF, of the main pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of reliable markers of neuronal damage. Clinical and radiological parameters of disease activity were prospectively collected during follow-up. CSF PDGF levels were positively correlated with prolonged relapse-free survival. Radiological markers of disease activity, biochemical markers of neuronal damage, and clinical parameters of disease progression were instead not influenced by PDGF concentrations. Higher CSF PDGF levels were associated with an anti-inflammatory milieu within the central nervous system. Our results suggest that PDGF could promote a

  9. Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy.

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    Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung; Eum, Ki-Do; Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian; Lee, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Main selection criteria were lack of use of contraceptives and experienced pregnancy in recent past. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Prolonged TTP was measured by the "TTP questionnaire". After adjustment for confounding effects of demographic and life-style characteristics and benzene exposure, delayed TTP, defined by frequency of first-cycle pregnancy, was associated with one standard deviation (SD) increase of the effort-reward ratio in the chronically stressed group of married men (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) in logistic regression analysis. A similar, but somewhat weaker effect, was found for the overall group (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.47-0.94). Paternal stress at work, as measured by effort-reward imbalance, seemed to be associated with a decreased number of conceptions in the first menstrual cycle.

  10. Progranulin inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

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    Al-Yahya, A M; Al-Masri, A A; El Eter, E A; Hersi, A; Lateef, R; Mawlana, O

    2018-05-01

    Several adipokines secreted by adipose tissue have an anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic function. Recently identified adipokine progranulin was found to play a protective role in atherosclerosis. Bearing in mind the central role of platelets in inflammation and atherosclerosis, we aimed, in this study, to examine the effect of progranulin on platelet function and coagulation profile in rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were given increasing doses of progranulin (0.001 µg, 0.01 µg, and 0.1 µg) intraperitoneally, while the control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelet aggregation responses to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid were assessed. Administration of progranulin resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to both adenosine diphosphate, and arachidonic acid. Bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in all groups that received progranulin, in particular, the 0.1 µg dose, in comparison to the control group. This preliminary data is first suggesting that the antiplatelet and anticoagulant action of progranulin could have a physiological protective function against thrombotic disorders associated with obesity and atherosclerosis. However, these results merit further exploration.

  11. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest

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    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  12. Pertussis may be the cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults in the interepidemic period.

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    Pimentel, Analíria Moraes; Baptista, Paulo Neves; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Magalhães, Vera; Silva, Andrea Rosane Sousa; Souza, Nadjla Ferreira; Matos, Deize Gomes Cavalcanti de; Pessoa, Ana Kelly Lins

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pertussis in adolescents and adults with cough lasting more than 14 days and less than 30 days. This is a prospective observational study in interepidemic period of pertusis. Ten public health outpatient clinics in the city of Recife, Brazil, were randomly selected for the study. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10 years and over with cough that had lasted between 14 and 30 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for culture and PCR in order to identify Bordetella pertussis. We adopted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US (CDC) definition of cases of pertussis. A total of 192 individuals were identified as suspected cases. Their mean age was 40.7 years. Pertussis was confirmed in 10 of the 192 suspected cases, with an estimated prevalence of 5.21% (95% confidence interval 2.03-8.38). All cases met the clinical case definition for pertussis; one suspect had both culture and PCR positive. PCR confirmed 100% of the cases, 7/10 by PCR and 3/10 by epidemiological linkage with a case confirmed by PCR. During an interepidemic period, 1 in 20 cases of prolonged cough had pertussis, suggesting this is an important cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

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    Van Ha, Thuong G., E-mail: tgvanha@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian [University of Chicago, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  14. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ha, Thuong G.; Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-01-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times

  15. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  16. Levofloxacin-Induced QTc Prolongation Depends on the Time of Drug Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervezee, L; Gotta, V; Stevens, J; Birkhoff, W; Kamerling, Imc; Danhof, M; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing a drug's potential to prolong the QTc interval on an electrocardiogram is essential for the correct evaluation of its safety profile. To explore the effect of dosing time on drug-induced QTc prolongation, a randomized, crossover, clinical trial was conducted in

  17. Ancient cellular structures and modern humans: change of survival strategies before prolonged low solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana

    The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).

  18. Effect of prolonged mixing time on concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Sidek, H.A.A.; Wahab, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between workability, compressive strength and mixing time of fresh concrete has been studied. The concrete samples used in the study are normal concrete of grade 30. The mix design of the concrete samples was estimated using software called Calcrete. Three concrete cubes of 150 mm size were cast immediately after mixing. The same grade of concrete was prepared with the mixing time of 30 minutes to 5 hours. All of the concrete samples were cured for 28 days under room temperature before they were compressed using a compression machine. Result shows that the compressive strength of concrete decreases when mixing time is increased. (author)

  19. The Effects of Breaking up Prolonged Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    on the electronic databases PUBMED and SCOPUS was independently conducted by two researchers. Only prospective intervention studies (controlled and uncontrolled) evaluating the effects of explicitly replacing sitting time with physical activity (including standing) on metabolic parameters as outcomes were included...

  20. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  1. Lack of diurnal effects on periodic exercise during prolonged cold water immersion.

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    Doubt, T J; Smith, D J

    1990-03-01

    Diurnal effects on periodic exercise were examined in 8 male divers wearing passive thermal protection during whole body immersions in 5 degrees C water for periods of up to 6 h. Studies were done during the course of 5-day air saturation dives at a depth of 1.61 ATA, with immersions beginning at 1000 h (AM) and 2200 h (PM). During each hour of immersion, leg exercise was done for 3 min each at workloads of 50, 70, and 90 W. Heart rate (HR) at each workload increased uniformly with immersion time, without a change in slope of HR vs. workload. No AM or PM differences occurred. AM resting VO2 increased linearly, and to the same extent as PM, with exposure time. VO2 at 50 W also increased at the same rate as resting values. VO2 at 70 and 90 W were similar for AM and PM and did not vary significantly during the 6-h immersions. Temporal increases in exercise HR may reflect cardiac compensation of diminished plasma volume. Workloads greater than or equal to 70 W generate enough metabolic heat in this specific condition to meet the thermogenic requirement. Lack of diurnal effects on exercise variables may be due to environmental conditions suppressing circadian rhythms.

  2. Benefits of oral administration of an electrolyte solution interrupting a prolonged preoperatory fasting period in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyao-García, D; Corrales-Fernández, M A; Blanco-Rodríguez, G; Sánchez-Hernández, E; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of an oral isosmolar solution of electrolytes (ISE) administered to interrupt a prolonged fasting period in children undergoing an elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Forty unpremedicated children aged 3 to 12 years, ASA I, undergoing a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with an overnight fasting period for milk and solids of at least 8 hours. In group 2, patients under a similar fasting period received a volume of 4 mL/kg of an oral ISE 3 hours before completing the fasting period. After anesthetic induction, blood glucose level (BGL) was quantified, and patients underwent an endoscopic examination to obtain the gastric content to determine the residual gastric volume (RGV) and pH levels. In group 1, the RGV was 0.78 +/- 0.44 mL/kg, pH was 1.75 +/- 0.38, and BGL was 86.4 +/- 14.5. In group 2, the RGV was 0.40 +/- 0.29 mL/kg, pH was 3.18 +/- 0.61, and BGL was 85.1 +/- 12.6. Only RGV and pH were significantly different between groups. A prolonged fasting period interrupted with oral ISE administration resulted in an RGV of low risk, without counterbalancing a potential fasting-induced hypoglycemia.

  3. Solar, interplanetary and terrestrial features associated with periods of prolonged positive and negative Dst index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, G.

    1989-01-01

    From a survey of the published final values of the geomagnetic index D st for the period 1958-1972, we found long time intervals of over 25-30 days, during which this index remained consistently positive (D st +) or negative (D st -). A study is made of relevant parameters on the ground, in the magnetosphere, in the solar wind and on the Sun to seek out systematic features associated with the two conditions. In order to eliminate factors arising from seasonal and solar cycle variations, we selected pairs of D st + and D st - which involve successive months of the same year, or the same month of two successive years. Three parameters which show a systematic difference between D st + and D st - intervals are found to be 1) the state of solar photospheric magnetic fields 2) the flux density of solar MeV protons measured in the magnetosphere and 3) the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field. While the effect of the last on geomagnetic activity has been well-discussed in the literature, it is suggested that the correlations of the first two to the conditions of D st + and D st - demand a careful scrutiny of the solar-terrestrial relationship. (author)

  4. Results of ITER/EDA and Japan's approach in the prolonged research period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide

    1998-01-01

    The Engineering and Design Activity (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) started operation with the cooperation of Japan, EU, Russia and the US in July 1992 with a plan to do work on the design of the ITER and necessary R and D. Six years passed and the final report was completed in February 1998, reporting that the initial targets were almost achieved except for design work depending on construction site. It was also decided to prolong the EDA for more three years, though the US did not participate. The new EDA items include: Design to meet site requirements and cost estimation; preparation for application for construction approval; and preparation of technical documents for equipment procurement in the future. Among them, the main EDA item is to design a low-cost ITER to be ready for construction when the three-year joint research is ended. For this, work was done to prepare technical guidelines. The EDA is now making the conceptual design of a new ITER 50% less expensive than the current ITER described in the final design report. Japan has proposed site requirements that are needed for design alteration when the ITER is constructed in Japan. The site requirements are concerned with earthquake resistance, ground, power supply and cooling conditions. (N.H.)

  5. Forecasting with periodic autoregressive time series models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with forecasting univariate seasonal time series data using periodic autoregressive models. We show how one should account for unit roots and deterministic terms when generating out-of-sample forecasts. We illustrate the models for various quarterly UK consumption

  6. Levofloxacin?Induced QTc Prolongation Depends on the Time of Drug Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kervezee, L; Gotta, V; Stevens, J; Birkhoff, W; Kamerling, IMC; Danhof, M; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing a drug's potential to prolong the QTc interval on an electrocardiogram is essential for the correct evaluation of its safety profile. To explore the effect of dosing time on drug-induced QTc prolongation, a randomized, crossover, clinical trial was conducted in which 12 healthy male subjects received levofloxacin at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00. Using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach to account for variations in ...

  7. The effect of interruptions and prolonged treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Choy, Damon T.K.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Wu, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of interruptions and prolonged overall treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the significance of timing of interruption was investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment records of 229 patients treated with continuous course (CC) and 567 patients treated with split course (SC) radiotherapy for nonmetastatic NPC were reviewed. Overall treatment time without inclusion of time for boost was calculated. Treatment that extended 1 week beyond scheduled time was considered prolonged. Outcome in patients who completed treatment 'per schedule' were compared with those who had 'prolonged' treatment. Because of known patient selection bias between CC and SC, patients on the two schedules were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis was performed for patients on SC. Total number of days of interruption, age, sex, T and N stage, and the use of boost were tested for the whole SC group. Analysis on the effect of timing of interruption was performed in a subgroup of 223 patients on SC who had a single unplanned interruption. Timing of interruption, either before or after the fourth week for the unplanned interruption, was tested in addition to the other variables in multivariate analysis for this subgroup of SC. Results: Twenty-seven (11.8%) patients on CC and 96 (16.9%) patients on SC had prolonged treatment. Patients on SC who had prolonged treatment had significantly poorer loco-regional control rate and disease free survival when compared with those who completed radiotherapy per schedule (p = 0.0063 and 0.001, respectively, with adjustment for stage). For CC, the effect of prolonged treatment on outcome was not significant. The small number of events for patients on CC probably account for the insignificant finding. The number of days of interruption was confirmed as prognostic factor, independent of T and N stages, for loco-regional control and disease-free survival in multivariate analysis for SC. The hazard rate for loco

  8. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving

  9. Effect of prolonged gelling time on the intrinsic properties of barium alginate microcapsules and its biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Kollarikova, Gabriella; Qi, Meirigeng; Lacik, Igor; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J; Tuch, Bernard E

    2011-01-01

    Pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO) may be attributed to an immune response against microcapsules themselves or to antigen shedding through microcapsule pores from encapsulated islet tissue. Modification of microcapsules aimed at reducing pore size should prevent PFO and improve graft survival. This study investigated the effect of increased gelling time (20 vs. 2 min) in barium chloride on intrinsic properties of alginate microcapsules and tested their biocompatibility in vivo. Prolonged gelling time affected neither permeability nor size of the microcapsules. However, prolonged gelling time for 20 min produced brittle microcapsules compared to 2 min during compression test. Encapsulation of human islets in both types of microcapsules affected neither islet viability nor function. The presence of PFO when transplanted into a large animal model such as baboon and its absence in small animal models such as rodents suggest that the host immune response towards alginate microcapsules is species rather than alginate specific.

  10. Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children: The HAPPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.

  11. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  12. Grain-boundary oxidation of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, W.H.; Behnke, R.; Duclos, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The grain-boundary chemistry of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High degrees of surface oxidation have been determined using the chemical-shift effects for the uranium photoelectron emission, but these must be largely restricted to thin films. The observed distribution of segregated fission products implies an absence of major fuel restructuring and SEM examinations revealed mainly subtle changes in the UO 2 grain structure. These findings are consistent with metallographic evidence of pervasive grain-boundary attack, despite only slight bulk alteration of the fluorite-lattice structure. (author)

  13. An exploratory study: prolonged periods of binocular stimulation can provide an effective treatment for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Pamela J; Simmers, Anita J; Gray, Lyle S; Cleary, Marie

    2012-02-21

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential for treating childhood amblyopia with a binocular stimulus designed to correlate the visual input from both eyes. Eight strabismic, two anisometropic, and four strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes (mean age, 8.5 ± 2.6 years) undertook a dichoptic perceptual learning task for five sessions (each lasting 1 hour) over the course of a week. The training paradigm involved a simple computer game, which required the subject to use both eyes to perform the task. A statistically significant improvement (t(₁₃) = 5.46; P = 0.0001) in the mean visual acuity (VA) of the amblyopic eye (AE) was demonstrated, from 0.51 ± 0.27 logMAR before training to 0.42 ± 0.28 logMAR after training with six subjects gaining 0.1 logMAR or more of improvement. Measurable stereofunction was established for the first time in three subjects with an overall significant mean improvement in stereoacuity after training (t(₁₃) =2.64; P = 0.02). The dichoptic-based perceptual learning therapy employed in the present study improved both the monocular VA of the AE and stereofunction, verifying the feasibility of a binocular approach in the treatment of childhood amblyopia.

  14. The analysis of false prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (activator: silica): Interference of C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Fanfan; Shu, Kuangyi; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoou; Xie, Yaoqi; Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhaohua; Jin, Susu; Jiang, Minghua

    2018-05-13

    To investigate the effect of C-reactive protein on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (different activators) in different detecting systems. The C-reactive protein and coagulation test of 112 patients with the infectious disease were determined by automation protein analyzer IMMAG 800 and automation coagulation analyzer STA-R Evolution, respectively. The pooled plasma APTT with different concentrations of C-reactive protein was measured by different detecting system: STA-R Evolution (activator: silica, kaolin), Sysmex CS-2000i (activator: ellagic acid), and ACL TOP 700 (activator: colloidal silica). In addition, the self-made platelet lysate (phospholipid) was added to correct the APTT prolonged by C-reactive protein (150 mg/L) on STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The good correlation between C-reactive protein and APTT was found on the STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The APTT on the STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system was prolonged by 24.6 second, along with increasing C-reactive protein concentration. And the APTT of plasma containing 150 mg/L C-reactive protein was shortened by 3.4-6.9 second when the plasma was mixed with self-made platelet lysate. However, the APTT was prolonged unobviously on other detecting systems including STA-R Evolution (activator: kaolin), Sysmex CS-2000i, and ACL TOP 700. C-reactive protein interferes with the detection of APTT, especially in STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The increasing in C-reactive protein results in a false prolongation of the APTT (activator: silica), and it is most likely that C-reactive protein interferes the coagulable factor binding of phospholipid. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of prolonging radiation delivery time on retention of gammaH2AX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Banáth, Judit P; Duzenli, Cheryl; Olive, Peggy L

    2008-01-01

    Compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy, IMRT requires significantly more time to deliver the dose. Prolonging dose delivery potentially increases DNA repair which would reduce the biological effect. We questioned whether retention of γH2AX, a measure of lack of repair of DNA damage, would decrease when dose delivery was protracted. Exponentially growing SiHa cervical carinoma cells were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a water tank using a VarianEX linear accelerator. Cells held at 37°C received 2 Gy in 0.5 min and 4 Gy in 1 min. To evaluate effect of dose delivery prolongation, 2 and 4 Gy were delivered in 30 and 60 min. After 24 h recovery, cells were analyzed for clonogenic survival and for residual γH2AX as measured using flow cytometry. Increasing the dose delivery time from 0.5 or 1 min to 30 or 60 min produced a signficant increase in cell survival from 0.45 to 0.48 after 2 Gy, and from 0.17 to 0.20 after 4 Gy. Expression of residual γH2AX decreased from 1.27 to 1.22 relative to background after 2 Gy and 1.46 to 1.39 relative to background after 4 Gy, but differences were not statistically significant. The relative differences in the slopes of residual γH2AX versus dose for acute versus prolonged irradiation bordered on significant (p = 0.055), and the magnitude of the change was consistent with the observed increase in surviving fraction. These results support the concept that DNA repair underlies the increase in survival observed when dose delivery is prolonged. They also help to establish the limits of sensitivity of residual γH2AX, as measured using flow cytometry, for detecting differences in response to irradiation

  16. Donor Diabetes and Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase the Risk of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggenwirth, Isabel M A; Dolgin, Natasha H; Porte, Robert J; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Martins, Paulo N A

    BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after

  17. Behavioral changes over time in post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from a rat model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoyun; Tian, Qing; Li, Feng; Gao, Junqiao; Liu, Yan; Mao, Meng; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuyan; Li, Genmao; Ge, Dongyu; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhaolan; Song, Yuehan

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is manifested as a persistent mental and emotional condition after potentially life-threatening events. Different animal models of PTSD have been developed for neuro-pathophysiology and pharmacological evaluations. A single prolonged stress (SPS) induced animal model has demonstrated to result in specific neuro-endocrinological dysregulation, and behavior abnormalities observed in PTSD. However, animal studies of PTSD have mostly been performed at one time point after SPS exposure. To better understand the development of PTSD-like behaviors in the SPS animal model, and to identify an optimal period of study, we examined depressive behavior, anxiety-like behavior, physical activity and body weight in SPS model rats for two weeks. Our results confirmed the SPS-induced PTSD-like behavior and physical activity observed in previous studies, and indicated that the most pronounced symptomatic behavior changes were observed on day 1 and 7 after SPS exposure, which may involve stress-induced acute hormone changes and unclear secondary neurobiological changes, respectively. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation into the neuro-pathophysiology of or neuropharmacology for PTSD using the SPS rat model. However, for chronic (pharmacological) studies longer than 7 days, a prolonged PTSD animal model should be developed, perhaps using enhanced stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prolonged closed cardiac massage using LUCAS device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with prolonged transport time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Matevossian

    2009-04-01

    angiography. After a 16-day period of hospital convalescence, with preventive implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and several weeks of rehabilitation, the patient was able to return home with no evidence of health impairment.Keywords: resuscitation, cardiac arrest, cardiac massage, LUCAS

  19. Predicting time on prolonged benefits for injured workers with acute back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, Ivan A; Busse, Jason W; Tolusso, David; Davilmar, Arold; Lee, Hyunmi; Furlan, Andrea D; Amick, Ben; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah

    2015-06-01

    Some workers with work-related compensated back pain (BP) experience a troubling course of disability. Factors associated with delayed recovery among workers with work-related compensated BP were explored. This is a cohort study of workers with compensated BP in 2005 in Ontario, Canada. Follow up was 2 years. Data was collected from employers, employees and health-care providers by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB). Exclusion criteria were: (1) no-lost-time claims, (2) >30 days between injury and claim filing, (3) benefits duration, and (4) age >65 years. Using proportional hazard models, we examined the prognostic value of information collected in the first 4 weeks after injury. Outcome measures were time on benefits during the first episode and time until recurrence after the first episode. Of 6,657 workers, 1,442 were still on full benefits after 4 weeks. Our final model containing age, physical demands, opioid prescription, union membership, availability of a return-to-work program, employer doubt about work-relatedness of injury, worker's recovery expectations, participation in a rehabilitation program and communication of functional ability was able to identify prolonged claims to a fair degree [area under the curve (AUC) = .79, 95% confidence interval (CI) .74-.84]. A model containing age, sex, physical demands, opioid prescription and communication of functional ability was less successful at predicting time until recurrence (AUC = .61, 95% CI .57, .65). Factors contained in information currently collected by the WSIB during the first 4 weeks on benefits can predict prolonged claims, but not recurrent claims.

  20. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error (SE = 0.016, p < 0.001 and computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.053, SE = 0.022, p = 0.015. Pregnant women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001 and long computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.049, SE = 0.020, p = 0.015 were likely have long mobile phone viewing times. Pregnant women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = −0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035, and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = −0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.42–0.74. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (OR 1.25, 95

  1. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Grigorieva, Evgenia S.; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P.; Azizova, Elena V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∇AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. (orig.)

  2. A numerical study on the usage of phase change material (PCM) to prolong compressor off period in a beverage cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezan, Mehmet Akif; Ozcan Doganay, Esra; Yavuz, Fazil Erinc; Tavman, Ismail Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D transient model is developed in a commercial CFD solver for vertical beverage cooler with PCM. • PCM slab is directly contacted with the airflow. • Regarding the run-time ratio best performance is achieved with 6 mm PCM slab. • Due to thermal inertia within the PCM domain, the VBC preserves its temperature for a long time. - Abstract: This study numerically investigates the influence of integration of a phase change material (PCM) slab inside a vertical beverage cooler (VBC) on the energy consumption, the thermal stability and flow characteristics of air inside the cooler. The PCM, water, slab is placed on the rear side of the flat plate roll bond evaporator with five different thicknesses, such as 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm. In the current work, transient numerical analyses are performed with ANSYS-FLUENT software for an empty cooler. To simulate the on/off controller of the cooling system a dedicated user-defined-function (UDF) is implemented in the software. Unlike the counterparts in the recent literature, instead of reducing the problem into a 1D or 2D lumped models a three-dimensional cooler domain is simulated in a commercial CFD solver. The predictions are compared with the experimental measurement for the cooler without PCM regarding the transient variations of the mean temperatures of evaporator surface and the indoor air. Consequently, the parametric set of analyses deduced that the PCM integration into the cooler enhances the cooling performance of the VBC by prolonging compressor off duration. Moreover, during the compressor off time, PCM preserves the air temperature inside the refrigerated space in the desired range by limiting the sudden temperature increments.

  3. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Lu; Xie, Yaojie; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-27

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error ( SE ) = 0.016, p women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = -0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035), and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = -0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.42-0.74). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy ( OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). Conclusions: The high prevalence rate of prolonged TV, computer, and mobile phone viewing times was common for pregnant women in their first and second pregnancy. This study preliminarily explored the relationship between

  4. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603... Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins to run is not included. (2...

  5. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3... Provisions § 221.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins to run is not included. (2) The last day of the...

  6. Analysis of interaction of some systems of the organism in the prolonged time after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoev, I.G.

    1978-01-01

    Prolonged observations have been carried out of the composition of the form elements of white and red blood and hemoglobin content in dogs irradiated with the 400 R dose as well as of the nine factors of the punctate of bone marrow characterizing the division and ripening of red and white sprouts. On the base of comparison of dynamics of these fourteen indices the following conclusions on the sequence of inclusion and exclusion of hemopoiesis reserves have been made. The primacy of hemopoiesis to the red side exists always when there is an insufficient quantity of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in them important for organism. The first reserve to be mobilized and mostly used is the expansion of hemopoiesis spring-board, the second-accelerated passage of cells of the dividingand dividing-ripening pools. Later and for a very short time the number of mitoses increases in erythroblasts which directly reflects the reduction of their generative cycle

  7. On periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on existence, minimum period, number of periodic orbits, and stability of periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems. Some examples are presented to illustrate these results.

  8. Prolonged warm ischemia time is associated with graft failure and mortality after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennankore, Karthik K; Kim, S Joseph; Alwayn, Ian P J; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-03-01

    Warm ischemia time is a potentially modifiable insult to transplanted kidneys, but little is known about its effect on long-term outcomes. Here we conducted a study of United States kidney transplant recipients (years 2000-2013) to determine the association between warm ischemia time (the time from organ removal from cold storage to reperfusion with warm blood) and death/graft failure. Times under 10 minutes were potentially attributed to coding error. Therefore, the 10-to-under-20-minute interval was chosen as the reference group. The primary outcome was mortality and graft failure (return to chronic dialysis or preemptive retransplantation) adjusted for recipient, donor, immunologic, and surgical factors. The study included 131,677 patients with 35,901 events. Relative to the reference patients, times of 10 to under 20, 20 to under 30, 30 to under 40, 40 to under 50, 50 to under 60, and 60 and more minutes were associated with hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.15), 1.13 (1.06-1.22), 1.17 (1.09-1.26), 1.20 (1.12-1.30), and 1.23 (1.15-1.33) for the composite event, respectively. Association between prolonged warm ischemia time and death/graft failure persisted after stratification by donor type (living vs. deceased donor) and delayed graft function status. Thus, warm ischemia time is associated with adverse long-term patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation. Identifying strategies to reduce warm ischemia time is an important consideration for future study. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  10. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates.

  11. The design of an energy harvesting device for prolonging the working time of DC equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yayuan; Deng, Huaxia; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) derives from the idea of converting the ambient energy into electric energy, which can solve the problem of DC supply for some electronic equipment. PZT is a typical piezoelectric material of inorganic, which has been developed as EH devices to transfer ambient vibration energy into electric energy. However, these PZT devices require relatively violent excitation, and easy to be fatigue fracture under the resonance condition. In this paper, PVDF, which is a kind of soft piezoelectric polymer, is adopted for developing transducer. The PVDF devices are flexible and have longer life time than PZT devices under the harmonic environment. The EH researches are mainly focused on the development of energy transfer efficiency either by the mechanical structure of transducer or the improvement of circuit. However, the practicality and stability of the EH devices are important in the practical engineering applications. In this paper, a charge amplifier is introduced in the circuit in order to guarantee the stability of the battery charging under small ambient vibration conditions. The model of the mechanical structure of PVDF and the electric performance of circuit are developed. The experimental results and simulation show that the stability of battery charging is improved and the working time of DC equipment is prolonged.

  12. Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-10-01

    Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3... IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General... run is not included. (2) The last day of the period is included. (i) If that day is a Saturday, Sunday...

  14. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  15. Changes in tumor cell response due to prolonged dose delivery times in fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganetti, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, delivers more complex treatment fields than conventional techniques. The increased complexity causes longer dose delivery times for each fraction. The cellular damage after a full treatment may depend on the dose rate, because sublethal radiation damage can be repaired more efficiently during prolonged dose delivery. The goal of this study was to investigate the significance of this effect in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The lethal/potentially lethal model was used to calculate lesion induction rates for repairable and nonrepairable lesions. Dose rate effects were analyzed for 9 different cell lines (8 human tumor xenografts and a C3H10T1/2 cell line). The effects of single-fraction as well as fractionated irradiation for different dose rates were studied. Results: Significant differences can be seen for dose rates lower than about 0.1 Gy/min for all cell lines considered. For 60 Gy delivered in 30 fractions, the equivalent dose is reduced by between 1.3% and 12% comparing 2 Gy delivery over 30 min per fraction with 2 Gy delivery over 1 min per fraction. The effect is higher for higher doses per fraction. Furthermore, the results show that dose rate effects do not show a simple correlation with the α/β ratio for ratios between 3 Gy and 31 Gy. Conclusions: If the total dose delivery time for a treatment fraction in radiation therapy increases to about 20 min, a correction for dose rate effects may have to be considered in treatment planning. Adjustments in effective dose may be necessary when comparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy with conventional treatment plans

  16. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) presenting with an unusually prolonged period of marked polyuria heralded by an abrupt oliguric phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, Virin; Landa, Cristian; James, Leighton R

    2014-08-22

    A 50-year-old African-American man presented with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to hypotension from non-typhoid Salmonella gastroenteritis and bacteraemia. The oliguric phase lasted only 24 h followed by prolonged polyuria for 20 days, with urine output in excess of 16 L/day at maximum. As indexed in PubMed this is only the second published case of this nature since 1974, in which an abrupt oliguric phase of 24 h or less heralded prolonged polyuria in ATN. The diagnosis is challenging as fractional excretion of sodium early in the clinical course and rapid normalisation of serum creatinine with intravenous fluids (IVF) may point towards prerenal azotaemia resulting in a premature discharge from hospital. Patients with an abrupt oliguric phase may suffer a secondary renal insult from the profound fluid loss that is to follow and may need inpatient monitoring with supplemental IVF to prevent deleterious outcomes. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Impact of Azithromycin on Pregnancy Prolongation in Women at Risk of Preterm Labor: A Time-to-Event Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Isabelle; Ferland, Gabrielle; Ruo, Ni; Morin, Caroline; Brochet, Marie-Sophie; Morin, Lucie; Ferreira, Ema

    2016-09-13

    Since 2006, the empiric use of azithromycin in women at risk of premature birth has become prevalent in our institution without any evidence of its efficacy. Although antibiotics can prolong pregnancy in preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, no published data are available for women with intact membranes. To describe the purpose of adding azithromycin to the usual treatments (cerclage, tocolysis, rest, etc.) to prolong pregnancy in women with intact membranes who are at risk of or already in preterm labour. A retrospective observational cohort study was done at a Mother-Child University Hospital Centre. Patients admitted to obstetric ward who received azithromycin between January 1 st , 2006 and August 1 st , 2010 were included. A total of 127 exposed women were matched to 127 controls through medical records and pharmacy software. A time-to-event analysis was done to compare gestational age at the time of the recorded composite event (delivery, or rupture of membranes, or second intervention to prolong pregnancy). To compare proportions of composite event at different time points, χ 2 tests were used. Patients who received azithromycin had a more severe condition at presentation. Once adjusted for confounding factors, prolongation of pregnancy (HR =1.049; CI 95%: 0.774-1.421 [p=0.758]) and gestational age at the event (HR=1.200; CI 95%: 0.894-1.609 [p=0.225]) did not differ between the groups. The proportions of women with an event ≥7 days post-diagnosis or ≥37 gestational weeks were similar. Azithromycin was added to medical therapy in a more at-risk population and no clear benefit was measured.

  18. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee: a non-traumatic injury with prolonged recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Renner, Jordan B; Spang, Jeffrey T; Rubin, Janet E

    2015-06-08

    Subchondral insufficiency fractures are non-traumatic fractures that occur immediately below the cartilage of a joint. Although low bone density may be present concurrently, it is not the underlying cause of subchondral insufficiency fractures in the majority of patients. Patients with subchondral insufficiency fracture characteristically have unremarkable plain radiographs, while MRI examination may reveal extensive bone marrow oedema and subchondral bone collapse. This article presents a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman, a physician, who had subchondral insufficiency fractures of the knee associated with prolonged standing during clinical work. She was treated with partial weight bearing on crutches until 14 months after the injury, viscosupplementation at 4 months to treat osteoarthritis and teriparatide treatment to improve bone healing at 7 months. By 26 months after the injury, she tolerated independent walking with a fabric knee support but still experienced mild posterolateral knee pain and numbness on prolonged standing. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Katharine; Rong, Hou; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard; Loeffler, I.Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over a...

  20. Analysis of NPP pipes and equipment damage in life time prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to calculate the probability of pipes and equipment failure taking account of both the service records of the structures under various conditions and their aging. The parameters characterizing applied loads, failures, as well as metal strength, mechanical and thermal properties serve as the arbitrary values used in the described procedure. Paper presents an example of the probability calculation of failure of the RBMK emergency feed pump recirculation pipes when their service life is prolonged [ru

  1. Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood College Preparatory School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and to enhance children's learning [1]. Since this theory, the current study was designed to examine the significance of mechanical effects of intra-abdominal on posture/balance control among the Algerian Childhood Primary Schools. Since our teachers emphasise the good classroom settings as a discipline pedagogical aspect of success learning. While High-quality educational programs for children in preschool and kindergarten have play at the centre of the curriculum [2]. Our interventions in this study aimed to examine Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood Preparatory Schools. for the purpose, a total of 61 schoolboys of Slimane provinces Naama, Municipality Mecheria, Algeria male gender their average age 5±1.52 years distributed into two homogeneous groups, according to them, school attendance (kindergarten School (29 boys - preschool (32 boys. Tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage-Abdominal circumference - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and standing balance. Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: • Prolonged periods classroom settings increase Intra-Abdominal Fat which represents big risk posture/balance control. • Primary schools posture needs an interactive play method Learning classroom to improve body imbalance as health benefits physical activities. Based on the differences acquired by the research team, we emphasise that prolonged periods classroom settings Primary Schools increase the intra-abdominal which owing to the weakness of skeletal muscle fatigue and abnormal pathological alignment. While as a recommendation pedagogy practised, we suggested to our teachers, who work with these children to know that the balanced posture requires more energy in the class, Considering that our student seat more than 6 hours a day, 30 per week, and

  2. On positive periodic solution of periodic competition Lotka-Volterra system with time delay and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Chen Shihua; Hong Zhiming; Wang Changping

    2007-01-01

    A two-species periodic competition Lotka-Volterra system with time delay and diffusion is investigated. Some sufficient conditions of the existence of positive periodic solution are established for the system by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory

  3. Almost Periodicity in Time of Solutions of the Toda Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Ilia; Damanik, David; Lukic, Milivoje; VandenBoom, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study an initial value problem for the Toda lattice with almost periodic initial data. We consider initial data for which the associated Jacobi operator is absolutely continuous and has a spectrum satisfying a Craig-type condition, and show the boundedness and almost periodicity in time and space of solutions.

  4. Editor's Choice - Prolonged ICU Length of Stay after AAA Repair: Analysis of Time Trends and Long-term Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavali, H; Mani, K; Tegler, G; Kawati, R; Covaciu, L; Wanhainen, A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and outcome of prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the endovascular era. All patients operated on for AAA between 1999 and 2013 at Uppsala University hospital were identified. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Vascular registry, the Swedish Intensive Care registry, the National Population registry, and case records. Prolonged ICU LOS was defined as ≥ 48 h during the primary hospital stay. Patients surviving ≥ 48 h after AAA surgery were included in the analysis. A total of 725 patients were identified, of whom 707 (97.5%) survived ≥ 48 h; 563 (79.6%) underwent intact AAA repair and 144 (20.4%) ruptured AAA repair. A total of 548 patients (77.5%) required AAA repairs in 1999 to 7.3% in 2013 (p < .001) whereas the use of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) increased from 6.9% in 1999 to 78.0% in 2013 (p < .001). The 30 day survival rate was 98.2% for those with < 48 h ICU stay versus 93.0% for 2-6 days versus 81.8% for ≥ 7 days (p < .001); the corresponding 90 day survival was 97.1% versus 86.1% versus 63.6% (p < .001) respectively. For patients surviving 90 days after repair, there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. During the period of progressively increasing use of EVAR, a simultaneous significant reduction in frequency of prolonged ICU LOS occurred. Although prolonged ICU LOS was associated with a high short-term mortality, long-term outcome among those surviving the initial 90 days was less affected. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Periodic flows to chaos in time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book for the first time examines periodic motions to chaos in time-delay systems, which exist extensively in engineering. For a long time, the stability of time-delay systems at equilibrium has been of great interest from the Lyapunov theory-based methods, where one cannot achieve the ideal results. Thus, time-delay discretization in time-delay systems was used for the stability of these systems. In this volume, Dr. Luo presents an accurate method based on the finite Fourier series to determine periodic motions in nonlinear time-delay systems. The stability and bifurcation of periodic motions are determined by the time-delayed system of coefficients in the Fourier series and the method for nonlinear time-delay systems is equivalent to the Laplace transformation method for linear time-delay systems. Facilitates discovery of analytical solutions of nonlinear time-delay systems; Illustrates bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos; Helps readers identify motion complexity and singularity; Explains pro...

