WorldWideScience

Sample records for prolonged sleep disruption

  1. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Schleimer, Robert P; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS. Expert commentary: These studies reported sleep disruption in most CRS patients. The main risk factors for sleep disruption in CRS include allergic rhinitis, smoking, and high SNOT-22 total scores. The literature is inconsistent with regard to the prevalence of sleep-related disordered breathing (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea) in CRS patients. Although nasal obstruction is linked to sleep disruption, the extent of sleep disruption in CRS seems to expand beyond that expected from physical blockage of the upper airways alone. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disruption in CRS, and its detrimental effects on QOL, the literature contains a paucity of studies that have investigated the mechanisms underlying this major problem in CRS.

  2. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.; Cirelli, C.; Dijk, D.J.; Van Cauter, E.; Schwartz, S.; Chee, M.W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of

  3. Disrupted Sleep : From Molecules to Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Someren, Eus J W; Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and

  4. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  5. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  7. Sleep disruption among cancer patients following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashley M; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Nishihori, Taiga; Gonzalez, Brian D; Cessna, Julie M; Hyland, Kelly A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    Despite a high prevalence of sleep disruption among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little research has investigated its relationships with modifiable cognitive or behavioral factors or used actigraphy to characterize sleep disruption in this population. Autologous HCT recipients who were 6-18 months post transplant completed self-report measures of cancer-related distress, fear of cancer recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors upon enrollment. Patients then wore an actigraph for 7 days and completed a self-report measure of sleep disruption on day 7 of the study. Among the 84 participants (age M = 60, 45% female), 41% reported clinically relevant sleep disruption. Examination of actigraph data confirmed that, on average, sleep was disrupted (wake after sleep onset M = 66 min) and sleep efficiency was less than recommended (sleep efficiency M = 78%). Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors were related to self-reported sleep disruption (p valuesdisruption after transplant. Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and maladaptive sleep behaviors are related to self-reported sleep disruption and should be considered targets for cognitive behavioral intervention in this population.

  8. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  10. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  11. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Husse

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies demonstrate that short sleep or poor sleep quality, e.g. in night shift workers, promote the development of obesity and diabetes. Effects of sleep disruption on glucose homeostasis and liver physiology are well documented. However, changes in adipokine levels after sleep disruption suggest that adipocytes might be another important peripheral target of sleep. Circadian clocks regulate metabolic homeostasis and clock disruption can result in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding that sleep and clock disruption have very similar metabolic effects prompted us to ask whether the circadian clock machinery may mediate the metabolic consequences of sleep disruption. To test this we analyzed energy homeostasis and adipocyte transcriptome regulation in a mouse model of shift work, in which we prevented mice from sleeping during the first six hours of their normal inactive phase for five consecutive days (timed sleep restriction--TSR. We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a blunted metabolic response to TSR. In wild-types, TSR induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of white adipose tissue, suggestive of increased lipogenesis, together with increased secretion of the adipokine leptin and increased food intake, hallmarks of obesity and associated leptin resistance. Some of these changes persist for at least one week after the end of TSR, indicating that even short episodes of sleep disruption can induce prolonged physiological impairments. In contrast, Per1/2 deficient mice show blunted effects of TSR on food intake, leptin levels and adipose transcription. We conclude that the absence of a functional clock in Per1/2 double mutants protects these mice from TSR-induced metabolic reprogramming, suggesting a role of the circadian timing system in regulating the physiological effects

  12. Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Disruption: Causes, Metabolic Consequences, and Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gregory D M; Skene, Debra J; Arendt, Josephine; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-12-01

    Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption. A large proportion of the world's population is at increased risk of environmentally driven circadian rhythm and sleep disruption, and a minority of individuals are also genetically predisposed to circadian misalignment and sleep disorders. The consequences of disruption to the circadian system and sleep are profound and include myriad metabolic ramifications, some of which may be compounded by adverse effects on dietary choices. If not addressed, the deleterious effects of such disruption will continue to cause widespread health problems; therefore, implementation of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions that can help restore circadian system alignment and enhance sleep will be important.

  13. Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Disruption: Causes, Metabolic Consequences, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Debra J.; Arendt, Josephine; Cade, Janet E.; Grant, Peter J.; Hardie, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption. A large proportion of the world's population is at increased risk of environmentally driven circadian rhythm and sleep disruption, and a minority of individuals are also genetically predisposed to circadian misalignment and sleep disorders. The consequences of disruption to the circadian system and sleep are profound and include myriad metabolic ramifications, some of which may be compounded by adverse effects on dietary choices. If not addressed, the deleterious effects of such disruption will continue to cause widespread health problems; therefore, implementation of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions that can help restore circadian system alignment and enhance sleep will be important. PMID:27763782

  14. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-04

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (-5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness.

  15. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  16. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in neuropsychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Aarti; Peirson, Stuart N; Foster, Russell G

    2013-10-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is a common feature in many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, recent evidence suggests that this comorbidity is not simply a product of medication or an absence of social routine, but instead reflects commonly affected underlying pathways and mechanisms. For example, several genes intimately involved in the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep have been linked to psychiatric illness. Further, several genes linked to mental illness have recently been shown to also play a role in normal sleep and circadian behaviour. Here we describe some of the emerging common mechanisms that link circadian rhythms, sleep and SCRD in severe mental illnesses. A deeper understanding of these links will provide not only a greater understanding of disease mechanisms, but also holds the promise of novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sleep Disruption in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M.; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M.; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of patients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, up to 82% experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant, and up to 43% in the post-transplant period. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. The review opens with a discussion of sleep disruption measurement and clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders. An overview of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of sleep disruption and disorders in patients receiving HCT follows. Current evidence regarding sociodemographic and clinical predictors of sleep disruption and disorders is summarized. The review concludes with suggestions for behavioral and pharmacologic management of sleep disruption and disorders as well as directions for future research. PMID:24747335

  18. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02 m/s for working and 0.00 m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90 s stop mode every 2 min; 180 cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10 min working and 30 min stop mode, 9 cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4 mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30 min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. Copyright

  19. Understanding and managing sleep disruption in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Chen, Maida Lynn; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2018-04-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed high rates of sleep disruption among children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Multiple animal and clinical studies have found a clear association between sleep problems and prenatal alcohol exposure, and recent research is beginning to characterize the types and extent of sleep disruption in FASD. Nevertheless, sleep disruption in children with FASD often goes unrecognized or is treated without referring to an evidence base. Children's disrupted sleep interferes with parental sleep and increases caregiver burden, which is of particular importance for families raising children with FASD, a group with very high levels of caregiving stress. The literature supporting an association between sleep problems and deficits in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive function in children is compelling, but needs further investigation in children with FASD. This paper will review the current state of knowledge on sleep in FASD and recommend a rational approach to sleep interventions for affected children and their families.

  20. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and…

  1. Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain and the alpha-sleep anomaly: a mechanism of sleep disruption in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Frusciante, Roberto; Vollono, Catello; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Gnoni, Valentina; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Erra, Carmen; Mazza, Salvatore; Ricci, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    To measure the presence of the alpha-sleep anomaly in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and to evaluate the association between the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. Fifty-five consecutive adult FSHD patients, 26 women and 29 men, age 49.6 ± 15.1 years (range 18-76). Questionnaires and polysomnography. Patients were asked to indicate if in the 3 months before the sleep study they presented persisting or recurring musculoskeletal pain. Patients who reported pain were asked to fill in the Italian version of the Brief Pain Inventory and the McGill Pain questionnaire, and a 101-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain intensity. Polysomnographic recordings were performed. EEG was analyzed by means of Fast Fourier Transform. Four power spectra bands (δ 0-4 Hz, θ 4-8 Hz, α 8-14 Hz, β 14-32 Hz) were computed. Sleep macrostructure parameters and alpha/delta EEG power ratio during non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were compared between patients with and without pain. Forty-two patients in our sample reported chronic pain. VAS mean score was 55.2 ± 23.8 (range 10-100), pain rating index score was 13.8 ± 10.2, and present pain intensity was 2.5 ± 0.8. The statistical analysis documented an increased occurrence of the alpha and beta rhythms during NREM sleep in FSHD patients with pain. Significant correlations were observed between the alpha/delta power ratio during NREM sleep and pain measures. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is frequent in FSHD patients, and it represents a major mechanism of sleep disruption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Morning administration of oral methamphetamine dose-dependently disrupts nighttime sleep in recreational stimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sex-selective QT prolongation during rapid eye movement sleep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanfranchi, P.; Shamsuzzaman, A. S.; Ackerman, M. J.; Kára, T.; Jurák, Pavel; Wolk, R.; Somers, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 12 (2002), s. 1488 - 1492 ISSN 0009-7322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0467; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : sleep * sex * nervous system Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 10.255, year: 2002

  5. Sleep Disruption at Home As an Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Oliver M; Gelrich, Lisa; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Driessen, Martin; Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether sleep disruption at home or in hospital is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium in older adults undergoing elective surgery. Prospective cohort study. German teaching hospital. Individuals aged 65 and older undergoing elective arthroplasty (N = 101). Preoperative questionnaires were used to assess sleep disruption at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep disruption in the hospital before and after surgery. Delirium was assessed daily after surgery using the Confusion Assessment Method and, if there was uncertainty, validated according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), criteria. Twenty-seven participants developed postoperative delirium. Those with sleep disruption at home were 3.26 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-7.92, P = .009). Participants with sleep disruption in hospital were 1.21 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% CI = 1.03-1.41, P = .02). When adjusting for other variables, risk remained significant for sleep disruption at home (risk ratio (RR) = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.14-7.11, P delirium than those without. Sleep disruption in the hospital may further heighten this risk. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Sleep Disruption Medical Intervention Forecasting (SDMIF) Module for the Integrated Medical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Brooker, John; Mallis, Melissa; Hursh, Steve; Caldwell, Lynn; Myers, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fatigue due to sleep disruption is a condition that could lead to operational errors, potentially resulting in loss of mission or crew. Pharmacological consumables are mitigation strategies used to manage the risks associated with sleep deficits. The likelihood of medical intervention due to sleep disruption was estimated with a well validated sleep model and a Monte Carlo computer simulation in an effort to optimize the quantity of consumables. METHODS: The key components of the model are the mission parameter program, the calculation of sleep intensity and the diagnosis and decision module. The mission parameter program was used to create simulated daily sleep/wake schedules for an ISS increment. The hypothetical schedules included critical events such as dockings and extravehicular activities and included actual sleep time and sleep quality. The schedules were used as inputs to the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) Model (IBR Inc., Baltimore MD), which calculated sleep intensity. Sleep data from an ISS study was used to relate calculated sleep intensity to the probability of sleep medication use, using a generalized linear model for binomial regression. A human yes/no decision process using a binomial random number was also factored into sleep medication use probability. RESULTS: These probability calculations were repeated 5000 times resulting in an estimate of the most likely amount of sleep aids used during an ISS mission and a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: These results were transferred to the parent IMM for further weighting and integration with other medical conditions, to help inform operational decisions. This model is a potential planning tool for ensuring adequate sleep during sleep disrupted periods of a mission.

  8. Sleep and circadian disruption and incident breast cancer risk: An evidence-based and theoretical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Laura B; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Hall, Martica H

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for restorative sleep and optimal sleep-wake schedules are becoming luxuries in industrialized cultures, yet accumulating research has revealed multiple adverse health effects of disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms, including increased risk of breast cancer. The literature on breast cancer risk has focused largely on adverse effects of night shift work and exposure to light at night (LAN), without considering potential effects of associated sleep disruptions. As it stands, studies on breast cancer risk have not considered the impact of both sleep and circadian disruption, and the possible interaction of the two through bidirectional pathways, on breast cancer risk in the population at large. We review and synthesize this literature, including: 1) studies of circadian disruption and incident breast cancer; 2) evidence for bidirectional interactions between sleep and circadian systems; 3) studies of sleep and incident breast cancer; and 4) potential mechanistic pathways by which interrelated sleep and circadian disruption may contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  10. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Medic,Goran; Wille,Micheline; Hemels,Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectiv...

  11. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  12. Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-α pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vijay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who have disrupted sleep as a result of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition associated with prominent sleep fragmentation. The aim of this study was to examine role of the TNF-α pathway after long-term sleep fragmentation in mice. Methods The effect of chronic sleep fragmentation during the sleep-predominant period on sleep architecture, sleep latency, cognitive function, behavior, and inflammatory markers was assessed in C57BL/6 J and in mice lacking the TNF-α receptor (double knockout mice. In addition, we also assessed the above parameters in C57BL/6 J mice after injection of a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Results Mice subjected to chronic sleep fragmentation had preserved sleep duration, sleep state distribution, and cumulative delta frequency power, but also exhibited excessive sleepiness, altered cognitive abilities and mood correlates, reduced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, and increased phosphodiesterase-4 expression, in the absence of AMP kinase-α phosphorylation and ATP changes. Selective increases in cortical expression of TNF-α primarily circumscribed to neurons emerged. Consequently, sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction were absent in TNF-α double receptor knockout mice subjected to sleep fragmentation, and similarly, treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody abrogated sleep fragmentation-induced learning deficits and increases in sleep propensity. Conclusions Taken together

  13. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  14. Sleep quality and circadian rhythm disruption in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Toft, Palle

    2017-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm are reported to be severely abnormal in critically ill patients. Disturbed sleep can lead to the development of delirium and, as a result, can be associated with prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and increased mortality. The standard criterion method...... aiming to improve sleep quality and circadian rhythm in the ICU. The results of these studies were inconclusive due to using the sleep assessment methods other than PSG or the absence of a reliable sleep scoring tool for the analysis of the PSG findings in this patient population. Development of a valid......, medication, as well as the critical illness itself have been reported as important sleep disturbing factors. Secretion of sleep hormone, melatonin, expressing circadian rhythmicity was found abolished or phase delayed in critically ill patients. Various interventions have been tested in several studies...

  15. Association between Sleep Disruption and Levels of Lipids in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wan Mahmood, Wan Aizad

    2013-08-29

    Aim. To investigate the association between sleep quality and duration with lipid and glycaemic control in Caucasian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in 114 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects. Comparisons were made between subjects with different sleep quality and sleep duration. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine contributors to metabolic parameters. Results. Subjects with poor sleep quality (PQ; PSQI ≥ 6) had higher systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, urine albumin : creatinine ratio (UAC), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05 for all) compared to those with good sleep quality (GQ; PSQI ≤ 5). Long sleep duration (LSD) subjects had higher TC and short sleep duration (SSD) subjects had higher TG compared to those with medium sleep duration. Sleep duration and PSQI score were independent predictors of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), contributing to 14.0% and 6.1% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions. In this Caucasian T2DM population, PQ is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk markers, and long and short sleep disruptions have an independent negative impact on lipids. Sleep assessment should be included as part of a diabetes clinic review.

  16. The impact of breaking up prolonged sitting on glucose metabolism and cognitive function when sleep is restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: There were no observable benefits of breaking up prolonged sitting on glucose metabolism under conditions of sleep restriction. These findings have implications for behaviour change interventions. Future studies will need to include larger, less homogenous study populations and appropriate control conditions (i.e., 8–9 h sleep opportunities.

  17. Whole blood genome-wide gene expression profile in males after prolonged wakefulness and sleep recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, R; Sunaga, D Y; Guindalini, C; Martins, R C S; Mazzotti, D R; Wei, Z; Daye, Z J; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2012-11-01

    Although the specific functions of sleep have not been completely elucidated, the literature has suggested that sleep is essential for proper homeostasis. Sleep loss is associated with changes in behavioral, neurochemical, cellular, and metabolic function as well as impaired immune response. Using high-resolution microarrays we evaluated the gene expression profiles of healthy male volunteers who underwent 60 h of prolonged wakefulness (PW) followed by 12 h of sleep recovery (SR). Peripheral whole blood was collected at 8 am in the morning before the initiation of PW (Baseline), after the second night of PW, and one night after SR. We identified over 500 genes that were differentially expressed. Notably, these genes were related to DNA damage and repair and stress response, as well as diverse immune system responses, such as natural killer pathways including killer cell lectin-like receptors family, as well as granzymes and T-cell receptors, which play important roles in host defense. These results support the idea that sleep loss can lead to alterations in molecular processes that result in perturbation of cellular immunity, induction of inflammatory responses, and homeostatic imbalance. Moreover, expression of multiple genes was downregulated following PW and upregulated after SR compared with PW, suggesting an attempt of the body to re-establish internal homeostasis. In silico validation of alterations in the expression of CETN3, DNAJC, and CEACAM genes confirmed previous findings related to the molecular effects of sleep deprivation. Thus, the present findings confirm that the effects of sleep loss are not restricted to the brain and can occur intensely in peripheral tissues.

  18. Nanoparticle tumor localization, disruption of autophagosomal trafficking, and prolonged drug delivery improve survival in peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Colby, Aaron H; Gilmore, Denis; Schulz, Morgan; Zeng, Jialiu; Padera, Robert F; Shirihai, Orian; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-09-01

    The treatment outcomes for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma are poor and associated with high co-morbidities due to suboptimal drug delivery. Thus, there is an unmet need for new approaches that concentrate drug at the tumor for a prolonged period of time yielding enhanced antitumor efficacy and improved metrics of treatment success. A paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive expansile nanoparticle (PTX-eNP) system is described that addresses two unique challenges to improve the outcomes for peritoneal mesothelioma. First, following intraperitoneal administration, eNPs rapidly and specifically localize to tumors. The rate of eNP uptake by tumors is an order of magnitude faster than the rate of uptake in non-malignant cells; and, subsequent accumulation in autophagosomes and disruption of autophagosomal trafficking leads to prolonged intracellular retention of eNPs. The net effect of these combined mechanisms manifests as rapid localization to intraperitoneal tumors within 4 h of injection and persistent intratumoral retention for >14 days. Second, the high tumor-specificity of PTX-eNPs leads to delivery of greater than 100 times higher concentrations of drug in tumors compared to PTX alone and this is maintained for at least seven days following administration. As a result, overall survival of animals with established mesothelioma more than doubled when animals were treated with multiple doses of PTX-eNPs compared to equivalent dosing with PTX or non-responsive PTX-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in social jetlag and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Wulff, Katharina; Winnebeck, Eva; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

    2013-01-01

    Sleep and wake represent two profoundly different states of physiology that arise within the brain from a complex interaction between multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. These neural networks are, in turn, adjusted by three key drivers that collectively determine the duration, quality, and efficiency of sleep. Two of these drivers are endogenous, namely, the circadian system and a homeostatic hourglass oscillator, while the third is exogenous-our societal structure (social time). In this chapter, we outline the neuroscience of sleep and highlight the links between sleep, mood, cognition, and mental health. We emphasize that the complexity of sleep/wake generation and regulation makes this behavioral cycle very vulnerable to disruption and then explore this concept by examining sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) when the exogenous and endogenous drivers of sleep are in conflict. SCRD can be particularly severe when social timing forces an abnormal pattern of sleep and wake upon our endogenous sleep biology. SCRD is also very common in mental illness, and although well known, this association is poorly understood or treated. Recent studies suggest that the generation of sleep and mental health shares overlapping neural mechanisms such that defects in these endogenous pathways result in pathologies to both behaviors. The evidence for this association is examined in some detail. We conclude this review by suggesting that the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of sleep/wake behavior, and of the health consequences of sleep disruption, will provide new ways to decrease the conflict between biological and societal timing in both the healthy and individuals with mental illness. © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Sleep duration and disruption and prostate cancer risk: a 23-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Batista, Julie L.; Haneuse, Sebastien; Lockley, Steven W.; Stampfer, Meir; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deficiency is a major public health problem. There are limited human data on whether sleep duration or disruption are risk factors for prostate cancer. Methods We prospectively followed 32,141 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who reported their typical sleep duration in 1987, 2000 and 2008. We identified 4,261 incident prostate cancer cases, including 563 lethal cases through 2010. Sleep disruption was assessed in 2004 among 19,639 men, with 930 prostate cancer cases (50 lethal) identified from 2004-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between sleep insufficiency and risk of overall and lethal prostate cancer. Results In 1987, 2% of men reported sleeping ≤5 hours/night. We found no association between habitual sleep duration or change in sleep duration with risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer. We also found no association between waking up during the night, difficulty falling asleep, or waking up too early and risk of prostate cancer. In 2004, 6% of men reported never feeling rested when they woke up; these men had an increased risk of developing lethal prostate cancer compared to those who reported always feeling rested when they woke up (RR=3.05, 95% CI=1.15-8.10). Conclusions We found no consistent association between self-reported sleep duration or sleep disruption and any of our prostate cancer outcomes. Impact We did not find support for a consistent association between self-reported sleep and risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer in this large cohort of men. PMID:26677208

  1. Sleep loss disrupts Arc expression in dentate gyrus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, James E; Kodoth, Varna; Aton, Sara J

    2018-04-07

    Sleep loss affects many aspects of cognition, and memory consolidation processes occurring in the hippocampus seem particularly vulnerable to sleep loss. The immediate-early gene Arc plays an essential role in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation, and its expression is altered by sleep. Here, using a variety of techniques, we have characterized the effects of brief (3-h) periods of sleep vs. sleep deprivation (SD) on the expression of Arc mRNA and Arc protein in the mouse hippocampus and cortex. By comparing the relative abundance of mature Arc mRNA with unspliced pre-mRNA, we see evidence that during SD, increases in Arc across the cortex, but not hippocampus, reflect de novo transcription. Arc increases in the hippocampus during SD are not accompanied by changes in pre-mRNA levels, suggesting that increases in mRNA stability, not transcription, drives this change. Using in situ hybridization (together with behavioral observation to quantify sleep amounts), we find that in the dorsal hippocampus, SD minimally affects Arc mRNA expression, and decreases the number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells expressing Arc. This is in contrast to neighboring cortical areas, which show large increases in neuronal Arc expression after SD. Using immunohistochemistry, we find that Arc protein expression is also differentially affected in the cortex and DG with SD - while larger numbers of cortical neurons are Arc+, fewer DG granule cells are Arc+, relative to the same regions in sleeping mice. These data suggest that with regard to expression of plasticity-regulating genes, sleep (and SD) can have differential effects in hippocampal and cortical areas. This may provide a clue regarding the susceptibility of performance on hippocampus-dependent tasks to deficits following even brief periods of sleep loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Gender differences in sleep disruption and fatigue on quality of life among persons with ostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carol M; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa J; McMullen, Carmit; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in sleep disruption and fatigue of men and women colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with intestinal ostomies and associated health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Participants in this cross-sectional study of long-term (> 5 years) CRC survivors received care at Kaiser Permanente. Measures included the City of Hope QOL Ostomy questionnaire with narrative comments for ostomy-related "greatest challenges." The Short Form-36 Version 2 (SF-36v2) health survey provided physical (PCS) and mental composite scale (MCS) scores to examine generic HR-QOL. The "sleep disruption" and "fatigue" items from the ostomy questionnaire (scale from 0 to 10 with higher scores indicating better HR-QOL) were dependent variables, while independent variables included age, ethnicity, education, partnered status, body mass index, and time since surgery. Data were analyzed using chi-square for nominal variables, Student t-tests for continuous variables, and logistic regression with significance set at p ostomy-specific measure, women (n = 118) compared to men (n = 168) reported more sleep disruption (p ostomy-associated fear of or actual leakage during sleep. Although women CRC survivors with ostomies report more sleep disruption and fatigue, which is reflected in their reduced physical and mental health scores on the SF-36v2 compared to men with ostomies, their stated reasons for disrupted sleep are similar to their male counterparts. These findings can provide a foundation for gender-relevant ostomy interventions to improve sleep and HR-QOL in this patient population.

  3. Insomnia and sleep disruption: relevance for athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Damien; Metlaine, Arnaud; Choudat, Dominique

    2005-04-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep complaint even in young adults and has important daytime consequences. Several subjective and objective tools are recommended to assess the magnitude of the problem and to try to find a cause. Chronic insomnia is often caused by precipitating factors, such as acute stress, work conditions, illness, and travel, and perpetuating factors, such as poor sleep hygiene, anxiety, and medications. Insomnia may have implications in athletic performance resulting from physical and cognitive effects. Several pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are employed in the management of insomnia that have proven effective for short-term treatment. The pharmacologic approaches include the use of zolpidem and specific GABA agonists, benzodiazepines for specific indications, antidepressants, and melatonin. The nonpharmacologic approaches include stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation strategies, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  4. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.

  5. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300 and reaction time [visual (VRT and auditory (ART] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st day, fourth (4th day and seventh (7th day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18–35 years (n=50 after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep (n=28 working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h; Group II-(Restricted sleep (n=22 - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h. Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ʻtʼ test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSSscore, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  6. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao; Dadarao Dhanvijay, Anup Kumar; Alam, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300) and reaction time [visual (VRT) and auditory (ART)] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st) day, fourth (4th) day and seventh (7th) day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18-35 years) (n=50) after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep) (n=28) working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h); Group II-(Restricted sleep) (n=22) - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h). Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ' t ' test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSS)score, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  7. Chronic disruptions of circadian sleep regulation induce specific proinflammatory responses in the rat colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polidarová, Lenka; Houdek, Pavel; Sumová, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2017), s. 1273-1287 ISSN 0742-0528 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07711S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : aging * colon * constant light * melatonin * proinflammatory cytokine * Rgs16 * sleep disruption Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2016

  8. Cold hands, warm feet: sleep deprivation disrupts thermoregulation and its association with vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeijn, Nico; Verweij, Ilse M; Koeleman, Anne; Mooij, Anne; Steimke, Rosa; Virkkala, Jussi; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-12-01

    Vigilance is affected by induced and spontaneous skin temperature fluctuations. Whereas sleep deprivation strongly affects vigilance, no previous study examined in detail its effect on human skin temperature fluctuations and their association with vigilance. In a repeated-measures constant routine design, skin temperatures were assessed continuously from 14 locations while performance was assessed using a reaction time task, including eyes-open video monitoring, performed five times a day for 2 days, after a normal sleep or sleep deprivation night. Participants were seated in a dimly lit, temperature-controlled laboratory. Eight healthy young adults (five males, age 22.0 ± 1.8 yr (mean ± standard deviation)). One night of sleep deprivation. Mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on skin temperature gradients of the upper (ear-mastoid), middle (hand-arm), and lower (foot-leg) body, and on the association between fluctuations in performance and in temperature gradients. Sleep deprivation induced a marked dissociation of thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients, indicative of attenuated heat loss from the hands co-occurring with enhanced heat loss from the feet. Sleep deprivation moreover attenuated the association between fluctuations in performance and temperature gradients; the association was best preserved for the upper body gradient. Sleep deprivation disrupts coordination of fluctuations in thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients. The dissociation of middle and lower body temperature gradients may therefore be evaluated as a marker for sleep debt, and the upper body gradient as a possible aid in vigilance assessment when sleep debt is unknown. Importantly, our findings suggest that sleep deprivation affects the coordination between skin blood flow fluctuations and the baroreceptor-mediated cardiovascular regulation that prevents venous pooling of blood in the lower limbs when there is the orthostatic

  9. Type 2 diabetes affects sleep quality by disrupting the respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbay, Gulcan; Cetin, Mustafa; Colbay, Mehmet; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-09-01

    The effects of diabetes on the respiratory system were investigated with arterial blood gas, sleep quality index and respiratory functions tests. Fifty-three patients with type II diabetes and 41 healthy cases were included. Their biochemical data, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and echocardiographic findings were collected from polyclinic records. Respiratory function tests were performed for all subjects and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was conducted. Aforementioned data were compared between these two groups. The age, body weight and body mass index were similar but oxygen pressure, oxygen saturation, forced vital capacity (FVC; %), and sleep quality were decreased in patients with diabetes. Sleep quality was correlated with the presence of diabetes and hypertension, duration of diabetes, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, Glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and FVC. Half of the diabetic patients exhibited respiratory failure during sleep. Especially diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy, experienced a more severe and prolonged decrease in oxygen saturation. Blood gas, respiratory functions and sleep quality, which need to be evaluated as a whole, were affected in patients with diabetes. Assessment of sleep and its quality requires special attention in patients with diabetes. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Dim light at night does not disrupt timing or quality of sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Weil, Zachary M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-10-01

    Artificial nighttime illumination has recently become commonplace throughout the world; however, in common with other animals, humans have not evolved in the ecological context of chronic light at night. With prevailing evidence linking the circadian, endocrine, immune, and metabolic systems, understanding these relationships is important to understanding the etiology and progression of several diseases. To eliminate the covariate of sleep disruption in light at night studies, researchers often use nocturnal animals. However, the assumption that light at night does not affect sleep in nocturnal animals remains unspecified. To test the effects of light at night on sleep, we maintained Swiss-Webster mice in standard light/dark (LD) or dim light at night (DLAN) conditions for 8-10 wks and then measured electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) biopotentials via wireless telemetry over the course of two consecutive days to determine differences in sleep timing and homeostasis. Results show no statistical differences in total percent time, number of episodes, maximum or average episode durations in wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. No differences were evident in SWS delta power, an index of sleep drive, between groups. Mice kept in DLAN conditions showed a relative increase in REM sleep during the first few hours after the dark/light transition. Both groups displayed normal 24-h circadian rhythms as measured by voluntary running wheel activity. Groups did not differ in body mass, but a marked negative correlation of body mass with percent time spent awake and a positive correlation of body mass with time spent in SWS was evident. Elevated body mass was also associated with shorter maximum wake episode durations, indicating heavier animals had more trouble remaining in the wake vigilance state for extended periods of time. Body mass did not correlate with activity levels, nor did activity levels correlate with time spent in

  11. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Behn, Cecilia Diniz; Butler, Matthew P.; Challet, Etienne; Czeisler, Charles; Depner, Christopher M.; Elmquist, Joel; Franken, Paul; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Keene, Alex C.; Joyner, Michael J.; Karatsoreos, Ilia; Kern, Philip A.; Klein, Samuel; Morris, Christopher J.; Pack, Allan I.; Panda, Satchidananda; Ptacek, Louis J.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Scheer, Frank A.; Saxena, Richa; Seaquest, Elizabeth R.; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Van Cauter, Eve; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop was held at the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with a focus on the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on energy balance and diabetes. The workshop identified a number of key principles for research in this area and a number of specific opportunities. Studies in this area would be facilitated by active collaboration between investigators in sleep/circadian research and investigators in metabolism/diabetes. There is a need to translate the elegant findings from basic research into improving the metabolic health of the American public. There is also a need for investigators studying the impact of sleep/circadian disruption in humans to move beyond measurements of insulin and glucose and conduct more in-depth phenotyping. There is also a need for the assessments of sleep and circadian rhythms as well as assessments for sleep-disordered breathing to be incorporated into all ongoing cohort studies related to diabetes risk. Studies in humans need to complement the elegant short-term laboratory-based human studies of simulated short sleep and shift work etc. with studies in subjects in the general population with these disorders. It is conceivable that chronic adaptations occur, and if so, the mechanisms by which they occur needs to be identified and understood. Particular areas of opportunity that are ready for translation are studies to address whether CPAP treatment of patients with pre-diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevents or delays the onset of diabetes and whether temporal restricted feeding has the same impact on obesity rates in humans as it does in mice. Citation: Arble DM, Bass J, Behn CD, Butler MP, Challet E, Czeisler C, Depner CM, Elmquist J, Franken P, Grandner MA, Hanlon EC, Keene AC, Joyner MJ, Karatsoreos I, Kern PA, Klein S, Morris CJ, Pack AI, Panda S, Ptacek LJ, Punjabi NM, Sassone-Corsi P, Scheer FA, Saxena R, Seaquest ER, Thimgan MS, Van Cauter E, Wright KP. Impact of sleep and

  12. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tomczak; J. Gajewski; J Mazur–Różycka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival).The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival) the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: ...

  13. Estimating the Need for Medical Intervention due to Sleep Disruption on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Hurst, S. R.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Caldwell, J. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    During ISS and shuttle missions, difficulties with sleep affect more than half of all US crews. Mitigation strategies to help astronauts cope with the challenges of disrupted sleep patterns can negatively impact both mission planning and vehicle design. The methods for addressing known detrimental impacts for some mission scenarios may have a substantial impact on vehicle specific consumable mass or volume or on the mission timeline. As part of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) task, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading the development of a Monte Carlo based forecasting tool designed to determine the consumables required to address risks related to sleep disruption. The model currently focuses on the International Space Station and uses an algorithm that assembles representative mission schedules and feeds this into a well validated model that predicts relative levels of performance, and need for sleep (SAFTE Model, IBR Inc). Correlation of the resulting output to self-diagnosed needs for hypnotics, stimulants, and other pharmaceutical countermeasures, allows prediction of pharmaceutical use and the uncertainty of the specified prediction. This paper outlines a conceptual model for determining a rate of pharmaceutical utilization that can be used in the IMM model for comparison and optimization of mitigation methods with respect to all other significant medical needs and interventions.

  14. Sleep disruption and duration in late pregnancy is associated with excess gestational weight gain among overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L; Richoux, Sarah E; Beebe, Kathleen R; Lee, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Poor sleep during pregnancy has been associated with poorer birth outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) is often associated with poor sleep, but little is known about the relationship between gestational weight gain and sleep in late pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships of both gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy BMI to objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=128) were recruited from prenatal clinics and childbirth classes primarily serving low-income women. Their sleep (disruption and duration) was objectively assessed in their last month of pregnancy with 72 hours of wrist actigraphy monitoring. Their perceived sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy height and weight were assessed by self-report and used to calculate BMI and gestational weight gain, which were then grouped into standardized categories. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 6.8 ± 3.1 (range 2-16). Sixty percent had excess gestational weight gain and it was associated with poorer perceived sleep quality, but was unrelated to objective measures of sleep duration and disruption. Pre-pregnancy BMI was unrelated to all sleep parameters. However, analyses of the interaction of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain indicated that excess weight gain was associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep disruption, but only among women who were overweight before pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportunity to promote long-term women's health with a better understanding of the relationship between weight management and healthy sleep habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The association between prolonged sleep onset latency and heart rate dynamics among young sleep-onset insomniacs and good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Kuo, Terry B J; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-12-30

    A blunting of heart rate (HR) reduction during sleep has been reported to be associated with increased all-cause mortality. An increased incident of cardiovascular events has been observed in patients with insomnia but the relationship between nighttime HR and insomnia remains unclear. Here we investigated the HR patterns during the sleep onset period and its association with the length of sleep onset latency (SOL). Nineteen sleep-onset insomniacs (SOI) and 14 good sleepers had their sleep analyzed. Linear regression and nonlinear Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of the HR slope were performed in order to analyze HR dynamics during the sleep onset period. A significant depression in HR fluctuation was identified among the SOI group during the sleep onset period when linear regression and HHT analysis were applied. The magnitude of the HR reduction was associated with both polysomnography-defined and subjective SOL; moreover, we found that the linear regression and HHT slopes of the HR showed great sensitivity with respect to sleep quality. Our findings indicate that HR dynamics during the sleep onset period are sensitive to sleep initiation difficulty and respond to the SOL, which indicates that the presence of autonomic dysfunction would seem to affect the progress of falling asleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Sleep Disrupts High-Level Speech Parsing Despite Significant Basic Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Shiri; Sharon, Omer; Ding, Nai; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Nir, Yuval; Zion Golumbic, Elana

    2017-08-09

    The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed using noninvasive brain recordings that have thus far only been tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that allows monitoring the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech online. Speech sequences were compiled with syllables, words, phrases, and sentences occurring at fixed time intervals such that different linguistic levels correspond to distinct frequencies. This enabled us to distinguish their neural signatures in brain activity. We compared the neural tracking of intelligible versus unintelligible (scrambled and foreign) speech across states of wakefulness and sleep using high-density EEG in humans. We found that neural tracking of stimulus acoustics was comparable across wakefulness and sleep and similar across all conditions regardless of speech intelligibility. In contrast, neural tracking of higher-order linguistic constructs (words, phrases, and sentences) was only observed for intelligible speech during wakefulness and could not be detected at all during nonrapid eye movement or rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that, whereas low-level auditory processing is relatively preserved during sleep, higher-level hierarchical linguistic parsing is severely disrupted, thereby revealing the capacity and limits of language processing during sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the persistence of some sensory processing during sleep, it is unclear whether high-level cognitive processes such as speech

  17. Severity, course, and predictors of sleep disruption following hematopoietic cell transplantation: a secondary data analysis from the BMT CTN 0902 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Sutton, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S; Wood, William A; Jacobsen, Paul B; Wingard, John R; Wu, Juan; Knight, Jennifer M; Syrjala, Karen L; Lee, Stephanie J

    2018-03-07

    Sleep disruption has received little attention in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The goal of this study was to describe severity, course, and predictors of sleep disruption following HCT. A secondary data analysis was conducted of the Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902 study. Participants completed a modified version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index prior to transplant and 100 and 180 days posttransplant. Growth mixture models were used to characterize subgroups of patients based on baseline sleep disruption and change over time. A total of 570 patients (mean age 55 years, 42% female) were included in the current analyses. Patients could be grouped into four distinct classes based on sleep disruption: (1) clinically significant sleep disruption at baseline that did not improve over time (20%); (2) clinically significant sleep disruption at baseline that improved over time (22%); (3) sleep disruption that did not reach clinical significance at baseline and did not improve over time (45%); and (4) no sleep disruption at baseline or over time (13%). These data provide a more comprehensive understanding of sleep disruption that can be used to develop interventions to improve sleep in HCT recipients.