  6. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  7. Effective diffusion in time-periodic linear planar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indeikina, A.; Chang, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that when a point source of solute is inserted into a time-periodic, unbounded linear planar flow, the large-time, time-average transport of the solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion with constant effective diffusion tensors. For a given vorticity and forcing period, elongational flow is shown to be the most dispersive followed by simple shear and rotational flow. Large-time diffusivity along the major axis of the time-average concentration ellipse, whose alignment is predicted from the theory, is shown to increase with vorticity for all flows and decrease with increasing forcing frequency for elongational flow and simple shear. For the interesting case of rotational flow, there exist discrete resonant frequencies where the time-average major diffusivity reaches local maxima equal to the time-average steady flow case with zero forcing frequency

  8. Does vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation prolong the latency period before delivery following the preterm premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungorduk, Kemal; Asicioglu, Osman; Gungorduk, Ozgu Celikkol; Yildirim, Gokhan; Besimoğlu, Berhan; Ark, Cemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation after the premature rupture of membranes is associated with an increase in the latency period before delivery. In the present prospective open randomized trial, 229 pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at ≥ 24.0 and vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E (n = 126) or a placebo (n = 123). The primary outcome was the latency period until delivery. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. No significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Latency period until delivery was significantly higher in the group that received vitamins compared with the control group (11.2 ± 6.3 days versus 6.2 ± 4.0 days; p vitamin group compared with the control group (31.9 ± 2.6 weeks versus 31.0 ± 2.6 weeks; p = 0.01). No significant differences in adverse maternal outcome (i.e., chorioamnionitis or endometritis) or neonatal outcome (i.e., neonatal sepsis, neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, or grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) were noted between groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of vitamins C and E in women with PPROM is associated with a longer latency period before delivery. Moreover, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, which are often associated with prolonged latency periods, were similar between the groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. The in vivo study on the radiobiologic effect of prolonged delivery time to tumor control in C57BL mice implanted with Lewis lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Xiao-Peng; Lu, Jiade; Zhu, Guo-Pei; He, Shao-Qin; Hu, Chao-Su; Ying, Hong-Mei

    2011-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy techniques such as IMRT or sterotactic radiosurgery, delivers more complex treatment fields than conventional techniques. The increased complexity causes longer dose delivery times for each fraction. The purpose of this work is to explore the radiobiologic effect of prolonged fraction delivery time on tumor response and survival in vivo. 1-cm-diameter Lewis lung cancer tumors growing in the legs of C57BL mice were used. To evaluate effect of dose delivery prolongation, 18 Gy was divided into different subfractions. 48 mice were randomized into 6 groups: the normal control group, the single fraction with 18 Gy group, the two subfractions with 30 min interval group, the seven subfractions with 5 min interval group, the two subfractions with 60 min interval group and the seven subfractions with 10 min interval group. The tumor growth tendency, the tumor growth delay and the mice survival time were analyzed. The tumor growth delay of groups with prolonged delivery time was shorter than the group with single fraction of 18 Gy (P < 0.05). The tumor grow delay of groups with prolonged delivery time 30 min was longer than that of groups with prolonged delivery time 60 min P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with same delivery time (P > 0.05). Compared to the group with single fraction of 18 Gy, the groups with prolonged delivery time shorten the mice survival time while there was no significant difference between the groups with prolonged delivery time 30 min and the groups with prolonged delivery time 60 min. The prolonged delivery time with same radiation dose shorten the tumor growth delay and survival time in the mice implanted with Lewis lung cancer. The anti-tumor effect decreased with elongation of the total interfractional time

  10. Real time control of the sawtooth period using EC launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J I; Felici, F; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Piras, F

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas operating at high performance are limited by several MHD instabilities. The sawtooth instability limits the core plasma pressure and can drive the neoclassical tearing mode unstable, but also prevents accumulation of impurities in the core. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive systems can be used to modify the local current profile and therefore tailor the sawtooth period. This paper reports on demonstrations of continuous real time feedback control of the sawtooth period by varying the EC injection angle.

  11. Effect of prolonged gamma irradiation (6.7 Gy) on monoamine oxidase activity in ewe hypothalamus in anestral period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes were studied of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the hypothalamus and hypophysis of ewes in the anestral period following whole-body 60 Co irradiation for 7 days with a dose of 6.7 Gy. The gamma radiation exposure rate was 0.039 Gy/h. The activity of MAO was determined using the radiochemical method. 14 C-tryptamine was used as the substrate. The highest activity was determined in the rostral hypothalamus (1100 pmol.mg -1 .min -1 ). MAO activity was at its lowest in the caudal region of the hypothalamus (550 pmol). The results show that whole-body exposure to gamma radiation with a total dose of 6.7 Gy makes a statistically significant increase (P<0.001) in MAO activity in the caudal hypothalamus of ewes while remaining at the level of the control group or increasing insignificantly in the rostral and medial hypothalamus. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was recorded in the hypophysis. It may be assumed that the increased degradation of catecholamines caused by MAO is one of the mechanisms responsible for the decreased concentration of catecholamines in the hypothalamus of ewes after irradiation. (author). 1 fig., 22 refs

  12. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth; Clark, Bronwyn K; Gardiner, Paul A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2012-10-26

    To examine sedentary time, prolonged sedentary bouts and physical activity in Australian employees from different workplace settings, within work and non-work contexts. A convenience sample of 193 employees working in offices (131), call centres (36) and customer service (26) was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentages of time spent sedentary (customer service workers were typically the least sedentary and the most active at work. The workplace is a key setting for prolonged sedentary time, especially for some occupational groups, and the potential health risk burden attached requires investigation. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for sedentary occupations to reduce prolonged sitting time should be considered.

  13. Period doubling phenomenon in a class of time delay equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the solution of a nonlinear time delayed differential equation (infinite dimension) as function of two parameters: the time delay tau and another parameter A (nonlinearity) are investigated. After a Hopf bifurcation period doubling may occur and is characterized by Feigenbaum's delta. A strange atractor is obtained after the period doubling cascade and the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated indicating that the attractor has low dimension. The behaviour of this Liapunov exponent as function of tau is different from its behaviour as function of A. (Author) [pt

  14. Are physical performance and injury risk in a professional soccer team in match-play affected over a prolonged period of fixture congestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, C; Le Gall, F; Dupont, G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a prolonged period of fixture congestion (8 successive official matches in 26 days) on physical performance and injury risk and severity in a professional soccer team were investigated. Computerised motion-analysis was used to analyse the overall distance covered and that run at light- (0.0-11.0 km·h - 1); low- (11.1-14.0 km·h - 1); moderate- (14.1-19.7 km·h - 1) and high-intensities (≥19.8 km·h - 1) for the team as a whole. Distances were measured in metres per minute. Information on match injuries was recorded prospectively. The overall distance covered varied across successive matches (pvs. 116.0 ± 8.0 m·min - 1 and 115.5 ± 11.0 m·min - 1). Distance run in light-intensity exercise also varied (pvs. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 (75.5 ± 3.8 m·min - 1 vs. 70.6 ± 2.4 m·min - 1, 71.8 ± 3.4 m·min - 1, 69.3 ± 2.6 m·min - 1, 71.5 ± 3.1 m·min - 1, and 70.3 ± 2.8 m·min - 1) and in game 8 vs. game 3 (73.1 ± 3.8 vs. 69.3 ± 2.6 m·min - 1), respectively. When comparing match halves, there were no differences across games in overall or high-intensity distance covered and performance in these measures was similar for matches played before, during and after this period. Globally, no difference over the 8 games combined was observed between the reference team and opponents in any of the performance measures whereas the overall distance covered and that in low- (both pindividual games. The incidence of match injury during the congested fixture period was similar to rates reported outside this period but the mean lay-off duration of injuries was substantially shorter during the former (p<0.05). In summary, while the overall distance run and that covered at lower intensities varied across games, high-intensity running performance and injury risk were generally unaffected during a prolonged period of fixture congestion. These results might be linked to squad rotation and post-match recovery

  15. 15 CFR 325.4 - Calculating time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculating time periods. 325.4 Section 325.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE CERTIFICATES...

  16. Problems of Software Detection of Periodic Features in a Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems arise when attempts are made to extract automatically, visually obvious periodic features indicative of defects in a vibration time series for diagnosis using computers. Such problems may be interpretational in nature arising either from insufficient knowledge of the mechanism, or the convolution of the source signal ...

  17. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.

  18. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-01-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations

  19. Unstable Periodic Orbit Analysis of Histograms of Chaotic Time Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoldi, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using the Lorenz equations, we have investigated whether unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) associated with a strange attractor may predict the occurrence of the robust sharp peaks in histograms of some experimental chaotic time series. Histograms with sharp peaks occur for the Lorenz parameter value r=60.0 but not for r=28.0 , and the sharp peaks for r=60.0 do not correspond to a histogram derived from any single UPO. However, we show that histograms derived from the time series of a non-Axiom-A chaotic system can be accurately predicted by an escape-time weighting of UPO histograms. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  1. Prolongation of bleeding time and inhibition of platelet aggregation by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G; Boss, A H; Ødum, Niels

    1984-01-01

    the bleeding time averaged 11.2 minutes in contrast to 7.0 minutes in the placebo group, p less than 0.001. This study confirms our previous findings of platelet inhibition by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The prolongation of the bleeding time demonstrates that we......Platelet aggregation and bleeding time was measured in 43 cerebrovascular patients participating in a controlled double-blind study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. In 19 patients with satisfactory inhibition of the platelet aggregation obtained by 50 to 70 mg acetylsalicylic acid per day...... are dealing not merely with an in vitro phenomenon but with a significant in vivo effect. The study provides the rationale for clinical evaluations of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in stroke prophylaxis....

  2. Time analysis in astronomy: Tools for periodicity searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccheri, R.; Sacco, B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss periodicity searches in radio and gamma-ray astronomy with special considerations for pulsar searches. The basic methodologies of fast Fourier transform, Rayleigh test, and epoch folding are reviewed with the main objective to compare cost and sensitivities in different applications. It is found that FFT procedures are convenient in unbiased searches for periodicity in radio astronomy, while in spark chamber gamma-ray astronomy, where the measurements are spread over a long integration time, unbiased searches are very difficult with the existing computing facilities and analyses with a-priori knowledge on the period values to look for are better done using the Rayleigh test with harmonics folding (Z /sub n/ test)

  3. Computing return times or return periods with rare event algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestang, Thibault; Ragone, Francesco; Bréhier, Charles-Edouard; Herbert, Corentin; Bouchet, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    The average time between two occurrences of the same event, referred to as its return time (or return period), is a useful statistical concept for practical applications. For instance insurances or public agencies may be interested by the return time of a 10 m flood of the Seine river in Paris. However, due to their scarcity, reliably estimating return times for rare events is very difficult using either observational data or direct numerical simulations. For rare events, an estimator for return times can be built from the extrema of the observable on trajectory blocks. Here, we show that this estimator can be improved to remain accurate for return times of the order of the block size. More importantly, we show that this approach can be generalised to estimate return times from numerical algorithms specifically designed to sample rare events. So far those algorithms often compute probabilities, rather than return times. The approach we propose provides a computationally extremely efficient way to estimate numerically the return times of rare events for a dynamical system, gaining several orders of magnitude of computational costs. We illustrate the method on two kinds of observables, instantaneous and time-averaged, using two different rare event algorithms, for a simple stochastic process, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. As an example of realistic applications to complex systems, we finally discuss extreme values of the drag on an object in a turbulent flow.

  4. Sensory characteristics of meat cooked for prolonged times at low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Bach; Gunvig, Annemarie; Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2012-01-01

    species, and cooking loss increased with increasing temperature. A done appearance was developed with increasing heating time at 58 °C in pork and beef, while in chicken the done appearance was only affected by temperature. Flavor attributes were less affected by the LTLT treatment for all species......The present study evaluated the sensory characteristics of low temperature long time (LTLT) treated Semitendinosus from pork and beef and Pectoralis profundus from chicken. Semitendinosus and Pectoralis profundus muscles were heat treated at 53°C and 58°C for Tc + 6 h, Tc + 17 h, and Tc + 30 h...... (only Semitendinosus from pork and beef). Tc was the time for the samples to equalize with the temperature in the water bath. Tenderness increased with increasing heating temperature and time in pork and beef, but not in chicken. Juiciness decreased with increasing heating temperature and time in all...

  5. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    construction does not require the solution of any differential equations , only linear algebraic equations . By contrast, a mapping in the opposite...set of algebraic linear equations . The mapping between NESS and SP presented above was not intended as a set of operational instructions for... differential equations with time-periodic parameters. Typically, this can only be done numerically. In some applications, transition rates are constrained by

  6. Periodic solutions in reaction–diffusion equations with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Spatial diffusion and time delay are two main factors in biological and chemical systems. However, the combined effects of them on diffusion systems are not well studied. As a result, we investigate a nonlinear diffusion system with delay and obtain the existence of the periodic solutions using coincidence degree theory. Moreover, two numerical examples confirm our theoretical results. The obtained results can also be applied in other related fields

  7. Saline Flush After Rocuronium Bolus Reduces Onset Time and Prolongs Duration of Effect: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Masui, Kenichi; Kazama, Tomiei

    2016-03-01

    Circulatory factors modify the onset time of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Therefore, we hypothesized that infusion of a saline flush immediately after rocuronium administration would shorten the onset time without influencing the duration of the rocuronium effect. Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to the control or saline flush group. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, and all patients received 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium in 10 mL of normal saline. In the saline flush group, 20 mL normal saline was immediately infused after rocuronium administration. Neuromuscular blockade was assessed using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. The neuromuscular indices for rocuronium were calculated as follows: the latent onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the first twitch of the TOF (T1) ≥5%; onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the T1 ≥95%; clinical duration, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until T1 recovered to 25% of the final T1 value; recovery index, defined as the time for recovery of T1 from 25% to 75% of the final T1 value; and the total recovery time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until reaching a TOF ratio of 0.9. Significance was designated at P rocuronium bolus by 17%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. In addition, the recovery phase was significantly prolonged in the saline flush group. The mean clinical duration (5th-95th percentile range) in the saline flush group and control group was 35 minutes (27-63 minutes) and 31 minutes (19-48 minutes; P = 0.032), respectively; the recovery index was 13 minutes (8-25 minutes) and 10 minutes (7-19 minutes; P = 0.019), respectively; and the total recovery time was 61 minutes (44-108 minutes) and 50 minutes (35-93 minutes; P = 0

  8. The Early Time Properties of GRBs - Canonical Afterglows and the Importance of Prolonged Central Engine Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Steele, I. A.; Smith, R. J.; Carter, D.; Bode, M. F.; Guidorzi, C.; Gomboc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a new, comprehensive multiwavelength survey of 63 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with unprecedented temporal coverage, we classify the observed afterglows into four main classes and discuss the underlying physics that can explain them. The presence or absence of temporal breaks in X-ray and optical bands is used to examine the emission in the context of the standard model; a number of GRBs are shown to deviate from the forward shock model even with the inclusion of energy injection or ambient density gradients. We show that additional emission in the early-time X-ray afterglow due to late-time central engine activity is key and may explain both GRBs whose afterglows do not fit the standard model and those GRBs that appear to be optically dark even at early times.

  9. Periodicity and stability for variable-time impulsive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers a general neural networks model with variable-time impulses. It is shown that each solution of the system intersects with every discontinuous surface exactly once via several new well-proposed assumptions. Moreover, based on the comparison principle, this paper shows that neural networks with variable-time impulse can be reduced to the corresponding neural network with fixed-time impulses under well-selected conditions. Meanwhile, the fixed-time impulsive systems can be regarded as the comparison system of the variable-time impulsive neural networks. Furthermore, a series of sufficient criteria are derived to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of variable-time impulsive neural networks, and to illustrate the same stability properties between variable-time impulsive neural networks and the fixed-time ones. The new criteria are established by applying Schaefer's fixed point theorem combined with the use of inequality technique. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever among elderly patients: Prolonged prothrombin time as a predictor for severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Po-Liang

    2017-06-22

    The clinical manifestations of scrub typhus, murine typhus and acute Q fever in the elderly are not clear. We conducted a retrospective study to identify the characteristics of the elderly aged ≥65 years with a comparison group aged 18-64 years among patients with scrub typhus, murine typhus, or acute Q fever who were serologically confirmed at three hospitals in Taiwan during 2002-2011. Among 441 cases, including 187 cases of scrub typhus, 166 acute Q fever, and 88 murine typhus, 68 (15.4%) cases were elderly patients. The elderly had a higher severe complication rate (10.3% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.022), but did not have a significantly higher mortality rate (1.47% vs. 0.54%, p = 0.396). Compared with those without severe complications, we found the elderly (p = 0.022), dyspnea (p = 0.006), less relative bradycardia (p = 0.004), less febrile illness (p = 0.004), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (p = 0.002), higher levels of initial C-reactive protein (p = 0.039), blood leukocyte counts (p = 0.01), and lower platelet counts (p = 0.012) are significantly associated with severe complications. Only prolonged prothrombin time was associated with severe complications in multivariate analysis (p = 0.018, CI 95% 0.01-0.66). Among clinical symptoms and laboratory data, multivariate analysis revealed chills was less frequently occurred in the elderly (p = 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-9.99). The elderly cases with scrub typhus, murine typhus, or acute Q fever would be more likely to have severe complications, for which prothrombin time prolongation is an important predictor for severe complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The in vivo study on the radiobiologic effect of prolonged delivery time to tumor control in C57BL mice implanted with Lewis lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guo-Pei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-precision radiation therapy techniques such as IMRT or sterotactic radiosurgery, delivers more complex treatment fields than conventional techniques. The increased complexity causes longer dose delivery times for each fraction. The purpose of this work is to explore the radiobiologic effect of prolonged fraction delivery time on tumor response and survival in vivo. Methods 1-cm-diameter Lewis lung cancer tumors growing in the legs of C57BL mice were used. To evaluate effect of dose delivery prolongation, 18 Gy was divided into different subfractions. 48 mice were randomized into 6 groups: the normal control group, the single fraction with 18 Gy group, the two subfractions with 30 min interval group, the seven subfractions with 5 min interval group, the two subfractions with 60 min interval group and the seven subfractions with 10 min interval group. The tumor growth tendency, the tumor growth delay and the mice survival time were analyzed. Results The tumor growth delay of groups with prolonged delivery time was shorter than the group with single fraction of 18 Gy (P 0.05. Compared to the group with single fraction of 18 Gy, the groups with prolonged delivery time shorten the mice survival time while there was no significant difference between the groups with prolonged delivery time 30 min and the groups with prolonged delivery time 60 min. Conclusions The prolonged delivery time with same radiation dose shorten the tumor growth delay and survival time in the mice implanted with Lewis lung cancer. The anti-tumor effect decreased with elongation of the total interfractional time.

  12. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Legrand, Chantal; Lafeve, Françoise Fauvel; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2009-08-17

    Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. In Morocco, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension. In this study, crude aqueous extract (CAE) of parsley was evaluated for its anti-platelet activity in experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo; and on bleeding time in vivo. The in vitro aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with CAE. The bleeding time and ex vivo aggregation were performed after oral treatment. CAE inhibited dose dependently platelet aggregation in vitro induced by thrombin, ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The oral administration of CAE (3g/kg) inhibited significantly (pparsley may be benefit in the normalization of platelet hyperactivation, in the nutritional prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are potentially interesting in the development of new prevention strategies.

  13. Time courses of MRI BOLD signals in prolonged visual stimulation. Comparison between colors and orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikura, Kenichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kershaw, J.B.; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Seki, Chie; Kashikura, Akemi; Ardekani, B.A.; Kanno, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    We investigated: the BOLD signal response during 270 second photic stimulation using an EPI pulse sequence; the BOLD signal response for two different color checkerboards; and the BOLD signal response during six consecutive stimulation series. Ten healthy human subjects (age 25±5.5 years) were studied with a 1.5 T MRI system (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Black and white (BW) and red and white (RW) checkerboards alternating at 8 Hz were applied in turns for a total series of six. Stimulation timing was: 30 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 270 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off. Acquired data were analyzed according to color and/or order: color (without considering the order); color and order (1st BW vs. 1st RW, 2nd BW vs. 2nd RW, 3rd BW vs. 3rd RW); and order (without considering the color). A t-test (p<0.001) was used for obtaining the activated areas, and simple regression and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used for testing the statistical significance of the BOLD response. Results were: the BOLD signal responses during sustained photic stimulation maintained a constant level for the full duration and all series, suggesting stable levels of oxygen extraction and metabolism during cortical activation; the BOLD signal responses in two colors showed no significant difference in time response, suggesting that the neuronal populations perceiving black and red give a similar time response; and the effect of habituation or fatigue as observed by a signal decrease was not obtained, although the S.D. for each subject greatly increased with time and might be an indicator for evaluation fatigue or attention. (author)

  14. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  15. Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostrykin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.

  16. Lead-acid batteries life time prolongation in renewable energy source plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Ігорович Ткаченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Charge controllers with microprocessor control are recognized to be almost optimal process control devices for collecting and storing energy in batteries in power systems with renewable energy sources such as solar photoelectric batteries, wind electrogenerators and others. The task of the controller is charging process control, that is such as charging and discharging the batteries while providing maximum charging speed and battery saving parameters that characterize the state of the battery, within certain limits, preventing overcharging, overheating and the batteries deep discharge. The possibility of archiving data that keeps the battery parameters time dependance is also important. Thus, the concept of a charge controller with Texas Instruments microcontroller device MSP430G2553 was introduced in the study. The program saved in the ROM microcontroller provides for: charge regime(with a particular algorithm; control and training cycle followed by charging; continuous charge-discharge regime to restore the battery or the study of charge regime algorithms influence on repair effectiveness. The device can perform its functions without being connected to a personal computer, but this connection makes it possible to observe in real time the characteristics of a number of discharge and charge regimes parameters, as well as reading the stored data from microcontroller flash memory and storing these data on the PC hard disk for further analysis. A four stages charging algorithm with reverse charging regime was offered by the author and correctness of algorithm was proved

  17. Dominant Lid Tectonics behaviour of continental lithosphere in Precambrian times: Palaeomagnetism confirms prolonged quasi-integrity and absence of supercontinent cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plate Tectonics cannot be effectively tested by palaeomagnetism in the Precambrian aeon due to the paucity of high precision poles spanning such a long time period, the possibility of Lid Tectonics is eminently testable because it seeks accordance of the wider dataset over prolonged intervals of time; deficiencies and complexities in the data merely contribute to dispersion. Accordance of palaeomagnetic poles across a quasi-integral continental crust for time periods of up to thousands of millions of years, together with recognition of very long intervals characterised by minimal polar motions (∼2.6–2.0, ∼1.5–1.25 and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga has been used to demonstrate that Lid Tectonics dominated this aeon. The new PALEOMAGIA database is used to refine a model for the Precambrian lid incorporating a large quasi-integral crescentric core running from South-Central Africa through Laurentia to Siberia with peripheral cratons subject to reorganisation at ∼2.1, ∼1.6 and ∼1.1 Ga. The model explains low levels of tidal friction, reduced heat balance, unique petrologic and isotopic signatures, and the prolonged crustal stability of Earth's “Middle Age”, whilst density concentrations of the palaeomagnetic poles show that the centre of the continental lid was persistently focussed near Earth's rotation axis from ∼2.8 to 0.6 Ga. The exception was the ∼2.7–2.2 Ga interval defined by ∼90° polar movements which translated the periphery of the lid to the rotation pole for this quasi-static period, a time characterised by glaciation and low levels of magmatic activity; the ∼2.7 Ga shift correlates with key interval of mid-Archaean crustal growth to some 60–70% of the present volume and REE signatures whilst the ∼2.2 Ga shift correlates with the Lomagundi δ13 C and Great Oxygenation events. The palaeomagnetic signature of breakup of the lid at ∼0.6 Ga is recorded by the world-wide Ediacaran development of passive

  18. Prolonged Activated Clotting Time after Protamine Administration Does Not Indicate Residual Heparinization after Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Wolf, Hans-Gerd; Sinzobahamvya, Nicodème; Asfour, Boulos; Hraska, Victor; Schindler, Ehrenfried

    2015-08-01

    In open heart surgery, heparinization is commonly neutralized using an empirical heparin:protamine ratio ranging between 1:1 and 1:1.5. However, these ratios may result in protamine overdose that should be avoided for its negative side effects on the coagulation system. This study aimed to indicate the appropriate treatment for prolonged activated clotting time (ACT) after protamine administration following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pediatric open heart surgery by investigating the underlying reasons for it. Twenty-seven children (open heart surgery were included. Heparin was administered only before CPB (400 IU/kg) and in the pump priming volume for CPB (2,000 IU) and was neutralized by 1:1 protamine after CPB. The blood heparin concentration was measured using anti-Xa assay. ACT and blood concentrations of heparin, coagulation factors, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were assessed. A rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem International GmbH, München, Bayern, Germany) was used to confirm the coagulation status and residual heparin after protamine administration. Anti-Xa assay showed that there is no residual heparin in the blood after 1:1 protamine administration. Nevertheless, ACT (128.89 ± 3.09 seconds before heparin administration) remained prolonged (177.14 ± 5.43 seconds at 10 minutes after protamine, 182.00 ± 5.90 seconds at 30 minutes after protamine). The blood concentrations of coagulation factors were significantly lower than those before heparin administration (p < 0.01). The low FIBTEM MCF of ROTEM (4.43 ± 0.32 mm) at 10 minutes after protamine indicated low fibrinogen concentration. Prolonged ACT after heparin neutralization by 1:1 protamine administration does not necessarily indicate residual heparin, but low blood concentrations of coagulation factors should be considered as a reason as well. Accordingly, supply of coagulation factors instead of additional protamine should be

  19. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C A

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD.

  20. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

  1. High-dose radiation therapy alone for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Experience with prolonged overall treatment times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, H.; Wuerschmidt, F.; Buenemann, H.; Heilmann, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of overall treatment time on long-term survival after high-dose radiation therapy alone for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between 1978 and 1990, 229 patients with stage I-III disease and Karnofsky Performance Scores of 80-100 received a conventionally fractionated total dose of 70 Gy through a split-course technique. After a first treatment course of 40 or 50 Gy, a rest aging was performed and only patients without any contraindications, such as newly diagnosed distant metastases or serious deterioration of performance status, were given a second course. In 83% of patients this break lasted for 4-6 weeks. Overall treatment time ranged between 7 and 24 weeks (median 12 weeks). Median follow-up time was 6.6 years (range 4.0-9.3 years). Actuarial overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 28% and 7% respectively. Complete radiological tumor response was observed in 31% of patients, and was found to be the strongest positive predictor of survival with 2- and 5-year rates of 50% and 12% respectively compared with 17% and 4% for patients without complete response. Treatment duration was not found to be a significant prognostic factor in univariate or multivariate analysis. For overall treatment times of 7-11 weeks (n=50), 12 weeks (n=79) and >12 weeks (n=100), 5-year survival was 4%, 6%, and 8%, respectively (p=0.6). To conclude, in our experience and in contrast to other studies, prolonged overall treatment times in radiation therapy alone for inoperable NSCLC had no negative impact on long-term survival. It is hypothesized that accelerated tumor cell repopulation is absent in a significant number of these patients with the time-factor playing no apparent role for outcome of treatment. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von

    2010-01-01

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  3. Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuo; Luo Xiaoming; Chen Liqing; Ning Bo; Chen Shuai; Wang Jingyang; Zhong Zhiping; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    We report a prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of a thermal 87 Rb atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated cell. The spin wave is prepared through a stimulated Raman process. The long coherence time is achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the spins with paraffin coating and minimize dephasing with optimal experimental configuration. The observation of the long-time-delayed-stimulated Stokes signal in the writing process suggests the prolonged lifetime of the prepared spins; a direct measurement of the decay of anti-Stokes signal in the reading process shows the coherence time is up to 300 μs after minimizing dephasing. This is 100 times longer than the reported coherence time in the similar experiments in thermal atomic ensembles based on the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller and its improved protocols. This prolonged coherence time sets the upper limit of the memory time in quantum repeaters based on such protocols, which is crucial for the realization of long-distance quantum communication. The previous reported fluorescence background in the writing process due to collision in a sample cell with buffer gas is also reduced in a cell without buffer gas.

  4. Unsupervised Ensemble Anomaly Detection Using Time-Periodic Packet Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masato; Nawata, Shuichi; Gu, Yu; Tsuru, Masato; Oie, Yuji

    We propose an anomaly detection method for finding patterns in network traffic that do not conform to legitimate (i.e., normal) behavior. The proposed method trains a baseline model describing the normal behavior of network traffic without using manually labeled traffic data. The trained baseline model is used as the basis for comparison with the audit network traffic. This anomaly detection works in an unsupervised manner through the use of time-periodic packet sampling, which is used in a manner that differs from its intended purpose — the lossy nature of packet sampling is used to extract normal packets from the unlabeled original traffic data. Evaluation using actual traffic traces showed that the proposed method has false positive and false negative rates in the detection of anomalies regarding TCP SYN packets comparable to those of a conventional method that uses manually labeled traffic data to train the baseline model. Performance variation due to the probabilistic nature of sampled traffic data is mitigated by using ensemble anomaly detection that collectively exploits multiple baseline models in parallel. Alarm sensitivity is adjusted for the intended use by using maximum- and minimum-based anomaly detection that effectively take advantage of the performance variations among the multiple baseline models. Testing using actual traffic traces showed that the proposed anomaly detection method performs as well as one using manually labeled traffic data and better than one using randomly sampled (unlabeled) traffic data.

  5. Prolonged Cerebral Circulation Time Is the Best Parameter for Predicting Vasospasm during Initial CT Perfusion in Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu Lin

    Full Text Available We sought to imitate angiographic cerebral circulation time (CCT and create a similar index from baseline CT perfusion (CTP to better predict vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.Forty-one SAH patients with available DSA and CTP were retrospectively included. The vasospasm group was comprised of patients with deterioration in conscious functioning and newly developed luminal narrowing; remaining cases were classified as the control group. The angiography CCT (XA-CCT was defined as the difference in TTP (time to peak between the selected arterial ROIs and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS. Four arterial ROIs were selected to generate four corresponding XA-CCTs: the right and left anterior cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRA2 and XA-CCTLA2 and right- and left-middle cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRM2 and XA-CCTLM2. The CCTs from CTP (CT-CCT were defined as the differences in TTP from the corresponding arterial ROIs and the SSS. Correlations of the different CCTs were calculated and diagnostic accuracy in predicting vasospasm was evaluated.Intra-class correlations ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. The correlations of XA-CCTRA2, XA-CCTRM2, XA-CCTLA2, and XA-CCTLM2 with the corresponding CT-CCTs were 0.64, 0.65, 0.53, and 0.68, respectively. All CCTs were significantly prolonged in the vasospasm group (5.8-6.4 s except for XA-CCTLA2. CT-CCTA2 of 5.62 was the optimal cut-off value for detecting vasospasm with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity 82.4.CT-CCTs can be used to interpret cerebral flow without deconvolution algorithms, and outperform both MTT and TTP in predicting vasospasm risk. This finding may help facilitate management of patients with SAH.

  6. A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover, definitive QT study of the effects of APF530 exposure, high-dose intravenous granisetron, and moxifloxacin on QTc prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Jay W; Moon, Thomas E; O’Boyle, Erin; Dietz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO), intravenous (IV), and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC) injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals. This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF) for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated. The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36) at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours) and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours; systemic clearance 20.2 L/hour) of granisetron versus the expected early peak concentration and elimination of granisetron IV. APF530 SC was well tolerated. Adverse events, most commonly constipation and SC injection-site reactions, were generally mild and quickly resolved. APF530 1 g SC did

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover, definitive QT study of the effects of APF530 exposure, high-dose intravenous granisetron, and moxifloxacin on QTc prolongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason JW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jay W Mason,1 Thomas E Moon,2 Erin O’Boyle,3 Albert Dietz41Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Tarizona eHealth Services, Inc., San Carlos, CA, 3AP Pharma, Redwood City, CA, 4Spaulding Clinical Research, West Bend, WI, USABackground: Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO, intravenous (IV, and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals.Methods: This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated.Results: The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36 at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours

  8. Inflammation and prolonged QT time: results from the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medenwald

    Full Text Available Previous research found an association of CRP with QT time in population based samples. Even more, there is evidence of a substantial involvement of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha system in the pathophysiology of cardiac arrhythmia, while the role of Interleukin 6 remains inconclusive.To determine the association between inflammation with an abnormally prolonged QT-time (APQT in men and women of the elderly general population.Data descend from the baseline examination of the prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study. After exclusion of subjects with atrial fibrillation and missing ECG recording the final study cohort consisted of 919 men and 797 women. Blood parameters of inflammation were the soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNF-R1, the high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, and Interleukin 6 (IL-6. In accordance with major cardiologic societies we defined an APQT above a QT time of 460 ms in women and 450 ms in men. Effect sizes and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by performing multiple linear and logistic regression analyses including the analysis of sex differences by interaction terms.After covariate adjustment we found an odds ratio (OR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.13, 3.17 per 1000 pg/mL increase of sTNF-R1 in women, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.15 in men. In the covariate adjusted linear regression sTNF-R1 was again positively associated with QT time in women (5.75 ms per 1000 pg/mL, 95% CI: 1.32, 10.18, but not in men. Taking possible confounders into account IL-6 and hsCRP were not significantly related to APQT in both sexes.Our findings from cross-sectional analyses give evidence for an involvement of TNF-alpha in the pathology of APQT in women.

  9. Real-time method of powder diffraction for non-periodic and nearly periodic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, T.; Toby, B.H.; Dmowski, T.W.; Jorgensen, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    The use of high-energy neutrons from pulsed or hot sources allows the method of atomic pair distribution analysis to be applied to the structural determination of crystalline as well as amorphous solids. This method complements the standard crystallographic methods in studying non-periodic aspects of solids with or without long range order. 14 refs., 3 figs

  10. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    of realistic results and is used as a means of validating the model against available experimental data. The tuned model is then used to find the critical chute length for segregation based on the hypothesis that segregation can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. The critical frequency, fcrit, is inversely proportional to the characteristic time of segregation, ts. Mixing is observed instead of segregation when the chute length L Rate-based separation processes hold promise as both more environmentally benign as well as less energy intensive when compared to conventional particle separations technologies such as vibrating screens or flotation methods. This approach is based on differences in the kinetic properties of the components of a mixture, such as the velocity of migration or diffusivity. In this portion of the work, two examples of novel rate-based separation devices are demonstrated. The first example involves the study of the dynamics of gravity-driven particles through an array of obstacles. Both discrete element (DEM) simulations and experiments are used to augment the understanding of this device. Dissipative collisions (both between the particles themselves and with the obstacles) give rise to a diffusive motion of particles perpendicular to the flow direction and the differences in diffusion lengths are exploited to separate the particles. The second example employs DEM to analyze a ratchet mechanism where a current of particles can be produced in a direction perpendicular to the energy input. In this setup, a vibrating saw-toothed base is employed to induce different mobility for different types of particles. The effect of operating conditions and design parameters on the separation efficiency are discussed. Keywords: granular flow, particle, mixing, segregation, discrete element method, particle dynamics, tumbler, chute, periodic flow inversion, collisional flow, rate-based separation, ratchet

  11. Cold Ischemia Time is an Important Risk Factor for Post-Liver Transplant Prolonged Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Evelyn T; Yoeli, Dor; Galvan, N Thao N; Kueht, Michael L; Cotton, Ronald T; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A; Rana, Abbas

    2018-02-24

    Risk analysis of cold ischemia time (CIT) in liver transplantation has largely focused on patient and graft survival. Post-transplant length of stay is a sensitive marker of morbidity and cost. We hypothesize that CIT is a risk factor for post-transplant prolonged length of stay (PLOS) and aim to conduct an hour-by-hour analysis of CIT and PLOS. We retrospectively reviewed all adult, first-time liver transplants between March 2002 and September 2016 in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. 67,426 recipients were categorized by hourly CIT increments. Multivariable logistic regression of PLOS (defined as > 30 days), CIT groups, and an extensive list of confounding variables was performed. Linear regression between length of stay and CIT as continuous variables was also performed. CIT 1-6 hours was protective against PLOS, while CIT greater than 7 hours was associated with increased odds for PLOS. The lowest odds for PLOS were observed with 1-2 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.92) and 2-3 hours (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.78) of CIT. OR for PLOS steadily increased with increasing CIT, reaching the greatest odds for PLOS with 13-14 hours (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.67) and 15-16 hours (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.27-3.33) of CIT. Linear regression revealed a positive correlation between length of stay and cold ischemia time with a correlation coefficient of +0.35 (p < 0.001). Post-liver transplant length of stay is sensitive to CIT, with substantial increase in the odds of PLOS observed with nearly every additional hour of cold ischemia. We conclude that CIT should be minimized to protect against the morbidity and cost associated with post-transplant PLOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Long-time correlations of periodic, area-preserving maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.; Cary, J.R.; Grebogi, C.; Crawford, J.D.; Kaufman, A.N.; Abarbanel, H.D.I.

    1982-04-01

    A simple analytical decay law for correlation functions of periodic, area-preserving maps is obtained. This law is compared with numerical experiments on the standard map. The agreement between experiment and theory is good when islands are absent, but poor when islands are present. When islands are present, the correlations have a long, slowly decaying tail

  13. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  14. Periodic capacity management under a lead-time performance constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükkaramikli, N.C.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Ooijen, van H.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study a production system that operates under a lead-time performance constraint which guarantees the completion of an order before a pre-determined lead-time with a certain probability. The demand arrival times and the service requirements for the orders are random. To reduce the

  15. Time-delayed feedback technique for suppressing instabilities in time-periodic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani-Ardali, Léopold; Sipp, Denis; Lesshafft, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    A numerical method is presented that allows to compute time-periodic flow states, even in the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is based on filtering nonharmonic components by way of delayed feedback control, as introduced by Pyragas [Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90745-8]. Its use in flow problems is demonstrated here for the case of a periodically forced laminar jet, subject to a subharmonic instability that gives rise to vortex pairing. The optimal choice of the filter gain, which is a free parameter in the stabilization procedure, is investigated in the context of a low-dimensional model problem, and it is shown that this model predicts well the filter performance in the high-dimensional flow system. Vortex pairing in the jet is efficiently suppressed, so that the unstable periodic flow state in response to harmonic forcing is accurately retrieved. The procedure is straightforward to implement inside any standard flow solver. Memory requirements for the delayed feedback control can be significantly reduced by means of time interpolation between checkpoints. Finally, the method is extended for the treatment of periodic problems where the frequency is not known a priori. This procedure is demonstrated for a three-dimensional cubic lid-driven cavity in supercritical conditions.

  16. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change

  17. Predictability of Landslide Timing From Quasi-Periodic Precursory Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew F.