  18. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep Disturbance Following Concussion Is a Risk Factor for a Prolonged Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Harry; Henson, Alyssa; Lewis, Mechelle M; Kong, Lan; Stetter, Christy; Silvis, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem following concussion. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a regional concussion clinic on patients 13 to 18 years of age between 2005 and 2011. Statistical analysis evaluated sleep disturbance and duration of concussion, as well as the use and effectiveness of melatonin. A total of 417 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred twenty-three (34%) reported disturbance in sleep. There was no difference in sleep disturbance based on age, gender, or past number of concussions. Sleep disturbance was associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in recovery time. Non-sport-related concussions were more likely to be associated with sleep disturbance compared to sport-related concussions (45% vs 29%, P = .01). Melatonin improved sleep disturbance in 67% of the patients. Evaluating sleep disorders following concussion is an important part of the assessment. These findings will help clinicians provide anticipatory guidance and treatment for adolescents recovering from concussion.

  20. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  1. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    mechanism underlying the most successful treatment for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure. In animal models, sleep deprivation has been shown to impair extinction ...2. 3. 9 +Sleep and Extinction Learning  Animal models show fear conditioning:  Disrupts sleepDisrupted sleep, in turn  Impairs extinction ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0001 TITLE: “Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction : Implications for Treatment of PTSD

  2. Acute Kynurenine Challenge Disrupts Sleep-Wake Architecture and Impairs Contextual Memory in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Baratta, Annalisa M; Mong, Jessica A; Viechweg, Shaun S

    2017-11-01

    Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (saline) and kynurenine (25, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg), the direct bioprecursor of KYNA, intraperitoneally at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 to rapidly increase brain KYNA. Levels of KYNA in the brainstem, cortex, and hippocampus were determined at ZT 0, ZT 2, and ZT 4, respectively. Analyses of vigilance state-related parameters categorized as wake, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) as well as spectra power analysis during NREM and REM were assessed during the light phase. Separate animals were tested in the passive avoidance paradigm, testing contextual memory. When KYNA levels were elevated in the brain, total REM duration was reduced and total wake duration was increased. REM and wake architecture, assessed as number of vigilance state bouts and average duration of each bout, and theta power during REM were significantly impacted. Kynurenine challenge impaired performance in the hippocampal-dependent contextual memory task. Our results introduce kynurenine pathway metabolism and formation of KYNA as a novel molecular target contributing to sleep disruptions and cognitive impairments. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TREMOR RESULTING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCREASING FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED MILITARY TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the changes of the characteristics of physiological postural tremor under conditions of increasing fatigue and lack of sleep during prolonged military training (survival.The subjects of the study were 15 students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. The average age was 19.9±1.3 years. During the 36-hour-long continuous military training (survival the subjects were deprived of sleep. Four tremor measurements were carried out for each of the subjects: Day 1 – morning, after rest (measurement 0; Day 2 – morning, after overnight physical exercise (measurement 1; afternoon, after continuous sleep deprivation (measurement 2; Day 3 – morning, after a full night sleep (measurement 3. The accelerometric method using an acceleration measuring kit was applied to analyse tremor. A significant difference between mean values of the index evaluating tremor power in low frequencies L2-4 in measurement 0 and measurement 3 was observed (p<0.01. No significant differences were found in mean values of index L10-20. Mean frequencies F2-4 differed significantly from each other (F 2,42 =4.53; p<0.01. Their values were 2.94±0.11, 2.99±0.9, 2.93±0.07 and 2.91±0.07 for successive measurements. A gradual, significant decrease of F 8-14 was observed (F 2,42 =5.143; p<0.01. Prolonged sleep deprivation combined with performing tasks demanding constant physical effort causes long-lasting (over 24 hours changes of the amplitude of low-frequency tremor changes. This phenomenon may significantly influence psychomotor performance, deteriorating the ability to perform tasks requiring movement precision.

  4. Shiftwork-Mediated Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Homeostasis Cause Serious Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiftwork became common during the last few decades with the growing demands of human life. Despite the social inactivity and irregularity in habits, working in continuous irregular shifts causes serious health issues including sleep disorders, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders. These health problems arise due to the disruption in circadian clock system, which is associated with alterations in genetic expressions. Alteration in clock controlling genes further affects genes linked with disorders including major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, phase delay and phase advance sleep syndromes, breast cancer, and colon cancer. A diverse research work is needed focusing on broad spectrum changes caused by jet lag in brain and neuronal system. This review is an attempt to motivate the researchers to conduct advanced studies in this area to identify the risk factors and mechanisms. Its goal is extended to make the shift workers aware about the risks associated with shiftwork.

  5. Circadian Rhythm and Sleep During Prolonged Antarctic Residence at Chinese Zhongshan Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Wu, Quan; Xiong, Yanlei; Chen, Guang; Song, Dandan; Xu, Chengli

    2016-12-01

    Residence at Zhongshan Station (69°22'24″S, 76°22'40″E) for over 1 year exposes winter-over members to marked changes of light-dark cycle, ranging from the constant daylight of polar days to the constant darkness of polar nights, in addition to geographic and social isolation. This extreme photoperiodic environment may increase the risk of sleep disturbances and circadian desynchrony. The aim of this study was to investigate the circadian rhythm and sleep phase of Chinese winter-over expeditioners at Zhongshan Station. This study was conducted on 17 healthy male participants before departure from Shanghai and during residence at Zhongshan Station for 1 year (before winter, mid-winter, and end of winter). Sequential urine samples over 48 hours were obtained, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in urine was assessed, and the circadian rhythm was analyzed by a cosine curve-fitting method. Participants' sleep parameters were obtained from wrist actigraphy and sleep logs. Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire were completed. The acrophase of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm, sleep onset, sleep offset, and mid-sleep time were delayed significantly (P circadian rhythm and sleep phase, later chronotype, and incidence of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. An appropriate combination of artificial bright light during dark winter months and a strict social schedule are recommended in a winter-over station in Antarctica. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Night-time care routine interaction and sleep disruption in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus M; Davis, Jean E; Zalewski, Aaron; Yang, James J

    2018-04-01

    To explore the context and the influence of night-time care routine interactions (NCRIs) on night-time sleep effectiveness (NSE) and daytime sleepiness (DSS) of patients in the cardiac surgery critical-care and progressive-care units of a hospital. There exists a paucity of empirical data regarding the influence of NCRIs on sleep and associated outcomes in hospitalised adult cardiac surgery patients. An exploratory repeated-measures research design was employed on the data provided by 38 elective cardiac surgery patients (mean age 60.0 ± 15.9 years). NCRI forms were completed by the bedside nurses and patients completed a 9-item Visual Analogue Sleep Scale (100-mm horizontal lines measuring NSE and DSS variables). All data were collected during postoperative nights/days (PON/POD) 1 through 5 and analysed with IBM SPSS software. Patient assessment, medication administration and laboratory/diagnostic procedures were the top three NCRIs reported between midnight and 6:00 a.m. During PON/POD 1 through 5, the respective mean NSE and DSS scores ranged from 52.9 ± 17.2 to 57.8 ± 13.5 and from 27.0 ± 22.6 to 45.6 ± 16.5. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant changes in DSS scores (p  .05). Finally, of 8 NCRIs, only 1 (postoperative exercises) was significantly related to sleep variables (r > .40, p disruptions and daytime sleepiness in adult cardiac surgery. Worldwide, acute and critical-care nurses are well positioned to lead initiatives aimed at improving sleep and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Recovery of neurological function despite immediate sleep disruption following diffuse brain injury in the mouse: clinical relevance to medically untreated concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rachel K; Harrison, Jordan L; O'Hara, Bruce F; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Neurotrauma research laboratory. Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury.

  8. Effectiveness of prolonged-release melatonin in Improving Quality of Sleep in Patients Aged 55 or Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kovrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin used in routine practice to improve sleep quality in Russian patients over 55 years of age.Patients and methods. The results of the multicenter open-label observational study of Circadin (prolonged-release melatonin efficiency for treatment of insomnia in 36 patients older than 55 yeare presented. The drug was administered at a dose of 2 mg one-two hours before bedtime for 3 weeks.Results. Treatment with Circadin resulted in statistically significant (p<0.0001 according to pared t-test (95% CI: 4.8; 7.3 improvement of the sleep quality: the mean value of the modified subjective sleep characteristics scale increased from 11.8±2.6 points at baseline to 17.8±2.3 points after 3 weeks of treatment. The modified Questionnaire Scoring Subjective Characteristics of Sleep was grade from 0 (very bad to 20 (very good taking into account: the amount of time required to fall asleep, the sleep duration, the number of night awakenings and the general well-being in the morning. An increase of 6 points on a scale from 0 to 20 was considered as clinically relevant. A greater effect was observed in patients with severely impaired sleep quality as well as with low level of depression and anxiety and absence of cognitive impairment. Upon completion of Circadin treatment there were statistically significant improvement (p<0.0001 of attention (the mean value of the symbol-digit coding test increased from 34.2±9.7 to 37.3±10.6 points and memory (the median value of the short-term verbal memory test increased from 4 points at baseline to 5 points at the study end, p=0.0069.The drug had a good safety profile; only one adverse event related to study medication (allergic rush was registered in the study. The absolute majority (91.7% of the study patients considered Circadin treatment as either effective or very effective.Conclusion. Taking into consideration the good safety profile of this drug

  9. Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (pmetabolic syndrome-related alterations that may be mediated by inflammation of the RPAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carnovale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings.

  11. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  12. Sleep disruption, chronotype, shift work, and prostate cancer risk and mortality: a 30-year prospective cohort study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Markt, Sarah C; Koskenvuo, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disruption and shift work have been associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer remains limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife sleep- and circadian-related parameters and later prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,370 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Over the study period, 602 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between midlife sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, and shift work with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were employed to account for potential familial confounding. Compared to "definite morning" types, "somewhat evening" types had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1, 1.6). Chronotype significantly modified the relationship between shift work and prostate cancer risk (p-interaction shift work and prostate cancer risk in the overall analyses and no significant association between any sleep- or circadian-related parameter and risk in co-twin analyses. Neither sleep- nor circadian-related parameters were significantly associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. The association between sleep disruption, chronotype, and shift work with prostate cancer risk and mortality has never before been studied in a prospective study of male twins. Our findings suggest that chronotype may be associated with prostate cancer risk and modify the association between shift work and prostate cancer risk. Future studies of circadian disruption and prostate cancer should account for this individual-level characteristic.

  13. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  14. Sleep disruption is related to poor response inhibition in individuals with obsessive-compulsive and repetitive negative thought symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Jacob A; Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E

    2016-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) are associated with poor inhibitory control. Sleep disruptions may partially mediate these relations and/or act as a "second hit" to individuals with OC symptoms and RNT. Models including habitual (past month) hours slept and bedtimes were tested. We employed a go/no-go task that allowed us to examine the relation between sleep and inhibition with various task contingencies. Sixty-seven unselected individuals were recruited from the participant pool at a public university. Bias-corrected bootstrap estimates did not show that sleep disruption mediated the relation between OC symptoms and response inhibition nor the relation between RNT and response inhibition. Multiple linear regression analyses found significant interactions between hours slept and OC symptom severity and between RNT and hours slept to predict poor response inhibition. Hours slept significantly negatively predicted commission errors when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively heightened but not when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively low. These effects were present in blocks where task contingencies were designed to shape a no-go bias. No significant relations were found with habitual bedtimes. The cross-sectional study design precludes testing the temporal precedence of symptoms in the "second hit" model. The unselected sample also limits generalization to clinical samples. These findings support a "second hit" model of interaction between sleep disruption and perseverative thoughts and behaviors. Further research on the mechanisms of the relation between sleep disruption and perseverative thought symptoms (OC and RNT) is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of light therapy on depression and sleep disruption in older adults in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mann-Chian; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Wen-Li; Smith, Graeme D

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of light therapy on depression and sleep disruption in older adults residing in a long-term care facility. Psychological morbidity is a problem commonly seen in older adults residing in long-term care facilities. Limited research has addressed the effect of light therapy on depression in this population. A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design was used. Thirty-four participants in the experimental group received light therapy by sitting in front of a 10000-lux light box 30 min in the morning, three times a week for 4 weeks. Thirty-one participants in the control group received routine care without light therapy. Depression was measured by Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form at baseline and week 4. After receiving 4 weeks of light therapy, the mean depression score in the experimental group decreased from 7.24 (SD3.42) at pretest to 5.91 (SD 3.40) at posttest, and had a significant reduction (t = 2.22, P = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in depression score and sleep disruption between the experimental group and control group. Light therapy might have the potential to reduce depressive symptoms and sleep disruption and may be a viable intervention to improve mental health of older adults in the long-term care facilities. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  18. Sleep quality and circadian rhythm disruption in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Toft, Palle

    2017-01-01

    , medication, as well as the critical illness itself have been reported as important sleep disturbing factors. Secretion of sleep hormone, melatonin, expressing circadian rhythmicity was found abolished or phase delayed in critically ill patients. Various interventions have been tested in several studies...... aiming to improve sleep quality and circadian rhythm in the ICU. The results of these studies were inconclusive due to using the sleep assessment methods other than PSG or the absence of a reliable sleep scoring tool for the analysis of the PSG findings in this patient population. Development of a valid...

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  2. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  3. Chronically restricted or disrupted sleep as a causal factor in the development of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies

  4. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  5. Sleep loss and circadian disruption in shift work: health burden and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Howard, Mark E; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2013-10-21

    About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches.

  6. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  7. Do depression, stress, sleep disruption, and inflammation alter hippocampal apoptosis and neurogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Meerlo, P.; Naylor, A.S.; van Dam, A.M.; Dayer, A.G.; Czeh, B.; Oomen, C.A.; Pariante, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the regulation of cellular plasticity, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in the adult hippocampus, by stress, sleep, inflammation, and depression. This is the fourth of five chapters in this book that present not only clinical data but also experimental evidence from animal models

  8. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  9. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Control, GPCRs, and Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Modern lifestyles prolong daily activities into the nighttime, disrupting circadian rhythms, which may cause sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose levels and reported to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications. Sleep disorders are treated using anti-insomnia drugs that target ionotropic and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists, melatonin agonists, and orexin receptor antagonists. A deeper understanding of the effects of these medications on glucose metabolism and their underlying mechanisms of action is crucial for the treatment of diabetic patients with sleep disorders. In this review we focus on the beneficial impact of sleep on glucose metabolism and suggest a possible strategy for therapeutic intervention against sleep-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Disrupted day-night pattern of cardiovascular death in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Emerson Ferreira; Martinez, Denis; da Silva, Fernando A Boeira Sabino; Sezerá, Lauren; da Rosa de Camargo, Rodrigo; Fiori, Cintia Zappe; Fuchs, Flávio Danni; Moraes, Ruy Silveira

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who suffer sudden cardiac death die predominantly during the night. We aimed to investigate whether all cardiovascular-related deaths display the same night-time peak as sudden cardiac death. Data from a large cohort of adults who underwent full-night polysomnography between 1985 and 2015 in a university-affiliated sleep clinic were analyzed. Time and cause of death of these patients and of persons from the general population were identified in death certificates from the State Health Secretariat. The day-night pattern of cardiovascular death was compared among groups of non-OSA, OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥5), CPAP users, and persons from the general population. Among 619 certificates, 160 cardiovascular-related deaths were identified. The time of death of the 142 persons with OSA was uniformly distributed over 24 h, with neither an identifiable peak nor a circadian pattern (Rayleigh test; P = 0.8); the same flat distribution was seen in those with purported CPAP use (n = 49). Non-OSA individuals presented a morning peak and a night nadir of deaths, clearer when analyzed in eight-hour intervals. The same pattern was observed in 92 836 certificates from the State general population, with cardiovascular deaths showing the expected morning peak, night nadir, and a significant circadian pattern (Rayleigh test; P < 0.001). In OSA patients, the distribution of cardiovascular-related deaths throughout the 24-h period is virtually flat, in contrast with the described nighttime peak of sudden cardiac death. OSA-related phenomena during nighttime might be blunting the mechanisms, arrhythmic or not, behind the morning peak of cardiovascular-related deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-infarct sleep disruption and its relation to cardiac remodeling in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Marjan; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Imani, Alireza; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Parsa, Hoda; Mehrabi, Saman; Moradi, Fatemeh; Kazemi Moghaddam, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disruption after myocardial infarction (MI) by affecting ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is thought to contribute to myocardial remodeling and progressive worsening of cardiac function. The aim of current study was to test the hypothesis about the increased risk of developing heart failure due to experience of sleep restriction (SR) after MI. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: (1) Sham, (2) MI, (3) MI and SR (MI + SR) (4) Sham and SR (Sham + SR). MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. Twenty-four hours after surgery, animals were subjected to chronic SR paradigm. Blood sampling was performed at days 1, 8 and 21 after MI for determination of serum levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), corticosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Finally, at 21 days after MI, echocardiographic parameters and expression of MuRF1, MaFBx, A20, eNOS, iNOS and NF-kB in the heart were evaluated. We used H&E staining to detect myocardial hypertrophy. We found out that post infarct SR increased corticosterone levels. Our results highlighted deteriorating effects of post-MI SR on NO production, oxidative stress, and echocardiographic indexes (p < 0.05). Moreover, its detrimental effects on myocardial damage were confirmed by overexpression of MuRF1, MaFBx, iNOS and NF-kB (p < 0.001) in left ventricle and downregulation of A20 and eNOS (p < 0.05). Furthermore, histological examination revealed that experience of SR after MI increased myocardial diameter as compared to Sham subjects (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that SR after MI leads to an enlargement of the heart within 21 days, marked by an increase in oxidative stress and NO production as well as an imbalance in UPS that ultimately results in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure.

  13. Disruption of adolescents' circadian clock: The vicious circle of media use, exposure to light at night, sleep loss and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Touitou, David; Reinberg, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock. A large number of adolescents move to evening chronotype and experience a misalignment between biological and social rhythms which, added to sleep loss, results in e.g. fatigue, daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. This paper on adolescent circadian disruption will review the sensitivity of adolescents to light including LEDs with the effects on the circadian system, the crosstalk between the clock and the pineal gland, the role of melatonin, and the behavior of some adolescents(media use, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, smoking habits, stimulant use…). Lastly, some practical recommendations and perspectives are put forward. The permanent social jet lag resulting in clock misalignment experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolonged Exposures to Intermittent Hypoxia Promote Visceral White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in a Murine Model of Severe Sleep Apnea: Effect of Normoxic Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Almendros, Isaac; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hamanaka, Robert B; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Gozal, David

    2017-03-01

    Increased visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) mass results in infiltration of inflammatory macrophages that drive inflammation and insulin resistance. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suffer from increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Murine models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking moderate-severe OSA manifest insulin resistance following short-term IH. We examined in mice the effect of long-term IH on the inflammatory cellular changes within vWAT and the potential effect of normoxic recovery (IH-R). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to IH for 20 weeks, and a subset was allowed to recover in room air (RA) for 6 or 12 weeks (IH-R). Stromal vascular fraction was isolated from epididymal vWAT and mesenteric vWAT depots, and single-cell suspensions were prepared for flow cytometry analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and metabolic assays. IH reduced body weight and vWAT mass and IH-R resulted in catch-up weight and vWAT mass. IH-exposed vWAT exhibited increased macrophage counts (ATMs) that were only partially improved in IH-R. IH also caused a proinflammatory shift in ATMs (increased Ly6c(hi)(+) and CD36(+) ATMs). These changes were accompanied by increased vWAT insulin resistance with only partial improvements in IH-R. In addition, ATMs exhibited increased ROS production, altered metabolism, and changes in electron transport chain, which were only partially improved in IH-R. Prolonged exposures to IH during the sleep period induce pronounced vWAT inflammation and insulin resistance despite concomitant vWAT mass reductions. These changes are only partially reversible after 3 months of normoxic recovery. Thus, long-lasting OSA may preclude complete reversibility of metabolic changes. © Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Sleep Disruption and Daytime Sleepiness Correlating with Disease Severity and Insulin Resistance in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Weisskopf, Diego M; Pflueger, Marlon O; Mosimann, Jan; Campana, Benedetta; Terracciano, Luigi; Beglinger, Christoph; Heim, Markus H; Cajochen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indeterminate. We sought to detail sleep characteristics, daytime sleepiness and meal times in relation to disease severity in patients with NAFLD. Basic Sleep duration and latency, daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale), Pittsburgh sleep quality index, positive and negative affect scale, Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and an eating habit questionnaire were assessed in 46 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 22 healthy controls, and correlated with biochemical and histological parameters. In NAFLD compared to healthy controls, time to fall asleep was vastly prolonged (26.9 vs. 9.8 min., p = 0.0176) and sleep duration was shortened (6.3 vs. 7.2 hours, p = 0.0149). Sleep quality was poor (Pittsburgh sleep quality index 8.2 vs. 4.7, p = 0.0074) and correlated with changes in affect. Meal frequency was shifted towards night-times (p = 0.001). In NAFLD but not controls, daytime sleepiness significantly correlated with liver enzymes (ALAT [r = 0.44, p = 0.0029], ASAT [r = 0.46, p = 0.0017]) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [r = 0.5, p = 0.0009]) independent of cirrhosis. In patients with fibrosis, daytime sleepiness correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.364, p = 0.019). In NAFLD sleep duration was shortened, sleep onset was delayed and sleep quality poor. Food-intake was shifted towards the night. Daytime sleepiness was positively linked to biochemical and histologic surrogates of disease severity. The data may indicate a role for sleep-wake cycle regulation and timing of food-intake in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD as suggested from murine models.

  16. Sleep Disruption and Daytime Sleepiness Correlating with Disease Severity and Insulin Resistance in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bernsmeier

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is indeterminate. We sought to detail sleep characteristics, daytime sleepiness and meal times in relation to disease severity in patients with NAFLD.Basic Sleep duration and latency, daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, positive and negative affect scale, Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and an eating habit questionnaire were assessed in 46 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 22 healthy controls, and correlated with biochemical and histological parameters.In NAFLD compared to healthy controls, time to fall asleep was vastly prolonged (26.9 vs. 9.8 min., p = 0.0176 and sleep duration was shortened (6.3 vs. 7.2 hours, p = 0.0149. Sleep quality was poor (Pittsburgh sleep quality index 8.2 vs. 4.7, p = 0.0074 and correlated with changes in affect. Meal frequency was shifted towards night-times (p = 0.001. In NAFLD but not controls, daytime sleepiness significantly correlated with liver enzymes (ALAT [r = 0.44, p = 0.0029], ASAT [r = 0.46, p = 0.0017] and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [r = 0.5, p = 0.0009] independent of cirrhosis. In patients with fibrosis, daytime sleepiness correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.364, p = 0.019.In NAFLD sleep duration was shortened, sleep onset was delayed and sleep quality poor. Food-intake was shifted towards the night. Daytime sleepiness was positively linked to biochemical and histologic surrogates of disease severity. The data may indicate a role for sleep-wake cycle regulation and timing of food-intake in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD as suggested from murine models.

  17. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  19. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  20. Prolonged Expression of Secreted Enzymes in Dogs After Liver-Directed Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons: Implications for Non-Viral Gene Therapy of Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hyland, Kendra A; Hall, Bryan C; Bell, Jason B; Olson, Erik R; Rusten, Myra Urness; Hunter, David W; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2017-07-01

    The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice, including hemophilia A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. Modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs were recently reported. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), transgenic protein in the plasma was demonstrated for up to 6 weeks post infusion. This study reports that immunosuppression of dogs with gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) prolonged the presence of cSEAP in the circulation up to 5.5 months after a single vector infusion. Transgene expression declined gradually but appeared to stabilize after about 2 months at approximately fourfold baseline level. Durability of transgenic protein expression in the plasma was inversely associated with transient increase of liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in response to the plasmid delivery procedure, which suggests a deleterious effect of hepatocellular toxicity on transgene expression. GdCl 3 treatment was ineffective for repeat vector infusions. In parallel studies, dogs were infused with potentially therapeutic transposons. Activities of transgenic IDUA and GUSB in plasma peaked at 50-350% of wildtype, but in the absence of immunosuppression lasted only a few days. Transposition was detectable by excision assay only when the most efficient transposase, SB100X, was used. Dogs infused with transposons encoding canine clotting factor IX (cFIX) were treated with GdCl 3 and showed expression profiles similar to those in cSEAP-infused dogs, with expression peaking at 40% wt (2 μg/mL). It is concluded that GdCl 3 can support extended transgene expression after hydrodynamic introduction of SB transposons in dogs, but that alternative

  1. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  2. The association of quality of life with potentially remediable disruptions of circadian sleep/activity rhythms in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, James F; Ferrans, Carol; Wood, Patricia A; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin L; Ansell, Christine M; Oh, Eun Young; Daehler, Mary Ann; Levin, Robert D; Braun, Donald P; Gupta, Digant; Lis, Christopher G; Hrushesky, William J M

    2011-05-23

    Cancer patients routinely develop symptoms consistent with profound circadian disruption, which causes circadian disruption diminished quality of life. This study was initiated to determine the relationship between the severity of potentially remediable cancer-associated circadian disruption and quality of life among patients with advanced lung cancer. We concurrently investigated the relationship between the circadian rhythms of 84 advanced lung cancer patients and their quality of life outcomes as measured by the EORTC QLQ C30 and Ferrans and Powers QLI. The robustness and stability of activity/sleep circadian daily rhythms were measured by actigraphy. Fifty three of the patients in the study were starting their definitive therapy following diagnosis and thirty one patients were beginning second-line therapy. Among the patients who failed prior therapy, the median time between completing definitive therapy and baseline actigraphy was 4.3 months, (interquartile range 2.1 to 9.8 months). We found that circadian disruption is universal and severe among these patients compared to non-cancer-bearing individuals. We found that each of these patient's EORTC QLQ C30 domain scores revealed a compromised capacity to perform the routine activities of daily life. The severity of several, but not all, EORTC QLQ C30 symptom items correlate strongly with the degree of individual circadian disruption. In addition, the scores of all four Ferrans/Powers QLI domains correlate strongly with the degree of circadian disruption. Although Ferrans/Powers QLI domain scores show that cancer and its treatment spared these patients' emotional and psychological health, the QLI Health/Function domain score revealed high levels of patients' dissatisfaction with their health which is much worse when circadian disruption is severe. Circadian disruption selectively affects specific Quality of Life domains, such as the Ferrans/Powers Health/Function domain, and not others, such as EORTC QLQ C30

  3. The association of quality of life with potentially remediable disruptions of circadian sleep/activity rhythms in patients with advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Donald P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer patients routinely develop symptoms consistent with profound circadian disruption, which causes circadian disruption diminished quality of life. This study was initiated to determine the relationship between the severity of potentially remediable cancer-associated circadian disruption and quality of life among patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods We concurrently investigated the relationship between the circadian rhythms of 84 advanced lung cancer patients and their quality of life outcomes as measured by the EORTC QLQ C30 and Ferrans and Powers QLI. The robustness and stability of activity/sleep circadian daily rhythms were measured by actigraphy. Fifty three of the patients in the study were starting their definitive therapy following diagnosis and thirty one patients were beginning second-line therapy. Among the patients who failed prior therapy, the median time between completing definitive therapy and baseline actigraphy was 4.3 months, (interquartile range 2.1 to 9.8 months. Results We found that circadian disruption is universal and severe among these patients compared to non-cancer-bearing individuals. We found that each of these patient's EORTC QLQ C30 domain scores revealed a compromised capacity to perform the routine activities of daily life. The severity of several, but not all, EORTC QLQ C30 symptom items correlate strongly with the degree of individual circadian disruption. In addition, the scores of all four Ferrans/Powers QLI domains correlate strongly with the degree of circadian disruption. Although Ferrans/Powers QLI domain scores show that cancer and its treatment spared these patients' emotional and psychological health, the QLI Health/Function domain score revealed high levels of patients' dissatisfaction with their health which is much worse when circadian disruption is severe. Circadian disruption selectively affects specific Quality of Life domains, such as the Ferrans/Powers Health

  4. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Blair C; Opp, Mark R

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased

  5. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  6. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  7. The effect of shift rotation on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Hegney, Desley; O'Brien, Anthony; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2011-03-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythm, especially working night duty together with irregular sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and fatigue, creates an occupational health risk associated with diminished vigilance and work performance. This study reviewed the effect of shift rotations on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level. Researchers conducted a systematic review of relevant articles published between 1996 and 2008 that were listed on the following databases: SCOPUS, OVID, Blackwell Science, EBSCO Host, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and CEPS. A total of 28 articles were included in the review. Previous research into the effects of shift work on cortisol profiles, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention used data assessed at evidence Levels II to IV. Our systematic review confirmed a conflict between sleep-wake cycle and light-dark cycle in night work. Consequences of circadian rhythm disturbance include disruption of sleep, decreased vigilance, general feeling of malaise, and decreased mental efficiency. Shift workers who sleep during the day (day sleepers) experience cortisol secretion increases, which diminish the healing power of sleep and enjoy 1 to 4 hours less sleep on average than night sleepers. Sleep debt accumulation results in chronic fatigue. Prolonged fatigue and inadequate recovery result in decreased work performance and more incidents. Rotation from day shift to night shift and its effect on shift workers was a special focus of the articles retained for review. Disturbed circadian rhythm in humans has been associated with a variety of mental and physical disorders and may negatively impact on work safety, performance, and productivity.

  8. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of sleep and sleep disorders in the development, diagnosis, and management of neurocognitive disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle A Miller

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all–cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neu...

  10. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  11. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  12. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It is readily available in coffee and other foods and beverages, and is used to mitigate sleepiness, enhance performance, and treat apnea in premature infants. This review systematically explores evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials as to whether coffee and caffeine have deleterious effects on sleep. Caffeine typically prolonged sleep latency, reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency, and worsened perceived sleep quality. Slow-wave sleep and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity were typically reduced, whereas stage-1, wakefulness, and arousals were increased. Dose- and timing-response relationships were established. The sleep of older adults may be more sensitive to caffeine compared to younger adults. Pronounced individual differences are also present in young people, and genetic studies isolated functional polymorphisms of genes implicated in adenosine neurotransmission and metabolism contributing to individual sensitivity to sleep disruption by caffeine. Most studies were conducted in male adults of Western countries, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Given the importance of good sleep for general health and functioning, longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing possible causal relationships among coffee- and caffeine-induced changes in sleep quality and health development are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep Disruption as a Predictor of Quality of Life Among Patients in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Michelle R; Martin, Jennifer L; Kleerup, Eric C; Schneider, Hartmut; Mitchell, Michael N; Hansel, Nadia N; Sundar, Krishna; Schotland, Helena; Basner, Robert C; Wells, James; Krishnan, Jerry A; Criner, Gerard J; Cristenson, Stephanie; Krachman, Samuel; Badr, M Safwan

    2018-03-09

    Sleep quality is poor among patients with COPD, and studies show sleep disturbance is associated with low overall quality of life in this population. We evaluated the impact of patient-reported sleep quality and sleep apnea risk on disease-specific and overall quality of life within COPD patients enrolled in the SPIROMICS study, after accounting for demographics and COPD disease severity. Baseline data from 1,341 participants [892 mild/moderate COPD (FEV1≥50% predicted); 449 severe COPD (FEV1blocks) regression models to predict quality of life (Short Form-12 mental and physical components and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Dependent measures used for the nested regressions included: Block1: demographics and smoking history; Block 2: disease severity (forced expiratory volume 1 second; 6-minute walk test); Block 3: risk for obstructive sleep apnea [OSA; Berlin questionnaire]; Block 4: sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Over half of participants with COPD reported poor sleep quality (Mean PSQI 6.4±3.9; 50% with high risk score on the Berlin questionnaire). In all three nested regression models, sleep quality (Block 4) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life, over and above variables included in blocks 1-3. Poor sleep quality represents a potentially modifiable risk factor for poor quality of life in COPD patients, over and above demographics and smoking history, disease severity and risk for OSA. Improving sleep quality may be an important target for clinical interventions.

  14. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful phases of sleep, and you'll ... of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of depression, and a need to urinate frequently ...

  16. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  17. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  18. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  19. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  20. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  1. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Xue; Koransky, Rebecca; Kang, Victor; Buchman, Sarah; Sarris, Christina E.; Wagner, George C.

    2011-01-01

    A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school per...

  2. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  3. Neuronal and molecular mechanisms of sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlea, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  5. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  6. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep, Recovery, and Performance in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Raman K

    2017-08-01

    Poor sleep can lead to decreases in performance and recovery for athletes. Sleep disorders and symptoms are commonly seen in athletes, and may be unrecognized. It is important to educate athletes on adequate duration, quality, and timing of sleep. Interventions may include changes to practice times or careful planning for travel to games in different time zones. It is important to screen and treat sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and insomnia that are seen in some athletes. In patients who suffer concussion, it is important to address sleep issues, as poor sleep can prolong or exacerbate other concussion symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ripple-Triggered Stimulation of the Locus Coeruleus during Post-Learning Sleep Disrupts Ripple/Spindle Coupling and Impairs Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Yulia; Sara, Susan J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Experience-induced replay of neuronal ensembles occurs during hippocampal high-frequency oscillations, or ripples. Post-learning increase in ripple rate is predictive of memory recall, while ripple disruption impairs learning. Ripples may thus present a fundamental component of a neurophysiological mechanism of memory consolidation. In addition to…

  9. Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative wound disruption is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the risk factors and outcomes of wound disruption following colorectal resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to examine the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of wound disruption. We sampled a total of 164,297 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Of these, 2073 (1.3 %) had wound disruption. Patients with wound disruption had significantly higher mortality (5.1 vs. 1.9 %, AOR: 1.46, P = 0.01). The highest risk of wound disruption was seen in patients with wound infection (4.8 vs. 0.9 %, AOR: 4.11, P disruption such as chronic steroid use (AOR: 1.71, P disruption compared to open surgery (AOR: 0.61, P disruption occurs in 1.3 % of colorectal resections, and it correlates with mortality of patients. Wound infection is the strongest predictor of wound disruption. Chronic steroid use, obesity, severe COPD, prolonged operation, non-elective admission, and serum albumin level are strongly associated with wound disruption. Utilization of the laparoscopic approach may decrease the risk of wound disruption when possible.