    2018-02-01

    Accelerating rates of geophysical signals are observed before a range of material failure phenomena. They provide insights into the physical processes controlling failure and the basis for failure forecasts. However, examples of accelerating seismicity before landslides are rare, and their behavior and forecasting potential are largely unknown. Here I use a Bayesian methodology to apply a novel gamma point process model to investigate a sequence of quasiperiodic repeating earthquakes preceding a large landslide at Nuugaatsiaq in Greenland in June 2017. The evolution in earthquake rate is best explained by an inverse power law increase with time toward failure, as predicted by material failure theory. However, the commonly accepted power law exponent value of 1.0 is inconsistent with the data. Instead, the mean posterior value of 0.71 indicates a particularly rapid acceleration toward failure and suggests that only relatively short warning times may be possible for similar landslides in future.

  18. Network Organization Unfolds over Time during Periods of Anxious Anticipation

    OpenAIRE

    McMenamin, Brenton W.; Langeslag, Sandra J.E.; Sirbu, Mihai; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Entering a state of anxious anticipation triggers widespread changes across large-scale networks in the brain. The temporal aspects of this transition into an anxious state are poorly understood. To address this question, an instructed threat of shock paradigm was used while recording functional MRI in humans to measure how activation and functional connectivity change over time across the salience, executive, and task-negative networks and how they interact with key regions implicated in emo...

  19. Primary Realignment for Pelvic Fracture Urethral Injury Is Associated With Prolonged Time to Urethroplasty and Increased Stenosis Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Akio; Shinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Okubo, Kazuki; Kawamura, Kazuki; Ojima, Kenichiro; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko; Azuma, Ryuichi

    2017-10-01

    To compare the clinical courses of patients with pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) according to initial management strategy. We reviewed the clinical courses of 63 patients with PFUI who were initially treated elsewhere and underwent delayed anastomotic urethroplasty by a single surgeon between 2008 and 2015. Patients were grouped according to their initial treatment: by suprapubic tube placement alone (49 patients, SPT group) or primary realignment (14 patients, PR group). Time to urethroplasty was defined as the period between injury and delayed urethroplasty. Clinical data regarding the status of urethral stenosis, urethroplasty procedure, and treatment outcome were analyzed. The mean time to urethroplasty in the PR group was about 3 times than that in the SPT group (133 months vs 47 months, P = .035). Fifty percent of the PR group (7 of 14) had a history of repeated urethrotomy or dilation before referral, a percentage significantly higher than that of the SPT group (20.4%, 10 of 49, P = .027). The percentage of patients having a false passage and iatrogenic scar was significantly higher in the PR group (42.9% vs 16.3%, P = .035), but there was no significant between-group difference in urethral stenosis length, operative time, operative blood loss, or the percentage of patients requiring inferior pubectomy or urethral rerouting. PR does not facilitate delayed urethroplasty, and patients who undergo PR are at high risk of having a more complicated stenosis and longer time to urethroplasty, presumably because of repeated transurethral procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental Internet Use and Lifestyle Factors as Correlates of Prolonged Screen Time of Children in Japan: Results From the Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2018-03-24

    Prolonged screen time (ST), which includes TV viewing and gaming on smartphones and computers, is linked to poor health. Our aim was to explore the associations between school children with prolonged ST and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyles in Japan. Children aged 6 to 13 years from the Super Shokuiku School Project, were surveyed using questionnaires in 2016. The survey assessed the grade, sex, and lifestyle of 1,659 children and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyle using Breslow's seven health behaviors. IU consisted of internet surfing and gaming on personal computers (PC), smartphones, or consoles. Three or more hours of ST was defined as prolonged ST, and its correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all, 643 (38.8%) children spent ≥2 hours/day of ST on a week day, whilst 153 (9.2%) children spent ≥3 hours/day. Prolonged ST was significantly associated with children in higher grade (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.51), boys (OR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.49-3.14), skipping breakfast (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.35), late bedtime (OR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.15-2.82), physical inactivity (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), father's IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.52-3.63), mother's prolonged IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.43-4.52), mothers with unhealthy behaviors (OR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13), no rule setting governing screen time (OR 2.41; 95% CI, 1.63-3.58), and mothers with full-time employment (OR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.64). Prolonged ST among Japanese children was strongly associated with parental IU, no set rules for ST, and mother's unhealthy lifestyles. To reduce children's ST, parental engagement is warranted in the intervention strategy.

  1. Time pattern of exercise-induced changes in type I collagen turnover after prolonged endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Asp, S

    2000-01-01

    after exercise, collagen resorption did not change from basal levels throughout the remaining period (P > 0.05). Muscle breakdown was elevated during the days following the exercise and peaked 24 hours after the exercise (S-CK concentration: 3,133 +/- 579 U/liter). The findings in the present study......Type I collagen is known to adapt to physical activity, and biomarkers of collagen turnover indicate that synthesis can be influenced by a single intense exercise bout, but the exact time pattern of these latter changes are largely undescribed. In the present study, 17 healthy young males had...... after completion of a marathon run (42 km). Serum concentrations of creatine kinase (S-CK) were measured as an indicator of muscular breakdown in response to the exercise bout. After a transient decrease in collagen formation immediately after exercise (plasma PICP concentration: 176 +/- 17 microg/liter...

  2. [Obesity and complementary feeding time: a period at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M

    2010-12-01

    Relation between rapid growth during the first months of life and secondary risk of excessive adiposity is well demonstrated. Many works have indicated a birth feeding effect on weight gain during the first year of life and a protective effect towards later childhood and adult obesity. However all these studies are observational and several works denied this protective effect. Concerning complementary feeding, 3 interventional, randomized, studies achieved between 4 and 6 months of age, showed a good regulation of caloric intake and no weight gain modification due to complementary foods. Most of others studies are observational and don't show any relation between time of introduction of complementary foods and later fat mass. However 3 recent studies indicate, respectively at 7, 10 and 42 years of age, an increased adiposity, suggesting the possibility of a programmed excessive fat gain induced by an early complementary foods introduction. Very few studies have evaluated, besides the time of weaning, the kind, quantity and caloric density of foods used as complements, whereas other recent studies show the importance of appetite differences since the first months of life and the importance of genetic influence on these variations. Others works have emphasized the possible role of an excessive protein intake during the first 2 years of life. So, it appears that it may be necessary to pay attention not only on the date, but also on the kind and quantity of complementary foods, particularly in infants at risk for obesity, because of parental obesity, rapid weight growth or an excessive appetite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A prolonged Cenozoic erosional period in East Kunlun (Western China): Constraints of detrital apatite (U-Th)/He ages on the onset of mountain building along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenbei; Wang, Fei; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Zhang, Weibin; Wang, Yinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The timing of the development of the highland topography along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is the key to understanding the manner of Tibetan growth and the far-field effects of the collision between India and Eurasia. Although various studies have investigated the exhumation and uplift of the basement rocks, thermochronological studies on the detritus from a continuous depositional sequence inan intermontane basin are lacking but might shed light on this issue. In this study, a set of detrital apatites from an upper Eocene to Pliocene depositional sequence in the Kumukol Basin, the largest intermontane basin in the East Kunlun, were dated by using the (U-Th)/He technique. The detrital apatites had consistent ages of ∼40 Ma for all deposit formations from bottom to top, which were older than the depositional ages. The ages and their consistency suggested that these detrital apatites were not reset and that the ages represented the original ages in the provenance region. These detrital apatite ages from the upper Eocene to Pliocene formations strongly suggested that the high mountains surrounding the Kumukol Basin formed at or before ∼40 Ma and have remained high since then. The process of mountain building resulted in a prolonged period of erosion from ∼40 to 2.6 Ma. The coupling of mountain and basin at ∼40 Ma was widespread along the East Kunlun. Our present results constrain the time of onset of the mountain building along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which may represent a rapid response to the India-Eurasian collision.

  4. Monitoring of need for recovery and prolonged fatigue within the working population: Evaluation of reliability and agreement over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofs, H; Jansen, N W H; Jansen, M W J; Kant, I J

    2017-01-01

    Need for recovery (NFR) and prolonged fatigue are two important concepts for monitoring short- and long-term outcomes of psychological job demands within employees. For effective monitoring it is, however, important to gain insight in the reproducibility of the instruments that are used. The objective was to assess reproducibility of the NFR scale and Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), measuring NFR and prolonged fatigue respectively, in the working population. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study (MCS) study was used, capturing 12,140 employees from 45 different companies at baseline. A 'working' and 'returning to work' sample was conceived for different intervals; 4-month, 1-year, and 2-year. Reliability, assessed with the interclass correlation, was high within employees with a stable work environment for the NFR scale (0.78) and CIS (0.75). The smallest detectable change, assessing the agreement, was 41.20 for the NFR scale and 31.10 for the CIS. Reliability was satisfactory for both the NFR scale and CIS. The agreement of both scales to detect a changes within employees was, however, less optimal. It is, therefore, suggested that, ideally, both instruments are placed within a broader range of instruments to effectively monitor the outcomes of psychological job demands.

  5. The decreased influence of overall treatment time on the response of human breast tumor xenografts following prolongation of the potential doubling time (T{sub pot})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkaria, Jann N; Fowler, John F; Lindstrom, Mary J; Jordan, V Craig; Mulcahy, R Timothy

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: Repopulation during fractionated radiotherapy has been postulated to result in a significant loss in local control in rapidly proliferating tumors. Clinical data suggest that accelerated fractionation schedules can overcome the influence of repopulation by limiting the overall treatment time. Unfortunately, accelerated therapy frequently leads to increased acute reactions, which may become dose limiting. An alternative to accelerated fractionation would be to decrease the rate of repopulation during therapy. To test the potential efficacy of this alternative, we examined the effect of reducing tumor proliferation rate on the response of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma xenografts treated with a short vs. a long course of fractionated therapy. To reduce the proliferation rate, we deprived nude mice transplanted with MCF-7 xenografts of the growth-stimulating hormone estradiol (E{sub 2}). We have previously reported that E{sub 2} deprivation increases the potential doubling time (T{sub pot}) for MCF-7 xenografts from a mean of 2.6 days to 5.3 days (p < 0.001). Methods and Materials: E{sub 2}-stimulated and E{sub 2}-deprived MCF-7 breast carcinoma xenografts were clamped hypoxically and irradiated with four fractions of 5 Gy each, using either a short (3-day) or long (9-day) treatment course. E{sub 2} stimulation was restored in all animals at the completion of irradiation. Radiation response was determined by regrowth time and regrowth delay of the irradiated tumors as compared to unirradiated controls. Results: Prolongation of therapy in rapidly proliferating, E{sub 2}-stimulated tumors (T{sub pot} {approx} 2.6 days) resulted in a significant decrease in regrowth time in two identical experiments. With results pooled for analysis, the regrowth times for the short and long treatments were 62 and 32 days, respectively (combined p < 0.001). The shorter regrowth times suggest that there was less overall tumor damage with the longer fractionated radiotherapy course

  6. Enhanced diffusion with abnormal temperature dependence in underdamped space-periodic systems subject to time-periodic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, I. G.; Marchenko, I. I.; Zhiglo, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in a one-dimensional symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic driving with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at an appropriate choice of the driving amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at the driving amplitudes exceeding a certain value. At any fixed driving frequency Ω normal temperature dependence of the diffusivity is restored at low enough temperatures, T oscillation frequency at the potential minimum, the diffusivity is shown to decrease with Ω according to a power law, with the exponent related to the transient superdiffusion exponent. This behavior is found similar for the cases of sinusoidal in time and piecewise constant periodic ("square") driving.

  7. Spatial variability of excess mortality during prolonged dust events in a high-density city: a time-stratified spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Ho, Hung Chak; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2017-07-24

    Dust events have long been recognized to be associated with a higher mortality risk. However, no study has investigated how prolonged dust events affect the spatial variability of mortality across districts in a downwind city. In this study, we applied a spatial regression approach to estimate the district-level mortality during two extreme dust events in Hong Kong. We compared spatial and non-spatial models to evaluate the ability of each regression to estimate mortality. We also compared prolonged dust events with non-dust events to determine the influences of community factors on mortality across the city. The density of a built environment (estimated by the sky view factor) had positive association with excess mortality in each district, while socioeconomic deprivation contributed by lower income and lower education induced higher mortality impact in each territory planning unit during a prolonged dust event. Based on the model comparison, spatial error modelling with the 1st order of queen contiguity consistently outperformed other models. The high-risk areas with higher increase in mortality were located in an urban high-density environment with higher socioeconomic deprivation. Our model design shows the ability to predict spatial variability of mortality risk during an extreme weather event that is not able to be estimated based on traditional time-series analysis or ecological studies. Our spatial protocol can be used for public health surveillance, sustainable planning and disaster preparation when relevant data are available.

  8. Role of silica nanoparticles in monitoring and prolonging release of drug-eluting polyelectrolyte coatings using long-period fiber grating platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tian, F.; Kaňka, Jiří; Yang, F.; Min, J.; Hammond, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 252, November (2017), s. 831-839 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Long period gratings * Sensor * Layer-by-layer assembly Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  9. Natural convection in square enclosure induced by inner circular cylinder with time-periodic pulsating temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhu; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher

  10. In vivo assessment of catheter positioning accuracy and prolonged irradiation time on liver tolerance dose after single-fraction 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropf Siegfried

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess brachytherapy catheter positioning accuracy and to evaluate the effects of prolonged irradiation time on the tolerance dose of normal liver parenchyma following single-fraction irradiation with 192 Ir. Materials and methods Fifty patients with 76 malignant liver tumors treated by computed tomography (CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT were included in the study. The prescribed radiation dose was delivered by 1 - 11 catheters with exposure times in the range of 844 - 4432 seconds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets for assessing irradiation effects on normal liver tissue, edema, and hepatocyte dysfunction, obtained 6 and 12 weeks after HDR-BT, were merged with 3D dosimetry data. The isodose of the treatment plan covering the same volume as the irradiation effect was taken as a surrogate for the liver tissue tolerance dose. Catheter positioning accuracy was assessed by calculating the shift between the 3D center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume for 38 irradiation effects in 30 patients induced by catheters implanted in nearly parallel arrangement. Effects of prolonged irradiation were assessed in areas where the irradiation effect volume and tolerance dose volume did not overlap (mismatch areas by using a catheter contribution index. This index was calculated for 48 irradiation effects induced by at least two catheters in 44 patients. Results Positioning accuracy of the brachytherapy catheters was 5-6 mm. The orthogonal and axial shifts between the center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume in relation to the direction vector of catheter implantation were highly correlated and in first approximation identically in the T1-w and T2-w MRI sequences (p = 0.003 and p p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively. There was a significant shift of the irradiation effect towards the catheter entry site compared with the planned dose

  11. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively.

  12. Intermedin A, a New Labdane Diterpene Isolated from Alpinia intermedia, Prolonged the Survival Time of P-388D1 Tumor-Bearing CDF1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Su, Pei-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Eight ethanolic extracts of indigenous Taiwanese plants of the genus Alpinia were tested for tumor cytotoxicity against AGS, Hep G2, HeLa, KB, and HL-60 cells. Among the 50 % and 95 % EtOH extracts of eight Alpinia species, the cytotoxic effects of Alpinia intermedia leaves were the strongest. When the leaf extract of A. intermedia was partitioned using n -hexane and aqueous solvents, the n -hexane layer showed a greater cytotoxic effect and could prolong the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF1 mice. Two new labdane diterpene derivatives, intermedin A ( 1 ) and intermedin B ( 2 ), and coronarin E ( 3 ) were isolated from the n -hexane layer of A. intermedia . Intermedin A induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells at 30 µg/mL and significantly prolonged the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF 1 mice by 48.7 % at 20 mg/kg of body weight. We suggest that intermedin A is a major compound of A. intermedia and has a cytotoxic effect on HL-60 and P-388D 1 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Light Propagation in 2D Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dadashzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-short pulse is a promising technology for achieving ultra-high data rate transmission which is required to follow the increased demand of data transport over an optical communication system. Therefore, the propagation of such type of pulses and the effects that it may suffer during its transmission through an optical waveguide has received a great deal of attention in the recent years. We provide an overview of recent theoretical developments in a numerical modeling of Maxwell's equations to analyze the propagation of short laser pulses in photonic structures. The process of short light pulse propagation through 2D periodic and quasi-periodic photonic structures is simulated based on Finite-Difference Time-Domain calculations of Maxwell’s equations.

  14. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  15. Time-periodic solution of a 2D fourth-order nonlinear parabolic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    appropriate function space for the initial boundary value problem. ... time discretizations which allow much larger time steps than those of a standard implicit– explicit approach. ... set of ω-periodic X-valued measurable functions on R such that.

  16. Smith predictor-based multiple periodic disturbance compensation for long dead-time processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Li, Han-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Many disturbance rejection methods have been proposed for processes with dead-time, while these existing methods may not work well under multiple periodic disturbances. In this paper, a multiple periodic disturbance rejection is proposed under the Smith predictor configuration for processes with long dead-time. One feedback loop is added to compensate periodic disturbance while retaining the advantage of the Smith predictor. With information of the disturbance spectrum, the added feedback loop can remove multiple periodic disturbances effectively. The robust stability can be easily maintained through the rigorous analysis. Finally, simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for processes with long dead-time.

  17. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  18. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In computing...

  19. 19 CFR 351.524 - Allocation of benefit to a particular time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of benefit to a particular time period. 351.524 Section 351.524 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Allocation of benefit to a particular time period. Unless otherwise specified in §§ 351.504-351.523, the...

  20. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the context...

  1. The influence of a consumer-wearable activity tracker on sedentary time and prolonged sedentary bouts: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Robert A; Kim, Youngdeok; Sahasranaman, Aarti; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Biddle, Stuart J H; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2018-03-22

    A recent meta-analysis surmised pedometers were a useful panacea to independently reduce sedentary time (ST). To further test and expand on this deduction, we analyzed the ability of a consumer-wearable activity tracker to reduce ST and prolonged sedentary bouts (PSB). We originally conducted a 12-month randomized control trial where 800 employees from 13 organizations were assigned to control, activity tracker, or one of two activity tracker plus incentive groups designed to increase step count. The primary outcome was accelerometer measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We conducted a secondary analysis on accelerometer measured daily ST and PSB bouts. A general linear mixed model was used to examine changes in ST and prolonged sedentary bouts, followed by between-group pairwise comparisons. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of changes in step counts with ST and PSB. The changes in ST and PSB were not statistically significant and not different between the groups (P consumer-wearable activity trackers as a means to reduce sedentary behavior. Trial registration NCT01855776 Registered: August 8, 2012.

  2. Influence of a prolonged period of low-dosage x-rays on the optic and ultrastructural appearances of cataract of the human lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, B.P.; Fisher, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Human lenses extracted for cataract 26 years after long-term exposure to an imperfectly shielded radium source were examined by slit-lamp photography, thin-section light microscopy, and electron microscopy. Anterior epithelial cells were fibroblast-like, and germinal epithelium and vacuolated cortical fibres had accumulated at the equator. A zone of light scatter at the anterior pole corresponded to an area of breakdown of cortical lens fibres, where unusual feathery fibres were orientated perpendicular to the lens surface. Two zones of light scatter separated by a 250-micrometer clear interval were seen in the posterior cortex. The zone at the posterior pole corresponded to an area of fibre liquefaction and large rounded membrane whorls, while the deeper zone comprised small flattened membrane whorls. The characteristic plaques of swollen abnormal cells described in previous histological studies of x-ray cataract were not present. This and other differences probably reflect the extremely long time course and repeated subliminal doses to which the patient was exposed. (author)

  3. Prolonged activated prothromboplastin time and breed specific variation in haemostatic analytes in healthy adult Bernese Mountain dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation tests are often performed in dogs suspected of haemostatic dysfunction and are interpreted according to validated laboratory reference intervals (RIs). Breed specific RIs for haematological and biochemical analytes have previously been identified in Bernese Mountain dogs, but it remains...... to be determined if breed specific RIs are necessary for haemostasis tests. Activated prothromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), selected coagulation factors, D-dimers, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and thromboelastography (TEG) were analyzed in healthy Bernese Mountain dogs using the CLSI model...

  4. A generation lost? Prolonged effects of labour market entry in times of high unemployment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    After the economic crisis of the 1980s, concerns arose about whether the high youth unemployment at that time would produce a 'lost generation' of young people in the Netherlands. The same concerns have recently arisen about the potential effects of the current high rate of youth unemployment. The

  5. A novel MEMS inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist to prolong the contact time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Hong

    2018-03-01

    The MEMS inertial switch is widely used in various industries owing to its advantage of small size, high integration, low power consumption and low costs, especially in the timing of Internet of things, such as toys, handheld devices, accessories and vibration testing. This paper provided a novel inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist. The designed inertial switch can reduce the complexity of the post-processing circuit and broaden its application prospect. The continuous electrostatic force can extend the contact time of the designed inertia switch before the leakage of electricity ends. The moving electrode with a reinforcing rib structure can effectively restrain the bending of the lower surface of moving electrode caused by residual stress. The array-type fixed electrode can ensure stable contact between the electrodes when the device is sensitive to external shocks. The dynamic displacement-time curve can be simulated by the COMSOL finite element simulation software. The laminated plating process is used to produce the designed inertial switch and the drop hammer acceleration monitoring system is used to test the fabricated device. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional design, the bouncing phenomenon can be prevented and extend the contact time to 336μs.

  6. Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor Blade Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...

  7. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  8. Scattering analysis of periodic structures using finite-difference time-domain

    CERN Document Server

    ElMahgoub, Khaled; Elsherbeni, Atef Z

    2012-01-01

    Periodic structures are of great importance in electromagnetics due to their wide range of applications such as frequency selective surfaces (FSS), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures, periodic absorbers, meta-materials, and many others. The aim of this book is to develop efficient computational algorithms to analyze the scattering properties of various electromagnetic periodic structures using the finite-difference time-domain periodic boundary condition (FDTD/PBC) method. A new FDTD/PBC-based algorithm is introduced to analyze general skewed grid periodic structures while another algor

  9. The existence and global attractivity of almost periodic sequence solution of discrete-time neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenkun; Wang Xinghua; Gao Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we discuss discrete-time analogue of a continuous-time cellular neural network. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic sequence solution which is globally attractive. Our results demonstrate dynamics of the formulated discrete-time analogue as mathematical models for the continuous-time cellular neural network in almost periodic case. Finally, a computer simulation illustrates the suitability of our discrete-time analogue as numerical algorithms in simulating the continuous-time cellular neural network conveniently

  10. Period, epoch, and prediction errors of ephemerides from continuous sets of timing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.

    2015-06-01

    Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of these time series is derived, σP = σT (12 / (N3-N))1 / 2, where σP is the period error, σT the timing error of a single measurement, and N the number of measurements. Compared to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, usual linear ephemeris were epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to an overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided by a correction for the duration of the time series. An alternative is the derivation of ephemerides whose reference epoch and epoch error are given for the centre of the time series. For long continuous or near-continuous time series whose acquisition is completed, such central epochs should be the preferred way for the quotation of linear ephemerides. While this work was motivated from the analysis of eclipse timing measures in space-based light curves, it should be applicable to any other problem with an uninterrupted sequence of discrete timings for which the determination of a zero point, of a constant period and of the associated errors is needed.

  11. Switched periodic systems in discrete time: stability and input-output norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzern, Paolo; Colaneri, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of stability and the characterisation of input-output norms for discrete-time periodic switched linear systems. Such systems consist of a network of time-periodic linear subsystems sharing the same state vector and an exogenous switching signal that triggers the jumps between the subsystems. The overall system exhibits a complex dynamic behaviour due to the interplay between the time periodicity of the subsystem parameters and the switching signal. Both arbitrary switching signals and signals satisfying a dwell-time constraint are considered. Linear matrix inequality conditions for stability and guaranteed H2 and H∞ performances are provided. The results heavily rely on the merge of the theory of linear periodic systems and recent developments on switched linear time-invariant systems.

  12. Efficacy of Re-188-labelled sulphur colloid on prolongation of survival time in melanoma-bearing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.D.; Hsieh, B.T.; Wang, H.E.; Ou, Y.H.; Yang, W.K.; Whang-Peng, J.; Liu, R.S.; Knapp, F.F.; Ting, G.; Yen, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a 188 Re labeled sulfur colloid with two particle size ranges was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this agent on melanoma tumors in mice in terms of animal lifespan. Methods: Two separate group of animals were used for investigating biodistribution and survival time. A total of 188 B16F10-melanoma-bearing BDF 1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7 MBq (0.1mCi)/2mL of radiolabeled sulfur colloid ten days after intraperitoneal inoculation of 5x10 5 B16F10 melanoma cells/2ml. For group 1, 30 mice were sacrificed at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours for biodistribution studies. In group 2, 158 mice were divided into 9 groups (n=16∼18/groups)each receiving respectively tumor alone, tumor with normal saline, cold colloid or hot colloid with 16, 23, 31, 46, 62, or 124 MBq activity. Each of these colloid groups was further divided into two groups, one receiving smaller particle sizes ( 188 Re-sulfur colloid is an effective agent in controlling tumor cells in the abdominal cavity in animals

  13. 46 CFR 167.60-5 - Period of time for which valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOL SHIPS Certificates of Inspection § 167.60-5 Period of time for which valid. A certificate of inspection for any period less than one year shall not be issued, but nothing herein shall be construed as preventing the revocation or suspension of a certificate of inspection in case such process is authorized by...

  14. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  15. Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Time-Varying Fishing Model with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.

  16. Effects of prolonged second stage, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors on postnatal urinary incontinence: an Australian nulliparous cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; Gartland, D; Donath, S; MacArthur, C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of prolonged labour, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors to postpartum urinary incontinence. Prospective pregnancy cohort. Six metropolitan public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A total of 1507 nulliparous women recruited to the maternal health study in early pregnancy (≤24 weeks). Data from hospital medical records and self-administered questionnaires/telephone interviews at ≤24 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and 3 months postpartum analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Urinary incontinence 3 months postpartum in women continent before the index pregnancy. Of the women continent before pregnancy, 26% reported new incontinence at 3 months postpartum. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth, women who had a caesarean section before labour (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) or in the first stage of labour (adjusted OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) were less likely to be incontinent 3 months postpartum. Adjusted OR for incontinence after caesarean section in the second stage of labour compared with spontaneous vaginal birth was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.0). Prolonged second stage labour was associated with increased likelihood of postpartum incontinence in women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4) or operative vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). In addition to pregnancy itself, physiological changes associated with the second stage of labour appear to play a role in postpartum urinary incontinence. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  17. Radiobiological evaluation of the radiation dose as used in high-precision radiotherapy. Effect of prolonged delivery time and applicability of the linear-quadratic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamoto, Yuta; Otsuka, Shinya; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Sugie, Chikao; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Natsuo

    2012-01-01

    Since the dose delivery pattern in high-precision radiotherapy is different from that in conventional radiation, radiobiological assessment of the physical dose used in stereotactic irradiation and intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become necessary. In these treatments, the daily dose is usually given intermittently over a time longer than that used in conventional radiotherapy. During prolonged radiation delivery, sublethal damage repair takes place, leading to the decreased effect of radiation. This phenomenon is almost universarily observed in vitro. In in vivo tumors, however, this decrease in effect can be counterbalanced by rapid reoxygenation, which has been demonstrated in a laboratory study. Studies on reoxygenation in human tumors are warranted to better evaluate the influence of prolonged radiation delivery. Another issue related to radiosurgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is the mathematical model for dose evaluation and conversion. Many clinicians use the linear-quadratic (LQ) model and biologically effective dose (BED) to estimate the effects of various radiation schedules, but it has been suggested that the LQ model is not applicable to high doses per fraction. Recent experimental studies verified the inadequacy of the LQ model in converting hypofractionated doses into single doses. The LQ model overestimates the effect of high fractional doses of radiation. BED is particularly incorrect when it is used for tumor responses in vivo, since it does not take reoxygenation into account. For normal tissue responses, improved models have been proposed, but, for in vivo tumor responses, the currently available models are not satisfactory, and better ones should be proposed in future studies. (author)

  18. Stability and periodicity of solutions for delay dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the stability and periodicity of solutions to the delay dynamic system $$ x^{\\triangle}(t=A(t x(t + F(t, x(t, x(g(t+C(t $$ on a time scale. By the inequality technique for vectors, we obtain some stability criteria for the above system. Then, by using the Horn fixed point theorem, we present some conditions under which our system is asymptotically periodic and its periodic solution is unique. In particular, the periodic solution is positive under proper assumptions.

  19. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  20. Existence of time-periodic weak solutions to the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations around a moving body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Feng; Han, Yuecai

    2013-01-01

    The existence of time-periodic stochastic motions of an incompressible fluid is obtained. Here the fluid is subject to a time-periodic body force and an additional time-periodic stochastic force that is produced by a rigid body moves periodically stochastically with the same period in the fluid

  1. Existence of time-periodic weak solutions to the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations around a moving body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Feng, E-mail: chenfengmath@163.com, E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn; Han, Yuecai, E-mail: chenfengmath@163.com, E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The existence of time-periodic stochastic motions of an incompressible fluid is obtained. Here the fluid is subject to a time-periodic body force and an additional time-periodic stochastic force that is produced by a rigid body moves periodically stochastically with the same period in the fluid.

  2. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  3. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time...

  4. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  5. Sensitivity of Hurst parameter estimation to periodic signals in time series and filtering approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D.; Koch, M.

    2005-09-01

    The influence of the periodic signals in time series on the Hurst parameter estimate is investigated with temporal, spectral and time-scale methods. The Hurst parameter estimates of the simulated periodic time series with a white noise background show a high sensitivity on the signal to noise ratio and for some methods, also on the data length used. The analysis is then carried on to the investigation of extreme monthly river flows of the Elbe River (Dresden) and of the Rhine River (Kaub). Effects of removing the periodic components employing different filtering approaches are discussed and it is shown that such procedures are a prerequisite for an unbiased estimation of H. In summary, our results imply that the first step in a time series long-correlation study should be the separation of the deterministic components from the stochastic ones. Otherwise wrong conclusions concerning possible memory effects may be drawn.

  6. Life time calculations for LCF loading combined with tensional hold periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Armas, A.; Piel, D.

    1983-01-01

    The life time in high amplitude strain cycling with tensional hold periods is analysed presuming that creep failure damage is life determining. The life fraction rule (LFR) is used to calculate the life time consumpted during the dwell period in strain controlled tests as well as during tensional hold time stress cycles. It follows from the present investigation that stress relaxation occurring during the strain hold periods plays the dominant influence upon the relationship between life and dwell time. For strong stress relaxation (e.g. high temperature) less damage is accumulated as compared to suppressed relaxation (low temperature). The damage in stress relaxation is calculated by means of the LFR and the results are compared to experiments conducted on Zircaloy-4 and the austenitic stainless stell Type AISI 304. From the very good agreement between both it is concluded that under the loading conditions considered, creep failure damage is the main life determining damage contribution. (orig.)

  7. Depression in the US population during the time periods surrounding the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kaushal; Kramer, Holly; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Cao, Guichan; Tong, Liping; Rao, Murali

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the time periods surrounding the 2008 US economic downturn were accompanied by an increase in prevalence of depression in the US adult population. We used data from the 24,182 adults aged ≥ 18 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2005-2012. A cross-sectional analysis was performed at each time period to determine prevalence of major and other depression as assessed by standardized questionnaires based on 9 criteria for major depressive episodes defined by DSM-IV. The demographic characteristics of the US population were similar across time periods except for the percentage of adults living in poverty, which increased from 26.43% during 2005-2006 to 33.46% during 2011-2012. The prevalence of major depression increased from 2.33% (95% CI, 1.64%-3.01%) during 2005-2006 to 3.49% (95% CI, 2.84%-4.03%) in 2009-2010 to 3.79% (95% CI, 3.01%-4.57%) in 2011-2012. Prevalence of other depression increased from 4.10% (95% CI, 3.37%-4.88%) in 2005-2006 to 4.79% (95% CI, 4.10%-5.44%) in the 2009-2010 period but then declined to 3.68% (95% CI, 2.84%-4.48%) in the 2011-2012 time period (P = .4). After adjustment for the distribution of age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, insurance status, and poverty status in the US adult noninstitutionalized population, each 2-year period after the 2005-2006 time period was associated with a 0.4% increase in major depression prevalence (P depression prevalence were noted by time period (P = .6). The time periods surrounding the recent economic recession were accompanied by a significant and sustained increase in major depression prevalence in the US population. It is plausible that the recession, given its strong, persistent, and negative effects on employment, job and housing security, and stock investments, contributed to the sustained increase in prevalence of major depression in the US population, but other factors associated with the recession time period could have

  8. Almost Periodic Solution for Memristive Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiqin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamical stability analysis for almost periodic solution of memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, by applying the inequality analysis techniques, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of solutions are discussed. Based on the differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov functional approach, the stability issues of almost periodic solution are investigated, and a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the almost periodic solution is established. Moreover, as a special case, the condition which ensures the global exponential stability of a unique periodic solution is also presented for the considered memristive neural networks. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  9. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  10. Finding hidden periodic signals in time series - an application to stock prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data in the form of time series appear in many areas of science. In cases where the periodicity is apparent and the only other contribution to the time series is stochastic in origin, the data can be `folded' to improve signal to noise and this has been done for light curves of variable stars with the folding resulting in a cleaner light curve signal. Stock index prices versus time are classic examples of time series. Repeating patterns have been claimed by many workers and include unusually large returns on small-cap stocks during the month of January, and small returns on the Dow Jones Industrial average (DJIA) in the months June through September compared to the rest of the year. Such observations imply that these prices have a periodic component. We investigate this for the DJIA. If such a component exists it is hidden in a large non-periodic variation and a large stochastic variation. We show how to extract this periodic component and for the first time reveal its yearly (averaged) shape. This periodic component leads directly to the `Sell in May and buy at Halloween' adage. We also drill down and show that this yearly variation emerges from approximately half of the underlying stocks making up the DJIA index.

  11. Factors associated with prolonged time to treatment failure with fulvestrant 500 mg in patients with post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer: a sub-group analysis of the JBCRG-C06 Safari study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi; Masuda, Norikazu; Nakayama, Takahiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Anan, Keisei; Ito, Yoshinori; Ohtani, Shoichiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Saji, Shigehira; Takano, Toshimi; Tokunaga, Eriko; Nakamura, Seigo; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Hattori, Masaya; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Morita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Yamashita, Hiroko; Yamashita, Toshinari; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Yotsumoto, Daisuke; Toi, Masakazu; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    The JBCRG-C06 Safari study showed that earlier fulvestrant 500 mg (F500) use, a longer time from diagnosis to F500 use, and no prior palliative chemotherapy were associated with significantly longer time to treatment failure (TTF) among Japanese patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) advanced breast cancer (ABC). The objective of this sub-group analysis was to further examine data from the Safari study, focusing on ER + and human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (HER2-) cases. The Safari study (UMIN000015168) was a retrospective, multi-center cohort study, conducted in 1,072 patients in Japan taking F500 for ER + ABC. The sub-analysis included only patients administered F500 as second-line or later therapy (n = 960). Of these, 828 patients were HER2-. Results Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (≥65 years; p = .035), longer time (≥3 years) from ABC diagnosis to F500 use (p < .001), no prior chemotherapy (p < .001), and F500 treatment line (p < .001) were correlated with prolonged TTF (median = 5.39 months). In ER+/HER2- patients receiving F500 as a second-line or later therapy, treatment line, advanced age, no prior palliative chemotherapy use, and a longer period from ABC diagnosis to F500 use were associated with longer TTF.

  12. Boundedness and almost Periodicity in Time of Solutions of Evolutionary Variational Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, A. A.

    1983-04-01

    In this paper existence theorems are obtained for the solutions of abstract parabolic variational inequalities, which are bounded with respect to time (in the Stepanov and L^\\infty norms). The regularity and almost periodicity properties of such solutions are studied. Theorems are also established concerning their solvability in spaces of Besicovitch almost periodic functions. The majority of the results are obtained without any compactness assumptions. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  13. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time reg...