  10. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  11. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  12. Sleep disturbances in phenylketonuria : An explorative study in men and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; MacDonald, Anita; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems have not been directly reported in phenylketonuria (PKU). In PKU, the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine is disrupted, which, among others, causes deficits in the neurotransmitters and sleep modulators dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Understanding sleep problems in PKU

  13. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  14. Sleep and sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carno, Margaret-Ann; Connolly, Heidi V

    2005-09-01

    Sleep is an important and necessary function of the human body. Somatic growth and cellular repair occur during sleep. Critically ill children have disturbed sleep while in the pediatric intensive care unit related both to the illness itself and to light, noise, and caregiver activities disrupting an environment conducive to sleep. Medications administered in the pediatric intensive care unit can also disrupt sleep. This article reviews what is known about sleep in the pediatric intensive care unit and the effects of common sedation medications on sleep.

  15. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  16. Desmopressin (melt) therapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria results in improved neuropsychological functioning and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne P; Raes, Ann; Hoebeke, Piet; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Vande Walle, Johan

    2016-09-01

    There is a high comorbidity between nocturnal enuresis, sleep disorders and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in nocturnal diuresis volume not only improves enuresis but also ameliorates disrupted sleep and (neuro)psychological dysfunction, the major comorbidities of this disorder. In this open-label, prospective phase IV study, 30 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) underwent standardized video-polysomnographic testing and multi-informant (neuro)psychological testing at baseline and 6 months after the start of desmopressin treatment in the University Hospital Ghent, Belgium. Primary endpoints were the effect on sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning. The secondary endpoint was the change in the first undisturbed sleep period or the time to the first void. Thirty children aged between 6 and 16 (mean 10.43, standard deviation 3.08) years completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and a prolonged first undisturbed sleep period. Additionally, (neuro)psychological functioning was improved on several domains. The study demonstrates that the degree of comorbidity symptoms is at least aggravated by enuresis (and/or high nocturnal diuresis rate) since sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning were significantly ameliorated by treatment of enuresis. These results indicate that enuresis is not such a benign condition as has previously been assumed.

  17. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  18. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  19. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian......-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current...

  20. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Kundermann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can counteract analgesic effects of pharmacological treatments involving opioidergic and serotoninergic mechanisms of action. The heterogeneity of the human data and the exclusive interest in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in animals so far do not allow us to draw firm conclusions as to whether the hyperalgesic effects are due to the deprivation of specific sleep stages or whether they result from a generalized disruption of sleep continuity. The significance of opioidergic and serotoninergic processes as mediating mechanisms of the hyperalgesic changes produced by sleep deprivation are discussed.

  1. Assessing sleep in adolescents through a better understanding of sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nancy M; Davis, Jean E

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents need about nine hours of sleep per night, yet most teens get far less. Inadequate sleep has consequences not only for academic performance but also for mental and physical health; it has been linked to lowered resilience and an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It's imperative that assessment of sleep become a routine part of adolescent health care. An understanding of sleep physiology is essential to helping nurses better assess and manage sleep deprivation in this population. Sleep assessment involves evaluating the three main aspects of sleep: amount, quality, and architecture. The authors provide an overview of sleep physiology, describe sleep changes that occur during adolescence, and discuss the influence of these changes on adolescent health. They also provide simple questions that nurses can use to assess sleep and risk factors for disrupted sleep, and discuss patient education and other interventions.

  2. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  3. Investigating Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Stine Schmieg; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    This book shares knowledge collected from 2015 and onward within the Consortium for Digital Disruption anchored at Aalborg University (www.dd.aau.dk). Evidenced by this publication, the field of disruptive innovation research has gone through several stages of operationalizing the theory. In recent...... years, researchers are increasingly looking back towards the origins of the theory in attempts to cure it from its most obvious flaws. This is especially true for the use of the theory in making predictions about future disruptions. In order to continue to develop a valuable theory of disruption, we...... find it useful to first review what the theory of disruptive innovation initially was, how it has developed, and where we are now. A cross section of disruptive innovation literature has been reviewed in order to form a general foundation from which we might better understand the changing world...

  4. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  5. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  6. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disruption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED

  8. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  9. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2015-04-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  10. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  11. Do Older Adults Need Sleep? A Review of Neuroimaging, Sleep, and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K

    2017-09-01

    Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views. Therefore, this review examines the neuroimaging literature to determine whether age-related changes in sleep cause-or are caused by-age-related changes in brain structure, function, and pathology. In middle-aged and older adults, poorer sleep quality, greater nighttime hypoxia, and shorter sleep duration related to cortical thinning in frontal regions implicated in slow wave generation, in frontoparietal networks implicated in cognitive control, and in hippocampal regions implicated in memory consolidation. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was associated with higher amyloid burden and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, a network that is disrupted in the pathway to Alzheimer's disease. All adults need sleep, but cortical thinning and amyloidal deposition with advancing age may weaken the brain's ability to produce restorative sleep. Therefore, sleep in older adults may not always support identical functions for physical, mental, and cognitive health as in young adults.

  12. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  13. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  14. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  15. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  16. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  17. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  18. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Disorders of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Joanna; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake cycles are known to be disrupted in people with neurodegenerative disorders. These findings are now supported by data from animal models for some of these disorders, raising the question of whether the disrupted sleep/circadian regulation contributes to the loss of neural function. As circadian rhythms and sleep consolidation also break down with normal aging, changes in these may be part of what makes aging a risk factor for disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanisms underlying the connection between circadian/sleep dysregulation and neurodegeneration remain unclear, but several recent studies provide interesting possibilities. While mechanistic analysis is under way, it is worth considering treatment of circadian/sleep disruption as a means to alleviate symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  20. Sleep and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Kang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep architecture and sleep patterns normally change with aging. In preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the accumulation of amyloid plaques begins 10 to 20 years before any cognitive symptoms progress. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ is secreted during physiological synaptic activity. Since synaptic activity is correlated with sleep and awake state, a degree of Aβ fluctuates in a diurnal sleep pattern. In animal and human studies, a degree of sleep quality showed a significant correlation with brain levels of Aβ and a risk of AD. Conversely, Aβ aggregation would debilitate neuronal function in brain regions critical to sleep and wake promotion. This bidirectional relationship can be explained as positive feedback loop and associated factors that influence this relationship. In AD, the degree of sleep disturbances is much more severe compared with in the normal elderly. Further, Sundowning syndrome and a reduction of melatonin level cause a stressful neuropsychiatric symptoms and a disruption of physiological sleep rhythm, respectively. In AD patients, a correlation between sleep architectural modifications and learning performances has been reported. Moreover, executive function and emotional reactivity might be attenuated by sleep disturbances, too. However, sleep disturbance does not impact cognitive functions of all patients with AD. This could support an individual and potentially genetically determined susceptibility. Sleep disturbances have an important effect on patients and caregivers. It has a critical value to confirm and treat individuals with sleep disorders and to explore whether good quality of sleep in humans can decrease the progression of preclinical to symptomatic AD.

  1. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.

  2. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Gradisar, Michael; Alfano, Candice A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are not a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but emerging empirical data indicate some form of sleep disruption to be highly common. Available research in both adult and child patients is limited in several important ways, including the use of subjective reports (particularly in children), high rates of comorbid depression, and concurrent use of psychotropic medication. The presence of sleep disruption in OCD patients may compound severity and impairment of the disorder. More research is needed to fully understand the nature and consequences of sleep-wake disruption in children with OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  4. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  5. Cellular stress induces a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew J; Mansfield, Richard; Lopez, Jessie M N G; Raizen, David M; Van Buskirk, Cheryl

    2014-10-20

    Sleep is recognized to be ancient in origin, with vertebrates and invertebrates experiencing behaviorally quiescent states that are regulated by conserved genetic mechanisms. Despite its conservation throughout phylogeny, the function of sleep remains debated. Hypotheses for the purpose of sleep include nervous-system-specific functions such as modulation of synaptic strength and clearance of metabolites from the brain, as well as more generalized cellular functions such as energy conservation and macromolecule biosynthesis. These models are supported by the identification of synaptic and metabolic processes that are perturbed during prolonged wakefulness. It remains to be seen whether perturbations of cellular homeostasis in turn drive sleep. Here we show that under conditions of cellular stress, including noxious heat, cold, hypertonicity, and tissue damage, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans engages a behavioral quiescence program. The stress-induced quiescent state displays properties of sleep and is dependent on the ALA neuron, which mediates the conserved soporific effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand overexpression. We characterize heat-induced quiescence in detail and show that it is indeed dependent on components of EGF signaling, providing physiological relevance to the behavioral effects of EGF family ligands. We find that after noxious heat exposure, quiescence-defective animals show elevated expression of cellular stress reporter genes and are impaired for survival, demonstrating the benefit of stress-induced behavioral quiescence. These data provide evidence that cellular stress can induce a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans and suggest that a deeply conserved function of sleep is to mitigate disruptions of cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  7. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  8. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Gaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i DNA methylation; (ii histone modifications; and (iii non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  9. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  10. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  11. Description of a Sleep-Restriction Program to Reduce Bedtime Disturbances and Night Waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Christodulu, Kristin V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a behavioral intervention designed to reduce sleep problems without increasing disruption at bedtime or throughout the evening. Sleep restriction was used to reduce the bedtime and nighttime sleep problems of two children, a 4-year-old girl with autism and a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay. Sleep restriction involved…

  12. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  13. Sleep disturbances and post-traumatic stress disorder; a perpetual circle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of PTSD, possibly interfering with fear

  14. Sleep in adolescence: physiology, cognition and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Saletin, Jared M.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a core behavior of adolescents, consuming up to a third or more of each day. As part of this special issue on the adolescent brain, we review changes to sleep behaviors and sleep physiology during adolescence with a particular focus on the sleeping brain. We posit that brain activity during sleep may provide a unique window onto adolescent cortical maturation and compliment waking measures. In addition, we review how sleep actively supports waking cognitive functioning in adolescence. Though this review is focused on sleep in healthy adolescents, the striking comorbidity of sleep disruption with nearly all psychiatric and developmental disorders (for reviews see 1,2) further highlights the importance of understanding the determinants and consequences of adolescent sleep for the developing brain. Figure 1 illustrates the overarching themes of our review, linking brain development, sleep development, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:27531236

  15. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  16. Role of Sex and the Environment in Moderating Weight Gain Due to Inadequate Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.

  17. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  18. Value and Payment in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M; Verma, Tilak

    2018-05-15

    Value, like beauty, exists in the eye of the beholder. This article places the value of clinical sleep medicine services in historical context and presents a vision for the value-based sleep of the future. First, the history of value and payment in sleep medicine is reviewed from the early days of the field, to innovative disruption, to the widespread adoption of home sleep apnea testing. Next, the importance of economic perspective is discussed, with emphasis on cost containment and cost-shifting between payers, employers, providers, and patients. Specific recommendations are made for sleep medicine providers and the field at large to maximize the perceived value of sleep. Finally, alternate payment models and value-based care are presented, with an eye toward the future for clinical service providers as well as integrated health delivery networks. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  2. Impaired bed mobility and disordered sleep in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Emma L; Ashburn, Ann M

    2006-09-01

    The contribution of impaired mobility to disordered sleep in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains uncertain. We evaluated the sleep of 38 people with PD and observed their turning strategies. Most reported difficulty maintaining sleep and difficulty turning. Those who hip-hitched rated themselves more disabled and those who sat up had more severe PD than those who used support. Using multiple strategies was associated with sleep disturbance. As the ability to turn deteriorates, we recommend patients identify the single strategy least disruptive to sleep. Research must address whether improving mobility improves sleep quality. (c) 2006 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  4. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  5. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the discovery of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep in the late 1950s, identification of the neural circuitry underlying wakefulness, sleep onset and the alternation between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep has been an active area of investigation. Synchronization and desynchronization of cortical activity as detected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is due to a corticothalamocortical loop, intrinsic cortical oscillators, monoaminergic and cholinergic afferent input to the thalamus, and the basal forebrain cholinergic input directly to the cortex. The monoaminergic and cholinergic systems are largely wake-promoting; the brainstem cholinergic nuclei are also involved in REM sleep regulation. These wake-promoting systems receive excitatory input from the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep-promoting nuclei are GABAergic in nature and found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus. Although the pons is critical for the expression of REM sleep, recent research has suggested that melanin-concentrating hormone/GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus "gate" REM sleep. The temporal distribution of sleep and wakefulness is due to interaction between the circadian system and the sleep homeostatic system. Although the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei contain the circadian pacemaker, the neural circuitry underlying the sleep homeostat is less clear. Prolonged wakefulness results in the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, possibly from glial sources, which is an important feedback molecule for the sleep homeostatic system. Cortical neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) neurons may also play a role in propagating slow waves through the cortex in NREM sleep. Several neuropeptides and other neurochemicals likely play important roles in sleep/wake control. Although the control of sleep and wakefulness seemingly involves multiple redundant systems, each of these systems provides a vulnerability that can result in sleep/wake dysfunction that may

  6. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  7. Sleep monitoring : A comparison between three wearable instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Valk, P.J.L.; Veenstra, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative

  8. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheila C

    2017-03-01

    Sleep related disorders are common and under-recognized in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population. COPD symptoms can disrupt sleep. Similarly, sleep disorders can affect COPD. This review highlights the common sleep disorders seen in COPD patients, their impact, and potential management. Treatment of sleep disorders may improve quality of life in COPD patients. Optimizing inhaler therapy improves sleep quality. Increased inflammatory markers are noted in patients with the overlap syndrome of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea versus COPD alone. There are potential benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy for overlap syndrome patients with hypercapnia. Nocturnal supplemental oxygen may be beneficial in certain COPD subtypes. Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic therapy for insomnia has shown benefit without associated respiratory failure or worsening respiratory symptoms. Melatonin may provide mild hypnotic and antioxidant benefits. This article discusses the impact of sleep disorders on COPD patients and the potential benefits of managing sleep disorders on respiratory disease control and quality of life.

  10. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  11. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  12. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  13. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  14. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on

  15. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  17. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  18. Sleep disturbances after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Jennum, P; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Major surgery is followed by pronounced sleep disturbances after traditional perioperative care potentially leading to prolonged recovery. The aim was to evaluate the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration and sleep architecture before and after fast-track hip and knee replacement......, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. Sleep staging was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. Opioid use, pain, and inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) were also evaluated. RESULTS: /st>The mean LOS was 1.5 (1-2) days. The mean REM sleep time decreased from a mean...... on the fourth postoperative night. There was no association between opioid use, pain scores, and inflammatory response with a disturbed sleep pattern. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Despite ultra-short LOS and provision of spinal anaesthesia with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, REM sleep was almost eliminated...

  19. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  20. Any sleep is a dream far away: a nominal group study assessing how gout affects sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2018-02-23

    There are no qualitative studies of sleep in gout; the aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on sleep. Nine nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients discussed and rank-ordered their concerns. Nine nominal groups with 46 gout patients were conducted with mean age, 61 years (s.d. 10.6) and gout duration, 14.9 years (s.d. 12); 63% were men, 46% African-American, 52% married, 46% retired and 63% were allopurinol users. The most frequently cited highly ranked concerns could be divided into three categories. The first category, character of sleep interruption, included the concerns: severe and complete sleep interruption by gout flare pain (nine groups); and inability to get rapid eye movement sleep (one group). The second category, causes of sleep interruption, included: inability to get into a comfortable position during sleep (six groups); anxiety and depression associated with severe gout pain (seven groups); sleep interruption by moderate chronic joint pain (three groups); frequent trips to the bathroom interfering with sleep (two groups); gout medication side effects (four groups); frequent trips to the emergency room (one group); joint swelling with physical/functional deficit interfering with sleep (two groups); and flare pain interfering with sleep apnoea management (two groups). The final category, consequences of sleep interruption, included: effect on daily functioning (two groups); worsens other health conditions, which then affect sleep (four groups); and cumulative effect on sleep (one group). Gout has significant impact on sleep quantity, quality and architecture. Sleep disruption due to gout has several pathways and significant consequences.

  1. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  2. Sleep Characteristics and Daytime Cortisol Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha; Waite, Linda; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-05-01

    Older adults frequently report sleep problems and are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disruption. Experimental sleep restriction of younger adults has suggested that cortisol may be on the pathway between sleep restriction and cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether the natural variation in sleep among older adults is associated with daytime cortisol level. Salivary cortisol samples and actigraphy sleep data were collected from a random subsample of participants in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative probability sample of adults aged 62-90 (N = 672). Salivary cortisol was measured with 3 timed samples at the beginning, middle, and end of a 2-hr in-home interview. Sleep characteristics were derived from wrist actigraphy (fragmentation, wake after sleep onset [WASO], and duration) and from survey responses about usual sleep duration and sleep problems. For each individual, a single summary daytime cortisol level was estimated by fitting a marginal longitudinal model for the 3 time-stamped cortisol samples. The resulting estimates were then regressed on each sleep measure, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. From actigraphy, both higher fragmentation score (β = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03) and longer WASO (β = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.51) were significantly associated with higher daytime cortisol; sleep duration was not. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep problems were also not associated with cortisol. Actigraph measures of sleep disturbance are associated with higher daytime cortisol among older adults. However, cross-sectional data cannot distinguish causal direction or whether cortisol and sleep disruption have a common cause. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vandekerckhove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturbances too. Not only does emotion impact sleep, but there is also evidence that sleep plays a key role in regulating emotion. Emotional events during waking hours affect sleep, and the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events impacting our general well-being. Although we know that daytime emotional stress affects sleep by influencing sleep physiology, dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggeration of the startle response, decrease in dream recall and elevation of awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM, REM-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increase in percentage of REM-density, REM-sleep duration, as well as the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. Equally, the way an individual copes with emotional stress, or the way in which an individual regulates emotion may modulate the effects of emotional stress on sleep. The research presented here supports the idea that adaptive emotion regulation benefits our follow-up sleep. We thus conclude the current review with a call for future research in order to clarify further the precise relationship between sleep, emotion and emotion regulation, as well as to explain further how sleep dissolves our emotional stress.