  14. A surface-micromachining-based inertial micro-switch with compliant cantilever beam as movable electrode for enduring high shock and prolonging contact time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiu [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhuoqing, E-mail: yzhuoqing@sjtu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fu, Bo; Li, Jianhua; Wu, Hao [Huaihai Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Changzhi, Shanxi Province, 046012 (China); Zhang, Qihuan; Sun, Yunna; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The designed cantilever beam attached to the proof mass can endure a larger shock acceleration (∼1000 g order of magnitude) compared to those traditional designs (∼100 g order of magnitude). • Effect of the pulse width on the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time is investigated. • A constraint sleeve structure is introduced to lower the off-axis sensitivity. - Abstract: A novel laterally-driven inertial micro-switch with two L-shaped elastic cantilever beams as the movable electrode, which is attached to the proof mass, is proposed in this paper. The advantage of this design is that the contact time of the inertial micro-switch can be prolonged. Meanwhile, the micro-switch can withstand a higher shock than the traditional designs whose cantilever beams are attached to the fixed electrode. The designed inertial micro-switch was simulated and optimized with ANSYS software and fabricated on a quartz substrate by surface micromachining technology. The simulated result demonstrates that the threshold acceleration (a{sub ths}) under stable switch-on state is about 288 g and the contact time is about 198 μs when the pulse width of acceleration loads is 1 ms. At the same time, it indicates that the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time of designed micro-switch all increase with the pulse width of acceleration loads. The simulation of impact process in non-sensitive direction shows that the introduced constraint sleeve structure in the novel inertial micro-switch can lower the off-axis sensitivity. The fabricated micro-switch prototype has been tested by a standard dropping hammer system under shock accelerations with various amplitudes and pulse widths. The experimental measurements show that the contact time is about 150 μs when the threshold acceleration is about 288 g. It also indicates that the response time and the contact time both increase with the pulse width, which is consistent with the

  15. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  16. Detecting method for crude oil price fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; Fang, Wei; An, Feng; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed the concept of autoregressive modes to indicate the fluctuation patterns. • We constructed transmission networks for studying the fluctuation mechanism. • There are different fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series. • Only a few types of autoregressive modes control the fluctuations in crude oil price. • There are cluster effects during the fluctuation mechanism of autoregressive modes. - Abstract: Current existing literatures can characterize the long-term fluctuation of crude oil price time series, however, it is difficult to detect the fluctuation mechanism specifically under short term. Because each fluctuation pattern for one short period contained in a long-term crude oil price time series have dynamic characteristics of diversity; in other words, there exhibit various fluctuation patterns in different short periods and transmit to each other, which reflects the reputedly complicate and chaotic oil market. Thus, we proposed an incorporated method to detect the fluctuation mechanism, which is the evolution of the different fluctuation patterns over time from the complex network perspective. We divided crude oil price time series into segments using sliding time windows, and defined autoregressive modes based on regression models to indicate the fluctuation patterns of each segment. Hence, the transmissions between different types of autoregressive modes over time form a transmission network that contains rich dynamic information. We then capture transmission characteristics of autoregressive modes under different periodic time series through the structure features of the transmission networks. The results indicate that there are various autoregressive modes with significantly different statistical characteristics under different periodic time series. However, only a few types of autoregressive modes and transmission patterns play a major role in the fluctuation mechanism of the crude oil price, and these

  17. Blockade of Inflammation and Apoptosis Pathways by siRNA Prolongs Cold Preservation Time and Protects Donor Hearts in a Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In donor hearts from mini pigs, overtime cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury cause poor graft quality and impaired heart function. Blockage of complement, apoptosis, and inflammation is considered a strategy for attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury and protecting cardiac function. Minipig donor hearts were perfused and preserved in Celsior solution or transfection reagent containing Celsior solution with scramble siRNA or siRNAs targeting complement 3, caspase-8, caspase-3, and nuclear factor κB-p65 genes at 4°C and subsequently hemo-reperfused ex vivo (38°C or transplanted into recipients. The protective effect of the siRNA solution was evaluated by measuring cell apoptosis, structural alteration, protein markers for tissue damage and oxidative stress, and cardiac function. We found a reduction in cell apoptosis, myocardial damage, and tissue inflammation by reduced biochemistry and markers and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines and improvement in cardiac function, as shown by the improved hemodynamic indices in 12-hr-preserved siRNA-treated hearts of both ex vivo and orthotopic transplantation models. These findings demonstrate that blockade of inflammation and apoptosis pathways using siRNA can prolong cold preservation time and better protect donor heart function in cardiac transplantation of large animals, which may be beneficial for human heart preservation.

  18. Exact dynamics of a one dimensional Bose gas in a periodic time-dependent harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopa, Stefano; Unterberger, Jéremie; Karevski, Dragi

    2018-05-01

    We study the unitary dynamics of a 1D gas of hard-core bosons trapped into a harmonic potential which varies periodically in time with frequency . Such periodic systems can be classified into orbits of different monodromies corresponding to two different physical situations, namely the case in which the bosonic cloud remains stable during the time-evolution and the case where it turns out to be unstable. In the present work we derive in the large particle number limit exact results for the stroboscopic evolution of the energy and particle densities in both physical situations.

  19. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  20. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  1. Periodic review inventory policy for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with time dependent deterioration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesha Samanta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a periodic review inventory model with no shortages and different demand rates during pre- and post- deterioration periods . Deterioration of units start after a fixed time interval, and the deterioration rate is time dependent. The model determines the optimal reorder interval and the optimal order quantity so as to minimize the total cost per unit length of an inventory cycle. An extension of the model to include price discount has been further considered. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model and a sensitivity analysis is also reported.

  2. Time-Dependent Decline in Serum Phenytoin Concentration with Heightened Convulsive Seizure Risk by Prolonged Administration of Fosphenytoin in Japanese: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yuta; Niwa, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamada, Yuto; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Akio; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2018-04-20

    Because clinical data to confirm the safety and effectiveness of fosphenytoin, a prodrug of phenytoin, are insufficient, the length of administration of fosphenytoin is restricted. Nevertheless, some cases require fosphenytoin administration for more than a few days. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the serum concentration of phenytoin in adult Japanese patients who received intravenous fosphenytoin therapy for more than 3 days. Patients injected with intravenous fosphenytoin for more than 3 days at Gifu University Hospital between January 2012 and September 2014 were enrolled. Individual pharmacokinetic parameters were predicted by Bayesian estimation using NONMEM software, and the maintenance dose of fosphenytoin required to maintain the therapeutic trough concentration (10-20 μg/mL) was calculated from the parameters. Among a total of 8 patients, the serum trough concentration of phenytoin decreased with each day after repeated injection of fosphenytoin. The incidence rate of significant convulsive seizures was increased time-dependently (0% on day 1, 12.5% on day 2, 25% on day 3, and 66.7% on day 4 and after). Phenytoin clearance showed a time-dependent increase. The maintenance dose of fosphenytoin required to maintain the therapeutic trough concentration was simulated to be 779.8 ± 316.8 mg/day, a dose that was markedly higher than the actual maintenance dose (414.1 ± 55.7 mg/day). Prolonged use of fosphenytoin for such patients as those with autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy accompanied with reflux disease and/or ileus time-dependently decreased the serum concentration of phenytoin and increased the risk of convulsion. Therefore, the maintenance dose should be increased to maintain the therapeutic serum concentration.

  3. The Improved Adaptive Silence Period Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM. However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU. Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.

  4. Monostable traveling waves for a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panxiao; Wu, Shi-Liang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion population model with monostable nonlinearity. Under quasi-monotone or non-quasi-monotone assumptions, it is known that there exists a critical wave speed c_*>0 such that a periodic traveling wave exists if and only if the wave speed is above c_*. In this paper, we first prove the uniqueness of non-critical periodic traveling waves regardless of whether the model is quasi-monotone or not. Further, in the quasi-monotone case, we establish the exponential stability of non-critical periodic traveling fronts. Finally, we illustrate the main results by discussing two types of death and birth functions arising from population biology.

  5. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Aadahl, Mette

    2016-01-01

    ) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary...... bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were found when 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts were replaced with standing time (~1–2% lower) or MVPA (~4–9% lower...... physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately...

  6. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  7. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam D Harper

    Full Text Available Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63% either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50% and do not (50% account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk

  8. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  9. On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007 %2Fs41808-018-0011-8

  10. Four positive periodic solutions of a discrete time Lotka-Volterra competitive system with harvesting terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinggui Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we establish the existence of at least four positive periodic solutions for a discrete time Lotka-Volterra competitive system with harvesting terms. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  11. On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs41808-018-0011-8

  12. Reliability of fitness tests using methods and time periods common in sport and occupational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstein, Bryan D; Steele, Russell J; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Cohort study. Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators.

  13. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  14. Efficient Fourier-based algorithms for time-periodic unsteady problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Arathi Kamath

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation work proposes two algorithms for the simulation of time-periodic unsteady problems via the solution of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. These algorithms use a Fourier representation in time and hence solve for the periodic state directly without resolving transients (which consume most of the resources in a time-accurate scheme). In contrast to conventional Fourier-based techniques which solve the governing equations in frequency space, the new algorithms perform all the calculations in the time domain, and hence require minimal modifications to an existing solver. The complete space-time solution is obtained by iterating in a fifth pseudo-time dimension. Various time-periodic problems such as helicopter rotors, wind turbines, turbomachinery and flapping-wings can be simulated using the Time Spectral method. The algorithm is first validated using pitching airfoil/wing test cases. The method is further extended to turbomachinery problems, and computational results verified by comparison with a time-accurate calculation. The technique can be very memory intensive for large problems, since the solution is computed (and hence stored) simultaneously at all time levels. Often, the blade counts of a turbomachine are rescaled such that a periodic fraction of the annulus can be solved. This approximation enables the solution to be obtained at a fraction of the cost of a full-scale time-accurate solution. For a viscous computation over a three-dimensional single-stage rescaled compressor, an order of magnitude savings is achieved. The second algorithm, the reduced-order Harmonic Balance method is applicable only to turbomachinery flows, and offers even larger computational savings than the Time Spectral method. It simulates the true geometry of the turbomachine using only one blade passage per blade row as the computational domain. In each blade row of the turbomachine, only the dominant frequencies are resolved, namely

  15. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

  16. Time to reach a given level of number of neutrons is stochastic analog of reactor period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In theory and in practice the operation of nuclear reactors to control the safety of the reactor is widely used deterministic value - the period of the reactor. It is proposed along with the period of the reactor using a stochastic analogue of this magnitude - a random amount of time to achieve a given level of a random process for the number of neutrons in the reactor. The paper discusses various features of the behavior of the mean and variance of time to achieve a specified level. This kind of features can be associated with impaired behavior of the reactor system. Introduced the value of time required to reach the level can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  17. Periodic Solution of Second-Order Hamiltonian Systems with a Change Sign Potential on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales 𝕋 of the form uΔΔ(ρ(t+μb(t|u(t|μ−2u(t+∇¯H(t,u(t=0, Δ-a.e. t∈[0,T]𝕋 , u(0−u(T=uΔ(ρ(0−uΔ(ρ(T=0, where 0,T∈𝕋. By using the minimax methods in critical theory, an existence theorem of periodic solution for the above system is established. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the result. This is probably the first time the existence of periodic solutions for second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales has been studied by critical theory.

  18. Passive magnetic bearing systems stabilizer/bearing utilizing time-averaging of a periodic magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2017-10-03

    A high-stiffness stabilizer/bearings for passive magnetic bearing systems is provide where the key to its operation resides in the fact that when the frequency of variation of the repelling forces of the periodic magnet array is large compared to the reciprocal of the growth time of the unstable motion, the rotating system will feel only the time-averaged value of the force. When the time-averaged value of the force is radially repelling by the choice of the geometry of the periodic magnet array, the Earnshaw-related unstable hit motion that would occur at zero rotational speed is suppressed when the system is rotating at operating speeds.

  19. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits

  20. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-10-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.

  1. The effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on Wingate anaerobic power and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, Mohamed Nashrudin Bin; Yusof, Ashril

    2018-06-01

    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day -1 ; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day -1 ) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day -1 ). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.4), while HIT time-to-exhaustion performance declined over the 10 days with a trend of recovery from a large to a minimum effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.8-0.3). Body weight and triglyceride were consistently reduced in the FAS group (p < .01). The present study suggests that intermittent fasting must exceed 10 days to ensure that high-intensity performance does not deteriorate because this length of time seems to be required for effective adaptation to the new dietary regimen.

  2. Plasticity of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol, which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light ( approximately 450 lux; approximately 1.2 W/m(2 for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration.

  3. Copper, nickel and lead in lichen and tree bark transplants over different periods of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Mafalda S. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: abaptista@fc.up.pt; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S.D. [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mtvascon@fc.up.pt; Cabral, Joao Paulo [CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jpcabral@fc.up.pt; Freitas, M. Carmo [ITN - Technological and Nuclear Institute, Reactor E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: cfreitas@itn.mcies.pt; Pacheco, Adriano M.G. [CVRM-IST - Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: apacheco@ist.utl.pt

    2008-01-15

    This work aimed at comparing the dynamics of atmospheric metal accumulation by the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata and bark of Platanus hybrida over different periods of time. Transplants were exposed in three Portuguese coastal cities. Samples were retrieved (1) every 2 months (discontinuous exposure), or (2) after 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-month periods (continuous exposure), and analysed for Cu, Ni and Pb. Airborne accumulation of metals was essentially independent of climatic factors. For both biomonitors [Pb] > [Ni] > [Cu] but Pb was the only element for which a consistent pattern of accumulation was observed, with the bark outperforming the lichen. The longest exposure periods hardly ever corresponded to the highest accumulation. This might have been partly because the biomonitors bound and released metals throughout the exposure, each with its own dynamics of accumulation, but both according to the environmental metal availability. - Lichen and tree bark have distinct dynamics of airborne metal accumulation.

  4. Copper, nickel and lead in lichen and tree bark transplants over different periods of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Mafalda S.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S.D.; Cabral, Joao Paulo; Freitas, M. Carmo; Pacheco, Adriano M.G.

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed at comparing the dynamics of atmospheric metal accumulation by the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata and bark of Platanus hybrida over different periods of time. Transplants were exposed in three Portuguese coastal cities. Samples were retrieved (1) every 2 months (discontinuous exposure), or (2) after 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-month periods (continuous exposure), and analysed for Cu, Ni and Pb. Airborne accumulation of metals was essentially independent of climatic factors. For both biomonitors [Pb] > [Ni] > [Cu] but Pb was the only element for which a consistent pattern of accumulation was observed, with the bark outperforming the lichen. The longest exposure periods hardly ever corresponded to the highest accumulation. This might have been partly because the biomonitors bound and released metals throughout the exposure, each with its own dynamics of accumulation, but both according to the environmental metal availability. - Lichen and tree bark have distinct dynamics of airborne metal accumulation

  5. Nonequilibrium steady states and resonant tunneling in time-periodically driven systems with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.

  6. Prolonged radiation time and low nadir hemoglobin during postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy are both poor prognostic factors with synergistic effect on locally advanced head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su NW

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Wen Su,1 Chung-Ji Liu,2 Yi-Shing Leu,3 Jehn-Chuan Lee,3 Yu-Jen Chen,4 Yi-Fang Chang1,51Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, 5Good Clinical Research Center, Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Anemia, a common complication of head and neck cancer treatment, is regarded as a poor prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of low hemoglobin (Hb levels, measured at different time points, on a consecutive cohort of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT.Materials and methods: From 2002 to 2009, 140 patients were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative (pre-op Hb, pre-CCRT Hb, and nadir Hb during CCRT were measured and recorded. The three Hb parameters were analyzed against several well-established pathologic risk factors and radiation-associated variables. Prognostic impacts were investigated with multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model.Results: On Cox regression analysis, significantly higher risk of death was associated with pre-op Hb %13 g/dL (hazard ratio [HR] =1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.1; P=0.023, nadir Hb %11 g/dL (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.020, radiation treatment time (RTT >7 weeks (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.022, and multiple positive lymph nodes (HR =2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.7; P=0.010, after adjusting for primary tumor site and pathologic lymphovascular invasion. Patients with poor prognosticators including low nadir Hb %11 g/dL and RTT >7 weeks had a higher risk of death (HR =4.0; 95% CI =1.6–10.2; P=0.004.Conclusion: In the treatment setting of LA-SCCHN patients who underwent postoperative CCRT, coexistance of lower nadir Hb during CCRT and prolonged RTT resulted in

  7. Abundant spontaneous VLFE activities in Cascadia during ETS and inter-ETS time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Hutchison, A. A.; Hawthorne, J.

    2017-12-01

    Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) are discrete seismic events associated with episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events. They are rich in 20-50s energy and depleted in higher frequencies compared to regular local earthquakes of similar magnitudes. VLFEs can be as large as Mw 4.0, and potentially release much more seismic moment than the tremor/LFE activities, making them a critical event determining stress evolution during slow earthquakes [Ghosh et al., 2015]. Their underlying physics and relationship with tremor/LFE, however, are still unclear. In Cascadia, the majority of the VLFEs found so far are clustered near the areas of high geodetic slip during ETS events [Ghosh et al., 2015; Hutchison and Ghosh, 2016]. Interestingly, we found VLFE activity has its own dynamics and can occur independent of tremor/LFE activity. For example, during the 2014 ETS event in northern Cascadia, VLFEs are found to be asynchronous with tremor activity, both in space and time [Hutchison and Ghosh, 2016]. We use a matched filter technique to detect thousands of VLFEs over an ETS-cycle, and perhaps more interestingly, even between ETS events. VLFE activities peak during ETS events, but significant VLFE activity is detected during the inter-ETS time period. Analyses of strainmeter data near the VLFE locations suggest statistically significant strain rate increases during VLFE time periods compared to the background. We suggest that VLFE is a distinct type of seismic radiation different from tremor/LFE, and can operate independently from tremor activities. This is in contrast to a model suggesting that VLFE signals may be a result of many LFE signals arriving at seismic stations in a short time period [Gomberg et al., 2016]. We are making a consistent catalog of VLFE in Cascadia for longer time period. Systematic study of VLFEs is going to provide new insights into the mechanism of slow earthquakes and its relationship with tremor/LFE and slow slip.

  8. Stability of horizontal viscous fluid layers in a vertical arbitrary time periodic electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    The stability of a horizontal interface between two viscous fluids, one of which is conducting and the other is dielectric, acted upon by a vertical time-periodic electric field is considered theoretically. The two fluids are bounded by electrodes separated by a finite distance. For an applied ac electric field, the unstable interface deforms in a time periodic manner, owing to the time dependent Maxwell stress, and is characterized by the oscillation frequency which may or may not be the same as the frequency of the ac electric field. The stability curve, which relates the critical voltage, manifested through the Mason number—the ratio of normal electric stress and viscous stress, and the instability wavenumber at the onset of the instability, is obtained by means of the Floquet theory for a general arbitrary time periodic electric field. The limit of vanishing viscosities is shown to be in excellent agreement with the marginal stability curves predicted by means of a Mathieu equation. The influence of finite viscosity and electrode separation is discussed in relation to the ideal case of inviscid fluids. The methodology to obtain the marginal stability curves developed here is applicable to any arbitrary but time periodic signal, as demonstrated for the case of a signal with two different frequencies, and four different frequencies with a dc offset. The mode coupling in the interfacial normal stress leads to appearance of harmonic and subharmonic modes, characterized by the frequency of the oscillating interface at an integral or half-integral multiple of the applied frequency, respectively. This is in contrast to the application of a voltage with a single frequency which always leads to a harmonic mode oscillation of the interface. Whether a harmonic or subharmonic mode is the most unstable one depends on details of the excitation signal.

  9. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  10. Stochastic model stationarization by eliminating the periodic term and its effect on time series prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Fatemi, Seyed Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Because time series stationarization has a key role in stochastic modeling results, three methods are analyzed in this study. The methods are seasonal differencing, seasonal standardization and spectral analysis to eliminate the periodic effect on time series stationarity. First, six time series including 4 streamflow series and 2 water temperature series are stationarized. The stochastic term for these series obtained with ARIMA is subsequently modeled. For the analysis, 9228 models are introduced. It is observed that seasonal standardization and spectral analysis eliminate the periodic term completely, while seasonal differencing maintains seasonal correlation structures. The obtained results indicate that all three methods present acceptable performance overall. However, model accuracy in monthly streamflow prediction is higher with seasonal differencing than with the other two methods. Another advantage of seasonal differencing over the other methods is that the monthly streamflow is never estimated as negative. Standardization is the best method for predicting monthly water temperature although it is quite similar to seasonal differencing, while spectral analysis performed the weakest in all cases. It is concluded that for each monthly seasonal series, seasonal differencing is the best stationarization method in terms of periodic effect elimination. Moreover, the monthly water temperature is predicted with more accuracy than monthly streamflow. The criteria of the average stochastic term divided by the amplitude of the periodic term obtained for monthly streamflow and monthly water temperature were 0.19 and 0.30, 0.21 and 0.13, and 0.07 and 0.04 respectively. As a result, the periodic term is more dominant than the stochastic term for water temperature in the monthly water temperature series compared to streamflow series.

  11. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  12. Natural convection in square enclosure induced by inner circular cylinder with time-periodic pulsating temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.

  13. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  14. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  15. Periodic solution for state-dependent impulsive shunting inhibitory CNNs with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Enes

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we consider existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution for state-dependent impulsive shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with time-varying delays. By means of B-equivalence method, we reduce these state-dependent impulsive neural networks system to an equivalent fix time impulsive neural networks system. Further, by using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincide degree theory and employing a suitable Lyapunov function some new sufficient conditions for existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution are obtained. Previous results are improved and extended. Finally, we give an illustrative example with numerical simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving (Open Source)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    construction does not require the solution of any differential equations , only linear algebraic equations . By contrast, a mapping in the opposite...set of algebraic linear equations . The mapping between NESS and SP presented above was not intended as a set of operational instructions for... differential equations with time-periodic parameters. Typically, this can only be done numerically. In some applications, transition rates are constrained by

  17. ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY OF THE PERIODICALLY AND CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED QUEUING SYSTEM WITH TIME REDUNDANCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikadze, I.; Namchevadze, T.; Gobiani, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is proposed a generalized mathematical model of the queuing system with time redundancy without preliminary checking of the queuing system at transition from the free state into the engaged one. The model accounts for various failures of the queuing system detected by continuous instrument control, periodic control, control during recovery and the failures revealed immediately after accumulation of a certain number of failures. The generating function of queue length in both stationary and nonstationary modes was determined. (author)

  18. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J

    2001-01-01

    A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotemperature is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Byrd ice cores. Over this period, the onset of seven major millennial-scale warmings in A....... This pattern provides further evidence for the operation of a "bipolar see-saw" in air temperatures and an oceanic teleconnection between the hemispheres on millennial time scales....

  19. Numerical detection of unstable periodic orbits in continuous-time dynamical systems with chaotic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Saiki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An infinite number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs are embedded in a chaotic system which models some complex phenomenon. Several algorithms which extract UPOs numerically from continuous-time chaotic systems have been proposed. In this article the damped Newton-Raphson-Mees algorithm is reviewed, and some important techniques and remarks concerning the practical numerical computations are exemplified by employing the Lorenz system.

  20. Period-doubling bifurcation and chaos control in a discrete-time mosquito model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Din

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of some qualitative properties of a discrete-time mosquito Model. It is shown that there exists period-doubling bifurcation for wide range of bifurcation parameter for the unique positive steady-state of given system. In order to control the bifurcation we introduced a feedback strategy. For further confirmation of complexity and chaotic behavior largest Lyapunov exponents are plotted.

  1. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  2. Time-varying singular value decomposition for periodic transient identification in bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangbin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2016-09-01

    For rotating machines, the defective faults of bearings generally are represented as periodic transient impulses in acquired signals. The extraction of transient features from signals has been a key issue for fault diagnosis. However, the background noise reduces identification performance of periodic faults in practice. This paper proposes a time-varying singular value decomposition (TSVD) method to enhance the identification of periodic faults. The proposed method is inspired by the sliding window method. By applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the signal under a sliding window, we can obtain a time-varying singular value matrix (TSVM). Each column in the TSVM is occupied by the singular values of the corresponding sliding window, and each row represents the intrinsic structure of the raw signal, namely time-singular-value-sequence (TSVS). Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the frequency of TSVS is exactly twice that of the corresponding intrinsic structure. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of TSVS is improved significantly in comparison with the raw signal. The proposed method takes advantages of the TSVS in noise suppression and feature extraction to enhance fault frequency for diagnosis. The effectiveness of the TSVD is verified by means of simulation studies and applications to diagnosis of bearing faults. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods for bearing fault diagnosis.

  3. Algorithm for determining two-periodic steady-states in AC machines directly in time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Tadeusz J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for finding steady states in AC machines for the cases of their two-periodic nature. The algorithm enables to specify the steady-state solution identified directly in time domain despite of the fact that two-periodic waveforms are not repeated in any finite time interval. The basis for such an algorithm is a discrete differential operator that specifies the temporary values of the derivative of the two-periodic function in the selected set of points on the basis of the values of that function in the same set of points. It allows to develop algebraic equations defining the steady state solution reached in a chosen point set for the nonlinear differential equations describing the AC machines when electrical and mechanical equations should be solved together. That set of those values allows determining the steady state solution at any time instant up to infinity. The algorithm described in this paper is competitive with respect to the one known in literature an approach based on the harmonic balance method operated in frequency domain.

  4. Improved long-term outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a comparison between two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pablo E; Cleary, Sean P; Dhani, Neesha; Kim, Peter T W; Greig, Paul D; Leung, Kenneth; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Gallinger, Steven; Wei, Alice C

    2015-04-01

    Despite reduced perioperative mortality and routine use of adjuvant therapy following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), improvement in long-term outcome has been difficult to ascertain. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing resection for PDAC within a single, high-volume academic institution over two sequential time periods. Retrospective review of patients with resected PDAC, in two cohorts: period 1 (P1), 1991-2000; and period 2 (P2), 2001-2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A total of 179 pancreatectomies were performed during P1 and 310 during P2. Perioperative mortality was 6.7 % (12/179) in P1 and 1.6 % (5/310) in P2 (p = 0.003). P2 had a greater number of lymph nodes resected (17 [0-50] vs. 7 [0-31]; p P2 (p P2 (p < 0.001). Factors associated with improved long-term survival remain comparable over time. Short- and long-term survival for patients with resected PDAC has improved over time due to decreased perioperative mortality and increased use of adjuvant therapy, although the proportion of 5-year survivors remains small.

  5. Evaluation of 'period-generated' control laws for the time-optimal control of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Time-Optimal control of neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. These laws are designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws'. Relative to time-optimal response, they function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The results of a systematic evaluation of these laws are presented. The behavior of each term in the control laws is shown and the capability of these laws to control properly the reactor power is demonstrated. Factors affecting the implementation of these laws, such as the prompt neutron lifetime and the differential reactivity worth of the actuators, are discussed. Finally, the results of an experimental study in which these laws were used to adjust the power of the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor are shown. The information presented should be of interest to those designing high performance control systems for test, spacecraft, or, in certain instances, commercial reactors

  6. A technique to detect periodic and non-periodic ultra-rapid flux time variations with standard radio-astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Romney, Jonathan D.; Trottier, Eric

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate that extremely rapid and weak periodic and non-periodic signals can easily be detected by using the autocorrelation of intensity as a function of time. We use standard radio-astronomical observations that have artificial periodic and non-periodic signals generated by the electronics of terrestrial origin. The autocorrelation detects weak signals that have small amplitudes because it averages over long integration times. Another advantage is that it allows a direct visualization of the shape of the signals, while it is difficult to see the shape with a Fourier transform. Although Fourier transforms can also detect periodic signals, a novelty of this work is that we demonstrate another major advantage of the autocorrelation, that it can detect non-periodic signals while the Fourier transform cannot. Another major novelty of our work is that we use electric fields taken in a standard format with standard instrumentation at a radio observatory and therefore no specialized instrumentation is needed. Because the electric fields are sampled every 15.625 ns, they therefore allow detection of very rapid time variations. Notwithstanding the long integration times, the autocorrelation detects very rapid intensity variations as a function of time. The autocorrelation could also detect messages from Extraterrestrial Intelligence as non-periodic signals.

  7. Multiresource allocation and scheduling for periodic soft real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Kartik; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2001-12-01

    Real-time applications that utilize multiple system resources, such as CPU, disks, and network links, require coordinated scheduling of these resources in order to meet their end-to-end performance requirements. Most state-of-the-art operating systems support independent resource allocation and deadline-driven scheduling but lack coordination among multiple heterogeneous resources. This paper describes the design and implementation of an Integrated Real-time Resource Scheduler (IRS) that performs coordinated allocation and scheduling of multiple heterogeneous resources on the same machine for periodic soft real-time application. The principal feature of IRS is a heuristic multi-resource allocation algorithm that reserves multiple resources for real-time applications in a manner that can maximize the number of applications admitted into the system in the long run. At run-time, a global scheduler dispatches the tasks of the soft real-time application to individual resource schedulers according to the precedence constraints between tasks. The individual resource schedulers, which could be any deadline based schedulers, can make scheduling decisions locally and yet collectively satisfy a real-time application's performance requirements. The tightness of overall timing guarantees is ultimately determined by the properties of individual resource schedulers. However, IRS maximizes overall system resource utilization efficiency by coordinating deadline assignment across multiple tasks in a soft real-time application.

  8. Self-publishing of Lithuanian cultural periodicals in Soviet and contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Urbanaviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse self-publishing trends of Lithuanian cultural periodicals focusing on the historical and contemporary contexts. The article provides an overview of the reasons for historical cultural periodical self-published texts, known as samizdats, to appear, as well as their publishing and circulation trends in Lithuania. It also analyses what contemporary cultural self-publishing is: whether it is a completely independent, logical consequence of the digital age, which emerged under favourable circumstances, or if it can be characterized as having something in common with the past experiences. The most active years of the periodical underground press publishing in Soviet Lithuanian self-publishing development were between 1975 and 1981. Self-published texts ideologically diverged into three main directions: religious, civic, and cultural-artistic. A total of 22 publications were being published for a longer or shorter period of time. While analysing contemporary cultural self-publishing topics, the report focuses only on online cultural texts, irrespective of the printed ones. Survey method was used to find out how much and in what aspect modern Internet users perceive historical periodical self-publishing, and how and in what aspect they value modern cultural self-published texts. The results show that 18-35-year-old respondents have not acquired the skills necessary to analyse samizdat publishing. They associate the word self-publishing with digital texts only, which due to favourable conditions spread easily through social networks and blogs. In the era of advancing computer technologies and the Internet, every person who has the time and desire may become a developer, an author, or at least a disseminator of information: this tradition is becoming more and more topical and quite frequently – an almost self-evident phenomenon.

  9. On an nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a strongly almost periodic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aribindi Satyanarayan Rao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Banach space, if u is a Stepanov almost periodic solution of a certain nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a Stepanov almost periodic forcing function, then u,u′,…,u (n−2 are all strongly almost periodic and u (n−1 is weakly almost periodic.

  10. Dynamic effective properties of heterogeneous geological formations with spherical inclusions under periodic time variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A.; Dagan, G.; Miloh, T.

    2013-04-01

    In unsteady groundwater flow (or similar processes of heat/electrical conduction), the heterogeneous medium structure is characterized by two random properties, the conductivity K and the specific storativity S. The average head field ⟨H ⟩and the associated effective properties Kef, Sef are determined for a layer with a periodic head drop between boundaries, such that H is periodic in time, and a medium made up of a matrix with a dilute concentration of spherical inclusions. In the common quasi-steady approximation, Kef is equal to the classical steady solution while Sef = SA, the arithmetic mean. We derive expressions for the frequency dependent Kef, Sef, which are generally complex, i.e., dynamic. The main result is the delineation of the ranges of the parameters: dimensionless frequency (ω) and contrasts of conductivity (κ) and storativity (s) between the matrix and the inclusions, for which dynamic effects are significant.

  11. Current density waves in open mesoscopic rings driven by time-periodic magnetic fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Conghua; Wei Lianfu

    2010-01-01

    Quantum coherent transport through open mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm rings (driven by static fluxes) have been studied extensively. Here, by using quantum waveguide theory and the Floquet theorem we investigate the quantum transport of electrons along an open mesoscopic ring threaded by a time-periodic magnetic flux. We predicate that current density waves could be excited along such an open ring. As a consequence, a net current could be generated along the lead with only one reservoir, if the lead additionally connects to such a normal-metal loop driven by the time-dependent flux. These phenomena could be explained by photon-assisted processes, due to the interaction between the transported electrons and the applied oscillating external fields. We also discuss how the time-average currents (along the ring and the lead) depend on the amplitude and frequency of the applied oscillating fluxes.

  12. Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannbers, Elin; Gingnell, Malin; Engman, Jonas; Morell, Arvid; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Wikström, Johan; Poromaa, Inger Sundström

    2013-03-15

    The postpartum period is characterized by complex hormonal changes, but human imaging studies in the postpartum period have thus far predominantly focused on the neural correlates of maternal behavior or postpartum depression, whereas longitudinal studies on neural correlates of cognitive function across the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine response inhibition, as a measure of executive function, during the postpartum period and its neural correlates in healthy postpartum women and non-postpartum controls. Thirteen healthy postpartum women underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/NoGo task. The first assessment was made within 48 h of delivery, and the second at 4-7 weeks postpartum. In addition, 13 healthy women examined twice during the menstrual cycle were included as non-postpartum controls. In postpartum women region of interest analyses revealed task-related decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and bilateral precentral gyri at the late postpartum assessment. Generally, postpartum women displayed lower activity during response inhibition in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and precentral gyri compared to non-postpartum controls. No differences in performance on the Go/NoGo task were found between time-points or between groups. In conclusion, this study has discovered that brain activity in prefrontal areas during a response inhibition task decreases throughout the course of the first postpartum weeks and is lower than in non-postpartum controls. Further studies on the normal adaptive brain activity changes that occur during the postpartum period are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Type 1 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have pan-enteric prolongation of gastrointestinal transit times and an altered caecal pH profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Adam D; Pedersen, Anne Grave; Brock, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    , the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom questionnaires were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients showed prolonged gastric emptying (299 ± 289 vs 179 ± 49 min; p = 0.01), small bowel transit (289 ± 107 vs 224 ± 63 min; p = 0...

  14. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  15. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  16. Resistance to bleomycin in cancer cell lines is characterized by prolonged doubling time, reduced DNA damage and evasion of G2/M arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available To establish, characterize and elucidate potential mechanisms of acquired bleomycin (BLM resistance using human cancer cell lines. Seven BLM-resistant cell lines were established by exposure to escalating BLM concentrations over a period of 16-24 months. IC50 values and cell doubling times were quantified using a real time cytotoxicity assay. COMET and γ-H2AX assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assessment further investigated the mechanisms of BLM resistance in these cell lines.Compared with parental cell lines, real time cytotoxicity assays revealed 7 to 49 fold increases in IC50 and a mean doubling time increase of 147 % (range 64 %-352% in BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05 for both. Higher maintenance BLM concentrations were associated with higher IC50 and increased doubling times (p<0.05. Significantly reduced DNA damage (COMET and γ-H2AX assays, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis (p<0.05 for each set of comparison following high-dose acute BLM exposure was observed in resistant sub-clones, compared with their BLM-sensitive parental counterparts. Three weeks of BLM-free culturing resulted in a partial return to BLM sensitivity in 3/7 BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05.Bleomycin resistance may be associated with reduced DNA damage after bleomycin exposure, resulting in reduced G2/M arrest, and reduced apoptosis.

  17. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reilly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc. and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc. to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature–deformation–displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University.

  18. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John; Glisic, Branko

    2018-03-01

    Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc.) and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc.) to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature-deformation-displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i) the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii) the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University.

  19. Variation of Time Domain Failure Probabilities of Jack-up with Wave Return Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahmad; Harahap, Indra S. H.; Ali, Montassir Osman Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated failure probabilities of jack up units on the framework of time dependent reliability analysis using uncertainty from different sea states representing different return period of the design wave. Surface elevation for each sea state was represented by Karhunen-Loeve expansion method using the eigenfunctions of prolate spheroidal wave functions in order to obtain the wave load. The stochastic wave load was propagated on a simplified jack up model developed in commercial software to obtain the structural response due to the wave loading. Analysis of the stochastic response to determine the failure probability in excessive deck displacement in the framework of time dependent reliability analysis was performed by developing Matlab codes in a personal computer. Results from the study indicated that the failure probability increases with increase in the severity of the sea state representing a longer return period. Although the results obtained are in agreement with the results of a study of similar jack up model using time independent method at higher values of maximum allowable deck displacement, it is in contrast at lower values of the criteria where the study reported that failure probability decreases with increase in the severity of the sea state.

  20. Summary of the CDFE nuclear data activity for 2011 - 2012 period of time, Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V.V.; Komarov, S.Yu.; Peskov, N.N.; Stepanov, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains the short review of the main fields of nuclear data activity of the Centre for Photonuclear Experiments Data (Centr Dannykh Fotoyadernykh Eksperimentov - CDFE) of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and main results obtained. All works were carried out in close co-operation with the Nuclear Science Section in the frame of the IAEA Nuclear Reaction Data Centres Network for the period of time from the IAEA Technical Meeting on the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centers' (23 - 24 May 2011, IAEA, Vienna, Austria) till the spring of 2012. (author)

  1. The Iterative Solution to Discrete-Time H∞ Control Problems for Periodic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of solving discrete-time H ∞ control problems for periodic systems. The approach for solving such a type of equations is well known in the literature. However, the focus of our research is set on the numerical computation of the stabilizing solution. In particular, two effective methods for practical realization of the known iterative processes are described. Furthermore, a new iterative approach is investigated and applied. On the basis of numerical experiments, we compare the presented methods. A major conclusion is that the new iterative approach is faster than rest of the methods and it uses less RAM memory than other methods.

  2. Dynamical stability for finite quantum spin chains against a time-periodic inhomogeneous perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazue; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamical stability of the ground state against a time-periodic and spatially-inhomogeneous magnetic field for finite quantum XXZ spin chains. We use the survival probability as a measure of stability and demonstrate that it decays as P(t) ∝ t -1/2 under a certain condition. The dynamical properties should also be related to the level statistics of the XXZ spin chains with a constant spatially-inhomogeneous magnetic field. The level statistics depends on the anisotropy parameter and the field strength. We show how the survival probability depends on the anisotropy parameter, the strength and frequency of the field.

  3. Time series modelling of increased soil temperature anomalies during long period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Amin; Moradi, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

  4. Detection of Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in Solar EUV Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominique, M.; Zhukov, A. N.; Dolla, L.; Inglis, A.; Lapenta, G.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are intrinsically connected to the mechanism of solar flares. They are regularly observed in the impulsive phase of flares since the 1970s. In the past years, the studies of QPPs regained interest with the advent of a new generation of soft X-ray/extreme ultraviolet radiometers that pave the way for statistical surveys. Since the amplitude of QPPs in these wavelengths is rather small, detecting them implies that the overall trend of the time series needs to be removed before applying any Fourier or wavelet transform. This detrending process is known to produce artificial detection of periods that must then be distinguished from real ones. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria to help identify real periods and discard artifacts. We apply these criteria to data taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)/ESP onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) onboard the PRoject for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) to search for QPPs in flares stronger than M5.0 that occurred during Solar Cycle 24.

  5. Prompt-period measurement of the Annular Core Research Reactor prompt neutron generation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.; Talley, D.G.; Trowbridge, F.R.

    1994-07-01

    The prompt neutron generation time for the Annular Core Research Reactor was experimentally determined using a prompt-period technique. The resultant value of 25.5 μs agreed well with the analytically determined value of 24 μs. The three different methods of reactivity insertion determination yielded ±5% agreement in the experimental values of the prompt neutron generation time. Discrepancies observed in reactivity insertion values determined by the three methods used (transient rod position, relative delayed critical control rod positions, and relative transient rod and control rod positions) were investigated to a limited extent. Rod-shadowing and low power fuel/coolant heat-up were addressed as possible causes of the discrepancies

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and degree of conversion of orthodontic adhesives over different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As new orthodontic resin adhesives continue to be marketed, rapid and sensitive tests for examining their toxic effects at the ' cell and tissue level ' are needed because patient safety has been identifi ed as a legal concept. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and degree of monomer conversion of orthodontic adhesives over different time periods. Seven adhesives: Transbond® XT, Transbond® Color Change, Quick Cure, EagleBond, Orthobond®, Fill Mágic® and Biofix® were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in L929 fibroblastic cells and for their degree of monomer conversion over different time periods. Three control groups were also analysed: Positive control (C+, consisting of Tween 80 cell detergent; Negative control (C-, consisting of PBS; and cell control (CC, consisting of cells exposed to any material. The dye-uptake technique that involves the absorption of a neutral red dye in viable cells was used for the cytotoxicity evaluation and the degree of conversion was evaluated using spectroscopy with infrared. The results showed the cytotoxicity of the adhesives at 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours. At these times, the viability values presented for these materials were statistically different from the groups CC and C- (p 0.05. In the monomer conversions there was a percentage increase of monomer conversion from 24 to 72 hours. A direct correlation could be observed between cytotoxicity and monomer conversions. From this work it can be concluded that all adhesives evaluated are cytotoxic at the times of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Monomers continued conversion even after photopolymerization had stopped.

  7. Climate regime shifts in paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula: from the Preclassic to Classic period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Martínez, Josue M.; Medina-Elizalde, Martin; Burns, Stephen J.; Jiang, Xiuyang; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted by the paleoclimate and archaeology communities that extreme climate events (especially droughts) and past climate change played an important role in the cultural changes that occurred in at least some parts of the Maya Lowlands, from the Pre-Classic (2000 BC to 250 AD) to Post-Classic periods (1000 to 1521 AD) [1, 2]. In particular, a large number of studies suggest that the decline of the Maya civilization in the Terminal Classic Period was greatly influenced by prolonged severe drought events that probably triggered significant societal disruptions [1, 3, 4, 5]. Going further on these issues, the aim of this work is to detect climate regime shifts in several paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula (México) that have been used as rainfall proxies [3, 5, 6, 7]. In order to extract information from the paleoclimate data studied, we have used a change point method [8] as implemented in the R package strucchange, as well as the RAMFIT method [9]. The preliminary results show for all the records analysed a prominent regime shift between 400 to 200 BCE (from a noticeable increase to a remarkable fall in precipitation), which is strongest in the recently obtained stalagmite (Itzamna) delta18-O precipitation record [7]. References [1] Gunn, J. D., Matheny, R. T., Folan, W. J., 2002. Climate-change studies in the Maya area. Ancient Mesoamerica, 13(01), 79-84. [2] Yaeger, J., Hodell, D. A., 2008. The collapse of Maya civilization: assessing the interaction of culture, climate, and environment. El Niño, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, 197-251. [3] Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature, 375(6530), 391-394. [4] Aimers, J., Hodell, D., 2011. Societal collapse: Drought and the Maya. Nature 479(7371), 44-45 (2011). [5] Medina-Elizalde, M., Rohling, E. J., 2012. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction

  8. Prediction of in-service time period of three differently stabilized single base propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Manfred A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Three nitrocellulose-based propellants for use in micro gas generators equipped with different stabilizing systems have been investigated to assess the stabilization capability with regard to in-service time, whereby strong time-temperature profiles have been applied. The three stabilizing systems have been (i) 0.74 mass-% diphenylamine (DPA) and 0.48 mass-% Akardite II (Ak II); (ii) 1.25 mass-% Ak II; (iii) 2.04 mass-% Ak II. Several profiles were considered. Two simulate the heating at sun exposure in hot areas, others consider environmental temperatures in hot-humid and hot-dry areas. They were evaluated according to the load and finally one was chosen for the assessment. The contents of stabilizers were determined by high performance liquid chromatography after Soxhlet type extraction. To describe stabilizer consumption, the most suitable kinetic model was taken. Therewith a prediction was made using the chosen time-temperature profile named 'Phoenix', designed for temperatures at the steering wheel. The objective was to reach with this profile 15 years until the consumption of primary stabilizer content. This is conservative, because with the stabilizing action of the consecutive products of the stabilizers longer times are possible. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  10. Oxytocin prolongs the gastric emptying time in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but does not affect satiety or volume intake in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Julia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin is released in response to a fatty meal. Blockage of the oxytocin receptor led to slower gastric emptying whereas stimulation resulted in less satiety in healthy volunteers. Patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis lack oxytocin elevation, and dyspepsia is partly caused by reduced fundus accommodation causing early satiety and related symptoms. The aim of this study was thus to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric emptying, satiety and volume intake in patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Results Gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed twice in 12 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. The patients scored their sensation of satiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS. The gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis was prolonged during oxytocin infusion (p = 0.034 without affecting satiety. A slow satiety drinking test was performed in 14 patients with functional dyspepsia. The patients scored their satiety every five minutes until maximal satiety was reached, and the total volume was determined. The VAS was also completed 30 minutes afterwards. The test was performed twice, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. There was no difference in satiety scores or volume of nutrient intake between saline and oxytocin infusions, either before, during or after the meal. Conclusions Oxytocin prolongs gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but has no effect on volume of nutrient intake or satiety and other related symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  11. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Development of potential map for landslides by comparing instability indices of various time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tian, Yu-Qing; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, extreme rainfall events occur frequently and induced serious landslides and debris flow disasters in Taiwan. The instability indices will differ when using landslide maps of different time periods. We analyzed the landslide records during the period year, 2008 2012, the landslide area contributed 0.42% 2.94% of the total watershed area, the 2.94% was caused by the typhoon Morakot in August, 2009, which brought massive rainfall in which the cumulative maximum rainfall was up to 2900 mm. We analyzed the instability factors including elevation, slope, aspect, soil, and geology. And comparing the instability indices by using individual landslide map of 2008 2012, the landslide maps of the union of the five years, and interaction of the five years. The landslide area from union of the five years contributed 3.71%,the landslide area from interaction of the five years contributed 0.14%. In this study, Kriging was used to establish the susceptibility map in selected watershed. From interaction of the five years, we found the instability index above 4.3 can correspond to those landslide records. The potential landslide area of the selected watershed, where collapses occur more likely, belongs to high level and medium-high level; the area is 13.43% and 3.04% respectively.

  13. A Space-Time Periodic Task Model for Recommendation of Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the quantity and variety of remote sensing images are growing so quickly that proactive and personalized access to data has become an inevitable trend. One of the active approaches is remote sensing image recommendation, which can offer related image products to users according to their preference. Although multiple studies on remote sensing retrieval and recommendation have been performed, most of these studies model the user profiles only from the perspective of spatial area or image features. In this paper, we propose a spatiotemporal recommendation method for remote sensing data based on the probabilistic latent topic model, which is named the Space-Time Periodic Task model (STPT. User retrieval behaviors of remote sensing images are represented as mixtures of latent tasks, which act as links between users and images. Each task is associated with the joint probability distribution of space, time and image characteristics. Meanwhile, the von Mises distribution is introduced to fit the distribution of tasks over time. Then, we adopt Gibbs sampling to learn the random variables and parameters and present the inference algorithm for our model. Experiments show that the proposed STPT model can improve the capability and efficiency of remote sensing image data services.

  14. Dynamical generalized Hurst exponent as a tool to monitor unstable periods in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Raffaello; Di Matteo, T.; Gramatica, Ruggero; Aste, Tomaso

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the use of the Hurst exponent, dynamically computed over a weighted moving time-window, to evaluate the level of stability/instability of financial firms. Financial firms bailed-out as a consequence of the 2007-2008 credit crisis show a neat increase with time of the generalized Hurst exponent in the period preceding the unfolding of the crisis. Conversely, firms belonging to other market sectors, which suffered the least throughout the crisis, show opposite behaviors. We find that the multifractality of the bailed-out firms increase at the crisis suggesting that the multi fractal properties of the time series are changing. These findings suggest the possibility of using the scaling behavior as a tool to track the level of stability of a firm. In this paper, we introduce a method to compute the generalized Hurst exponent which assigns larger weights to more recent events with respect to older ones. In this way large fluctuations in the remote past are less likely to influence the recent past. We also investigate the scaling associated with the tails of the log-returns distributions and compare this scaling with the scaling associated with the Hurst exponent, observing that the processes underlying the price dynamics of these firms are truly multi-scaling.

  15. Generation of a quantum integrable class of discrete-time or relativistic periodic Toda chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Anjan

    1994-01-01

    A new integrable class of quantum models representing a family of different discrete-time or relativistic generalisations of the periodic Toda chain (TC), including that of a recently proposed classical model close to TC [Lett. Math. Phys. 29 (1993) 165] is presented. All such models are shown to be obtainable from a single ancestor model at different realisations of the underlying quantised algebra. As a consequence the 2x2 Lax operators and the associated quantum R-matrices for these models are easily derived ensuring their quantum integrability. It is shown that the functional Bethe ansatz developed for the quantum TC is trivially generalised to achieve separation of variables also for the present models. ((orig.))

  16. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanya, S.O.; Oluwadare, E.O.; Falade, J.A.; Makinde, O.D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field

  17. Multiple periodic solutions for a discrete time model of plankton allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jianbao; Fang Hui

    2006-01-01

    We study a discrete time model of the growth of two species of plankton with competitive and allelopathic effects on each other N1(k+1) = N1(k)exp{r1(k)-a11(k)N1(k)-a12(k)N2(k)-b1(k)N1(k)N2(k)}, N2(k+1) = N2(k)exp{r2(k)-a21(k)N2(k)-b2(k)N1(k)N1(k)N2(k)}. A set of sufficient conditions is obtained for the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions for this model. The approach is based on Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory as well as some a priori estimates. Some...

  18. Removing tidal-period variations from time-series data using low-pass digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Roy A.; Heston, Cynthia

    1982-01-01

    Several low-pass, digital filters are examined for their ability to remove tidal Period Variations from a time-series of water surface elevation for San Francisco Bay. The most efficient filter is the one which is applied to the Fourier coefficients of the transformed data, and the filtered data recovered through an inverse transform. The ability of the filters to remove the tidal components increased in the following order: 1) cosine-Lanczos filter, 2) cosine-Lanczos squared filter; 3) Godin filter; and 4) a transform fitter. The Godin fitter is not sufficiently sharp to prevent severe attenuation of 2–3 day variations in surface elevation resulting from weather events.

  19. Crossing rule for a PT-symmetric two-level time-periodic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2011-01-01

    For a two-level system in a time-periodic field we show that in the non-Hermitian PT case the level crossing is of two quasistationary states that have the same dynamical symmetry property. At the field's parameters where the two levels which have the same dynamical symmetry cross, the corresponding quasienergy states coalesce and a self-orthogonal state is obtained. This situation is very different from the Hermitian case where a crossing of two quasienergy levels happens only when the corresponding two quasistationary states have different dynamical symmetry properties and, unlike the situation in the non-Hermitian case, the spectrum remains complete also when the two levels cross.

  20. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz S. Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum essential oil. Harvestings were performed 40 and 93 days after seedling transplantation. Harvesting performed at 8:00 h and 12:00 h provided higher essential oil yield. After five days drying, the concentration of linalool raised from 45.18% to 86.80%. O. basilicum should be harvested during morning and the biomass dried at 40ºC for five days to obtain linalool rich essential oil.

  1. Low socioeconomic status is associated with prolonged times to assessment and treatment, sepsis and infectious death in pediatric fever in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gavidia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection remains the most common cause of death from toxicity in children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Rapid administration of antibiotics when fever develops can prevent progression to sepsis and shock, and serves as an important indicator of the quality of care in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. We analyzed factors associated with (1 Longer times from fever onset to hospital presentation/antibiotic treatment and (2 Sepsis and infection-related mortality. METHOD: This prospective cohort study included children aged 0-16 years with newly diagnosed acute leukemia treated at Benjamin Bloom Hospital, San Salvador. We interviewed parents/caregivers within one month of diagnosis and at the onset of each new febrile episode. Times from initial fever to first antibiotic administration and occurrence of sepsis and infection-related mortality were documented. FINDINGS: Of 251 children enrolled, 215 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (85.7%. Among 269 outpatient febrile episodes, median times from fever to deciding to seek medical care was 10.0 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-20.0, and from decision to seek care to first hospital visit was 1.8 hours (IQR 1.0-3.0. Forty-seven (17.5% patients developed sepsis and 7 (2.6% died of infection. Maternal illiteracy was associated with longer time from fever to decision to seek care (P = 0.029 and sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-8.63; P = 0.034. More infectious deaths occurred in those with longer travel time to hospital (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81; P = 0.031 and in families with an annual household income times are associated with delays in assessment and treatment of fever and with sepsis and infectious mortality in pediatric leukemia. Providing additional education to high-risk families

  2. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  3. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    -Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate...... conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic......In this paper we present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for time periodic hydrodynamic flow (driven by a time-dependent pressure gradient and electric field) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-and nanochannels. Particularly, we solve the linearized Poisson...

  4. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Periodic fluctuations in correlation-based connectivity density time series: Application to wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the periodic fluctuations of connectivity density time series of a wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland. By using the correlogram-based robust periodogram annual periodic oscillations were found in the correlation-based network. The intensity of such annual periodic oscillations is larger for lower correlation thresholds and smaller for higher. The annual periodicity in the connectivity density seems reasonably consistent with the seasonal meteo-climatic cycle.

  6. Radiation exposure of ventilated trauma patients in intensive care: a retrospective study comparing two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Micaela V; Barron, Rochelle A; Knobloch, Tom A; Pandey, Umesh; Twyford, Catherine; Freebairn, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To describe the cumulative effective dose of radiation that was received during the initial Emergency Department assessment and ICU stay of patients admitted with trauma, who required mechanical ventilation, during two time periods. A retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical data, set in a regional nonurban ICU. Two cohorts (starting 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2009), each comprising 45 adult patients admitted with trauma who were mechanically ventilated in intensive care, were studied. Frequency and type of radiological examinations, demographic information, and clinical data were collated from the radiological database, hospital admission record and Australian Outcomes Research Tool for Intensive Care database. Cumulative effective doses were calculated and expressed as a total dose and average daily dose for each cohort. The median cumulative effective dose per patient (in milliSieverts) increased from 34.59 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.08-43.91] in 2004 to 40.51 (IQR 22.01-48.87) in 2009, P=0.045. An increased number of computed tomography examinations per patient was also observed over the same interval from an average of 2.11 (median 2, IQR 1-3) in 2004 to an average of 2.62 (2, 2-4) in 2009, P=0.046. The radiation exposure of mechanically ventilated trauma patients in intensive care has increased over time. Radiation exposure should be prospectively monitored and staff should be aware of the increased risk resulting from this change in practice.

  7. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  8. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  9. Relationships between rumination time, metabolic conditions, and health status in dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, N; Trevisi, E; Calamari, L

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to monitor the rumination pattern during the transition period in primiparous (PR) and pluriparous (PL) dairy cows and to investigate its relationships with metabolic conditions, milk yield, and health status. The study was carried out in an experimental free-stall barn and involved 32 Italian Friesian cows (9 PR and 23 PL) during the transition phase. The rumination time (RT) was recorded with an automatic system (HR-Tag), and data were calculated and summarized in 2-h intervals. Blood samples were collected during the transition phase to assess biochemical variables related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammatory conditions and some enzyme activity. Daily milk yield, BW, nutritional condition, and health status were also recorded. The average RT before calving (-20 to -6 d) was 463 min/d in PR (range 270 to 620) and 522 min/d in PL (range 411 to 640). In the early lactation [15 to 40 d in milk (DIM)], the average RT was 504 min/d in PR (range 400 to 585) and 562 min/d in PL (range 414 to 685) and was positively correlated with milk yield (r = 0.36; P Cows with reduced RT before calving maintained reduced RT after calving and suffered a greater frequency of disease than cows with greater RT in late pregnancy. Moreover, cows characterized by mild inflammatory conditions and without health disorders or only mild health disorders during the puerperium showed a greater average rumination time (over 520 min/d) during the first 10 d of lactation. Conversely, the decreased RT (450 min/d) during the first few days of lactation was observed in cows with subclinical diseases or health disorders. Cows affected by clinical mastitis during the trial showed a reduction of RT and a change in its variability already some days before the drug treatment. Our results suggest that the automatic measurement of RT is useful to predict calving time and to quickly obtain information on health status of the

  10. 40 CFR 80.305 - How are credits generated during the time period 2000 through 2003?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... averaging period. Va = Total volume of gasoline produced during the averaging period at the refinery (or for a foreign refinery, the total volume of gasoline produced during the averaging period at the... level, calculated in accordance with the provisions of § 80.205, for gasoline produced during the...

  11. Categorization of ber varieties in relation to blooming period, fruit setting and harvesting time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, N.; Abbas, M.M.; Ishfaq, M.; Memon, N.U.N.

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four local Ber varieties were evaluated at Horticultural Research Institute AARI, Faisalabad, Horticultural Research Station Bahawalpur (Punjab) and Jujube Research Station, Tandojam (Sindh). Traits viz. total period of blooming (dates), peak period of blooming (dates), total period of fruit set (dates), peak period of fruit set (dates), total period of fruit harvest (dates), peak period of fruit harvest (dates), total flowering days, peak flowering days, total fruit setting days, peak fruit setting days, total harvesting days and peak harvesting days were studied. The results revealed significant differences in parameters studied except total period of blooming under Tandojam, Sindh conditions. Varieties were classified as early, mid and late season for both provinces. Local varieties had potential for further manipulation in terms of variety improvement to attract growers for extensive ber cultivations under changing global climatic scenario. (author)

  12. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  13. [The effect of breast massage at different time in the early period after cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y J; Yang, M J; Li, X W; Sun, L L

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of breast massage at different time in the early period on maternal lactation after cesarean section. Methods: 80 women delivered by cesarean section were randomly selected from maternity ward of a hospital in Shandong province during Jan. 2013 to Jan. 2015; which were divided into four groups, with 20 patients in each. Three groups received 3 times of breast massage every 24 hoursbeginning from 2, 12 and 24 h after cesarean section, respectively. The control group didn't receive any breast massage. The starting time and status of lactation were observed and recorded after cesarean section. 5 ml venous blood sample was drawn from each patient respectively at 2 h before cesarean, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean to test the level of serum prolactin. The lactation status of each group was compared. Results: The P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) of starting time of lactation of the three massage groups and control group were 3 (2-6) h, 4 (2-8) h, 4 (3-12) h and 4 (2-12) h, respectively, whose differences showed no statistical significance ( H =3.32, P= 0.345).The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 24 hours after cesarean was 10 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was only 2 in the control group. The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 48 hours after cesarean was 18 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was 8 in the control group. The differences showed statistical significances ( P values were 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). The serum prolactin level in the group of delivered women who received massage from 2 h after cesarean was separately (195.9±78.5), (176.0±96.5), (216.4±110.0), (190.0±56.8) and (184.8±69.6) μg/L at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (which were (128.8±40.6), (127.3±66.8), (162.2±58.8), (145.1±64.7) and (141.7±49

  14. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Twenge

    Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

  15. A simple derivation for amplitude and time period of charged particles in an electrostatic bathtub potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap Reddy, K

    2016-01-01

    An ‘electrostatic bathtub potential’ is defined and analytical expressions for the time period and amplitude of charged particles in this potential are obtained and compared with simulations. These kinds of potentials are encountered in linear electrostatic ion traps, where the potential along the axis appears like a bathtub. Ion traps are used in basic physics research and mass spectrometry to store ions; these stored ions make oscillatory motion within the confined volume of the trap. Usually these traps are designed and studied using ion optical software, but in this work the bathtub potential is reproduced by making two simple modifications to the harmonic oscillator potential. The addition of a linear ‘ k 1 | x |’ potential makes the simple harmonic potential curve steeper with a sharper turn at the origin, while the introduction of a finite-length zero potential region at the centre reproduces the flat region of the bathtub curve. This whole exercise of modelling a practical experimental situation in terms of a well-known simple physics problem may generate interest among readers. (paper)

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of a zakat institution over a period of time using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anath Rau; Hamzah, Ahmad Aizuddin

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial for a zakat institution to evaluate and understand how efficiently they have operated in the past, thus ideal strategies could be developed for future improvement. However, evaluating the efficiency of a zakat institution is actually a challenging process as it involves the presence of multiple inputs or/and outputs. This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure comprising two data envelopment analysis models, namely dual Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes and slack-based model to quantitatively measure the overall efficiency of a zakat institution over a period of time. The applicability of the proposed procedure was demonstrated by evaluating the efficiency of Pusat Zakat Sabah, Malaysia from the year of 2007 up to 2015 by treating each year as a decision making unit. Two inputs (i.e. number of staff and number of branches) and two outputs (i.e. total collection and total distribution) were used to measure the overall efficiency achieved each year. The causes of inefficiency and strategy for future improvement were discussed based on the results.

  17. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  18. Typical Periods for Two-Stage Synthesis by Time-Series Aggregation with Bounded Error in Objective Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2018-01-08

    Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of

  19. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  20. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature...

  1. Parasitism of The Rice Brown Planthopper Eggs in Various Periods of Time of The Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Haryati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae is an important pest of rice. Since at the early stage, this pest is infested by parasitoids, but most cultural practices do not consider the existences of parasitoids in rice ecosystem. This study was aimed to determine the level of parasitism on N. lugens with regard to the time of the day. This information would be useful to minimize the effect of insecticide application to the parasitoids. Trapping  of  egg parasitoids in rice ecosystem was conducted every two hours from 05.00 a.m. until 04.00 p.m. Parasitism occured as early as at 05.00 a.m. (12.26% of the total parasitoid found, reached the peak abundance at 11.00 a.m. (36.13%, and decreased at 01.00 p.m. The parasitism level varied from 1.12 to 8.51% at 66 days after planting. The highest number of parasitoids and the highest parasitism level occured when trapping was conducted between 11.00 a.m.−01.00 p.m.. Before and after this period of time, the number of parasitoid emerged and parasitism were low. This suggest that if insecticide is necessary, it should be applied in the early morning or late afternoon.   INTISARI Wereng batang padi cokelat, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, merupakan salah satu hama penting padi. Praktik budidaya pertanian padi belum memperhatikan aktivitas parasitoid dalam ekosistem. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui tingkat parasitasi telur N. lugens pada beberapa waktu dalam sehari. Informasi ini akan bermanfaat untuk mengurangi dampak aplikasi insektisida terhadap parasitoid. Pemerangkapan parasitoid telur N. lugens di lahan padi dilakukan setiap dua jam yang dimulai pada pukul 05.00 sampai pukul 16.00. Parasitoid telur N. lugens mulai aktif pada pukul 05.00 (12,26%, mencapai puncaknya pukul 11.00 (36,13%, dan mulai mengalami penurunan pada pukul 13.00. Tingkat parasitasi pada tanaman padi umur 66 hari setelah tanam berkisar mulai 1,12−8,51%. Hasil

  2. Global Exponential Stability of Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Fishing Model with a Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a nonautonomous fishing model with a time-varying delay. Under proper conditions, we employ a novel argument to establish a criterion on the global exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions of the model with almost periodic coefficients and delays. Moreover, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the main results.

  3. On scattering diagnostics with periodically pulsed lasers to follow the continuous evolution of time dependent plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellermann, M. von; Hirsch, K.; Doeble, H.F.

    1977-04-01

    The possibilities to use periodically pulsed lasers for plasma scattering diagnostics are discussed. An experiment with succesful application of a periodically pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is described and results are given. Application of the method to monitor continuously, with millisecond time resolution, parameters of Tokamak type plasmas, is considered. (orig.) [de

  4. Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...

  5. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  6. Magnetic cycles and rotation periods of late-type stars from photometric time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; Rebolo, R.; González Hernández, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. Methods: We analysed light curves, spanning up to nine years, of 125 nearby stars provided by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The sample is mainly composed of low-activity, main-sequence late-A to mid-M-type stars. We performed a search for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled the light curves with combinations of sinusoids to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results, we complement our new results with results from previous similar works. Results: We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars, out of which 39 have been derived with false alarm probabilities (FAP) of less than 0.1 per cent. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods were measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of activity cycles and rotational periods, 17 of which are M-type stars. We measured both photometric amplitudes and periods from sinusoidal fits. The measured cycle periods range from 2 to 14 yr with photometric amplitudes in the range of 5-20 mmag. We found that the distribution of cycle lengths for the different spectral types is similar, as the mean cycle is 9.5 yr for F-type stars, 6.7 yr for G-type stars, 8.5 yr for K-type stars, 6.0 yr for early M-type stars, and 7.1 yr for mid-M-type stars. On the other hand, the distribution of rotation periods is completely different, trending to longer periods for later type stars, from a mean rotation of 8.6 days for F-type stars to 85.4 days in mid-M-type stars. The amplitudes induced by magnetic cycles and rotation show a clear correlation. A trend of photometric amplitudes with rotation period is also outlined in the data. The amplitudes of the photometric variability

  7. Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria of Uncertain Periodic Switched Recurrent Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yin

    2011-01-01

    uncertain periodic switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. When uncertain discrete-time recurrent neural network is a periodic system, it is expressed as switched neural network for the finite switching state. Based on the switched quadratic Lyapunov functional approach (SQLF and free-weighting matrix approach (FWM, some linear matrix inequality criteria are found to guarantee the delay-dependent asymptotical stability of these systems. Two examples illustrate the exactness of the proposed criteria.

  8. Landing periodicity of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Trinidad in relation to the timing of insecticidal space-spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    1988-04-01

    Diel landing periodicity (biting cycle) of domestic Aedes aegypti (L.) in Trinidad, West Indies, was monitored using human bait during January-August 1980. The periodicity of females was predominantly diurnal (95.2% arriving during daylight or twilight) and bimodal, with consistent peaks at 06.00-07.00 and 17.00-18.00 hours. The diel periodicities at indoor and outdoor sites were virtually identical. Larger numbers of adults were collected outside than inside houses. It is recommended that the time of insecticidal ULV adulticiding should coincide with peaks in landing periodicity of the Ae.aegypti adults.

  9. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Charles E.; Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the changes that occurred regarding interventional radiologic research in the major American radiology journals between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. Methods. Articles published in three major American radiology journals (Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, and Radiology) during two distinct 24-month time periods (1992-1993 and 2002-2003) were evaluated. All articles judged to be pertinent to the interventional radiologic community were included. Investigations included in journal subheadings other than 'interventional' or 'vascular radiology' were included if the emphasis of the article was on a vascular imaging modality or peripheral intervention. Exclusions included: case reports, technical reports, letters to the editor, breast interventions, and primary neurointerventions. Data were collected regarding the affiliations of the primary author (nationality, hospital type, department); primary category of interest of the investigation; funding information; and study design variables. Two-by-two chi-squared statistical analyses were performed comparing the variables from the early and late data sets. Results. A total of 405 articles met the inclusion criteria for the early data set (1992-1993); 488 articles met the inclusion criteria for the late data set (2002-2003). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from the early data set to the late data set included: articles in which the primary author was from a department of radiology (91.1% vs. 86.3%; p < 0.025); articles written by a primary author who was American (69.4% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001); and articles with a primary category of investigation that had a nonvascular intervention focus (22.7% vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant increase from the early data set to the late data set included primary authors from Western Europe (18.0% vs. 30.1%; p < 0.001) and Asia (6.6% vs. 18.4%; p

  10. Factors associated to the length of time on mechanical ventilation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fonseca

    Full Text Available Our objective was to identify factors associated with the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV postoperative to cardiac surgery and assess the association between duration of endotracheal intubation, length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital. Longitudinal, retrospective study of medical records of 116 adults undergoing cardiac surgery from March 2012 to May 2013. The mean age was 57±14 years, predominantly male and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (52.6%. The MV time was 15.25(7.66 to 23.68 hours. Associated with longer MV was the age (r=0.5,p<0.001, comorbidities (r=0.344,p<0.001, cardiopulmonary bypass time (r=0.244,p=0.008, duration of continuous sedation (r=0.607,p<0.001, sedative doses (r=0.4, p<0.001, time of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators (r=0.711, p< 0.001, r=0.368, p<0.001, drainage of the 1st time (r=0.201, p<0.031, presence of drains (r=0.445, p<0.001, postoperative complications (r=0.524, p< 0.001 and hospital stay. Our data confirms that both preoperative, transoperative and postoperative variables prolong the VM and therefore the hospital stay.

  11. The calculation of collective energies from periodic time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, I.; Baranger, M.

    1983-06-01

    A periodic TDHF solution is used as the reference state for a diagrammatic expansion of the propagator. A discrete Fourier transform leads to a function of energy, whose poles are the corresponding energy levels. Limiting the expansion to first-order diagrams leads to a new derivation of the Bohr-Sommerfeld-like quantization rule for collective states

  12. Note: Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    We show that well-known textbook formulae for determining the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time can easily be extended to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. The provided performance measures and conditions...

  13. Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P

    2007-01-01

    Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes

  14. Confidence in Phase Definition for Periodicity in Genes Expression Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Anbari, Mohammed; Fadda, Abeer; Ptitsyn, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian oscillation in baseline gene expression plays an important role in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. Most of the knowledge of circadian gene expression is based on studies measuring gene expression over time. Our ability to dissect molecular events in time is determined by the sampling frequency of such experiments. However, the real peaks of gene activity can be at any time on or between the time points at which samples are collected. Thus, some genes with a peak activity near the observation point have their phase of oscillation detected with better precision then those which peak between observation time points. Separating genes for which we can confidently identify peak activity from ambiguous genes can improve the analysis of time series gene expression. In this study we propose a new statistical method to quantify the phase confidence of circadian genes. The numerical performance of the proposed method has been tested using three real gene expression data sets.

  15. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Lu, Huimei; Shiraki, Katsutomo; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min -1 . Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min -1 , the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  16. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, M; Lu, H; Shiraki, K; Ishimura, Y; Uesaka, T; Katoh, O; Watanabe, H

    2001-12-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2Gy min(-1). Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min(-1), the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects.

  17. On the automation of periodic hard real-time processes: a graph-theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boode, Antoon Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    Summary In certain single-core mono-processor configurations, e.g. embedded control systems like robotic applications comprising many short processes, process context switches may consume a considerable amount of the available processing power. Reducing the number of context switches decreases the execution time and thereby increases the performance of the application. Furthermore, the end-to-end processing time suffers from the idle time of the processor, because, for example, processes have...

  18. An analysis of periodic solutions of bi-directional associative memory networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Jiang Qiuhao

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, several sufficient conditions are derived for the existence and uniqueness of periodic oscillatory solution for bi-directional associative memory (BAM) networks with time-varying delays by employing a new Lyapunov functional and an elementary inequality, and all other solutions of the BAM networks converge exponentially to the unique periodic solution. These criteria are presented in terms of system parameters and have important leading significance in the design and applications of periodic neural circuits for delayed BAM. As an illustration, two numerical examples are worked out using the results obtained

  19. Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for a General Class of Discontinuous Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  20. Framing Health Messages for Adolescents: Should We Use Objective Time Periods, Temporal Benchmarks, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Goudie, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Time perspective is a cognitive-motivational construct, which has been shown to be related to decision-making, motivation and adjustment. The majority of research into time perspective has been conducted in college students and/or general population samples. Focus groups were held as part of a larger investigation into the relationship between…

  1. Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur

    2010-01-01

    to ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time...... of applying the methodology to wind turbine gearboxes are addressed and elucidated....

  2. Prolonged naproxen joint residence time after intra-articular injection of lipophilic solutions comprising a naproxen glycolamide ester prodrug in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Lu, Yi; Agårdh, Li

    2013-01-01

    time. Two oils, medium-chain triglycerides and castor oil, differing with respect to viscosity were tested. After intra-articular administration of oil prodrug solutions, a significant increase in the time to maximum naproxen serum concentration from around 40 to 245min, an increase in the MRTj from......Intra-articular injection of oil solutions of lipophilic prodrugs that rapidly degrade to their parent compound in synovial fluid may constitute a feasible approach to increase the joint residence time of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this in vivo study, oil solutions of the N......,N-diethyl glycolamide ester prodrug of naproxen (16mg/ml) were injected into the rat knee joint by dosing 6μl formulation per 100g body weight. The sustained release properties were compared to those of intra-articularly injected aqueous and oil solutions of naproxen by monitoring the naproxen serum concentrations over...

  3. Decay heat measurement of 235U in the time period from 10 to 1000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumung, K.

    1978-01-01

    During the report period, the experimental facility was installed at the FR2 reactor. A delay was caused by the fact, that the supplying with water for the cooling loop of the pneumatic transfer system as well as discharge of exhaust gas into the halogeneventilation system of the reactor could not be performed as planned before. Therefore a cooling system was provided and tested and the efficiency of special halogene filters belonging to the experimental facility was verified. Now the apparatus is assembled and first cold tests have been performed. (orig.) [de

  4. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by using the existence of the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales and the theory of calculus on time scales, we study the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for a class of n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales. We also present an example to illustrate the feasibility of our results. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previously known results even in both the case of differential equations (time scale [Formula: see text]) and the case of difference equations (time scale [Formula: see text]).

  5. A delay time model for a mission-based system subject to periodic and random inspection and postponed replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inspection and replacement policy for a single component system that successively executes missions with random durations. The failure process of the system can be divided into two states, namely, normal and defective, following the delay time concept. Inspections are carried out periodically and immediately after the completion of each mission (random inspections). The failed state is always identified immediately, whereas the defective state can only be revealed by an inspection. If the system fails or is defective at a periodic inspection, then replacement is immediate. If, however, the system is defective at a random inspection, then replacement will be postponed if the time to the subsequent periodic inspection is shorter than a pre-determined threshold, and immediate otherwise. We derive the long run expected cost per unit time and then investigate the optimal periodic inspection interval and postponement threshold. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A delay time model of inspection is introduced for mission-based systems. • Periodic and random inspections are performed to check the state. • Replacement of the defective system at a random inspection can be postponed.

  6. Growth and nutritional status of preschool children in India: a study of two recent time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Pronab; Bharati, Susmita; Som, Suparna; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2011-06-01

    Preschool children call for focused attention in India because India has the highest percentage of undernourished children in the world. To compare the growth and nutritional status of Indian preschool children for the periods 1998/99 and 2005/06, Using data on weight and length/height as well as the sociodemographic background of preschool children from the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) from 1998/99 and 2005/06, we determined the distribution of weight and length/height and their association with sociodemographic variables. The distributions of weight and length/height around the mean remained remarkably stable over age but were much greater in India than the international norms. The rates of growth of mean weight and length/ height were far lower in India than the international norms up to the age of 2 years. The temporal trend indicates declines in the percentages of undernourished (low weight-for-age) and stunted (low height-for-age) children over the 7-year period, although the degree of improvement was far better for stunting than for underweight. Mother's educational status is the only variable that has been found to influence child nutrition. The level of mothers' education needs urgent attention with top priority to reduce the prevalence of underweight and stunting of children. This also implies that, for future benefit, girls should be given more facilities for better education. Breastfeeding and weaning practices also need special attention.

  7. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A dynamical systems analysis of the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Julio M.

    1991-01-01

    Computer flow simulation aided by dynamical systems analysis is used to investigate the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a two-dimensional circular cylinder in the context of the following general questions: (1) Is a dynamical systems viewpoint useful in the understanding of this and similar problems involving time-periodic shedding behind bluff bodies; and (2) Is it indeed possible, by adopting such a point of view, to complement previous analyses or to understand kinematical aspects of the vortex shedding process that somehow remained hidden in previous approaches. We argue that the answers to these questions are positive. Results are described.