  4. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  5. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  6. No Compromise of Competition Sleep Compared With Habitual Sleep in Elite Australian Footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Benita J; Halson, Shona L; Tran, Jacqueline; Kemp, Justin G; Cormack, Stuart J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the impact of match-start time and days relative to match compared with the habitual sleep characteristics of elite Australian Football (AF) players. 45 elite male AF players were assessed during the preseason (habitual) and across 4 home matches during the season. Players wore an activity monitor the night before (-1), night of (0), 1 night after (+1), and 2 nights (+2) after each match and completed a self-reported rating of sleep quality. A 2-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc was used to determine differences in sleep characteristics between match-start times and days relative to the match. Two-way nested ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between competition and habitual phases. Effect size ± 90% confidence interval (ES ± 90% CI) was calculated to quantify the magnitude of pairwise differences. Differences observed in sleep-onset latency (ES = 0.11 ± 0.16), sleep rating (ES = 0.08 ± 0.14), and sleep duration (ES = 0.08 ± 0.01) between competition and habitual periods were trivial. Sleep efficiency was almost certainly higher during competition than habitual, but this was not reflected in the subjective rating of sleep quality. Elite AF competition does not cause substantial disruption to sleep characteristics compared with habitual sleep. While match-start time has some impact on sleep variables, it appears that the match itself is more of a disruption than the start time. Subjective ratings of sleep from well-being questionnaires appear limited in their ability to accurately provide an indication of sleep quality.

  7. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  8. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  9. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  10. The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep disorders of Whipple's disease of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, P K; Goh, J

    2015-02-01

    To understand the effects of Whipple's disease (WD) of the brain on sleep function. Clinical and polysomnographic studies of two patients with severe disruption of sleep due to WD: a 48-year-old female with primary WD of the brain and a 41-year-old male with secondary WD of the brain. The patient with primary WD had hypersomnolence with severe obstructive sleep apnoea, reduced sleep efficiency, frequent waking and sleep fragmentation. The patient with secondary WD was also hypersomnolent with oculomastictory myorhythmia. He was shown to have severe sleep initiation insomnia with poor sleep efficiency, severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea and oculomasticatory myorhythmia at sleep-wake transitions. WD of the brain may affect sleep biology in its primary and secondary forms leading to hypersomnolence from obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep fragmentation, reduced sleep efficiency, sleep initiation insomnia and intrusive oculomasticatory myorhythmia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down' Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic

  13. Consumer sleep tracking devices: a review of mechanisms, validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Mansukhani, Subir; Mansukhani, Meghna P

    2016-05-01

    Consumer sleep tracking devices such as fitness trackers and smartphone apps have become increasingly popular. These devices claim to measure the sleep duration of their users and in some cases purport to measure sleep quality and awaken users from light sleep, potentially improving overall sleep. Most of these devices appear to utilize data generated from in-built accelerometers to determine sleep parameters but the exact mechanisms and algorithms are proprietary. The growing literature comparing these devices against polysomnography/actigraphy shows that they tend to underestimate sleep disruptions and overestimate total sleep times and sleep efficiency in normal subjects. In this review, we evaluate the current literature comparing the accuracy of consumer sleep tracking devices against more conventional methods used to measure sleep duration and quality. We discuss the current technology that these devices utilize as well as summarize the value of these devices in clinical evaluations and their potential limitations.

  14. ERK phosphorylation regulates sleep and plasticity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Vanderheyden

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between sleep and plasticity, we examined the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in regulating baseline sleep, and modulating the response to waking experience. Both sleep deprivation and social enrichment increase ERK phosphorylation in wild-type flies. The effects of both sleep deprivation and social enrichment on structural plasticity in the LNvs can be recapitulated by expressing an active version of ERK (UAS-ERK(SEM pan-neuronally in the adult fly using GeneSwitch (Gsw Gsw-elav-GAL4. Conversely, disrupting ERK reduces sleep and prevents both the behavioral and structural plasticity normally induced by social enrichment. Finally, using transgenic flies carrying a cAMP response Element (CRE-luciferase reporter we show that activating ERK enhances CRE-Luc activity while disrupting ERK reduces it. These data suggest that ERK phosphorylation is an important mediator in transducing waking experience into sleep.

  15. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  16. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory

  17. Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Davies (Sarah); J.E. Ang (Joo Ern); V.L. Revell (Victoria); B. Holmes (Ben); A. Mann (Anuska); F.P. Robertson (Francesca); N. Cui (Nanyi); B. Middleton (Benita); K. Ackermann (Katrin); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); A.E. Thumser (Alfred); P. Raynaud (Philippe); D.J. Skene (Debra)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSleep restriction and circadian clock disruption are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The metabolic pathways involved in human sleep, however, have yet to be investigatedwith the use of a metabolomics approach. Here we have used

  18. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  19. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Gaine; Snehajyoti Chatterjee; Ted Abel

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of e...

  20. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  1. Sleep: A Novel Mechanistic Pathway, Biomarker, and Treatment Target in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mander, Bryce A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Winer, Joseph R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Jagust, William J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Bioimaging Div.; Walker, Matthew P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute

    2016-06-17

    Sleep disruption appears to be a major component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its pathophysiology. Signature abnormalities of sleep emerge before clinical onset of AD. Moreover, insufficient sleep facilitates accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), potentially triggering earlier cognitive decline and conversion to AD. Building on such findings, this review has four goals: evaluating (i) associations and plausible mechanisms linking non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep disruption, Aβ, and AD; (ii) a role for NREM sleep disruption as a novel factor linking cortical Aβ to impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation; (iii) the potential diagnostic utility of NREM sleep disruption as a new biomarker of AD; and (iv) the possibility of sleep as a new treatment target in aging, affording preventative and therapeutic benefits.

  2. Sleep health and its assessment and management in physical therapy practice: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Stanley

    2009-07-01

    Sleep and sleep deprivation have become major health issues in our modern society. Impaired sleep can negatively affect physical and psychological well-being, and conversely, certain common conditions can impair sleep. Furthermore, insufficient or disrupted sleep can contribute to functional impairments. As health care professionals, physical therapists are singularly concerned with function and well-being. To understand the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on health, this article describes sleep, our contemporary culture of sleeplessness, insomnia, sleep needs, the physical cost of inadequate sleep, the psychological cost of sleep deprivation, and the effects of sleep debt on safety. How to assess an individual's sleep debt is then described, and a sleep inventory questionnaire and scoring scale are presented. Evidence-based recommendations for optimizing sleep are outlined, and these can be readily implemented by the busy clinician. The sleep inventory questionnaire can be used to evaluate the outcome of these recommendations or other interventions as well as serve as an assessment tool. Based on the literature, the assessment and evaluation of sleep and basic sleep recommendations need to be considered as fundamental clinical competencies in contemporary physical therapy care.

  3. Improving inpatient environments to support patient sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Jennifer R; Hadi, Khatereh

    2016-10-01

    Although sleep is important for healing, sleep deprivation is a major concern for patients in hospitals. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the observational and interventional studies that have been done to understand exogenous, non-pharmacological strategies for improving sleep in hospitals. We searched Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2015 in English. A title review of 13,113 articles from four databases resulted in 783 articles that were further culled to 277 based on a review of the abstracts. The net result after reading the articles and a hand search was 42 articles. From each article we recorded the independent variables, methods used for measuring sleep and specific sleep outcomes reported. Noise is a modifiable cause of some sleep disruptions in hospitals, and when reduced can lead to more sleep. Earplugs and eye masks may help, but changing the sound and light environment is more effective. Calming music in the evening has been shown to be effective as well as daytime bright light exposure. Nursing care activities cause sleep disruption, but efforts at limiting interventions have not been demonstrated to improve sleep conditions. The research is hard to consolidate due to the multitude of independent variables and outcome metrics, but overall points to the potential for making meaningful improvements in the quality of patient sleep. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A; Henchen, Christopher J; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. On-call work: To sleep or not to sleep? It depends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paterson, Jessica L; Hall, Sarah J; Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad

    On-call working time arrangements are increasingly common, involve work only in the event of an unpredictable incident and exist primarily outside of standard hours. Like other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work disrupts sleep and can therefore have negative effects on health, safety and performance. Unlike other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work often allows sleep opportunities between calls. Any sleep obtained during on-call periods will be beneficial for waking performance. However, there is evidence that sleep while on call may be of substantially reduced restorative value because of the expectation of receiving the call and apprehension about missing the call. In turn, waking from sleep to respond to a call may be associated with temporary increases in performance impairment. This is dependent on characteristics of both the preceding sleep, the tasks required upon waking and the availability and utility of any countermeasures to support the transition from sleep to wake. In this paper, we critically evaluate the evidence both for and against sleeping during on-call periods and conclude that some sleep, even if it is of reduced quality and broken by repeated calls, is a good strategy. We also note, however, that organisations utilising on-call working time arrangements need to systematically manage the likelihood that on-call sleep can be associated with temporary performance impairments upon waking. Given that the majority of work in this area has been laboratory-based, there is a significant need for field-based investigations of the magnitude of sleep inertia, in addition to the utility of sleep inertia countermeasures. Field studies should include working with subject matter experts to identify the real-world impacts of changes in performance associated with sleeping, or not sleeping, whilst on call.

  6. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  7. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  8. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Kelly, Ryan J; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-04-01

    Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children's sleep. The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5-29% of variance. Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children's sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  10. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  12. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  13. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  14. Sleep and delirium in unsedated patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, H C; Andersen, J H; Bendtsen, A O

    2016-01-01

    . Delirium assessment was done using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). RESULTS: Of four patients who were delirium free, only one had identifiable sleep on PSG. Sleep was disrupted with loss of circadian rhythm, and diminished REM sleep. In the remaining three patients...... the PSGs were atypical, meaning that no sleep signs were found, and sleep could not be quantified from the PSGs. Clinical total sleep time (ClinTST) ranged from 2.0-13.1 h in patients without delirium. Six patients with delirium all had atypical PSGs, so sleep could not be quantified. Short periods of REM......BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and delirium are major problems in the ICU. We aimed to assess the sleep quality by polysomnography (PSG) in relation to delirium in mechanically ventilated non-sedated ICU patients. METHODS: Interpretation of 24-h PSG and clinical sleep assessment in 14 patients...

  15. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  16. Out Like a Light? The Effects of a Diurnal Husbandry Schedule on Mouse Sleep and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy L; O'hara, Bruce F; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2018-03-01

    Sleep disruption in humans, caused by shift work, can be detrimental to physical and behavioral health. Nocturnal laboratory mice may experience a similar disruption caused by human daytime activities, but whether this disruption affects their welfare is unknown. We used 48 mice (CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c of both sexes) in a factorial design to test a sleep disruption treatment, in which mice were disturbed by providing routine husbandry at either 1000 or 2200 during a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, with lights on at 0700. All mice were exposed for 1 wk to each disruption treatment, and we used a noninvasive sleep monitoring apparatus to monitor and record sleep. To determine whether providing nesting material ameliorated effects of sleep disruption, we tested 4 amounts of nesting material (3, 6, 9, or 12 g) and continuously recorded sleep in the home cage for 2 wk. C57BL/6 mice, regardless of sex or disruption timing, slept the least overall. There was a strong interaction of sex and type of mouse on sleep across 24 h. Mice slept less during the first day of the daytime disturbance than on day 6. These results suggest that disturbance timing affects sleep patterns in mice but not their overall amount of sleep and that the changes in sleep patterns vary between mouse type and sex. In addition, mice appear to both anticipate and acclimate to human activity during the day. Our welfare checks were possibly too predictable and inconsequential to induce true sleep disruption.

  17. A role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The timing and quality of both sleep and wakefulness are thought to be regulated by the interaction of two processes. One of these two processes keeps track of the prior sleep-wake history and controls the homeostatic need for sleep while the other sets the time-of-day that sleep preferably occurs. The molecular pathways underlying the latter, circadian process have been studied in detail and their key role in physiological time-keeping has been well established. Analyses of sleep in mice and flies lacking core circadian clock gene proteins have demonstrated, however, that besides disrupting circadian rhythms, also sleep homeostatic processes were affected. Subsequent studies revealed that sleep loss alters both the mRNA levels and the specific DNA-binding of the key circadian transcriptional regulators to their target sequences in the mouse brain. The fact that sleep loss impinges on the very core of the molecular circadian circuitry might explain why both inadequate sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms can similarly lead to metabolic pathology. The evidence for a role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis will be reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal change in sleep and daytime sleepiness in postpartum women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh J Filtness

    Full Text Available Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ≥12. Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce.

  19. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  20. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  1. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  2. Slow wave and REM sleep deprivation effects on explicit and implicit memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Solomons, Luke C; Steier, Joerg; Kabra, Neeraj; Burnside, Anna; Pengo, Martino F; Moxham, John; Goldstein, Laura H; Kopelman, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep. They had 1 control night of undisturbed sleep and 2 experimental nights, during which either SWS or REM sleep was selectively deprived across the entire night (sleep conditions counterbalanced across participants). Polysomnography recordings quantified precisely the amount of SWS and REM sleep that occurred during each of the sleep conditions, and spindle counts were recorded. In the morning, participants completed the experimental tasks in the same sequence as the night before. SWS deprivation disrupted the consolidation of explicit memories for visuospatial information (ηp2 = .23), and both SWS (ηp2 = .53) and REM sleep (ηp2 = .52) deprivation adversely affected explicit verbal recall. Neither SWS nor REM sleep deprivation affected aspects of short-term or working memory, and did not affect measures of verbal implicit memory. Spindle counts did not correlate significantly with memory performance. These findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the sleep cycles throughout the entire night, and the contribution of both SWS and REM sleep to memory consolidation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  5. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  6. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  7. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Jacob A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Coles, Meredith E

    2015-04-01

    Findings of this meta-analysis show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is related to disruptions in both the duration and timing of sleep. PsycINFO and Google Scholar database searches identified 12 relevant studies that compared measures of sleep in individuals with OCD to those of either a healthy control group or published norms. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency, sleep duration, awakening after sleep onset, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, percentage of slow wave sleep, and prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Individual effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Sleep duration was found to be shorter, and the prevalence of DSPD higher, in individuals with OCD compared to controls. Further, excluding samples with comorbid depression did not meaningfully reduce the magnitude of these effects (although the results were no longer statistically significant) and medication use by participants is unlikely to have systematically altered sleep timing. Overall, available data suggest that sleep disruption is associated with OCD but further research on both sleep duration and sleep timing in individuals with OCD is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep, circadian dysrhythmia, obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Gumpeny Ramachandra; Sanjana, Narasimhadevara Santhi Nirmala

    2016-11-15

    Synchrony of biological processes with environmental cues developed over millennia to match growth, reproduction and senescence. This entails a complex interplay of genetic, metabolic, chemical, light, hormonal and hedonistic factors across life forms. Sleep is one of the most prominent rhythms where such a match is established. Over the past 100 years or so, it has been possible to disturb the synchrony between sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues. Development of electric lights, shift work and continual accessibility of the internet has disrupted this match. As a result, many non-communicable diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and malignancies have been attributed in part to such disruption. In this presentation a review is made of the origin and evolution of sleep studies, the pathogenic mediators for such asynchrony, clinical evidence and relevance and suggested management options to deal with the disturbances.

  10. Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states.

  11. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  12. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. New developments in the treatment of primary insomnia in elderly patients: focus on prolonged-release melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigo DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel P Cardinali, María F Vidal, Daniel E VigoDepartment of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: A temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the increase in sleep propensity at the beginning of the night, coupled with the sleep-promoting effects of exogenous melatonin, indicate that melatonin is involved in the regulation of sleep. This action is attributed to the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain areas. The sleep-promoting actions of melatonin, which are demonstrable in healthy humans, have been found to be useful in subjects suffering from circadian rhythm sleep disorders and in elderly patients, who had low nocturnal melatonin production and secretion. The effectiveness of melatonin in treating sleep disturbances in these patients is relevant because the sleep-promoting compounds that are usually prescribed, such as benzodiazepines and related drugs, have many adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence, and impairment of memory. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause any hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency concerning its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin used. Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow-release melatonin preparations. A prolonged-release preparation of melatonin 2 mg (Circadin® has been approved for the treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years in the European Union. This prolonged-release preparation of melatonin had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall, or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo

  15. Genetic Variation in Melatonin Pathway Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Sleep Onset Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J.; Pendergast, Julie S.; Allen, Melissa J.; Leu, Roberta M.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Elsea, Sarah H.; Malow, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes whose products regulate endogenous melatonin modify sleep patterns and have been implicated in ASD. Genetic factors likely contribute to comorbid expression of sleep disorders in ASD. We studied a clinically unique ASD subgroup, consisting solely of children with…

  16. Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, Rinka M P; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J

    During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two

  17. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  18. Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Ziba; Keefer, Laurie; Farhadi, Ashkan; Stepanski, Edward; Sedghi, Shahriar; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2007-11-01

    Normal sleep is paramount for a healthy lifestyle and high quality of life. Sleep modulates the immune system and thus affects the course of several chronic inflammatory conditions. There are no reported studies that address the role of sleep disturbance in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize sleep disturbance in IBD using validated measures of sleep and quality of life. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects after a brief instruction. The questionnaire package was composed of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a measure of disease severity and the IBD-Quality of Life Questionnaire. A total of 119 subjects were recruited (58% response rate): 80 with inactive IBD, 24 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 healthy controls. The IBD subjects reported significantly prolonged sleep latency, frequent sleep fragmentation, higher rate of using sleeping pills, decreased day-time energy, increased tiredness and poor overall sleep quality compared to healthy controls. The abnormal sleep patterns in IBD subjects were similar to IBS subjects. The reported sleep quality was correlated with IBD disease severity score (r(2) = 0.55, P = 0.02). Both IBD and IBS subjects thought that sleep and their disease status were correlated. The results show that IBD patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially modify disease severity or increase risk of flare-up. Regardless of the primary or secondary origin of this problem, sleep disturbance should be addressed in the clinical management of patients with IBD.