  9. Design, simulation and characterization of a MEMS inertia switch with flexible CNTs/Cu composite array layer between electrodes for prolonging contact time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhuoqing; Xu, Qiu; Chen, Wenguo; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an inertia switch with a flexible carbon nanotubes/copper (CNTs/Cu) composite array layer between movable and fixed electrodes, which achieves a longer contact time compared to the traditional design using rigid-to-rigid impact between electrodes. The CNTs/Cu layer is fabricated using the composite electroplating method, and the whole device is completed by multi-layer metal electroplating based on the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process. The dynamic responses of the designed inertia switch and the contact impact between a single CNT and a fixed electrode/another CNT have both been simulated by the ANSYS finite-element-method (FEM). It is shown that the contact time of the designed inertia switch is about 100 µs under the applied 80 g half-sine-shaped acceleration in the sensing direction. Finally, the fabricated MEMS inertia switch with the flexible CNTs/Cu composite array layer between electrodes has been evaluated by a dropping hammer system. The test contact time is about112 µs, which has a good agreement with the simulation and is much longer than that of the traditional design. (paper)

  10. Measuring small time periods in earth sciences by uranium series disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades mass spectrometry in India has seen its application in almost every field of science. In particular, TIMS has revolutionized geological sciences by taking it from a mainly descriptive to modern quantitative Earth Sciences. It has largely contributed in measurement of precise time scales of geological processes. During the last decade, focus has primarily been on measurement of time scales of these fundamental processes. Some of the radiometric methods initially developed for measuring shorter time-scales have their own problems. The intermediate nuclides in the uranium and thorium decay series having much shorter half lives compared to their parents, provide a useful tool to measure intermediate time scales. These isotopes had earlier been ignored due to analytical difficulties associated with their measurement. The development of new generation mass spectrometers with very high abundance sensitivity has now made it possible to measure these isotopic ratios. Consequently U-series isotopic measurements have put unique and at times the only quantitative constraints on the processes taking place in the interior of the Earth. Since such mass spectrometers have recently been installed in some of the laboratories in India, scientific investigation may now be taken up in some of the unexplored areas of Earth Sciences in our country

  11. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  12. Reply to 'Comment on 'Almost-periodic time observables for bound quantum systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Michael J W

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper (Hall 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 41 255301), I made several critical remarks on a 'Hermitian time operator' proposed by Galapon (2002 Proc. R. Soc. A 458 2671). Galapon has correctly pointed out that remarks pertaining to 'denseness' of the commutator domain are wrong (Galapon 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 018001). However, the other remarks still apply, and it is further noted that a given quantum system can be a member of this domain only at a set of times of total measure zero. (reply)

  13. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Prolonged Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Patients: Is it Time to Expand It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Mohammed; Kumar, Susheel Tk; Sandhu, Hitesh

    2017-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was instituted as an aid to in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) nearly 23 years ago, this led to remarkable improvement in survival considering the mortality rate associated with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Given this success, one begins to wonder whether the time has come for expanding the use of E-CPR to outside hospital cardiac arrests especially in the light of development of newer extracorporeal life support devices that are small, mobile, and easy to assemble. This editorial will review recent studies on this subject and address some key guidelines and limitations of this evolving and promising technology.

  14. 3T MRI of the knee with optimised isotropic 3D sequences. Accurate delineation of intra-articular pathology without prolonged acquisition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulaal, Osamah M.; Rainford, Louise; Galligan, Marie; McGee, Allison [University College Dublin, Radiography and Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine, Belfield, Dublin (Ireland); MacMahon, Peter; Kavanagh, Eoin [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); University College Dublin, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland); Cashman, James [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Dublin (Ireland); University College Dublin, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate optimised isotropic 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE)-based pulse sequences for visualisation of articular cartilage lesions within the knee joint. Optimisation of experimental imaging sequences was completed using healthy volunteers (n=16) with a 3-Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Imaging of patients with knee cartilage abnormalities (n=57) was then performed. Acquired sequences included 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) TSE (SPACE) with and without fat-suppression (FS), and T2*W GRE (TrueFISP) sequences, with acquisition times of 6:51, 6:32 and 5:35 min, respectively. One hundred sixty-one confirmed cartilage lesions were detected and categorised (Grade II n=90, Grade III n=71). The highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting cartilage lesions were obtained with TrueFISP with values of 84.7% and 92%, respectively. Cartilage SNR mean for PDW SPACE-FS was the highest at 72.2. TrueFISP attained the highest CNR means for joint fluid/cartilage (101.5) and joint fluid/ligament (156.5), and the lowest CNR for cartilage/meniscus (48.5). Significant differences were identified across the three sequences for all anatomical structures with respect to SNR and CNR findings (p-value <0.05). Isotropic TrueFISP at 3T, optimised for acquisition time, accurately detects cartilage defects, although it demonstrated the lowest contrast between cartilage and meniscus. (orig.)

  15. Multi-Period Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Uncertain Time Horizon When Returns Are Serially Correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multi-period mean-variance portfolio selection problem with an uncertain time horizon and serial correlations. Firstly, we embed the nonseparable multi-period optimization problem into a separable quadratic optimization problem with uncertain exit time by employing the embedding technique of Li and Ng (2000. Then we convert the later into an optimization problem with deterministic exit time. Finally, using the dynamic programming approach, we explicitly derive the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier for the dynamic mean-variance optimization problem. A numerical example with AR(1 return process is also presented, which shows that both the uncertainty of exit time and the serial correlations of returns have significant impacts on the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier.

  16. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  17. Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From the Prepregnancy to the Postpartum Period: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina; Domingues, Marlos; Santos, Iná; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and its correlates from prepregnancy to the postpartum period in mothers enrolled in a Brazilian birth cohort study. Our hypothesis was that LTPA would decline considerably during pregnancy. Maternal LTPA in the 3 months before pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy was assessed soon after delivery. A follow-up visit was conducted 3 months later. Weekly frequency and duration of each session of LTPA in a typical week were assessed for each period and a cut-off point of 150 minutes per week was used to classify women as active or not. The proportion of women active in leisure time declined from 11.3% in the prepregnancy to 2.3% in pregnancy and 0.1% in the postpartum period (P for trend benefits of LTPA prepregnancy, during, and postpregnancy.

  18. A study of mandibular fractures over a 5-year period of time: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare with the existing literature on the etiology, pattern, gender, and anatomical distribution of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: The data of 225 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years between March 2009 and November 2013. Of this 110 were unilateral, 23 bilateral, 18 symphysis and 74 multiple fractures. Results: Males are more affected than females.The peak incidence rate is occurring in 30-35 years of age group. The most common fracture site is parasymphysis and least common site is ramus of mandible. The most common etiological factor is road traffic accident (RTA (45.3% followed by falls (42.6%, assaults (8.9%, sport injuries (2.2%, and gunshot wounds (0.89%. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that RTA is the leading cause of mandibular fractures and males are more affected. The most common site is parasymphysis fracture in association with angle fracture. We observed that gender was significantly associated with body and angle fracture (P = 0.04 and significant relationship between etiology with multiple site fracture such as (parasymphysis-angle, (body-condyle, (body-angle, and (symphysis-condyle was observed (P ≤ 0.05.

  19. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Impact of Harvesting Time and Length of Cold Storage Period On Physiological and Quality Traits of Four Quince Genotypes (Cydonia Oblonga Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatari Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to determine the best harvesting time and the storage period of some quince cultivars and promising genotypes from the collection of quince germplasm in the Horticultural Research Station of Isfahan, Iran. For this study, fruits of ‘Vidoja’ and ‘Isfahan’ cultivars as well as promising genotypes PH2 and NB4 were harvested on 6, 14 and 21 October 2015 and 2016 and then stored at 0 ± 1 °C with 90 ± 5% R.H. for five months. Weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acids (TA, taste index, pectin, total phenols, and percent of decay and surface browning of fruits were measured immediately after harvest and one-month intervals after storage in a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications and 10 fruits per each replication. The results showed that ‘Isfahan’ cultivar had the highest TSS (18.83%, total phenols and weight loss. The least weight loss was observed in the ‘Vidoja’ cultivar. NB4 genotype showed the least taste index and pectin, while the most pectin and firmness was related to PH2 genotype. Generally, the delay in harvesting and prolongation of storage led to increasing of TSS and weight loss and declining of firmness and phenols, TA, and pectins. Until the third month of storage, there was no surface browning. Browning symptoms were observed from the fourth month of storage and increased in the fifth month up to 1.72%. Generally, the best harvesting time for ‘Vidoja’ was 185 days and for the rest of the genotypes, it was 193 days after full bloom. Fruit storage for four months in cold is advisable for these cultivars and genotypes.

  1. Spectral Analysis on Time-Course Expression Data: Detecting Periodic Genes Using a Real-Valued Iterative Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo S. Agyepong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-course expression profiles and methods for spectrum analysis have been applied for detecting transcriptional periodicities, which are valuable patterns to unravel genes associated with cell cycle and circadian rhythm regulation. However, most of the proposed methods suffer from restrictions and large false positives to a certain extent. Additionally, in some experiments, arbitrarily irregular sampling times as well as the presence of high noise and small sample sizes make accurate detection a challenging task. A novel scheme for detecting periodicities in time-course expression data is proposed, in which a real-valued iterative adaptive approach (RIAA, originally proposed for signal processing, is applied for periodogram estimation. The inferred spectrum is then analyzed using Fisher’s hypothesis test. With a proper -value threshold, periodic genes can be detected. A periodic signal, two nonperiodic signals, and four sampling strategies were considered in the simulations, including both bursts and drops. In addition, two yeast real datasets were applied for validation. The simulations and real data analysis reveal that RIAA can perform competitively with the existing algorithms. The advantage of RIAA is manifested when the expression data are highly irregularly sampled, and when the number of cycles covered by the sampling time points is very reduced.

  2. The Winter Procedure as Management for Prolonged Low-Flow Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Lin Hsiao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a prolonged penile erection that is not associated with sexual stimulation. Although the time course has not been formally defined, it is usually considered to be one that lasts for more than 4–6 hours. Low-flow (ischemic priapism is usually associated with sickle cell disease, hemoglobinopathies, neoplastic syndrome, anticoagulant therapy, psychotropic medication or idiopathic causes. Here, we report a case of prolonged low-flow priapism lasting for 2 weeks, which was successfully treated with the Winter procedure after several attempts of conservative treatment. Although the potency remains unclear and the patient needs a longer period of follow-up, the case reported here still shows that prolonged low-flow priapism can be successfully treated with the Winter procedure when conservative treatments fail.

  3. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming ('gamer's thrombosis'): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Cheng Leon; Burbridge, Hayley; Wong, Conroy

    2013-10-08

    The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers.

  4. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming (‘gamer’s thrombosis’): a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. Case presentation A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Conclusions Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers. PMID:24192285

  5. Care of pediatric tracheostomy in the immediate postoperative period and timing of first tube change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Dylan; Hoffman, Matthew R; Dang, Phat; McMurray, J Scott; Heatley, Diane; Kille, Tony

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the safety of a standardized pediatric tracheostomy care protocol in the immediate postoperative period and its impact on tracheostomy related complications. Retrospective case series. Pediatric patients undergoing tracheotomy from February 2010-February 2014. In 2012, a standardized protocol was established regarding postoperative pediatric tracheostomy care. This protocol included securing newly placed tracheostomy tubes using a foam strap with hook and loop fastener rather than twill ties, placing a fresh drain sponge around the tracheostomy tube daily, and performing the first tracheostomy tube change on postoperative day 3 or 4. Outcome measures included rate of skin breakdown and presence of a mature stoma allowing for a safe first tracheostomy tube change. Two types of tracheotomy were performed based on patient age: standard pediatric tracheotomy and adult-style tracheotomy with a Bjork flap. Patients were analyzed separately based on age and the type of tracheotomy performed. Thirty-seven patients in the pre-protocol group and 35 in the post-protocol group were analyzed. The rate of skin breakdown was significantly lower in the post-protocol group (standard: p=0.0048; Bjork flap: p=0.0003). In the post-protocol group, all tube changes were safely accomplished on postoperative day three or four, and the stomas were deemed to be adequately matured to do so in all cases. A standardized postoperative pediatric tracheostomy care protocol resulted in decreased rates of skin breakdown and demonstrated that pediatric tracheostomy tubes can be safely changed as early as 3 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  7. One-dimensional, time dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer over a 48-hour period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, D.; Gassmann, F.; Rudin, F.

    1978-05-01

    Results of a one-dimensional, time dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer are given. First, a description of the mathematical model used is given and its approximations are discussed. Then a description of the initial and boundary conditions used for the simulation is given. Results are discussed with respect to their agreement with observed data and their precision. It can be demonstrated that a simulation of the planetary boundary layer is possible with satisfactory precision. The incompleteness of observed data gives, however, problems with their use and thus introduces uncertainties into the simulation. As a consequence, the report tries to point to the inherent limitations of such a simulation. (Auth.)

  8. Periodization of the european union’s immigration policy: from the beginning to modern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Fogel

    2017-04-01

    The main conclusion of the article is that, on the one hand, immigration has become a relevant issue in all the EU countries. On the other hand, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, different forms of migration, with different governmental policies of migration and integration, and with different types of migrants have evolved. Such different starting positions should be taken into account when studying the consequences of the immigration and the presence of migrants in society.

  9. Frequency decoding of periodically timed action potentials through distinct activity patterns in a random neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J

    2012-01-01

    Frequency discrimination is a fundamental task of the auditory system. The mammalian inner ear, or cochlea, provides a place code in which different frequencies are detected at different spatial locations. However, a temporal code based on spike timing is also available: action potentials evoked in an auditory-nerve fiber by a low-frequency tone occur at a preferred phase of the stimulus—they exhibit phase locking—and thus provide temporal information about the tone's frequency. Humans employ this temporal information for discrimination of low frequencies. How might such temporal information be read out in the brain? Here we employ statistical and numerical methods to demonstrate that recurrent random neural networks in which connections between neurons introduce characteristic time delays, and in which neurons require temporally coinciding inputs for spike initiation, can perform sharp frequency discrimination when stimulated with phase-locked inputs. Although the frequency resolution achieved by such networks is limited by the noise in phase locking, the resolution for realistic values reaches the tiny frequency difference of 0.2% that has been measured in humans. (paper)

  10. Time-scale calibration by U-Pb geochronology: Examples from the Triassic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundil, R.

    2009-05-01

    U-Pb zircon geochronology, pioneered by Tom Krogh, is a cornerstone for the calibration of the time scale. Before Krogh's innovations, U-Pb geochronology was essentially limited by laboratory blank Pb (typically hundreds of nanograms) inherent in the then existing zircon dissolution and purification methods. The introduction of high pressure HF dissolution combined with miniature ion exchange columns (1) reduced the blank by orders of magnitude and allowed mass-spectrometric analyses of minute amounts of material (picograms of Pb and U). Krogh also recognized the need for minimizing the effects of Pb loss, and the introduction of the air-abrasion technique was the method of choice for two decades (2), until the development of the combined annealing and chemical abrasion technique resulted in essentially closed system zircons (3). These are the prerequisite for obtaining precise (permil-level) and accurate radio-isotopic ages of individual zircons contained in primary volcanic ash deposits, which are primary targets for the calibration of the time scale if they occur within fossil bearing sediments. A prime example is the calibration of the Triassic time scale which improved significantly using these techniques. The ages for the base and the top of the Triassic are constrained by U-Pb ages to 252.3 (4) and 201.5 Ma (5), respectively. These dates also constrain the ages of major extinction events at the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, and are statistically indistinguishable from ages obtained for the Siberian Traps and volcanic products from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively, suggesting a causal link. Ages for these continental volcanics, however, are mostly from the K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar) system which requires accounting and correcting for a systematic bias of ca 1 % between U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages (the 40Ar/39Ar ages being younger) (6). Robust U-Pb age constraints also exist for the Induan- Olenekian boundary (251.2 Ma, (7

  11. Tracking of Physical Activity with Accelerometers Over a Two-year Time Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Tanha, Tina; Wollmer, Per

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exists of tracking and changes in accelerometer measured physical activity in children. METHODS: Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for four days in 167 children (boys n=90, girls n=77), aged 9.8±0.6 years. Follow-up measurement was made 2.0±0.1 yrs later...... (range 1.9-2.1 yrs). General physical activity (GPA) was defined as mean count/minute. Minutes of inactivity, light- moderate- and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA), moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) per day were calculated both as absolute values...... and as percentage of total registration time. RESULTS: Spearman rank order correlation indicated low tracking of MVPA and VPA in girls (r=0.25-0.33, P...

  12. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  13. Novel criteria for global exponential periodicity and stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiankun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the global exponential periodicity and stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays are investigated by applying the idea of vector Lyapunov function, M-matrix theory and inequality technique. We assume neither the global Lipschitz conditions on these activation functions nor the differentiability on these time-varying delays, which were needed in other papers. Several novel criteria are found to ascertain the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution for recurrent neural network with time-varying delays. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. Some previous results are improved and generalized, and an example is given to show the effectiveness of our method

  14. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  15. Time dependent unavailability analysis of nuclear safety systems considering periodically tested components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1988-01-01

    It is of utmost importance to have a computer code in order to analyze how different parameters (like test duration time) affect the unavailability of safety systems of nuclear. In this context, a study was performed in order to evaluate the model employed by the FRANTIC computer code, which performs detailed calculations on the contribution to the system unavailability originated by hardware failures, component tests and repairs, aiming at considering the influence of different test schemes on the system unavailability. It was shown, by means of the results attained that the numerical model used by the FRANTIC code and the analytical model proposed by APOSTOLAKIS and CHU (4) give unavailability values much similar when the component tests are supposed to be perfect. When a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a failure on the component being tested), the analytical model presents more conservative results. (author)

  16. Time resolved FTIR study of the catalytic CO oxidation under periodic variation of the reactant concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzenberger, J; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Oxidation of CO over palladium/zirconia catalyst obtained from an amorphous Pd{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} precursor was investigated by time resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Sine wave shaped modulation of the reactant concentration, i.e. variation of CO or O{sub 2} partial pressure, was used to induce variations of the IR signals of product (CO{sub 2}) and unconverted reactant (CO), which were detected in a multi-pass absorption cell. The phase shift {phi} between external perturbation and variation of the CO{sub 2} signal was examined in dependence on temperature (100{sup o}C{<=}T{<=}350{sup o}C) and modulation frequency (1.39x10{sup -4}Hz{<=}{omega}{<=}6.67x10{sup -2}Hz). From the phase shift values, a simple Eley-Rideal mechanism is excluded, and the rate limiting step of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for the CO oxidation may be identified. Adsorption and possible surface movement of CO to the actual reaction site determine the rate of the CO oxidation on the palladium/zirconia catalyst used in our study. The introduction of an external perturbation is a first step towards the application of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to heterogeneous catalyzed reactions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Prolonged sitting in cars: prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Merom, Dafna; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Corpuz, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Owen, Neville

    2012-10-01

    Prolonged sitting is detrimentally associated with health outcomes. However, the prevalence and characteristics of those who sit in cars for long periods are not well understood. This study examined the population prevalence, socio-demographic variations, and trends for prolonged sitting in cars among adults. Using the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Area Household Travel Survey, the prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars (≥2 h/day) was calculated for four 3-year periods (1997-99, 2000-02, 2003-05, and 2006-08) for each population subgroup. Trends were calculated as the mean change in prevalence between adjacent survey periods. Cars were used for 66% of the total trips recorded (n=336,505). The prevalence of prolonged sitting time in cars was 16-18% in men, and 10-12% in women. Relatively higher prevalence rates were found among middle-age groups (men: 20-22%, women: 12-15%), full-time workers (men: 21-24%, women: 14-15%), those with higher income (men: 21-25%, women: 14-16%), couples with children (men: 20-21%, women: 12-14%), and those living in outer suburbs (men: 20-23%, women: 12-13%). Trends were stable in men, but increasing in women. Several subgroups (older age; living in regional suburbs) also showed increasing trends. These findings provide evidence to inform integrated approaches to measurement and policy development on prolonged car use among the public health, urban planning, and transport sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring What Determines the Use of Forecasts of Varying Time Periods in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, M.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Grossmann, I.; Small, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Weather and climate forecasts are promoted as ways to improve water management, especially in the face of changing environmental conditions. However, studies indicate many stakeholders who may benefit from such information do not use it. This study sought to better understand which personal factors (e.g., trust in forecast sources, perceptions of accuracy) were important determinants of the use of 4-day, 3-month, and 12-month rainfall forecasts by stakeholders in water management-related sectors in the seasonally dry province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. From August to October 2015, we surveyed 87 stakeholders from a mix of government agencies, local water committees, large farms, tourist businesses, environmental NGO's, and the public. The result of an exploratory factor analysis suggests that trust in "informal" forecast sources (traditional methods, family advice) and in "formal" sources (government, university and private company science) are independent of each other. The result of logistic regression analyses suggest that 1) greater understanding of forecasts is associated with a greater probability of 4-day and 3-month forecast use, but not 12-month forecast use, 2) a greater probability of 3-month forecast use is associated with a lower level of trust in "informal" sources, and 3), feeling less secure about water resources, and regularly using many sources of information (and specifically formal meetings and reports) are each associated with a greater probability of using 12-month forecasts. While limited by the sample size, and affected by the factoring method and regression model assumptions, these results do appear to suggest that while forecasts of all times scales are used to some extent, local decision makers' decisions to use 4-day and 3-month forecasts appear to be more intrinsically motivated (based on their level of understanding and trust) and the use of 12-month forecasts seems to be more motivated by a sense of requirement or mandate.

  19. A Simple Time Domain Collocation Method to Precisely Search for the Periodic Orbits of Satellite Relative Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Yue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for obtaining periodic orbits of satellite relative motion is proposed, based on using the time domain collocation (TDC method to search for the periodic solutions of an exact J2 nonlinear relative model. The initial conditions for periodic relative orbits of the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W equations or Tschauner-Hempel (T-H equations can be refined with this approach to generate nearly bounded orbits. With these orbits, a method based on the least-squares principle is then proposed to generate projected closed orbit (PCO, which is a reference for the relative motion control. Numerical simulations reveal that the presented TDC searching scheme is effective and simple, and the projected closed orbit is very fuel saving.

  20. High-order fuzzy time-series based on multi-period adaptation model for forecasting stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Liang; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Teoh, Hia-Jong

    2008-02-01

    Stock investors usually make their short-term investment decisions according to recent stock information such as the late market news, technical analysis reports, and price fluctuations. To reflect these short-term factors which impact stock price, this paper proposes a comprehensive fuzzy time-series, which factors linear relationships between recent periods of stock prices and fuzzy logical relationships (nonlinear relationships) mined from time-series into forecasting processes. In empirical analysis, the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) and HSI (Heng Seng Index) are employed as experimental datasets, and four recent fuzzy time-series models, Chen’s (1996), Yu’s (2005), Cheng’s (2006) and Chen’s (2007), are used as comparison models. Besides, to compare with conventional statistic method, the method of least squares is utilized to estimate the auto-regressive models of the testing periods within the databases. From analysis results, the performance comparisons indicate that the multi-period adaptation model, proposed in this paper, can effectively improve the forecasting performance of conventional fuzzy time-series models which only factor fuzzy logical relationships in forecasting processes. From the empirical study, the traditional statistic method and the proposed model both reveal that stock price patterns in the Taiwan stock and Hong Kong stock markets are short-term.

  1. Near-optimality of special periodic protocols for fluid models of single server switched networks with switchover times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A. S.; Ishchenko, R.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a generic deterministic time-invariant fluid model of a single server switched network, which consists of finitely many infinite size buffers (queues) and receives constant rate inflows of jobs from the outside. Any flow undergoes a multi-phase service, entering a specific buffer after every phase, and ultimately leaves the network; the route of the flow over the buffers is pre-specified, and flows may merge inside the network. They share a common source of service, which can serve at most one buffer at a time and has to switch among buffers from time to time; any switch consumes a nonzero switchover period. With respect to the long-run maximal scaled wip (work in progress) performance metric, near-optimality of periodic scheduling and service protocols is established: the deepest optimum (that is over all feasible processes in the network, irrespective of the initial state) is furnished by such a protocol up to as small error as desired. Moreover, this can be achieved with a special periodic protocol introduced in the paper. It is also shown that the exhaustive policy is optimal for any buffer whose service at the maximal rate does not cause growth of the scaled wip.

  2. Rapid supersensitive laser-semiconductor monitoring system. Time period covered: Dec. 15, 1993 - Dec. 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of the rapid and sensitive system for the determination of the Alpha-radioactivity in the Environmental samples has been determined as the main goal of the Research Contract No. 7200RO/RB. As a result of the first stage of the research accomplished in the year 1993, the prototype of the system based on the combination of the laser photoionization mass spectrometry and many-channel alpha-spectrometer has been built and tested. To improve the sensitivity it was proposed to add one more stage to the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. To develop the high position sensitivity of the system it was proposed to include into the alpha-radiometer SI strip-detector with submicron position sensitivity. Hardware and software for the laser-semiconductor monitoring system of alpha-radionuclides in the environment have been further developed and tested in frames of the IAEA Research Contract No. 7200/R1/RB. Optimization of the sample evaporation with one more stage of photoionization has been successfully performed in the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. The automatization of the measurement procedure is under way by means of the IBM PC-386 and specially designed electronic units. The evaluated sensitivity of the new set-up is in the range of 1.0 Bq/kg. A bulk measurement of the alpha-radioactivity concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl region (100 km) have been performed by means of thick samples method and built under this contract alpha-radiometer with large area SI semiconductor detectors. The lowest detectable level was in the range 100 Bq/kg without any radiochemical separation. Comparison with the data obtained for the same probes by means of the thin sample (with radiochemical separation) has shown higher Pu-concentration values obtained by means of the thick samples. For the first time the Sl-strip-detector with 128 channels has been applied for the alpha-radiometry purposes. Different read-out electronics (including the most

  3. Social contact patterns of school-age children in Taiwan: comparison of the term time and holiday periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-C; You, Z-S

    2015-04-01

    School closure is one of the most common interventions in the early weeks of an influenza pandemic. Few studies have investigated social contact patterns and compared individual student contact characteristics during the school term and holiday periods in Taiwan. Here, we conducted a well-used questionnaire survey in a junior high school (grades 7-8) in June 2013. All 150 diary-based effective questionnaires covering conversation and skin-to-skin contact behaviour were surveyed. Two questionnaires for each participant were designed to investigate the individual-level difference of contact numbers per day during the two periods. The questionnaire response rate was 44%. The average number of contacts during term time (20·0 contacts per day) and holiday periods (12·6 contacts per day) were significantly different (P holiday periods, the number of contacts decreased by 40%. This study is the first research to investigate the contact numbers and contact characteristics for school-age children during the school term and a holiday period in Taiwan. With regard to public health, this study could provide the basic contact information and database for modelling influenza epidemics for minimizing the spread of influenza that depends on personal contacts for transmission.

  4. Effects of age, time period, and birth cohort on the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Song, Yun-mi; Park, Hye soon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung-il

    2008-02-01

    We examined changes in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in 412,881 Korean men in birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972 over 8 years from 1992 to 2000 and separately analyzed the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. The study included male employees of Korean government organizations and schools who were between 20 and 59 years of age in 1992. Diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of self-reports in 1992 or fasting blood glucose levels (>or=126 mg/ml, 7.0 mmol/l). The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. In Korean male birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972, the age-specific prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in men aged 28-59 years increased annually by 0.41% (3.03 to 6.29%), 0.18% (0.70 to 2.16%), and 1.49% (23.48 to 35.41%), respectively, from 1992 to 2000. The relative change in diabetes was largest among the younger cohorts (>400% increase over 8 years) and corresponded to the change in obesity. Apart from the contribution of age, clear cohort and period effects were evident for diabetes, although the magnitude of the effect was slightly less than that for obesity. Prevention of diabetes through the control of obesity, particularly in young men, clearly needs to be emphasized.

  5. Output-only modal analysis of linear time-periodic systems with application to wind turbine simulation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Matthew S.; Sracic, Michael W.; Chauhan, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    to interrogate simulated measurements from a rotating wind turbine. The measurements were simulated for a 5 MW turbine modeled in the HAWC2 simulation code, which includes both structural dynamic and aerodynamic effects. This simulated system identification provides insights into the test and measurement......Many important systems, such as wind turbines, helicopters and turbomachinery, must be modeled with linear time-periodic equations of motion to correctly predict resonance phenomena. Time periodic effects in wind turbines might arise due to blade-to-blade manufacturing variations, stratification...... in the velocity of the wind with height and changes in the aerodynamics of the blades as they pass the tower. These effects may cause parametric resonance or other unexpected phenomena, so it is important to properly characterize them so that these machines can be designed to achieve high reliability, safety...

  6. The strain effect on the Dirac electrons tunneling through the time-periodic scalar and vector barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Weixian, E-mail: wxyansxu@gmail.com

    2017-01-01

    The tunneling of the massless and massive Dirac particle through the strained barriers driven by the time-periodic scalar potentials and the static vector potentials is investigated, where the interrelationships among the strain, the incidence angle, the dynamic scalar potential, the magnetic field and the transmission of the Dirac particle have been discussed. In either massless or massive case, the intersection angle between the obliquely incident Dirac particle and strain determines the extent of deviation of the tunneling profiles from the strainless case. The time-periodic scalar potentials can enhance the capability of the Dirac particle to surmount the energy gap induced by the mass, reflecting quantum nature of the photon-assisted tunneling. When the magnetic field is switched on, the transmission overall presents a remarkably different profile, and decreases with the increase of the magnetic fields due to the conservation of the transverse momentum, which reduces the number of the side-band channels for tunneling.

  7. A new criterion to global exponential periodicity for discrete-time BAM neural network with infinite delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tiejun; Liu Yuehua; Li Xiaoping; Liu Yirong

    2009-01-01

    The discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural network with periodic coefficients and infinite delays is studied. And not by employing the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory as other literatures, but by constructing suitable Liapunov function, using fixed point theorem and some analysis techniques, a sufficient criterion is obtained which ensures the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution for the type of discrete-time BAM neural network. The obtained result is less restrictive to the BAM neural networks than previously known criteria. Furthermore, it can be applied to the BAM neural network which signal transfer functions are neither bounded nor differentiable. In addition, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained result

  8. Stability of small-amplitude periodic solutions near Hopf bifurcations in time-delayed fully-connected PLL networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzo Correa, Diego P.; Bueno, Átila M.; Castilho Piqueira, José R.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we investigate stability conditions for small-amplitude periodic solutions emerging near symmetry-preserving Hopf bifurcations in a time-delayed fully-connected N-node PLL network. The study of this type of systems which includes the time delay between connections has attracted much attention among researchers mainly because the delayed coupling between nodes emerges almost naturally in mathematical modeling in many areas of science such as neurobiology, population dynamics, physiology and engineering. In a previous work it has been shown that symmetry breaking and symmetry preserving Hopf bifurcations can emerge in the parameter space. We analyze the stability along branches of periodic solutions near fully-synchronized Hopf bifurcations in the fixed-point space, based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional space onto a two-dimensional center manifold in normal form. Numerical results are also presented in order to confirm our analytical results.

  9. Time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality in China, 1991?2009: an age-period-cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengmeng; Wan, Xia; Wang, Yanhong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors. This study aimed to compare the long-term trends in mortality rates of esophageal and gastric cancers in China to provide evidence for cancer prevention and control. Mortality data were derived from 103 continuous points of the Disease Surveillance Points system during 1991?2009, stratified by gender and urban-rural locations. Age-period-cohort models were used to disentangle the time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality. Th...

  10. Time trends in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection in a multiracial Asian population--a 20-year experience over three time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A H-R; Lim, Y-Y; Liew, W-C; Goh, K-L

    2016-04-01

    Marked epidemiological changes in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection have taken place in the Asian Pacific region. In particular, differences with respect to race in the multiracial Asian population in Malaysia have been important and interesting. A time trend study of upper gastrointestinal disease and H. pylori infection in three time periods: 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 spanning a period of 20 years was carried out. Consecutive first time gastroscopies carried out on patients attending the University of Malaya Medical Center were studied. Diagnoses and H. pylori infection status were carefully recorded. A steady decline in prevalence of duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) from 21.1% to 9.5% to 5.0% and from 11.9% to 9.4% to 9.9% while an increase in erosive oesophagitis (EO) from 2.0% to 8.4% to 9.5% (chi-square for trend; P Chinese and Indians but the difference over time was most marked in Malays. There was a steady decline in the proportion of patients with gastric and oesophageal cancers. Peptic ulcers have declined significantly over a 20-year period together with a decline in H. pylori infection. In contrast, a steady increase in erosive oesophagitis was observed. Gastric and oesophageal squamous cell cancers have declined to low levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Heart Rate Variability Frequency Domain Alterations among Healthy Nurses Exposed to Prolonged Work Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Borchini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF and Low Frequency (LF powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: “prolonged high stress” (PHS, “recent high stress” (RHS and “stable low stress” (SLS. A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD and a subsequent resting day (RD. Statistically significantly lower (p < 0.02 HF and LF means were found in PHS and RHS nurses during the working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p < 0.05, but not in PHS nurses. LF means did not show any substantial increases in the resting periods, in the PHS group with geometric means lower when compared to SLS, in the non-working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.

  12. Prehospital endotracheal intubation and chest tubing does not prolong the overall resuscitation time of severely injured patients: a retrospective, multicentre study of the Trauma Registry of the German Society of Trauma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, Martin; Helm, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Walcher, Felix

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether prehospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) and chest tube placement is unnecessarily time consuming in severely injured patients. A retrospective, multicentre study including all adult patients (ISS ≥9; 2002-7) of the Trauma Registry of the German Society of Trauma Surgery who were not secondarily transferred to a trauma centre and received a definitive airway and a chest tube. Creating four groups: AA (n=963) receiving ETI and chest tube on scene, AB (n=1547) ETI performed in the prehospital setting but chest tubing later in the emergency department (ED) and BB (n=640) receiving both procedures in the ED. The BA collective (ETI performed in the ED, but chest tubing on scene) was excluded from the study because of the small sample size (n=41). The trauma resuscitation time (TRT), demographic data, injuries, treatment and outcome of the remaining three collectives were compared. The prehospital TRT of the AA collective was longer than the AB and BB subgroups (80±37 min vs 77±44 min 65±46 min; pchest tube placement do not prolong the total TRT of severely injured patients.

  13. Analysis of Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Time Lag in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Xiao, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Yan, Lin-Li; Qu, Jin-Lu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-Cui; Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lizijian@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-10

    We investigated the power density spectrum (PDS) and time lag of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed by XMM-Newton . We determined the PDSs for each ULX and found that five of them show intrinsic variability due to obvious quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of mHz–1 Hz, consistent with previous reports. We further investigated these five ULXs to determine their possible time lag. The ULX QPOs exhibit a soft time lag that is linearly related to the QPO frequency. We discuss the likelihood of the ULX QPOs being type-C QPO analogs, and the time lag models. The ULXs might harbor intermediate-mass black holes if their QPOs are type-C QPO analogs. We suggest that the soft lag and the linearity may be due to reverberation.

  14. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  15. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  17. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits; Kernenergie als 'goldene Bruecke'? Verfassungsrechtliche Probleme der Aushandlung von Laufzeitverlaengerungen gegen Gewinnabschoepfungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    2010-07-15

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  18. Fusion Approaches for Land Cover Map Production Using High Resolution Image Time Series without Reference Data of the Corresponding Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensor time series images allow one to produce land cover maps at a large scale. The supervised classification algorithms have been shown to be the best to produce maps automatically with good accuracy. The main drawback of these methods is the need for reference data, the collection of which can introduce important production delays. Therefore, the maps are often available too late for some applications. Domain adaptation methods seem to be efficient for using past data for land cover map production. According to this idea, the main goal of this study is to propose several simple past data fusion schemes to override the current land cover map production delays. A single classifier approach and three voting rules are considered to produce maps without reference data of the corresponding period. These four approaches reach an overall accuracy of around 80% with a 17-class nomenclature using Formosat-2 image time series. A study of the impact of the number of past periods used is also done. It shows that the overall accuracy increases with the number of periods used. The proposed methods require at least two or three previous years to be used.

  19. What time periods of the day are concerning for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.

  20. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of five time periods on the Indonesian stock exchange index historical data since 1997 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveli, N.; Suroto, B. J.

    2018-05-01

    We are investigating the behavioural changes of the Indonesian financial systems in the last 20 years. Changes in the financial system behaviour were indicated by differences in the statistical properties of the daily log return distribution in two adjacent time windows. To measure how likely two distributions are differ, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Test was applied. We have found that we can divide our time series data into five segments, where the KS probability values between two adjacent segments are maximum. This finding can be used to study the effect on the financial system imposed by, for example, the socio-economy and political policy by the government, by studying the changes in such factors in the identified time periods.

  2. Modelling regional variation of first-time births in Denmark 1980-1994 by an age-period-cohort model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Keiding, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Despite the small size of Denmark, there have traditionally been rather consistent regional differences in fertility rates. We apply the statistical age-period-cohort model to include the effect of these three time-related factors thereby concisely illuminating the regional differences of first......-time births in Denmark. From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtain data on number of births by nulliparous women by year (1980-1994), age (15-45) and county of residence. We show that the APC-model describes the fertility rates of nulliparous women satisfactorily. To catch the regional...... variation an interaction parameter between age and county is necessary, which provides a surprisingly good description suggesting that the county-specific age-distributions of first-time fertility rates differ. Our results are in general agreement with the 'moral geography' concepts of Tonboe (2001)....

  3. Modelling regional variation of first-time births in Denmark 1980-1994 by an age-period-cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth B. Knudsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the small size of Denmark, there have traditionally been rather consistent regional differences in fertility rates. We apply the statistical age-period-cohort model to include the effect of these three time-related factors thereby concisely illuminating the regional differences of first-time births in Denmark. From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtain data on number of births by nulliparous women by year (1980-1994, age (15-45 and county of residence. We show that the APC-model describes the fertility rates of nulliparous women satisfactorily. To catch the regional variation an interaction parameter between age and county is necessary, which provides a surprisingly good description suggesting that the county-specific age-distributions of first-time fertility rates differ. Our results are in general agreement with the 'moral geography' concepts of Tonboe (2001.

  4. The variability in Oxford hip and knee scores in the preoperative period: is there an ideal time to score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, C; Holmes, D; Khan, T; Cockshott, S; Lewis, J; Stephen, A

    2018-01-01

    Background All NHS-funded providers are required to collect and report patient-reported outcome measures for hip and knee arthroplasty. Although there are established guidelines for timing such measures following arthroplasty, there are no specific time-points for collection in the preoperative period. The primary aim of this study was to identify whether there was a significant amount of variability in the Oxford hip and knee scores prior to surgical intervention when completed in the outpatient clinic at the time of listing for arthroplasty or when completed at the preoperative assessment clinic. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients listed for primary hip or knee arthroplasty was conducted. Patients were asked to fill in a preoperative Oxford score in the outpatient clinic at the time of listing. They were then invited to fill in the official outcome measures questionnaire at the preoperative assessment clinic. The postoperative Oxford score was then completed when the patient was seen again at their postoperative follow up in clinic. Results Of the total of 109 patients included in this study period, there were 18 (17%) who had a worse score of 4 or more points difference and 43 (39.4%) who had an improvement of 4 or more points difference when the scores were compared between time of listing at the outpatient and at the preoperative assessment clinic. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0054) in the mean Oxford scores. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that there should be standardisation of timing for completing the preoperative patient-reported outcome measures.

  5. Modelling the time-variant dietary exposure of PCBs in China over the period 1930 to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    This study aimed for the first time to reconstruct historical exposure profiles for PCBs to the Chinese population, by examining the combined effect of changing temporal emissions and dietary transition. A long-term (1930-2100) dynamic simulation of human exposure using realistic emission scenarios, including primary emissions, unintentional emissions and emissions from e-waste, combined with dietary transition trends was conducted by a multimedia fate model (BETR-Global) linked to a bioaccumulation model (ACC-HUMAN). The model predicted an approximate 30-year delay of peak body burden for PCB-153 in a 30-year-old Chinese female, compared to their European counterpart. This was mainly attributed to a combination of change in diet and divergent emission patterns in China. A fish-based diet was predicted to result in up to 8 times higher body burden than a vegetable-based diet (2010-2100). During the production period, a worst-case scenario assuming only consumption of imported food from a region with more extensive production and usage of PCBs would result in up to 4 times higher body burden compared to consumption of only locally produced food. However, such differences gradually diminished after cessation of production. Therefore, emission reductions in China alone may not be sufficient to protect human health for PCB-like chemicals, particularly during the period of mass production. The results from this study illustrate that human exposure is also likely to be dictated by inflows of PCBs via the environment, waste and food.

  6. One period coupon bond valuation with revised first passage time approach and the application in Indonesian corporate bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruddani, Di Asih I.; Rosadi, Dedi; Gunardic, Abdurakhman

    2015-02-01

    The value of a corporate bond is conventionally expressed in terms of zero coupon bond. In practice, the most common form of debt instrument is coupon bond and allows early default before maturity as safety covenant for the bondholder. This paper study valuation for one period coupon bond, a coupon bond that only give one time coupon at the bond period. It assumes that the model give bondholder the right to reorganize a firm if its value falls below a given barrier. Revised first passage time approach is applied for default time rule. As a result, formulas of equity, liability, and probability of default is derived for this specified model. Straightforward integration under risk neutral pricing is used for deriving those formulas. For the application, bond of Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) as one of the largest bank in Indonesia is analyzed. R computing show that value of the equity is IDR 453.724.549.000.000, the liability is IDR 2.657.394.000.000, and the probability if default is 5.645305E-47 %.

  7. Period variations in pulsating X-ray sources. I. Accretion flow parameters and neutron star structure from timing observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1978-01-01

    We show that valuable information about both accretion flows and neutron star structure can be obtained from X-ray timing observations of period variations in pulsating sources. Such variations can result from variations in the accretion flow, or from internal torque variations, associated with oscillations of the fluid core or the unpinning of vortices in the inner crust. We develop a statistical description of torque variations in terms of noise processes, indicate how the applicability of such a description may be tested observationally, and show how it may be used to determine from observation both the properties of accretion flows and the internal structure of neutron stars, including the relative inertial moments of the crust and superfluid neutron core, the crust-core coupling time, and the frequencies of any low-frequency internal collective modes. Particular attention is paid to the physical origin of spin-down episodes; it is shown that usyc episodes may result either from external torque reversals or from internal torque variations.With the aid of the statistical description, the response of the star to torque fluctuations is calculated for three stellar models: (i) a completely rigid star; (ii) a two-component star; and (iii) a two-component star with a finite-frequency internal mode, such as the Tkachenko mode of a rotating neutron superfluid. Our calculations show that fluctuating torques could account for the period the period variations and spin-down episodes observed in Her X-1 and Cen X-3, including the large spin-down event observed in the latter source during 1972 September-October. The torque noise strengths inferred from current timing observations using the simple two-component models are shown to be consistent with those to be expected from fluctuations in accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars

  8. Decomposing the effects of time on the social acceptability of biotechnology using age-period-cohort-country models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselière, Damien; Rousselière, Samira

    2017-08-01

    The study of European attitudes toward biotechnologies underlines a situation that is relatively contrasting in Europe. However, as different effects of time can influence the social attitudes (a life-cycle effect, a generational effect, and an exogenous temporal effect potentially affecting the entire population), an appropriate methodology should be used. To this end, age-period-cohort-country models have thus been estimated based on Eurobarometer data from 1991 onward. Applied to different data subsets, these models give similar results underlining the importance of the life-cycle effects as well as the heterogeneity of the link between political affiliation and biotechnologies attitudes across the European countries.

  9. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  10. Heart Rate Variability Frequency Domain Alterations among Healthy Nurses Exposed to Prolonged Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchini, Rossana; Veronesi, Giovanni; Bonzini, Matteo; Gianfagna, Francesco; Dashi, Oriana; Ferrario, Marco Mario

    2018-01-11

    The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: "prolonged high stress" (PHS), "recent high stress" (RHS) and "stable low stress" (SLS). A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD) and a subsequent resting day (RD). Statistically significantly lower ( p working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.

  11. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Barret, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Using data averaged over the entire RXTE archive, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy, as well as energy-dependent covariance spectra for the various LMXB systems where spectral-timing analysis is possible. We find similar trends in all average spectral-timing products for the objects studied. This suggests a common origin of kHz QPOs.

  12. Using Computer Techniques To Predict OPEC Oil Prices For Period 2000 To 2015 By Time-Series Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmail Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instability in the world and OPEC oil process results from many factors through a long time. The problems can be summarized as that the oil exports dont constitute a large share of N.I. only but it also makes up most of the saving of the oil states. The oil prices affect their market through the interaction of supply and demand forces of oil. The research hypothesis states that the movement of oil prices caused shocks crises and economic problems. These shocks happen due to changes in oil prices need to make a prediction within the framework of economic planning in a short run period in order to avoid shocks through using computer techniques by time series models.

  13. Calcifying discopathy in infancy in the cervical spine: Evaluation of vertebral alterations over a period of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, S; Colajacomo, M; Migliorini, A; Fassari, F M

    1987-07-01

    CDI in the cervical spine has already been observed and described by many authors, as a well-defined clinico-radiological syndrome with a benign course. The clinical picture is composed of: pain and functional limitation, sometimes with a stiff neck, more rarely slight fever, increase of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate or leukocytosis. The radiographic picture consists of the association of morphological and structural alterations of vertebral bodies adjacent to one or more disc calcifications usually centrally sited, sometimes associated with anterior or posterior herniations. On the basis of the observation of 7 patients, in the 15-year-old range, the authors propose to evaluate the changes of both the vertebral bodies and the discs involved in the disease over a period of time. The repetition of even modest alterations, that persist in time, testify to the involvement of the vertebral growth perhaps, more than the discal alterations connected with the calcification.

  14. Time trends for prostate cancer mortality in Brazil and its geographic regions: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sonia Faria Mendes; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2017-10-01

    In the 1980s, an increase in mortality rates for prostate cancer was observed in North America and developed European countries. In the 1990s, however, mortality rates decreased for these countries, an outcome related to early detection of the disease. Conversely, an upward trend in mortality rates was observed in Brazil. This study describe the trends in mortality for prostate cancer in Brazil and geographic regions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Central-West) between 1980 until 2014 and analyze the influence of age, period, and cohort effects on mortality rates. This time-series study used data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The effects on mortality rates were examined using age-period-cohort (APC) models. Crude and standardized mortality rates showed an upward trend for Brazil and its regions more than 2-fold the last 30 years. Age effects showed an increased risk of death in all regions. Period effects showed a higher risk of death in the finals periods for the North and Northeast. Cohort effects showed risk of death was higher for younger than older generations in Brazil and regions, mainly Northeast (RR Adjusted =3.12, 95% CI 1.29-1.41; RR Adjusted =0.28, 95% CI 0.26-0.30, respectively). The increase in prostate cancer mortality rates in Brazil and its regions was mainly due to population aging. The differences in mortality rates and APC effects between regions are related to demographic differences and access of health services across the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients: a comparison between two time periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, K.F.; Hafeez, H.; Afzal, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study trends in bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients during two time periods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 379 adult oncology patients admitted with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia at our institute during years 2003 and 2006. A total of 151 organisms were isolated during the two calendar years. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 57.6% of organisms, while gram positive organisms accounted for 42.3% of the total isolates. The most common organisms were: Escherichia coli (23.1%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.9%). The number of gram positive isolates showed an increase from 35% in 2003 to 47.2% in 2006 (p=0.13). During each calendar year, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were 100% susceptible to vancomycin and 33% strains of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were highly sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin during both time periods. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin increased from 0% in 2003 to 50% in 2006 (p=0.03). Gram negative organisms are the predominant organisms in adult febrile neutropenic patients at our institute. Initial empirical therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam seems appropriate to cover most gram negative pathogens while vancomycin to be added for suspected gram positive infections. During the two calendar years resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin has significantly increased. (author)

  17. A Time Series Analysis of Macroeconomic Determinants of Corporate Births in Romania in the period 2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marușa Beca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we studied the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the observed corporate births for the Romanian economy through the Autoregressive Distributed Lags Model (ADL. We performed a time series analysis that uses monthly data for the period January 2008 – December 2013 in order to establish the impact of the fiscal and monetary policy adopted by the Romanian government in times of economic crisis on the firms’ demography. The corporate birth rate is an endogenous variable in a linear function model with five exogenous macroeconomic variables such as the CPI, the loans ratio to GDP, the FDI, the long term interest rate, tax rate to GDP and the lags of the dependent variable. The main finding is that the variance of the corporate birth rate variable is negatively correlated with the variances of CPI in the current month and the interest rate two months lagged. We also determined that the variance of the dependent variable was positively correlated with the variances of the loans rate two months lagged, tax rate four months ago and FDI two months lagged and FDI in the current period.

  18. Period and phase comparisons of near-decadal oscillations in solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David A.

    2001-09-01

    A more complete understanding of the periodic dynamics of the Sun requires continued exploration of non-11-year oscillations in addition to the benchmark 11-year sunspot cycle. In this regard, several solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series were examined to identify common spectral components and their relative phase relationships. Several non-11-year oscillations were identified within the near-decadal range with periods of ~8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 29 years. To test whether these frequency components were simply low-level noise or were related to a common source, the phases were extracted for each component in each series. The phases were nearly identical across the solar and geomagnetic series, while the corresponding components in four cosmic ray surrogate series exhibited inverted phases, similar to the known phase relationship with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Cluster analysis revealed that this pattern was unlikely to occur by chance. It was concluded that many non-11-year oscillations truly exist in the solar dynamical environment and that these contribute to the complex variations observed in geomagnetic and cosmic ray time series. Using the different energy sensitivities of the four cosmic ray surrogate series, a preliminary indication of the relative intensities of the various solar-induced oscillations was observed. It provides evidence that many of the non-11-year oscillations result from weak interplanetary magnetic field/solar wind oscillations that originate from corresponding variations in the open-field regions of the Sun.

  19. Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Abente Gonzalo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. Methods Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for each country during the period 1981–2000 were drawn from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Age- and period-adjusted mortality rates, as well as annual percentage changes in age-adjusted mortality rates, were calculated for each country and geographical region. Log-linear Poisson models were also fitted to study the effect of age, death period, and birth cohort on kidney cancer mortality rates within each country. Results For men, the overall standardized kidney cancer mortality rates in the eastern, western, and northern European countries were 20, 25, and 53% higher than those for the southern European countries, respectively. However, age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant annual decrease of -0.7% in the north of Europe, a moderate rise of 0.7% in the west, and substantial increases of 1.4% in the south and 2.0% in the east. This trend was similar among women, but with lower mortality rates. Age-period-cohort models showed three different birth-cohort patterns for both men and women: a decrease in mortality trend for those generations born after 1920 in the Nordic countries, a similar but lagged decline for cohorts born after 1930 in western and southern European countries, and a continuous increase throughout all birth cohorts in eastern Europe. Similar but more heterogeneous regional patterns were observed for period effects. Conclusion Kidney cancer mortality trends in Europe showed a clear north-south pattern, with high rates on a downward trend in the north, intermediate rates on a more marked rising

  20. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells.

  1. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

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    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  2. Prolonged ventilation post cardiac surgery - tips and pitfalls of the prediction game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Piotr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few available models aim to identify patients at risk of prolonged ventilation after cardiac surgery. We compared prediction models developed in ICU in two adjacent periods of time, when significant changes were observed both in population characteristics and the perioperative management. Methods We performed a retrospective review of two cohorts of patients in our department in two subsequent time periods (July 2007 - December 2008, n = 2165; January 2009 - July 2010, n = 2192. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and the individual patient consent was not required. Patients were divided with regard to ventilation time of more or less than 48 hours. Preoperative and procedure-related variables for prolonged ventilation were identified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each cohort. Results Most recent patients were older, with more co-morbidities, more frequently undergoing off-pump surgery. At the beginning of 2009 we also changed the technique of postoperative ventilation. Percentage of patients with prolonged ventilation decreased from 5.7% to 2.4% (p Conclusions Prediction models for postoperative ventilation should be regularly updated, particularly when major changes are noted in patients' demographics and surgical or anaesthetic technique.

  3. Changes in the use practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine over time in Canada: Cohort and period effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilee Canizares

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is growing. However the factors contributing to changes over time and to birth cohort differences in CAM use are not well understood.We used data from 10186 participants, who were aged 20-69 years at the first cycle of data collection in the longitudinal component of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994/95-2010/11. We examined chiropractic and other practitioner-based CAM use with a focus on five birth cohorts: pre-World War II (born 1925-1934; World War II (born 1935-1944; older baby boomers (born 1945-1954; younger baby boomers (born 1955-1964; and Gen Xers (born 1965-1974. The survey collected data every two years on predisposing (e.g., sex, education, enabling (e.g., income, behavior-related factors (e.g., obesity, need (e.g., chronic conditions, and use of conventional care (primary care and specialists.The findings suggest that, at corresponding ages, more recent cohorts reported greater CAM (OR = 25.9, 95% CI: 20.0; 33.6 for Gen Xers vs. pre-World War and chiropractic use than their predecessors (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7; 2.8 for Gen Xers vs. pre-World War. There was also a secular trend of increasing CAM use, but not chiropractic use, over time (period effect across all ages. Factors associated with cohort differences were different for CAM and chiropractic use. Cohort differences in CAM use were partially related to a period effect of increasing CAM use over time across all ages while cohort differences in chiropractic use were related to the higher prevalence of chronic conditions among recent cohorts. The use of conventional care was positively related to greater CAM use (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.6; 2.0 and chiropractic use (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1; 1.4 but did not contribute to changes over time or to cohort differences in CAM and chiropractic use.The higher CAM use over time and in recent cohorts could reflect how recent generations are approaching their healthcare needs

  4. Dynamic RSA: Examining parasympathetic regulatory dynamics via vector-autoregressive modeling of time-varying RSA and heart period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus

    2016-07-01

    Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Global paths of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation connecting arbitrary traveling waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-12-11

    We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.

  6. Drift Compression and Final Focus for Intense Heavy Ion Beams with Non-periodic, Time-dependent Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2005-01-01

    In the currently envisioned configurations for heavy ion fusion, it is necessary to longitudinally compress the beam bunches by a large factor after the acceleration phase. Because the space-charge force increases as the beam is compressed, the beam size in the transverse direction will increase in a periodic quadrupole lattice. If an active control of the beam size is desired, a larger focusing force is needed to confine the beam in the transverse direction, and a non-periodic quadrupole lattice along the beam path is necessary. In this paper, we describe the design of such a focusing lattice using the transverse envelope equations. A drift compression and final focus lattice should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. This is difficult with a fixed lattice, because different slices of the beam may have different perveance and emittance. Four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of drift compression to focus the entire pulse onto the sam e focal spot. Drift compression and final focusing schemes are developed for a typical heavy ion fusion driver and for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) being designed by the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

  7. TIME DELAYS IN QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department of Mathematics, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmutz, W. [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Zender, J., E-mail: dolla@sidc.be [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-04-10

    We report observations of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.

  8. An assessment of issues related to determination of time periods required for isolation of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Daer, G.R.; Smith, C.F.; Vogt, D.K.; Woolfolk, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    A commonly held perception is that disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level waste presents a risk of unprecedented duration. The EPA requires that projected releases of radioactivity be limited for 10,000 years after disposal with the intent that risks from the disposal repository be no greater than those from the uranium ore deposit from which the nuclear fuel was originally extracted. This study reviews issues involved in assessing compliance with the requirement. The determination of compliance is assumption dependent primarily due to uncertainties in dosimetric data, and relative availability of the radioactivity for environmental transport and eventual assimilation by humans. A conclusion of this study is that, in time, a spent fuel disposal repository such as the projected Yucca Mountain Project Facility will become less hazardous than the original ore deposit. Only the time it takes to do so is in question. Depending upon the assumptions selected, this time period could range from a few centuries to hundreds of thousands of years considering only the inherent radiotoxicities. However, if it can be assumed that the spent fuel radioactivity emplaced in a waste repository is less than 1/10 as available for human assimilation than that in a uranium ore deposit, then even under the most pessimistic set of assumptions, the EPA criteria can be considered to be complied with. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Study on mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs ( Brachionus plicatilis) with different collection times and different preservation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Zheng, Yan; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2001-09-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  10. Singularity Structure Analysis of the Higher-Dimensional Time-Gated Manakov System: Periodic Excitations and Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetche, Victor Kamgang; Bouetou, Thomas Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the singularity structure analysis of the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system referring to the (2+1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (CNLS) equations, and we show that these equations are Painleve-integrable. By means of the Weiss et al.'s methodology, we show the arbitrariness of the expansion coefficients and the consistency of the truncation corresponding to a special Baecklund transformation (BT) of these CNLS equations. In the wake of such transformation, following the Hirota's formalism, we derive a one-soliton solution. Besides, by using the Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scheme which provides a general Lax-representation of an evolution system, we show that the (2+1)-dimensional CNLS system under interests is completely integrable. Furthermore, using the arbitrariness of the above coefficients, we unearth and investigate a typical spectrum of periodic coherent structures while depicting elastic interactions amongst such patterns. (author)

  11. Timing of pollen release and stigma receptivity period of Piper vicosanum: New insights into sexual reproduction of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Silva, Adriano; Coelho, Victor Peçanha de Miranda; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Vieira, Milene Faria

    2015-04-01

    Dichogamy is a common characteristic among angiosperms, including Piper species. In this genus, the tiny flowers are morphologically similar and have an asynchronous stamen development. However, there is no information on the duration of stigma receptivity and whether it overlaps with pollen release. To better understand mechanisms of floral function in Piper vicosanum, we provide a detailed characterization of the timing of pollen release from the four stamens and the period of stigma receptivity and exposure mode of the receptive areas. We investigated plants of a natural population in a semideciduous seasonal forest (Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil), based on chemical tests, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Incomplete protogyny-a mechanism that favors outcrossing-was recorded. The period of stigma receptivity was long (14 d), and the sequential exposure and senescence of stigmatic papillae occurred gradually and in a basipetal direction. Pollen release began 2-6 d after the beginning of the pistillate phase, with an average pollen viability of 87.7%, during the bisexual flower phase. Pollen was released for up to 6 d and occurred in one stamen at a time. The fruit set observed in tests of self-pollination indicated self-compatibility. The gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae in P. vicosanum flowers is described here as the mechanism for the long duration of receptivity. Anther development and pollen release were also sequential. These findings are yet unreported reproductive characteristics of the genus and offer new perspectives for future studies on the floral biology of other Piper species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  13. On quality control procedures for solar radiation and meteorological measures, from subhourly to montly average time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To control their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality control tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual solar radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the solar radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what

  14. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days? A Cross-Sectional Accelerometer-Based Study among Blue-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Aadahl, Mette; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers. A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1-4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie), standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts. Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD); age = 45.1 (9.9) years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9) kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5), waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0) cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were found when 30 min of total

  15. Effects of U.S. Navy Diver Training on Physiological Parameters, Time of Useful Consciousness and Cognitive Performance During Periods of Normobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    TRAINING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS, AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING PERIODS OF NORMOBARIC HYPOXIA...Sato, Y. Watanabe, "Time of Usefull Consciousness Determination in Aircrew Members with Rerference to Prior Altitude Chamber Experience and Age

  16. The effect of badger culling on breakdown prolongation and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

  17. Hydrometeorological aspects of the Real-Time Ultrafinescale Forecast Support during the Special Observing Period of the MAP*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Benoit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Special Observation Period (SOP, 7 September–15 November, 1999 of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP, the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 was run in real time at a horizontal resolution of 3 km on a computational domain of 350☓300☓50 grid points, covering the whole of the Alpine region. The WATFLOOD model was passively coupled to the MC2; the former is an integrated set of computer programs to forecast flood flows, using all available data, for catchments with response times ranging from one hour to several weeks. The unique aspect of this contribution is the operational application of numerical weather prediction data to forecast flows over a very large, multinational domain. An overview of the system performance from the hydrometeorological aspect is presented, mostly for the real-time results, but also from subsequent analyses. A streamflow validation of the precipitation is included for large basins covering upper parts of the Rhine and the Rhone, and parts of the Po and of the Danube. In general, the MC2/WATFLOOD model underestimated the total runoff because of the under-prediction of precipitation by MC2 during the MAP SOP. After the field experiment, a coding error in the cloud microphysics scheme of MC2 explains this underestimation to a large extent. A sensitivity study revealed that the simulated flows reproduce the major features of the observed flow record for most of the flow stations. The experiment was considered successful because two out of three possible flood events in the Swiss-Italian border region were predicted correctly by data from the numerical weather models linked to the hydrological model and no flow events were missed. This study has demonstrated that a flow forecast from a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model can serve as a useful first alert and quantitative forecast. Keywords: mesoscale atmospheric model, hydrological model, flood forecasting, Alps

  18. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  19. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  20. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10 6 -10 7 /μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10 6 to 10 1 with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10 2 /μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of motion artifact patterns in photoplethysmographic signals based on time and period domain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couceiro, R; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Muehlsteff, J

    2014-01-01

    The presence of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals is one of the major obstacles in the extraction of reliable cardiovascular parameters in continuous monitoring applications. In the current paper we present an algorithm for motion artifact detection based on the analysis of the variations in the time and the period domain characteristics of the PPG signal. The extracted features are ranked using a normalized mutual information feature selection algorithm and the best features are used in a support vector machine classification model to distinguish between clean and corrupted sections of the PPG signal. The proposed method has been tested in healthy and cardiovascular diseased volunteers, considering 11 different motion artifact sources. The results achieved by the current algorithm (sensitivity—SE: 84.3%, specificity—SP: 91.5% and accuracy—ACC: 88.5%) show that the current methodology is able to identify both corrupted and clean PPG sections with high accuracy in both healthy (ACC: 87.5%) and cardiovascular diseases (ACC: 89.5%) context. (paper)

  2. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Murphey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.

  3. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: effective life periods and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear what intensity of exercise and during which life periods this effect on decreasing risk is efficiently expressed, and whether the associations differ by the estrogen-/progesterone- receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors. We investigated associations between age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and ER/PR-defined breast cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were 405 cases newly diagnosed (>99% known ER/PR) from 2001 to 2005, who were age-/area-matched with 405 controls. Activity was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire which considered intensity level (moderate and/or strenuous) at different ages (at 12 and 20 years, and in the previous 5 years). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Strenuous but not moderate physical activity at age 12 was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk across ER/PR subtypes [overall OR(≥ 5 days/week vs. none) = 0.24 (0.14-0.43)]. Moderate physical activity in the previous 5 years was significantly associated with a decrease in risk for postmenopausal ER + PR + tumors only [OR(≥ 1 day/week vs. none) = 0.35 (0.18-0.67)]. Strenuous activity in teens and moderate activity after menopause may contribute to a reduction in breast cancer risk.

  4. Ruin probabilities with compounding assets for discrete time finite horizon problem, independent period claim sizes and general premium structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de A.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present fast and accurate approximations for the probability of ruin over a finite number of periods, assuming inhomogeneous independent claim size distributions and arbitrary premium income in subsequent periods. We develop exact recursive expressions for the non-ruin

  5. Ruin probabilities with compounding assets for discrete time finite horizon problems, independent period claim sizes and general premium structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de A.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present fast and accurate approximations for the probability of ruin over a finite number of periods, assuming inhomogeneous independent claim size distributions and arbitrary premium income in subsequent periods. We develop exact recursive expressions for the non-ruin probabilities

  6. Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

  7. The existence and regularity of time-periodic solutions to the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations in the whole space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyed, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The existence, uniqueness and regularity of time-periodic solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations in the three-dimensional whole space are investigated. We consider the Navier–Stokes equations with a non-zero drift term corresponding to the physical model of a fluid flow around a body that moves with a non-zero constant velocity. The existence of a strong time-periodic solution is shown for small time-periodic data. It is further shown that this solution is unique in a large class of weak solutions that can be considered physically reasonable. Finally, we establish regularity properties for any strong solution regardless of its size. (paper)

  8. Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorceag Lilia T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return. We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table. Results 120/176 (68% eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD alone (16%; co-morbid PTSD (20%; other anxiety or mood disorder (18%. 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women

  9. Analysis of a time-delayed mathematical model for tumour growth with an almost periodic supply of external nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Bai, Meng; Zhang, Fangwei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the existence, uniqueness and exponential stability of almost periodic solutions for a mathematical model of tumour growth are studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a delay in the cell proliferation process. Using a fixed-point theorem in cones, the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions for different parameter values of the model is proved. Moreover, by the Gronwall inequality, sufficient conditions are established for the exponential stability of the unique almost periodic solution. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  10. Permanence for a class of periodic time-dependent predator-prey system with dispersal in a patchy-environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Long; Teng Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study two species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra type dispersal system with periodic coefficients in two patches, in which both the prey and predator species can disperse between two patches. By utilizing analytic method, sufficient and realistic conditions on permanence and the existence of periodic solution are established. The theoretical results are confirmed by a special example and numerical simulations

  11. 12 CFR 218.781 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks for a limited period of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...” for banks for a limited period of time. A bank is exempt from the definition of the term “broker... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from the definition of âbrokerâ for banks for a limited period of time. 218.781 Section 218.781 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  12. 17 CFR 247.781 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks for a limited period of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “broker” for banks for a limited period of time. A bank is exempt from the definition of the term “broker... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from the definition of âbrokerâ for banks for a limited period of time. 247.781 Section 247.781 Commodity and Securities...

  13. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted.

  14. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Greuningen Malou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice

  15. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  16. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuningen, M. van; Heiligers, P.J.M.; Velden, L.F.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies

  17. [Effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage-consumption characteristics and wheat yield in dry-land soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian You; Pei, Xue Xia; Zhang, Ding Yi; Wang, Jiao Ai; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Xue Ping

    2016-09-01

    Through a three-year field trail, effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage of 0-200 cm soil before sowing, water consumption of growth period, and growth and development of wheat were investigated. Results demonstrated that soil water storage (SWS) of the fallow period was influenced by deep plowing time, precipitation, and rainfall distribution. With postponing the time of deep plowing in the fallow period, SWS was increased firstly, and then decreased. SWS with deep plowing in early or middle of August was 23.9-45.8 mm more than that with deep plowing in mid-July. It would benefit SWS when more precipitation occurred in the fallow period or more rainfall was distributed in August and September. Deep plowing at a proper time could facilitate SWS, N and P absorption of wheat, and the number of stems before winter and the spike number. The yield of wheat with deep plowing in early or middle August was 3.67%-18.2% higher than that with deep plowing in mid-July, and it was positively correlated with water storage of 0-200 cm soil during the fallow period and SWS of each soil layer during the wheat growth period. However, this correlation coefficient would be weakened by adequate rainfall in spring, the critical growing period for wheat. The time of deep plowing mainly affected the water consumption at soil layer of 60-140 cm during wheat growth. Under current farming conditions of south Shanxi, the increased grain yield of wheat could be achieved by combining the measures of high wheat stubble and wheat straw covering for holding soil water and deep plowing between the Beginning of Autumn (August 6th) and the Limit of Heat (August 21st) for promoting soil water penetration characteristics to improve the number of stems before winter and spike.

  18. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Alan M.; Bradt, Hale V.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Harris, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  19. Time variation of meteorological elements as controlled by the quasi-biennial periodicity in the solar phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Michiharu; Sakurai, Kunitomo

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the quasi-biennial oscillation observed on some meteorological elements as the ozone content at middle latitudes, both north and south, the zonal wind velocity at the equator and the ground-level temperature at middle latitudes, is produced by the variation of the ultraviolet flux emitted from the sun, which is varying with the solar activity with the period of about 26 months. The ozone content is varying in phase with the ultraviolet flux and the solar activity, whereas the other two elements mentioned above are changing out of phase with these phenomena. There is a possibility that both these meteorological elements and the solar activity are varying quasi-biennially while being modulated by the 26 month periodicity in the efficiency of thermonuclear fusions at the central core of the sun. (author)

  20. Motexafin Gadolinium Combined With Prompt Whole Brain Radiotherapy Prolongs Time to Neurologic Progression in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases: Results of a Phase III Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Minesh P.; Shapiro, William R.; Phan, See C.; Gervais, Radj; Carrie, Christian; Chabot, Pierre; Patchell, Roy A.; Glantz, Michael J.; Recht, Lawrence; Langer, Corey; Sur, Ranjan K.; Roa, Wilson H.; Mahe, Marc A.; Fortin, Andre; Nieder, Carsten; Meyers, Christina A.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Miller, Richard A.; Renschler, Markus F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) in combination with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for the treatment of brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In an international, randomized, Phase III study, patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer were randomized to WBRT with or without MGd. The primary endpoint was the interval to neurologic progression, determined by a centralized Events Review Committee who was unaware of the treatment the patients had received. Results: Of 554 patients, 275 were randomized to WBRT and 279 to WBRT+MGd. Treatment with MGd was well tolerated, and 92% of the intended doses were administered. The most common MGd-related Grade 3+ adverse events included liver function abnormalities (5.5%), asthenia (4.0%), and hypertension (4%). MGd improved the interval to neurologic progression compared with WBRT alone (15 vs. 10 months; p = 0.12, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78) and the interval to neurocognitive progression (p = 0.057, HR = 0.78). The WBRT patients required more salvage brain surgery or radiosurgery than did the WBRT+MGd patients (54 vs. 25 salvage procedures, p < 0.001). A statistically significant interaction between the geographic region and MGd treatment effect (which was in the prespecified analysis plan) and between treatment delay and MGd treatment effect was found. In North American patients, where treatment was more prompt, a statistically significant prolongation of the interval to neurologic progression, from 8.8 months for WBRT to 24.2 months for WBRT+MGd (p = 0.004, HR = 0.53), and the interval to neurocognitive progression (p = 0.06, HR = 0.73) were observed. Conclusion: In the intent-to-treat analysis, MGd exhibited a favorable trend in neurologic outcomes. MGd significantly prolonged the interval to neurologic progression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases receiving prompt WBRT. The toxicity was acceptable

  1. Real-Time Magnitude Characterization of Large Earthquakes Using the Predominant Period Derived From 1 Hz GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos A.; Houlié, Nicolas; Behr, Yannik

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems' performance is driven by the trade-off between the need for a rapid alert and the accuracy of each solution. A challenge for many EEW systems has been the magnitude saturation for large events (MW > 7) and the resulting underestimation of seismic moment magnitude. In this study, we test the performance of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS, based on seven seismic events, to evaluate whether long-period ground motions can be measured well enough to infer reliably earthquake predominant periods. We show that high-rate GPS data allow the computation of a GPS-based predominant period (τg) to estimate lower bounds for the magnitude of earthquakes and distinguish between large (MW > 7) and great (MW > 8) events and thus extend the capability of EEW systems for larger events. It has also identified the impact of the different values of the smoothing factor α on the τg results and how the sampling rate and the computation process differentiate τg from the commonly used τp.

  2. Prolonged ultraviolet light-induced erythema and the cutaneous carcinoma phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.; Parrish, J.A.; Haynes, H.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Pathak, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A considerable amount of evidence exists in support of the role of ultraviolet radiation as a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer, both melanoma and carcinoma types. On the basis of epidemiologic studies a phenotype has been described which helps to identify the persons who are more susceptible to skin cancer. In an attempt to further define this population, patients with cutaneous carcinoma and a normal control group were exposed to artificial ultraviolet light (UVL) and the erythema and tanning responses of each group were measured over a 21-day period. UVL-induced erythema was prolonged in a significantly higher percentage of patients with skin cancer than in control patients, lasting two to three weeks after single exposures to 6 and 8 times the patient's minimal erythema dose. The presence of prolonged erythema correlated with this history of previous skin cancer but did not correlate with other established risk factors for cutaneous carcinoma, i.e., fair skin, light hair and light eyes, easy sunburning and poor tanning, and Celtic ancestry. Prolonged erythema following UVL radiation may therefore represent an additional risk factor and help to identify the skin cancer-susceptible population

  3. Non-existence of time-periodic solutions of the Dirac equation in a Reissner-Nordström black hole background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2000-04-01

    It is shown analytically that the Dirac equation has no normalizable, time-periodic solutions in a Reissner-Nordström black hole background; in particular, there are no static solutions of the Dirac equation in such a background metric. The physical interpretation is that Dirac particles can either disappear into the black hole or escape to infinity, but they cannot stay on a periodic orbit around the black hole.

  4. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  5. Prolonged striatal disinhibition as a chronic animal model of tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinner, Esther; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2017-12-01

    Experimental findings and theoretical models have associated Tourette syndrome with abnormal striatal inhibition. The expression of tics, the hallmark symptom of this disorder, has been transiently induced in non-human primates and rodents by the injection of GABA A antagonists into the striatum, leading to temporary disinhibition. The novel chronic model of tic expression utilizes mini-osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously in the rat's back for prolonged infusion of bicuculline into the dorsolateral striatum. Tics were expressed on the contralateral side to the infusion over a period of multiple days. Tic expression was stable, and maintained similar properties throughout the infusion period. Electrophysiological recordings revealed the existence of tic-related local field potential spikes and individual neuron activity changes that remained stable throughout the infusion period. The striatal disinhibition model provides a unique combination of face validity (tic expression) and construct validity (abnormal striatal inhibition) but is limited to sub-hour periods. The new chronic model extends the period of tic expression to multiple days and thus enables the study of tic dynamics and the effects of behavior and pharmacological agents on tic expression. The chronic model provides similar behavioral and neuronal correlates of tics as the acute striatal disinhibition model but over prolonged periods of time, thus providing a unique, basal ganglia initiated model of tic expression. Chronic expression of symptoms is the key to studying the time varying properties of Tourette syndrome and the effects of multiple internal and external factors on this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of prolonged stress on salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone: a study of a two-week teaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Saito, Keisuke; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Sugaya, Nagisa; Nomura, Shinobu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated variations in salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a prolonged stressful situation (a two-week teaching practice). Thirty-three women for whom a two-week teaching practice at a kindergarten was scheduled were asked to collect saliva samples at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime at four time points: two weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice. In addition, they completed questionnaires for assessing perceived stress and subjective moods on each day. A linear mixed model indicated that cortisol levels significantly increased during the first and second week of the practice compared with those before and after the practice period, and that DHEA levels significantly decreased after the practice period compared with those at the other time points. Further, cortisol awakening response after the practice period significantly reduced compared with that at the other time points. Scores of perceived stress and negative moods were also higher during the practice period. This study showed that prolonged stress affected cortisol and DHEA secretion during as well as after the stress period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative and postoperatively prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides optimally controlled reperfusion and excellent outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Bernhard; Jaksch, Peter; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Muraközy, Gabriella; Lang, Georg; Hager, Helmut; Krenn, Claus; Roth, Georg; Faybik, Peter; Bacher, Andreas; Aigner, Clemens; Matilla, José R; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Hacker, Philipp; Lang, Irene; Klepetko, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension has the highest reported postoperative mortality of all indications. Reasons lie in the complexity of treatment of these patients and the frequent occurrence of postoperative left ventricular failure. Transplantation on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support instead of cardiopulmonary bypass and even more the prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period helps to overcome these problems. We reviewed our experience with this concept. All patients undergoing bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with or without prophylactic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prolongation into the postoperative period between January 2000 and December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Forty-one patients entered the study. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was prolonged into the postoperative period for a median of 2.5 days (range 1-40). Ninety-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for the patient collective were 92.7%, 90.2%, 87.4% and 87.4%, respectively. When compared with 31 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension transplanted in the same period of time without prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period, the results compared favourably (83.9%, 77.4%, 77.4%, and 77.4%; P = 0.189). Furthermore, these results are among the best results ever reported for this particularly difficult patient population. Bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with intraoperative venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support seems to provide superior outcome compared with the results reported about the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Prophylactic prolongation of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the early postoperative period provides

  8. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  9. A statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition technique to predict rainfall during flood period over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijia; Zhong, Zhong; Zhu, Yimin; Ha, Yao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition method is established to do the seasonal prediction of the rainfall during flood period (FPR) over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley (MLYRV). This method decomposites the rainfall over the MLYRV into three time-scale components, namely, the interannual component with the period less than 8 years, the interdecadal component with the period from 8 to 30 years, and the interdecadal component with the period larger than 30 years. Then, the predictors are selected for the three time-scale components of FPR through the correlation analysis. At last, a statistical forecast model is established using the multiple linear regression technique to predict the three time-scale components of the FPR, respectively. The results show that this forecast model can capture the interannual and interdecadal variation of FPR. The hindcast of FPR during 14 years from 2001 to 2014 shows that the FPR can be predicted successfully in 11 out of the 14 years. This forecast model performs better than the model using traditional scheme without time-scale decomposition. Therefore, the statistical forecast model using the time-scale decomposition technique has good skills and application value in the operational prediction of FPR over the MLYRV.