  19. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep and sadness: exploring the relation among sleep, cognitive control, and depressive symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlind, W Michael; Beevers, Christopher G; Sherman, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Logan T; McGeary, John E; Matthews, Michael D; Maddox, W Todd; Schnyer, David M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common feature of depression. However, recent work has found that individuals who are vulnerable to depression report poorer sleep quality compared to their low-risk counterparts, suggesting that sleep disturbance may precede depression. In addition, both sleep disturbance and depression are related to deficits in cognitive control processes. Thus we examined if poor sleep quality predicts subsequent increases in depressive symptoms and if levels of cognitive control mediated this relation. Thirty-five undergraduate students participated in two experimental sessions separated by 3 weeks. Participants wore an actigraph watch between sessions, which provided an objective measure of sleep patterns. We assessed self-reported sleep quality and depressive symptoms at both sessions. Last, individuals completed an exogenous cuing task, which measured ability to disengage attention from neutral and negative stimuli during the second session. Using path analyses, we found that both greater self-reported sleep difficulty and more objective sleep stability measures significantly predicted greater difficulty disengaging attention (i.e., less cognitive control) from negative stimuli. Less cognitive control over negative stimuli in turn predicted increased depression symptoms at the second session. Exploratory associations among the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput gene, CLOCK, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11932595, as well as sleep assessments and depressive symptoms also are presented. These preliminary results suggest that sleep disruptions may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms via their impact on cognitive control. Further, variation in the CLOCK gene may be associated with sleep quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Dogs on Human Sleep in the Home Sleep Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma I; Miller, Bernie W; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Parish, James M; Lyng, Philip J; Krahn, Lois E

    2017-09-01

    To objectively assess whether a dog in the bedroom or bed disturbs sleep. From August 1, 2015, through December 31, 2015, we evaluated the sleep of humans and dogs occupying the same bedroom to determine whether this arrangement was conducive to sleep. The study included 40 healthy adults without sleep disorders and their dogs (no dogs dog a validated dog accelerometer for 7 nights. The mean ± SD age of the participants (88% women) was 44±14 years and body mass index was 25±6. The mean ± SD age of the dogs was 5±3 years and weight was 15±13 kg. Mean ± SD actigraphy data showed 475±101 minutes in bed, 404±99 minutes total sleep time, 81%±7% sleep efficiency, and 71±35 minutes wake time after sleep onset. The dogs' accelerometer activity during the corresponding human sleep period was characterized as mean ± SD minutes at rest, active, and at play of 413±102, 62±43, and 2±4. The dogs had mean ± SD 85%±15% sleep efficiency. Human sleep efficiency was lower if the dog was on the bed as opposed to simply in the room (P=.003). Humans with a single dog in their bedroom maintained good sleep efficiency; however, the dog's position on/off the bed made a difference. A dog's presence in the bedroom may not be disruptive to human sleep, as was previously suspected. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  3. Sleep stability and cognitive function in an Arctic Martian analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gríofa, Marc O; Blue, Rebecca S; Cohen, Kenneth D; O'Keeffe, Derek T

    2011-04-01

    Human performance is affected by sleep disruption and sleep deprivation can critically affect mission outcome in both spaceflight and other extreme environments. In this study, the seven-person crew (four men, three women) lived a Martian sol (24.65 h) for 37 d during a long-term stay at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada. Crewmembers underwent cardiopulmonary monitoring for signs of circadian disruption and completed a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Diary to monitor subjective fatigue. Crewmembers underwent cognitive testing to identify the effects, if any, of sleep disruption upon cognitive skill. A Martian sol was implemented for 37 d during the Arctic mission. Each crewmember completed an adapted version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary in tandem with electrocardiograph (ECG) cardiopulmonary monitoring of sleep by the Cardiac Adapted Sleep Parameters Electrocardiogram Recorder (CASPER). Crewmembers also underwent cognitive testing during this time period. Sleep diary data indicate improvement in alertness with the onset of the sol (fatigue decreasing from 5.1 to 4.0, alertness increasing from 6.1 to 7.0). Cardiopulmonary data suggest sleep instability, though trends were not statistically significant. Crewmember decision speed time scores improved from pre-Mars to Mars (average improving from 66.5 to 84.0%), though the remainder of cognitive testing results were not significant. While subjective data demonstrate improved sleep and alertness during the sol, objective data demonstrate no significant alteration of sleep patterns. There was no apparent cognitive decline over the course of the mission.

  4. Restless legs syndrome: a new entity of neuropathic pain? Treatment with prolonged release oxycodone/naloxone combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemignani F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Franco Gemignani,1 Andrea Melpignano,1,2 Giulia Milioli,1,2 Silvia Riccardi,1,2 Liborio Parrino1,2 1Neurology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 2Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a disorder of sensorimotor integration characterized by an urge to move the legs when at rest, especially at night or in the evening, which is relieved by movement. Sensory symptoms may be prominent, often exhibiting features consistent with neuropathic pain. Iron deficiency and genetic factors are implicated in RLS causation in most patients. The pathogenetic model of impaired circadian dopaminergic modulation of sensorimotor integration circuitry at the spinal level is fitting with the co-occurrence of movement disorders, sensory symptoms, and sleep disruption in RLS. Accordingly, levodopa and dopamine agonists are effective for RLS symptoms, which compensate for the impaired descending control by diencephalo-spinal dopa(minergic pathway. Dopamine agonists are usually indicated as the first-line therapy, but their use in long-term treatment is often complicated by augmentation and impulse control disorder, thus alpha-2-delta ligands also are now considered the first line of treatment. It has been recognized that endogenous opioid system is also involved in the mechanisms generating RLS, possibly through an impaired modulation of pain pathways. Opioids can be considered as an alternative therapy, particularly in patients with augmentation and/or refractory to other treatments. Recently introduced prolonged-release oxycodone–naloxone was efficacious for short-term treatment of patients with severe RLS inadequately controlled with previous treatment. It will be important to assess whether opioids, as well as other drugs, are especially effective in definite RLS subtypes such as the painful phenotype. Keywords: small fiber neuropathy

  5. Child temperament, parenting discipline style, and daytime behavior in childhood sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens-Stively, J; Frank, N; Smith, A; Hagino, O; Spirito, A; Arrigan, M; Alario, A J

    1997-10-01

    Fifty-two children without significant sleep disturbance seen at a primary care clinic for well-child care were compared on measures of temperament, parenting style, daytime behavior, and overall sleep disturbance to three diagnostic subgroups identified in a pediatric sleep clinic: children with obstructive sleep apnea (n = 33), parasomnias (night terrors, sleepwalking, etc.) (n = 16), and behavioral sleep disorders (limit-setting disorder, etc.) (n = 31). The mean age of the entire sample was 5.7 years. Temperamental emotionality in the behavioral sleep disorders group was associated with a higher level of sleep disturbance (p parenting laxness was associated with sleep disturbance in the general pediatric population (p parenting styles and daytime disruptive behaviors were more likely to be associated with the milder sleep disturbances found in children in a primary care setting.

  6. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  7. Neural Consequences of Chronic Short Sleep: Reversible or Lasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqing Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of adolescents and adults in developed countries regularly experience insufficient sleep across the school and/or work week interspersed with weekend catch up sleep. This common practice of weekend recovery sleep reduces subjective sleepiness, yet recent studies demonstrate that one weekend of recovery sleep may not be sufficient in all persons to fully reverse all neurobehavioral impairments observed with chronic sleep loss, particularly vigilance. Moreover, recent studies in animal models demonstrate persistent injury to and loss of specific neuron types in response to chronic short sleep (CSS with lasting effects on sleep/wake patterns. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the effects of chronic sleep disruption on neurobehavioral performance and injury to neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes and discuss what is known and what is not yet established for reversibility of neural injury. Recent neurobehavioral findings in humans are integrated with animal model research examining long-term consequences of sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance, brain development, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, and connectivity. While it is now clear that recovery of vigilance following short sleep requires longer than one weekend, less is known of the impact of CSS on cognitive function, mood, and brain health long term. From work performed in animal models, CSS in the young adult and short-term sleep loss in critical developmental windows can have lasting detrimental effects on neurobehavioral performance.

  8. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research.

  10. Hot flashes and sleep in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen E

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disturbances during menopause are often attributed to nocturnal hot flashes and 'sweats' associated with changing hormone patterns. This paper is a comprehensive critical review of the research on the relationship between sleep disturbance and hot flashes in women. Numerous studies have found a relationship between self-reported hot flashes and sleep complaints. However, hot flash studies using objective sleep assessment techniques such as polysomnography, actigraphy, or quantitative analysis of the sleep EEG are surprisingly scarce and have yielded somewhat mixed results. Much of this limited evidence suggests that hot flashes are associated with objectively identified sleep disruption in at least some women. At least some of the negative data may be due to methodological issues such as reliance upon problematic self-reports of nocturnal hot flashes and a lack of concurrent measures of hot flashes and sleep. The recent development of a reliable and non-intrusive method for objectively identifying hot flashes during the night should help address the need for substantial additional research in this area. Several areas of clinical relevance are described, including the effects of discontinuing combined hormone therapy (estrogen plus progesterone) or estrogen-only therapy, the possibility of hot flashes continuing for many years after menopause, and the link between hot flashes and depression.

  11. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterniczuk R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+, a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.Keywords: intensive care unit, sleep–wake rhythm, aging, frailty

  12. Nocturnal Hot Flashes: Relationship to Objective Awakenings and Sleep Stage Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Kim, Semmie; Galvan, Thania; White, David P.; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: While women report sleep interruption secondary to nighttime hot flashes, the sleep disrupting impact of nocturnal hot flashes (HF) is not well characterized. We utilized a model of induced HF to investigate the relationship of nighttime HF to sleep architecture and sleep-stage transitions. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy, premenopausal volunteers received the depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) leuprolide to rapidly induce menopause, manifesting with HF. Sleep disruption was measured on 2 polysomnograms conducted before and after 4–5 weeks on leuprolide, when HF had developed. Results: 165 HF episodes were recorded objectively during 48 sleep studies (mean 3.4 HF/night). After standardizing to sleep-stage time distribution, the majority of HF were recorded during wake (51.0%) and stage N1 (18.8%). Sixty-six percent of HF occurred within 5 minutes of an awakening, with 80% occurring just before or during the awakening. Objective HF were not associated with sleep disruption as measured by increased transitions to wake or N1, but self-reported nocturnal HF correlated with an increase from pre- to post-leuprolide in the rate of transitions to wake (p = 0.01), and to N1 (p = 0.008). Conclusions: By isolating the effect of HF on sleep in women without the confound of age-related sleep changes associated with natural menopause, this experimental model shows that HF arise most commonly during N1 and wake, typically preceding or occurring simultaneously with wake episodes. Perception of HF, but not objective HF, is linked to increased sleep-stage transitions, suggesting that sleep disruption increases awareness of and memory for nighttime HF events. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01116401. Citation: Bianchi MT, Kim S, Galvan T, White DP, Joffe H. Nocturnal hot flashes: relationship to objective awakenings and sleep stage transitions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1003–1009. PMID:26951410

  13. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  14. [The relationship between sleep and obesity: current perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskáčková, Zlata; Forejt, Martin; Martykánová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms negatively affects regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Disrupted metabolism in response to disrupted biological rhythms might lead, together with genetic background, to obesity and to other health complications. Results of epidemiologic surveys are consistent with mechanistic theory showing the interconnection between the biological rhythms, sleep and metabolism. Epidemiologic surveys confirm that sleep duration of less than 6 hours increases significantly the risk of obesity. Systematic reviews of epidemiologic surveys examining association of sleep and obesity refer to large heterogeneity in involved subjects, methodological approaches of measuring obesity and sleep, and confounders. Design of study plays also essential role in interpretation and definition of causal relationship. Reduced sleep duration in relation to obesity is in the literature discussed from different points of view: 1. as a possible primary cause of obesity, 2. as a result of comorbidities resulting from obesity and 3. as an accompanied part of the third factor contributing to obesity (e.g. long working hours, chronic emotional stress, overusing of media). Causal relationship between sleep and obesity is not yet fully elucidated, however the association is supposed to be bidirectional. The article gives an overview of current knowledge concerning the influence of sleep on the development of obesity and points to the critical points of current research.

  15. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  16. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  17. Cellular consequences of sleep deprivation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2006-10-01

    Several recent studies have used transcriptomics approaches to characterize the molecular correlates of sleep, waking, and sleep deprivation. This analysis may help in understanding the benefits that sleep brings to the brain at the cellular level. The studies are still limited in number and focus on a few brain regions, but some consistent findings are emerging. Sleep, spontaneous wakefulness, short-term, and long-term sleep deprivation are each associated with the upregulation of hundreds of genes in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. In fruit flies as well as in mammals, three categories of genes are consistently upregulated during waking and short-term sleep deprivation relative to sleep. They include genes involved in energy metabolism, synaptic potentiation, and the response to cellular stress. In the rat cerebral cortex, transcriptional changes associated with prolonged sleep loss differ significantly from those observed during short-term sleep deprivation. However, it is too early to draw firm conclusions relative to the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, and more extensive studies using DNA and protein arrays are needed in different species and in different brain regions.

  18. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Webb-Mitchell, R; Hazu, A; Slater, N; Middleton, B; Gallagher, P; McAllister-Williams, H; Anderson, K N

    2017-07-01

    Subjective reports of insomnia and hypersomnia are common in bipolar disorder (BD). It is unclear to what extent these relate to underlying circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD). In this study we aimed to objectively assess sleep and circadian rhythm in a cohort of patients with BD compared to matched controls. Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls had comprehensive sleep/circadian rhythm assessment with respiratory sleep studies, prolonged accelerometry over 3 weeks, sleep questionnaires and diaries, melatonin levels, alongside mood, psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. Twenty-three (50%) patients with BD had abnormal sleep, of whom 12 (52%) had CRD and 29% had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with abnormal sleep had lower 24-h melatonin secretion compared to controls and patients with normal sleep. Abnormal sleep/CRD in BD was associated with impaired functioning and worse QoL. BD is associated with high rates of abnormal sleep and CRD. The association between these disorders, mood and functioning, and the direction of causality, warrants further investigation.

  19. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  20. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  1. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  2. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  3. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  4. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  5. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  6. Effects of Aging on Cortical Neural Dynamics and Local Sleep Homeostasis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Laura E; Fisher, Simon P; Cui, Nanyi; Peirson, Stuart N; Foster, Russell G; Wafford, Keith A; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V

    2018-04-18

    Healthy aging is associated with marked effects on sleep, including its daily amount and architecture, as well as the specific EEG oscillations. Neither the neurophysiological underpinnings nor the biological significance of these changes are understood, and crucially the question remains whether aging is associated with reduced sleep need or a diminished capacity to generate sufficient sleep. Here we tested the hypothesis that aging may affect local cortical networks, disrupting the capacity to generate and sustain sleep oscillations, and with it the local homeostatic response to sleep loss. We performed chronic recordings of cortical neural activity and local field potentials from the motor cortex in young and older male C57BL/6J mice, during spontaneous waking and sleep, as well as during sleep after sleep deprivation. In older animals, we observed an increase in the incidence of non-rapid eye movement sleep local field potential slow waves and their associated neuronal silent (OFF) periods, whereas the overall pattern of state-dependent cortical neuronal firing was generally similar between ages. Furthermore, we observed that the response to sleep deprivation at the level of local cortical network activity was not affected by aging. Our data thus suggest that the local cortical neural dynamics and local sleep homeostatic mechanisms, at least in the motor cortex, are not impaired during healthy senescence in mice. This indicates that powerful protective or compensatory mechanisms may exist to maintain neuronal function stable across the life span, counteracting global changes in sleep amount and architecture. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The biological significance of age-dependent changes in sleep is unknown but may reflect either a diminished sleep need or a reduced capacity to generate deep sleep stages. As aging has been linked to profound disruptions in cortical sleep oscillations and because sleep need is reflected in specific patterns of cortical activity, we

  7. Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients in ICU: how much do we know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Y.; Ording, H.; Jennum, Poul

    2012-01-01

    the underlying literature. There are no studies of level 1 evidence proving the positive impact of the tested interventions on the critically ill patients sleep pattern. Thus, disturbed sleep in critically ill patients with all the severe consequences remains an unresolved problem and needs further investigation.......Sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) seem to lead to development of delirium, prolonged ICU stay, and increased mortality. That is why sufficient sleep is important for good outcome and recovery in critically ill patients. A variety of small studies reveal pathological sleep patterns...... in critically ill patients including abnormal circadian rhythm, high arousal and awakening index, reduced Slow Wave Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement sleep. The purpose of this study is to summarise different aspects of sleep-awake disturbances, causes and handling methods in critically ill patients by reviewing...

  8. Internal disruption in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    A review of results of experimental and theoretical investigations of internal disruption in tokamaks is given. Specific features of various types of saw-tooth oscillations are described and their classification is performed. Theoretical models of the process of development of internal disruption instability are discussed. Effect of internal disruption on parameters of plasma, confined in tokamak, is considered. Scalings of period and amplitude of saw-tooth oscillations, as well as version radius are presented. Different methods for stabilizing instability of internal disruption are described

  9. Internal disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the phenomenon of internal disruptions in tokamaks are reviewed. A classification scheme is introduced and the features of different types of sawtooth oscillations are described. A theoretical model for the development of the internal disruption instability is discussed. The effect of internal disruptions on the parameters of plasma confined in tokamaks is discussed. Scaling laws for the period and amplitude of sawtooth oscillations, as well as for the inversion radius, are presented. Different methods of stabilizing the internal disruption instability are described

  10. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  11. Evidence-Based Design Features Improve Sleep Quality Among Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrke, Ryan J L; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Ahern, Catherine; Langstaff, Karen L; Bieling, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare sleep characteristics pre- and post-move into a state-of-the-art mental health facility, which offered private sleeping quarters. Significant evidence points toward sleep disruption among psychiatric inpatients. It is unclear, however, how environmental factors (e.g., dorm-style rooms) impact sleep quality in this population. To assess sleep quality, a novel objective technology, actigraphy, was used before and after a facility move. Subjective daily interviews were also administered, along with the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Actigraphy revealed significant improvements in objective sleep quality following the facility move. Interestingly, subjective report of sleep quality did not correlate with the objective measures. Circadian sleep type appeared to play a role in influencing subjective attitudes toward sleep quality. Built environment has a significant effect on the sleep quality of psychiatric inpatients. Given well-documented disruptions in sleep quality present among psychiatric patients undergoing hospitalization, design elements like single patient bedrooms are highly desirable.