  10. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or from...

  11. Drainage estimation to aquifer and water use irrigation efficiency in semi-arid zone for a long period of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Molinero-Huguet, J.; Candela, L.

    2009-04-01

    Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.

  12. Cross-Sectional Distribution of GARCH Coefficients across S&P 500 Constituents: Time-Variation over the Period 2000-2012

    OpenAIRE

    David Ardia; Lennart F. Hoogerheide

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time-variation of the cross-sectional distribution of asymmetric GARCH model parameters over the S&P 500 constituents for the period 2000-2012. We find the following results. First, the unconditional variances in the GARCH model obviously show major time-variation, with a high level after the dot-com bubble and the highest peak in the latest financial crisis. Second, in these more volatile periods it is especially the persistence of deviations of volatility from is uncondit...

  13. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cros, C., E-mail: caroline.cros@hotmail.co.uk [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Skinner, M., E-mail: Matthew.Skinner@astrazeneca.com [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Moors, J. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Lainee, P. [Sanofi-Aventis R and D, 371, rue du Pr Joseph Blayac, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 04 (France); Valentin, J.P. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two

  14. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, C.; Skinner, M.; Moors, J.; Lainee, P.; Valentin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I Na ) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I Na , this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E max 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two out of three

  15. Periodic protein adsorption at the gold/biotin aqueous solution interface: evidence of kinetics with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, H.; Laborde, H. M.; Lima, A. M. N.

    2016-11-01

    An oscillatory molecular adsorption pattern of the protein neutravidin from aqueous solution onto gold, in presence of a pre-deposited self assembled mono-molecular biotin film, is reported. Real time surface Plasmon resonance sensing was utilized for evaluation of the adsorption kinetics. Two different fractions were identified: in the initial phase, protein molecules attach irreversibly onto the Biotin ligands beneath towards the jamming limit, forming a neutravidin-biotin fraction. Afterwards, the growth rate exhibits distinct, albeit damped adsorption-desorption oscillations over an extended time span, assigned to a quasi reversibly bound fraction. These findings agree with, and firstly confirm a previously published model, proposing macro-molecular adsorption with time delay. The non-linear dynamic model is applicable to and also resembles non-damped oscillatory binding features of the hetero-catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide molecules on platinum in the gas phase. An associated surface residence time can be linked to the dynamics and time scale required for self-organization.

  16. Period3 VNTR polymorphism influences the time-of-day pain onset of acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkova, Jolana; Splichal, Zbynek; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie Anna; Jurajda, Michal; Parenica, Jiri; Vasku, Anna; Goldbergova, Monika Pavkova

    2014-10-01

    It is well established that the incidence and infarct size in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is subject to circadian variations. At the molecular level, circadian clocks in distinct cells, including cardiomyocytes, generate 24-h cycles of biochemical processes. Possible imbalance or impairment in the cell clock mechanism may alter the cardiac metabolism and function and increase the susceptibility of cardiovascular diseases. One of the key components of the human clock system PERIOD3 (PER3) has been recently demonstrated to affect circadian expression of various genes in different tissues, including the heart. The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (rs57875989) in gene Period3 (Per3) is related to multiple phenotypic parameters, including diurnal preference, sleep homeostasis, infection and cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of this polymorphism in AMI with ST elevation (STEMI). The study subjects (314 patients of Caucasian origin with STEMI, and 332 healthy controls) were genotyped for Per3 VNTR polymorphism using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. A gender difference in circadian rhythmicity of pain onset was observed with significant circadian pattern in men. Furthermore, the Per3(5/5) variant carriers were associated with higher levels of interleukin-6, B-type natriuretic peptide and lower vitamin A levels. By using cosinor analysis we observed different circadian distribution patterns of AMI onset at the level of genotype and allelic frequencies. Genotypes with at least one 4-repeat allele (Per3(4/5) and Per3(4/4)) (N = 264) showed remarkable circadian activity in comparison with Per3(5/5) (N = 50), especially in men. No significant differences in genotype and/or allele frequencies of Per3 VNTR polymorphism were observed when comparing STEMI cases and controls. Our results indicate that the Per3 VNTR may contribute to modulation of cardiac functions and interindividual differences in development and

  17. Multidisciplinary Approach to Determine the Optimal Time and Period for Extracting the Essential Oil from Mentha suaveolens Ehrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Garzoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO, the main essential oils’ chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs’ antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July.

  18. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  19. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekenga, Columba K; Pembe, Andrea B; Darj, Elisabeth; Christensson, Kyllike; Olsson, Pia

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health.

  20. Taming the escape dynamics of nonadiabatic time-periodically driven quantum dissipative system within the frame of Wigner formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shit, Anindita [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)

    2014-03-18

    Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.

  1. On robust multi-period pre-commitment and time-consistent mean-variance portfolio optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cong (Fei); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe consider robust pre-commitment and time-consistent mean-variance optimal asset allocation strategies, that are required to perform well also in a worst-case scenario regarding the development of the asset price. We show that worst-case scenarios for both strategies can be found by

  2. Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450 MHz Microwave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryush Talei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, and mean germination time (MGT were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length. Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.

  3. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  4. Study of the hovering period and bubble size in fully developed pool nucleate boiling of saturated liquid with a time-dependent heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the bubble behavior in saturated pool boiling with a time-dependent heat source is analyzed. The study is restricted to the period from fully developed nucleate boiling until critical heat flux occurs. The hovering period and the departure volume of the bubble are selected as the characteristic parameters for bubble behavior. These parameters are quantified by solving the equation of motion for an idealized bubble. This equation is solved for cases in which the surface heat flux changes linearly and exponentially as a function of time. After nondimensionalization, the results are compared directly with the results of the steady-state problem. The comparison shows that the transient heat input has practically no effect on the hovering period. However, the transient heat flux causes a decreased volume at bubble departure. The volume decrease is dependent on the severity of the transient. These results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation quoted in the literature

  5. Burst stimulation improves hemodynamics during resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond

    2009-02-01

    Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Six swine were studied that underwent 6-7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3-4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean+/-SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2+/-2.5 min. Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above prestimulation levels.

  6. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  7. Attributing impacts to emissions traced to major fossil energy and cement producers over specific historical time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Allen, M. R.; Boneham, J.; Heede, R.; Dalton, M. W.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Given the progress in climate change attribution research over the last decade, attribution studies can inform policymakers guided by the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." Historically this has primarily focused on nations, yet requests for information on the relative role of the fossil energy sector are growing. We present an approach that relies on annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from production through to the sale of products from the largest industrial fossil fuel and cement production company records from the mid-nineteenth century to present (Heede 2014). Analysis of the global trends with all the natural and human drivers compared with a scenario without the emissions traced to major carbon producers over full historical versus select periods of recent history can be policy relevant. This approach can be applied with simple climate models and earth system models depending on the type of climate impacts being investigated. For example, results from a simple climate model, using best estimate parameters and emissions traced to 90 largest carbon producers, illustrate the relative difference in global mean surface temperature increase over 1880-2010 after removing these emissions from 1980-2010 (29-35%) compared with removing these emissions over 1880-2010 (42-50%). The changing relative contributions from the largest climate drivers can be important to help assess the changing risks for stakeholders adapting to and reducing exposure and vulnerability to regional climate change impacts.

  8. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo

    2017-07-01

    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  9. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  10. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  11. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  12. THE EXISTENCE OF THE STABILIZING SOLUTION OF THE RICCATI EQUATION ARISING IN DISCRETE-TIME STOCHASTIC ZERO SUM LQ DYNAMIC GAMES WITH PERIODIC COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dr ̆agan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem for solving a discrete-time periodic gen- eralized Riccati equation with an indefinite sign of the quadratic term. A necessary condition for the existence of bounded and stabilizing solution of the discrete-time Riccati equation with an indefinite quadratic term is derived. The stabilizing solution is positive semidefinite and satisfies the introduced sign conditions. The proposed condition is illustrated via a numerical example.

  13. Detection of Variations in Air Temperature at Different Time Scales During the Period 1889-1998 at Firenze, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.V. [Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Saidabad, Hyderabad, 500059, Andhra Pradesh (India); Bindi, M. [DISAT-UNIFI, P.le delle Cascine 18, 50144, Firenze (Italy); Crisci, A. [LaMMA-Laboratorio per la Meteorologia, Climatologia e la Modellistica Ambientale, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Maracchi, G. [IATA-CNR, P.le delle Cascine 18, 50144 Firenze (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    In an attempt to contribute to studies on global climatic change, 110 years of temperature data for Firenze, Italy, were analysed. Means and trends of annual and monthly temperatures (minimum, maximum and average) were analysed at three different time scales: short (20 years), medium (36-38 years) and long (55 years). Comparative changes in extreme events viz. frosts in the first and second parts of the 20th century were also analysed. At short time scales, climatic change was found in minimum and average temperatures but not in maximum temperatures. At all three time scales, the annual means of minimum, maximum and average temperatures were significantly warmer in the last part than in the early part of the 20th century. The monthly mean temperatures showed significant warming of winter months. Over the last four decades, minimum, maximum and average temperatures had warmed by 0.4, 0.43 and 0.4C per decade, respectively, and if this trend continues, they will be warmer by 4C by the end of the 21st century. The significant decline in days with subzero temperatures and frosts in the last half of the 20th century, further substantiated the occurrence of climate change at this site.

  14. Effect of Number of Spermatozoa, Oviduct Condition and Timing of Artificial Insemination on Fertility and Fertile Period of Kampung Rooster Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the optimum fertility and fertile period using the number of spermatozoa, oviduct condition and timing of insemination of native rooster spermatozoa. Ninety six commercial Isa brown pullets and nine kampung roosters were used in this study in a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement with one bird in a cage constituting a unit. The factor levels were the number of spermatozoa (50, 100 and 150 million/0.1 ml, oviduct condition (hard-shelled eggs and free hard-shelled eggs, and timing of artificial insemination (in the morning, at 7 AM and in the afternoon, at 4 PM.  The results showed that among the treatments there was no significant interaction to fertility and fertile period. Insemination with 50 million sperm number seemed to be the same result with the other 2 treatments. Oviduct condition had a highly significant difference on fertility and fertile period percentage, and timing of insemination did not differ between morning and afternoon.  In conclusion, the only oviduct condition (free hard-shelled eggs was the best results for insemination in terms of fertility and fertile period of native roosters.  It is recommended that for the maximum fertility and fertile period, hens should be inseminated with 50 million spermatozoa, free of hard-shelled eggs and insemination performed in the morning or in the afternoon.   Keywords: timing of artificial insemination, fertility, fertile period, semen dose, oviduct condition Animal Production 14(1:32-36, January 2012

  15. Characterizing prolonged heat effects on mortality in a sub-tropical high-density city, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Extreme hot weather events are likely to increase under future climate change, and it is exacerbated in urban areas due to the complex urban settings. It causes excess mortality due to prolonged exposure to such extreme heat. However, there is lack of universal definition of prolonged heat or heat wave, which leads to inadequacies of associated risk preparedness. Previous studies focused on estimating temperature-mortality relationship based on temperature thresholds for assessing heat-related health risks but only several studies investigated the association between types of prolonged heat and excess mortality. However, most studies focused on one or a few isolated heat waves, which cannot demonstrate typical scenarios that population has experienced. In addition, there are limited studies on the difference between daytime and nighttime temperature, resulting in insufficiency to conclude the effect of prolonged heat. In sub-tropical high-density cities where prolonged heat is common in summer, it is important to obtain a comprehensive understanding of prolonged heat for a complete assessment of heat-related health risks. In this study, six types of prolonged heat were examined by using a time-stratified analysis. We found that more consecutive hot nights contribute to higher mortality risk while the number of consecutive hot days does not have significant association with excess mortality. For a day after five consecutive hot nights, there were 7.99% [7.64%, 8.35%], 7.74% [6.93%, 8.55%], and 8.14% [7.38%, 8.88%] increases in all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Non-consecutive hot days or nights are also found to contribute to short-term mortality risk. For a 7-day-period with at least five non-consecutive hot days and nights, there was 15.61% [14.52%, 16.70%] increase in all-cause mortality at lag 0-1, but only -2.00% [-2.83%, -1.17%] at lag 2-3. Differences in the temperature-mortality relationship caused by hot days and hot nights

  16. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  17. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Velarde, M

    1977-07-01

    Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs.

  18. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Velarde, M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermoconvective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Benard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (author) [es

  19. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Velarde, M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs

  20. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  1. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  2. Risk factors for hyperglycemia in pregnancy in the DALI study differ by period of pregnancy and OGTT time point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendoza, Lilian C; Harreiter, Jürgen; Simmons, David

    2018-01-01

    maternal and current pregnancy characteristics. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes were: at ≤19+6 weeks, previous abnormal glucose tolerance (OR 3.11; CI95 1.41-6.85), previous GDM (OR 2.22; CI95 1......; at 35-37 weeks, maternal height (OR 0.41; CI95 0.20-0.87 for upper tertile). Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes differed by OGTT time point (e.g. at ≤19+6 weeks, neck circumference was associated with abnormal fasting but not postchallenge glucose). CONCLUSION...

  3. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  4. Experimental test on the use of MS-222 for ostracod anaesthesia: concentration, immersion period and recovery time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc MEZQUITA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of animals may be useful for different purposes, particularly for veterinary reasons or in experimental research, for manipulation or treatment of immobilized but alive animals. Its use in crustaceans is not uncommon, but it has never been described for Ostracoda. We provide brief and preliminary guidelines on the use of the tricaine mesylate (MS-222 on the widespread freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens and we show that this compound is an effective anaesthetic used as a bath treatment at minimum concentrations of 500 mg L-1. This value is considerably higher than that recommended for other aquatic animals like fish. Recovery time, ranging from 5 to 15 minutes, is mostly determined by anaesthetic bath concentration, while bath duration influenced to a lesser extent. Anaesthesia induced with MS-222 can prove useful for minute manipulation of living ostracods e.g. for identification, marking or image capture under the microscope.

  5. The “green wave” mode production on the two-lane highways during the construction works time period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Berezhnoy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the problem of a bi-directional “green wave” mode production is considered for the vehicle flows motion on two-lane highways during the conducting of construction works. The solution of the given task allows to develop practical recommendations for the sphere of the construction works management on two-lane roads and country highways, and also to raise traffic control efficiency in the pointed conditions. The comparative analysis of possible traffic regulation modes for the set scheme of road construction works sites and the estimation of their effi ciency is performed, the test of a hypothesis regarding the possibility of a bi-directional “green wave” mode realization is carried out, and calculation of traffic lights signal control phases time is performed.

  6. Time-critical database condition data handling in the CMS experiment during the first data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guida, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Automatic, synchronous and of course reliable population of the condition databases is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. In this complex infrastructure, monitoring and fast detection of errors is a very challenging task. To recover the system and to put it in a safe state requires spotting a faulty situation within strict time constraints. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to automate the processes that populate centrally the Condition Databases and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The data are automatically collected using centralized jobs or are ``dropped'' by the users in dedicate services (offline and online drop-box), which synchronize them and take care of writing them into the online database. Then they are automatically streamed to the offline database, and thus are immediately acce...

  7. An assessment of issues related to determination of time periods required for isolation of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Daer, G.R.; Vogt, D.K.; Woolfolk, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    A commonly held perception is that disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level waste presents a risk of unprecedented duration. In 40 CFR 191, the EPA requires that projected releases of radioactivity be limited for 10,000 years after disposal with the intent that risks from the disposal repository be no greater than those from the uranium ore deposit from which the nuclear fuel was originally extracted. This study reviews issues involved in assessing compliance with the requirement. The determination of compliance is assumption dependent primarily due to uncertainties in dosi-metric data, and relative availability of the radioactivity for environmental transport and eventual assimilation by humans. A conclusion of this study is that, in time, a spent fuel disposal repository such as the projected Yucca Mountain Project Facility will become less hazardous than the original ore deposit

  8. Tracing the Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Polar Summer Periods of 2002-2010 Using TIMED/SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard; Feoflow, Artem; Pesnell, Dean; Kutepov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002-2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above the mesospheric maximum was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Theoretical studies have implied that these "anomalies" were preceded by unusual dynamical processes occurring in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the SABER limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002-2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83 deg. S to 83 deg. N. We describe the approach to trace the inter-hemispheric temperature correlatoins and to identify the global features that were unique for the "anomalous" northern polar summers.

  9. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  10. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the mouse uterus in the peri-implantation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lin

    Full Text Available The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.

  11. Time-critical Database Condition Data Handling in the CMS Experiment During the First Data Taking Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallari, Francesca; Gruttola, Michele de; Di Guida, Salvatore; Innocente, Vincenzo; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Govi, Giacomo; Pierro, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Automatic, synchronous and reliable population of the condition databases is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. In this complex infrastructure, monitoring and fast detection of errors is a very challenging task. In this paper, we describe the CMS experiment system to process and populate the Condition Databases and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The data are automatically collected using centralized jobs or are 'dropped' by the users in dedicated services (offline and online drop-box), which synchronize them and take care of writing them into the online database. Then they are automatically streamed to the offline database, and thus are immediately accessible offline worldwide. The condition data are managed by different users using a wide range of applications. In normal operation the database monitor is used to provide simple timing information and the history of all transactions for all database accounts, and in the case of faults it is used to return simple error messages and more complete debugging information.

  12. Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Northern Polar Summer Periods of 2002-2010 using TIMED/SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002-2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above about 80 km was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Theoretical studies have implied that these "anomalies" were preceded by unusual dynamical processes in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the SABER limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002-2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83 S to 83 N. We describe the approach to trace the inter-hemispheric temperature correlations demonstrating the global features that were unique for the "anomalous" northern polar summers. From our analysis of SABER data from 2002-2010, the anomalous heating for the northern mesopause region during northern summer was accompanied by stratospheric heating in the equatorial region. In the winter hemisphere it is accompanied by heating in the lower stratosphere and mesopause region, and cooling in the stratopause region. Also, all the elements of the temperature anomaly structure appear to develop and fade away nearly simultaneously, thereby suggesting either a global influence or a rapid exchange.

  13. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  14. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  15. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  16. Experimental evaluation of the MIT-SNL period-generated minimum time control laws for the rapid adjustment of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Kwok, K.S.; Menadier, P.T.; Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid adjustment of reactor neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. Designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws,' these relations are closed-form expressions of general applicability. In particular, if there is no limitation on the available rate of change of reactivity, these laws can be used to achieve virtually any desired power profile including time optimal ones. The innovative aspect of these laws is that the rate of change of reactivity rather than the reactivity itself is used as the control signal. For example, relative to a time-optimal response, these laws function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The response is time-optimal because the power adjustment is continuously made at the maximum allowed rate

  17. Modal Analysis in Periodic, Time-Varying Systems with emphasis to the Coupling between Flexible Rotating Beams and Non-Rotating Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saracho, C. M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of dynamical response of a system built by a non-rotating structure coupled to flexible rotating beams is the purpose of this work. The effect of rotational speed upon the beam natural frequencies is well-known, so that an increase in the angular speeds leads to an increase in beam...... natural frequencies, the so-called centrifugal stiffening. The equations of motion of such a global system present matrices with time-depending coefficients, which vary periodically with the angular rotor speed, and introduce parametric vibrations into the system response. The principles of modal analysis...... for time-invariant linear systems are expanded to investigate time-varying systems. Concepts as eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which in this special case are also time-varying, are used to analyse the dynamical response of global system. The time-varying frequencies and modes are also illustrated....

  18. Analysis of the impact of crude oil price fluctuations on China's stock market in different periods-Based on time series network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Sun, Mei; Gao, Cuixia; Han, Dun; Li, Xiuming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the influence of Brent oil price fluctuations on the stock prices of China's two distinct blocks, namely, the petrochemical block and the electric equipment and new energy block, applying the Shannon entropy of information theory. The co-movement trend of crude oil price and stock prices is divided into different fluctuation patterns with the coarse-graining method. Then, the bivariate time series network model is established for the two blocks stock in five different periods. By joint analysis of the network-oriented metrics, the key modes and underlying evolutionary mechanisms were identified. The results show that the both networks have different fluctuation characteristics in different periods. Their co-movement patterns are clustered in some key modes and conversion intermediaries. The study not only reveals the lag effect of crude oil price fluctuations on the stock in Chinese industry blocks but also verifies the necessity of research on special periods, and suggests that the government should use different energy policies to stabilize market volatility in different periods. A new way is provided to study the unidirectional influence between multiple variables or complex time series.

  19. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  20. Evaluation of the Usefulness of Restricted Respiratory Period at the Time of Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yeon; Ahn, Jong Ho; Kim, Yung Il; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Byung Ki; Pyo, Hong Ryul; Song, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daewon University Colloge, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    It is essential to minimize the movement of tumor due to respiratory movement at the time of respiration controlled radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer patient. Accordingly, this Study aims to evaluate the usefulness of restricted respiratory period by comparing and analyzing the treatment plans that apply free and restricted respiration period respectively. After having conducted training on 9 non-small cell lung cancer patients (tumor n=10) from April to December 2011 by using 'signal monitored-breathing (guided- breathing)' method for the 'free respiratory period' measured on the basis of the regular respiratory period of the patents and 'restricted respiratory period' that was intentionally reduced, total of 10 CT images for each of the respiration phases were acquired by carrying out 4D CT for treatment planning purpose by using RPM and 4-dimensional computed tomography simulator. Visual gross tumor volume (GTV) and internal target volume (ITV) that each of the observer 1 and observer 2 has set were measured and compared on the CT image of each respiratory interval. Moreover, the amplitude of movement of tumor was measured by measuring the center of mass (COM) at the phase of 0% which is the end-inspiration (EI) and at the phase of 50% which is the end-exhalation (EE). In addition, both observers established treatment plan that applied the 2 respiratory periods, and mean dose to normal lung (MDTNL) was compared and analyzed through dose-volume histogram (DVH). Moreover, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the normal lung volume was compared by using dose-volume histogram analysis program (DVH analyzer v.1) and statistical analysis was performed in order to carry out quantitative evaluation of the measured data. As the result of the analysis of the treatment plan that applied the 'restricted respiratory period' of the observer 1 and observer 2, there was reduction rate of 38.75% in the 3-dimensional

  1. Evaluation of the Usefulness of Restricted Respiratory Period at the Time of Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Yeon; Ahn, Jong Ho; Kim, Yung Il; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Byung Ki; Pyo, Hong Ryul; Song, Ki Won; Suh, Jung Min

    2012-01-01

    It is essential to minimize the movement of tumor due to respiratory movement at the time of respiration controlled radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer patient. Accordingly, this Study aims to evaluate the usefulness of restricted respiratory period by comparing and analyzing the treatment plans that apply free and restricted respiration period respectively. After having conducted training on 9 non-small cell lung cancer patients (tumor n=10) from April to December 2011 by using 'signal monitored-breathing (guided- breathing)' method for the 'free respiratory period' measured on the basis of the regular respiratory period of the patents and 'restricted respiratory period' that was intentionally reduced, total of 10 CT images for each of the respiration phases were acquired by carrying out 4D CT for treatment planning purpose by using RPM and 4-dimensional computed tomography simulator. Visual gross tumor volume (GTV) and internal target volume (ITV) that each of the observer 1 and observer 2 has set were measured and compared on the CT image of each respiratory interval. Moreover, the amplitude of movement of tumor was measured by measuring the center of mass (COM) at the phase of 0% which is the end-inspiration (EI) and at the phase of 50% which is the end-exhalation (EE). In addition, both observers established treatment plan that applied the 2 respiratory periods, and mean dose to normal lung (MDTNL) was compared and analyzed through dose-volume histogram (DVH). Moreover, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the normal lung volume was compared by using dose-volume histogram analysis program (DVH analyzer v.1) and statistical analysis was performed in order to carry out quantitative evaluation of the measured data. As the result of the analysis of the treatment plan that applied the 'restricted respiratory period' of the observer 1 and observer 2, there was reduction rate of 38.75% in the 3-dimensional direction movement of the tumor in

  2. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  3. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  4. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  5. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  6. Retention of a 24-hour time memory in Syrian hamsters carrying the 20-hour short circadian period mutation in casein kinase-1ε (ck1εtau/tau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W; Yoon, Jeena; Shrestha, Tenjin C; Ralph, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Circadian rhythmic expression of conditioned place avoidance (CPA) was produced in Syrian hamsters homozygous for the circadian short period mutation, tau. In constant dim red light neither the 20 h endogenous period, nor a 20 h place conditioning schedule eliminated the 24 h modulation of CPA behavior described previously for wild type (wt) hamsters and other species. Tau mutants exhibited a 20 h rhythm superimposed on the 24 h modulation. The 20 h component was removed selectively with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wt animals conditioned on a 20 h schedule did not produce a 20 h rhythm, but still expressed the 24 h modulation. The results show that the context entrainable oscillator (CEO) underlying memory for the timing of an unconditioned stimulus, retains a period of about 24 h regardless of clock gene background (tau mutation) and/or the conditioning schedule (24 vs 20 h). Therefore the CEO responsible for time memory is distinct from the biological clock controlling activity; the underlying circadian molecular mechanisms may differ from the ubiquitous transcription-translation feedback oscillator; and time memory itself is not classically conditioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.

  8. Effects of linear and nonlinear time-delayed feedback on the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon in a periodically driven bistable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zheng-Lin; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effects of time delay on the phenomenon of noise-enhanced stability (NES) in a periodically modulated bistable system. Three types of time-delayed feedback, including linear delayed feedback, nonlinear delayed feedback and global delayed feedback, are considered. We find a non-monotonic behaviour of the mean first-passage time (MFPT) as a function of the delay time τ, with a maximum in the case of linear delayed feedback and with a minimum in the case of nonlinear delayed feedback. There are two peculiar values of τ around which the NES phenomenon is enhanced or weakened. For the case of global delayed feedback, the increase of τ always weakens the NES phenomenon. Moreover, we also show that the amplitude A and the frequency Ω of the periodic forcing play an opposite role in the NES phenomenon, i.e. the increase of A weakens the NES effect while the increase of Ω enhances it. These observations demonstrate that the time-delayed feedback can be used as a feasible control scheme for the NES phenomenon

  9. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  10. Prolonged fasting of children before anaesthesia is common in private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Y; Sims, C

    2016-01-01

    Fasting guidelines for children are well established. Despite these guidelines, previous studies have shown children are often fasted for prolonged periods before anaesthesia, potentially causing discomfort and distress. Moreover, recent publications indicate shorter fasting times for oral clear fluids in children may be safe. We audited fasting times of children having elective surgery at a local large private hospital that provides care for both adults and children. We gave feedback and education to our caregivers, then repeated the audit. Data were collected from 307 children (age 6.0 ± 4.1 years) in an initial eight-week audit, and from 153 children (age 6.7 ± 4.5 years) in a follow-up four-week audit. We found fasting durations were excessive in many children. Sixty-two percent of children in each audit fasted longer than four hours for clear fluids. Children on morning lists fasted longer than children on afternoon lists. Fasting from solids was also excessively long. In the initial audit, 30% fasted more than 12 hours for solids, including 18 who last ate more than 16 hours before surgery. Data from the follow-up audit were similar. We conclude that fasting of children at our hospital is excessive, despite our efforts to shorten the duration. We suspect that our hospital is not the only one with a high incidence of prolonged fasting for children and suggest possible solutions.

  11. Nanoparticle tumor localization, disruption of autophagosomal trafficking, and prolonged drug delivery improve survival in peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Colby, Aaron H; Gilmore, Denis; Schulz, Morgan; Zeng, Jialiu; Padera, Robert F; Shirihai, Orian; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-09-01

    The treatment outcomes for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma are poor and associated with high co-morbidities due to suboptimal drug delivery. Thus, there is an unmet need for new approaches that concentrate drug at the tumor for a prolonged period of time yielding enhanced antitumor efficacy and improved metrics of treatment success. A paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive expansile nanoparticle (PTX-eNP) system is described that addresses two unique challenges to improve the outcomes for peritoneal mesothelioma. First, following intraperitoneal administration, eNPs rapidly and specifically localize to tumors. The rate of eNP uptake by tumors is an order of magnitude faster than the rate of uptake in non-malignant cells; and, subsequent accumulation in autophagosomes and disruption of autophagosomal trafficking leads to prolonged intracellular retention of eNPs. The net effect of these combined mechanisms manifests as rapid localization to intraperitoneal tumors within 4 h of injection and persistent intratumoral retention for >14 days. Second, the high tumor-specificity of PTX-eNPs leads to delivery of greater than 100 times higher concentrations of drug in tumors compared to PTX alone and this is maintained for at least seven days following administration. As a result, overall survival of animals with established mesothelioma more than doubled when animals were treated with multiple doses of PTX-eNPs compared to equivalent dosing with PTX or non-responsive PTX-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High frequency dynamics of an isotropic Timoshenko periodic beam by the use of the Time-domain Spectral Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, A.; Krawczuk, M.; Palacz, M.; Doliński, Ł.; Waszkowiak, W.

    2017-11-01

    In this work results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements related to the high frequency dynamics of an aluminium Timoshenko periodic beam are presented. It was assumed by the authors that the source of beam structural periodicity comes from periodical alterations to its geometry due to the presence of appropriately arranged drill-holes. As a consequence of these alterations dynamic characteristics of the beam are changed revealing a set of frequency band gaps. The presence of the frequency band gaps can help in the design process of effective sound filters or sound barriers that can selectively attenuate propagating wave signals of certain frequency contents. In order to achieve this a combination of three numerical techniques were employed by the authors. They comprise the application of the Time-domain Spectral Finite Element Method in the case of analysis of finite and semi-infinite computational domains, damage modelling in the case of analysis of drill-hole influence, as well as the Bloch reduction in the case of analysis of periodic computational domains. As an experimental technique the Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry was chosen. A combined application of all these numerical and experimental techniques appears as new for this purpose and not reported in the literature available.

  13. Safety and efficacy of prolonged epidural analgesia after oncologic colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Garyaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates effective thoracic epidural analgesia by ropivacain 0.2 %, phentanyl 2 mkg/ml, adrenaline 2 mkg/ml in single-use infusion pumps in 124 patients, who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer. Safe, effective and controllable analgesia was observed during surgery and postoperative period. Prolonged analgesia facilitates early rehabilitation and improves gastrointestinal peristaltic activity.  Prolonged epidural analgesia is the recommended method of analgesia in this group of patients.

  14. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  15. The time since last menstrual period is important as a clinical predictor for non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Miyuki; Morimoto, Masami; Honda, Junko; Nagao, Taeko; Nakagawa, Misako; Takahashi, Masako; Tangoku, Akira; Sasa, Mitsunori

    2011-10-10

    The clinical predictors of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia (AIA), a drug-related adverse reaction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), remain unclear. AIA was prospectively surveyed every 4 months in 328 postmenopausal breast cancer patients administered a non-steroidal AI (anastrozole). Various clinicopathological parameters were recorded and analyzed (chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis). The mean observation period was 39.9 months. AIA manifested in 114 patients (34.8%), with peaks of onset at 4 (33.7%) and 8 months (11.4%) after starting AI administration. Some cases manifested even after 13 months. AIA tended to occur in younger patients (incidences of 46.3%, 37.4% and 28.0% for ages of 65 years, respectively (p = 0.063)) and decreased significantly with the age at menarche (53.3%, 35.3% and 15.4% for 15 years, respectively (p = 0.036)). The incidences were 45.1%, 46.3 and 25.1% for the time since the last menstrual period (LMP) 10 years, being significantly lower at > 10 years (p time since LMP > 10-year group versus the time since LMP became shorter ( 10 years since LMP. When the time since LMP was short, the onset of AIA was significantly earlier after starting AI administration.

  16. An analysis of time series of the goods and services national accounts in the Czech Republic within the period of 1993– 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Bodečková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a statistical analysis of time series obtained in studies on the absolute level, variability, dynamics and developmental trends of selected items of national accounts in the transformation period of the Czech national economy and its transition to a market economy. The volume of gross turnover of goods and services, gross value added, gross domestic product and imports of goods and services were explored a base of final expenditure on the one hand and the volume of final consumption expenditure, gross capital formation, gross national final expenditure and exports of goods and services as factors influencing the volume of total final expenditures on the other. Short-terms point extrapolations were calculated on the basis of applied models of developmental trends within the period 1993– 2003.

  17. Controlling periodic ripple microstructure formation on 4H-SiC crystal with three time-delayed femtosecond laser beams of different linear polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanlin; Yang, Jianjun; Guo, Chunlei

    2017-03-06

    The control of laser-induced periodic ripple microstructures on 4H-SiC crystal surface is studied using temporally delayed collinear three femtosecond laser pulse trains linearly polarized in different directions. The ripple orientation appears to develop independent of the individual laser polarizations and exhibits non-monotonical change with variable time delays, whose variation tendency is also affected by the polarization intersection angles. Remarkably, the ripple period is observed to transfer from high- to low-spatial-frequency regions, accompanied by distinctly improved morphological uniformity and clearness. The results are satisfactorily interpreted based on a physical model of the surface wave excitation on a transient index metasurface, which is confirmed by further experiments. Our investigations indicate that transient noneqilibrium dynamics of the material surface provides an effective way to manipulate the laser-induced microstructures.

  18. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-09-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  19. The peculiarity of aerobic energy supply of rat tissues of different age upon prolonged ionizing and thermal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyhun, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Energy-producing functions of brain, myocardium, and hepatic mitochondria in mature and immature rats in remote period after prolonged ionizing X-ray at total dose 12,9 m C/kg and thermal exposure (4 hours, 37 degrees centigrade, 25 times) were studied. Dehydrogenase activities (pyruvate-, isocitrate-, 2-oxy glutarate-, succinate- and malate dehydrogenases) were reduced in mitochondria of different tissues of adult rats and it was especially considerable after combined influence. A higher resistance of young rats, as compared to adult ones, to combined radiation-thermal treatments was established

  20. Short vs prolonged dual antiplatelet treatment upon endovascular stenting of peripheral arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronlage M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mariya Kronlage,1 Maximilian Wassmann,1 Britta Vogel,1 Oliver J Müller,1 Erwin Blessing,2 Hugo Katus,1,3 Christian Erbel1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2SRH Klinikum Karlsbad Langensteinbach, Karlsbad, 3DZHK German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany Introduction: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a highly prevalent disorder with a substantial economical burden. Dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT upon endovascular stenting to prevent acute thrombotic reocclusions is an universally accepted practice for postinterventional management of PAD patients. However, the optimal period of time for DAPT upon endovascular stenting is not known.Methods: In the current nonrandomized, retrospective monocentric study, we evaluated the duration of DAPT upon endovascular stenting. A total of 261 endovascular SFA and iliac stenting procedures were performed on 214 patients and these patients were subdivided into a short (4–6 weeks or a prolonged (8–12 weeks DAPT regime group. More than 65% of the patients included were male, approximately 35% were diabetic, and 61% had a history of smoking. Of all the patients, 90% exhibited a Rutherford stage 2–3, and approximately half of the patients had a moderate-to-severe calcified target lesion with a length of >13 cm. Major safety end points were defined as any bleeding, compartment syndrome, and ischemic events. In addition to this, patency, all-cause mortality, as well as amputation were followed up over a period of 12 months upon intervention.Results: Twelve months after endovascular stenting, primary patency in our cohort was comparable between the groups (83.94% short vs 79.8% long DAPT, P>0.05. Major bleeding occurred in 18 cases without any difference between the groups (P>0.05. In addition, during the 12-month follow-up, 6 (3.4% patients in the short and 3 (3.5% in the prolonged DAPT regime