  12. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Snapshot of Sleep Quality and Quantity Among US Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Berry, Rani; Winseman, Jeffrey S; Mason, Hyacinth Rc

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a well-known risk factor for mood disturbances, decreased cognitive acuity, and impaired judgment. Sleep research in medical students typically focuses on sleep quantity, but less is known about the quality of a student's sleep. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the subjective sleep quality and quantity of US medical students and to identify differences in sleep characteristics across demographic groups. Medical students (N = 860) representing 49 medical colleges completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale and a demographic questionnaire between December 2015 and March 2016. Although participants reported obtaining nearly 7 h of sleep per night, the majority of students reported indicators of poor sleep quality. First and third year students reported higher rates of sleep-related problems compared to second and fourth year students. First and second year students reported the highest levels of sleep somnolence. Ethnic minority students reported significantly lower levels of sleep adequacy and sleep quantity and significantly higher levels of sleep somnolence than Caucasian students. Impaired sleep quality may contribute to fatigue in medical students even when sleep quantity seems adequate. Students appear to begin medical school with disrupted sleep patterns that may not improve until their final year of study. Education regarding proper sleep habits and the significant role of sleep quality in sustaining healthy sleep is especially important in the early stages of medical education. Minority, first year, and third year students may benefit the most from learning new behaviors that promote sufficient sleep quality during periods of sustained stress.

  16. Brain Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging of Sleep Homeostasis and Restoration in Drug Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Trksak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented a high occurrence of sleep difficulties in drug-dependent populations, prompting researchers to characterize sleep profiles and physiology in drug abusing populations. This mini-review examines studies indicating that drug-dependent populations exhibit alterations in sleep homeostatic and restoration processes in response to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is a principal sleep research tool that results in marked physiological challenge, which provides a means to examine sleep homeostatic processes in response to extended wakefulness. A report from our laboratory demonstrated that following recovery sleep from sleep deprivation, brain high-energy phosphates particularly beta–nucleoside triphosphate (beta-NTP are markedly increased as measured with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. A more recent study examined the effects of sleep deprivation in opiate-dependent methadone-maintained (MM subjects. The study demonstrated increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep. Interestingly, these increases were of a markedly greater magnitude in MM subjects compared to control subjects. A similar study examined sleep deprivation in cocaine-dependent subjects demonstrating that cocaine-dependent subjects exhibit greater increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep when compared to control subjects. The studies suggest that sleep deprivation in both MM subjects and cocaine-dependent subjects is characterized by greater changes in brain ATP levels than control subjects. Greater enhancements in brain ATP following recovery sleep may reflect a greater disruption to or impact of sleep deprivation in drug dependent subjects, whereby sleep restoration processes may be unable to properly regulate brain ATP and maintain brain high-energy equilibrium. These studies support the notion of a greater susceptibility to sleep loss in drug dependent populations. Additional sleep studies in drug abusing

  17. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aircraft noise: effects on macro- and microstructure of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Glatz, Christian; Griefahn, Barbara; Penzel, Thomas; Samel, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    The effects of aircraft noise on sleep macrostructure (Rechtschaffen and Kales) and microstructure (American Sleep Disorders Association [ASDA] arousal criteria) were investigated. For each of 10 subjects (mean age 35.3 years, 5 males), a baseline night without aircraft noise (control), and two nights with exposure to 64 noise events with a maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of either 45 or 65 dBA were chosen. Spontaneous and noise-induced alterations during sleep classified as arousals (ARS), changes to lighter sleep stages (CSS), awakenings including changes to sleep stage 1 (AS1), and awakenings (AWR) were analyzed. The number of events per night increased in the order AWR, AS1, CSS, and ARS under control conditions as well as under the two noise conditions. Furthermore, probabilities for sleep disruptions increased with increasing noise level. ARS were observed about fourfold compared to AWR, irrespective of control or noise condition. Under the conditions investigated, different sleep parameters show different sensitivities, but also different specificities for noise-induced sleep disturbances. We conclude that most information on sleep disturbances can be achieved by investigating robust classic parameters like AWR or AS1, although ASDA electroencephalographic (EEG) arousals might add relevant information in situations with low maximum SPLs, chronic sleep deprivation or chronic exposure.

  19. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  20. Disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.; Gill, R.D.; Hugon, M.

    1989-01-01

    In JET, both high density and low-q operation are limited by disruptions. The density limit disruptions are caused initially by impurity radiation. This causes a contraction of the plasma temperature profile and leads to an MHD unstable configuration. There is evidence of magnetic island formation resulting in minor disruptions. After several minor disruptions, a major disruption with a rapid energy quench occurs. This event takes place in two stages. In the first stage there is a loss of energy from the central region. In the second stage there is a more rapid drop to a very low temperature, apparently due to a dramatic increase in impurity radiation. The final current decay takes place in the resulting cold plasma. During the growth of the MHD instability the initially rotating mode is brought to rest. This mode locking is believed to be due to an electromagnetic interaction with the vacuum vessel and external magnetic field asymmetries. The low-q disruptions are remarkable for the precision with which they occur at q ψ = 2. These disruptions do not have extended precursors or minor disruptions. The instability grows and locks rapidly. The energy quench and current decay are generally similar to those of the density limit. (author). 43 refs, 35 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  2. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  3. Disruptions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses major and minor disruptions in Tokamaks. A number of models and numerical simulations of disruptions based on resistive MHD are reviewed. A discussion is given of how disruptive current profiles are correlated with the experimentally known operational limits in density and current. It is argued that the q a =2 limit is connected with stabilization of the m=2/n=1 tearing mode for a approx.< 2.7 by resistive walls and mode rotation. Experimental and theoretical observations indicate that major disruptions usually occur in at least two phases, first a 'predisruption', or loss of confinement in the region 1 < q < 2, leaving the q approx.= 1 region almost unaffected, followed by a final disruption of the central part, interpreted here as a toroidal n = 1 external kink mode. (author)

  4. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  5. [Aspects of sleep effects on the digestive tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Aben-Athar, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2002-01-01

    During sleep the gastrointestinal system function is markedly reduced most of the time. In this revision we described the effect of sleep on the digestive system. Salivation, swallowing rate, upper esophageal sphincter pressure and number of primary esophageal contractions have all been shown to be reduced during sleep. Gastric emptying is slow during sleep but the REM sleep is associated with faster gastric emptying. During the night we have a more regular intestinal motility than during the day. During sleep, phase II of the migrating motor complex cycle is virtually absent, both during diurnal or nocturnal sleep. The nocturnal velocity of migrating motor complex propagation in the proximal small bowel is slower than the diurnal velocity. The colon has a decrease in tonus and contractions. The anal canal pressure is lower and rectum activity is higher during sleep than during the awake state, but the anal pressure is still higher than the rectum pressure and the rectum contractions are most frequently retrograde. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is the most frequent cause of gastroesophageal reflux. The frequency of this transient relaxation is very low during sleep. Gastroesophageal reflux during sleep is more frequently associated with a low lower esophageal sphincter pressure. In this situation the disease is worse because the patient is in the supine position, so gravity does not help the acid esophageal clearance, salivation is decreased and the primary esophageal contraction is not frequent, a fact causing a prolongation of acid clearance during sleep. The right lateral position during sleep causes more reflux episodes than the left lateral position. The gastroesophageal reflux may be associated with nocturnal wheezing, chronic nocturnal cough and sleep apnea.

  6. The sleep-wake cycle and Alzheimer's disease: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Miranda M; Gerstner, Jason R; Holtzman, David M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances are a highly prevalent and often disabling feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A cardinal feature of AD includes the formation of amyloid plaques, associated with the extracellular accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that Aβ pathology may disrupt the sleep-wake cycle, in that as Aβ accumulates, more sleep-wake fragmentation develops. Furthermore, recent research in animal and human studies suggests that the sleep-wake cycle itself may influence Alzheimer's disease onset and progression. Chronic sleep deprivation increases amyloid plaque deposition, and sleep extension results in fewer plaques in experimental models. In this review geared towards the practicing clinician, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and AD pathology and behavior, and present current approaches to therapy for sleep disorders in AD.

  7. Sleep duration and cancer risk: time to use a "sleep-years" index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    suggested inclusion and standardization of assessing sleep duration could be an important step forward when evaluating possible cancer risks in relation to sleep. Finally, the proposed approach may prove useful beyond sleep epidemiology per se: to exemplify, research into suggested causal links between disrupted natural sleep-wakefulness cycles and increased cancer risks in shift-workers could also benefit.

  8. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  9. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  10. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  11. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  12. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  13. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  14. Trying to fall asleep while catastrophising: what sleep-disordered adolescents think and feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Oliver, Mike; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophising is a repetitive cognitive process related to sleep disturbance in adult insomnia patients. More recently catastrophising has been associated with increased sleep disturbances in community samples of children and adolescents, with this association mediated by anxiety and depression. However, there currently is no evidence of these processes outside of community samples; impeding our ability to draw clinical conclusions. Knowledge on such dysfunctional cognitive processes in adolescents experiencing sleep disturbance would be clinically beneficial in aetiology and intervention. Our research examined the link between catastrophising, anxiety, depression and sleep latency in a sample of sleep-disordered adolescents. We also explored specific catastrophising themes which may impact the sleep latency of these adolescents. Forty adolescents (age=15.1±1.5 years, 53% boys) diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder completed a 7-day sleep diary, along with measures of anxiety and depression and a catastrophising interview with a trained sleep therapist. Several catastrophisation themes were generated, the most common concerning interpersonal and performance aspects of school. Bootstrapping analyses showed depression did not mediate the relationship between catastrophising and sleep; however, an indirect relationship was found between catastrophising, anticipatory anxiety, and sleep latency. These findings have implications for the role of dysfunctional thinking in prolonging sleep onset for adolescents and providing a clinical framework for health professionals when assessing and treating adolescents with delayed sleep timing. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between early-life stress load and sleep in psychiatric outpatients: a sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13 years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18 years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  18. Breastfeeding, Maternal Depressive Mood and Room Sharing as Predictors of Sleep Fragmentation in 12-Week-Old Infants: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Valerie; Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Sleep fragmentation in infancy can burden a family by disrupting the sleep of all its members. However, there has been no longitudinal prospective investigation of the determinants of infant sleep fragmentation. We undertook such an investigation. New mothers (N = 106) completed questionnaires and were administered structured telephone interviews…

  19. Oral-appliance therapy obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome : a clinical study on therapeutic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud

    2007-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by disruptive snoring and repetitive upper airway obstructions. Its neurobehavioral consequences include excessive sleepiness, an increased risk of accidents, and an impaired quality of

  20. Understanding disruptions in tokamaksa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Galkin, Sergei A.; Gerasimov, Sergei N.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes progress achieved since 2007 in understanding disruptions in tokamaks, when the effect of plasma current sharing with the wall was introduced into theory. As a result, the toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current measurements during vertical disruption event (VDE) on the Joint European Torus was explained. A new kind of plasma equilibria and mode coupling was introduced into theory, which can explain the duration of the external kink 1/1 mode during VDE. The paper presents first results of numerical simulations using a free boundary plasma model, relevant to disruptions.

  1. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  4. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  5. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  6. Experimental shift work studies of permanent night, and rapidly rotating, shift systems. Pt. 1. Behaviour of various characteristics of sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, P.; Rutenfranz, J.; Romberg, H.P.; Decoster, F.; Kiesswetter, E. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Arbeitsphysiologie); Schulz, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Klinisches Inst.)

    1980-06-01

    In connection with experimental shift work 20 volunteers were examined while working on different rapidly or slowly rotating shift systems. Sleep was analyzed over a total of 112 days. Sleep was disturbed by children's noise or traffic noise. Sleep duration and sleep quality were particularly badly affected by noise with a high information value (children's noise). The ultradian rhythmicity of sleep did not appear to be disrupted by the change from day to night work. There were no significant differences between morning sleep and afternoon sleep after night work. In the laboratory experiments with fixed sleep durations, no separate effects on sleep quality could be established for different shift systems.

  7. Filtering out the noise: evaluating the impact of noise and sound reduction strategies on sleep quality for ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Karen J; Ranieri, V Marco

    2009-01-01

    The review article by Xie and colleagues examines the impact of noise and noise reduction strategies on sleep quality for critically ill patients. Evaluating the impact of noise on sleep quality is challenging, as it must be measured relative to other factors that may be more or less disruptive to patients' sleep. Such factors may be difficult for patients, observers, and polysomnogram interpreters to identify, due to our limited understanding of the causes of sleep disruption in the critically ill, as well as the challenges in recording and quantifying sleep stages and sleep fragmentation in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, most research in this field has focused on noise level, whereas acousticians typically evaluate additional parameters such as noise spectrum and reverberation time. The authors highlight the disparate results and limitations of existing studies, including the lack of attention to other acoustic parameters besides sound level, and the combined effects of different sleep disturbing factors.

  8. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down' Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664

    OpenAIRE

    Kompanje, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are often associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs immediately prior to falling asleep (hypnagogic paralysis) or upon waking (hypnopompic paralysis). In 1664, the Dutch physician I...

  9. Nightmares and sleep terrors | Scribante | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nightmares are common in childhood and concern regarding underlying psychological or physical causes should only be investigated when nightmares become frequent, are present for a prolonged period of time or are associated with day-time behavioural or performance dysfunction. Sleep terrors may be provoked by a ...

  10. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  11. A Review of Sleep Disorder Diagnosis by Electromyogram Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Mehrnaz; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and sleep-related problems play a role in a large number of human disorders and affect every field of medicine. It is estimated that 50 to 70 million Americans suffer from a chronic sleep disorder, which hinders their daily life, affects their health, and confers a significant economic burden to society. The negative public health consequences of sleep disorders are enormous and could have long-term effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, stroke and in some cases death. Polysomnographic modalities can monitor sleep cycles to identify disrupted sleep patterns, adjust the treatments, increase therapeutic options and enhance the quality of life of recording the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG). Although the skills acquired by medical facilitators are quite extensive, it is just as important for them to have access to an assortment of technologies and to further improve their monitoring and treatment capabilities. Computer-aided analysis is one advantageous technique that could provide quantitative indices for sleep disorder screening. Evolving evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease may be associated with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). With this article, we are reviewing studies that are related to EMG signal analysis for detection of neuromuscular diseases that result from sleep movement disorders. As well, the article describes the recent progress in analysis of EMG signals using temporal analysis, frequency-domain analysis, time-frequency, and sparse representations, followed by the comparison of the recent research.

  12. The effect of experimental sleep fragmentation on error monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Cheng-Hung; Fang, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Ling-Ling; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Experimental sleep fragmentation (SF) is characterized by frequent brief arousals without reduced total sleep time and causes daytime sleepiness and impaired neurocognitive processes. This study explored the impact of SF on error monitoring. Thirteen adults underwent auditory stimuli-induced high-level (H) and low-level (L) SF nights. Flanker task performance and electroencephalogram data were collected in the morning following SF nights. Compared to LSF, HSF induced more arousals and stage N1 sleep, decreased slow wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS), decreased subjective sleep quality, increased daytime sleepiness, and decreased amplitudes of P300 and error-related positivity (Pe). SF effects on N1 sleep were negatively correlated with SF effects on the Pe amplitude. Furthermore, as REMS was reduced by SF, post-error accuracy compensations were greatly reduced. In conclusion, attentional processes and error monitoring were impaired following one night of frequent sleep disruptions, even when total sleep time was not reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pain Correlates with Sleep Disturbances in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun-Ting; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Ma, Li-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Yi; Li, Jie; Huang, Jun-Ying; Liu, Jun-Yi; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Both sleep disorders and pain decrease quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the relationship between objective sleep disturbances and pain in patients with PD. This study aimed to (1) examine the clinical characteristics of pain in PD patients and (2) explore the correlation between pain and sleep disturbances in PD patients. Parkinson's disease patients (N = 144) underwent extensive clinical evaluations of motor and nonmotor symptoms and characteristics of pain. Overnight video-polysomnography was also conducted. Clinical characteristics and sleep parameters were compared between PD patients with or without pain. Pain was reported by 75 patients (52.1%), with 49 (65.3%) reporting pain of at least moderate severity. PD patients with pain were older and had longer disease duration, more severe PD symptoms as assessed by Hoehn and Yahr stage and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and higher L-dopa equivalent daily dose compared with PD patients without pain. PD patients with pain also showed significantly decreased sleep efficiency (57.06% ± 15.84% vs. 73.80% ± 12.00%, P daily living, depressed mood, higher percentage of N1 sleep, and lower sleep efficiency were independent predictors of pain in patients with PD. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common type of pain in patients with PD. Disrupted sleep continuity, altered sleep architecture, depressed mood, and compromised activities of daily living may be associated with pain in patients with PD. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Traumatic brain injury and disturbed sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a frequent condition worldwide, and sleep-wake disturbances often complicate the course after the injuring event. Current evidence suggests that the most common sleep-wake disturbances following traumatic brain injury include excessive daytime sleepiness and posttraumatic hypersomnia, that is, increased sleep need per 24 h. The neuromolecular basis of posttraumatic sleep pressure enhancement is not entirely clear. First neuropathological and clinical studies suggest that impaired hypocretin (orexin) signalling might contribute to sleepiness, but direct or indirect traumatic injury also to other sleep-wake modulating systems in the brainstem and the mesencephalon is likely. Posttraumatic insomnia may be less common than posttraumatic sleepiness, but studies on its frequency revealed conflicting results. Furthermore, insomnia is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities, and some patients with posttraumatic disruption of their circadian rhythm may be misdiagnosed as insomnia patients. The pathophysiology of posttraumatic circadian sleep disorders remains elusive; however, there is some evidence that reduced evening melatonin production due to traumatic brain damage may cause disruption of circadian regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  15. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  16. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  17. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  18. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    . However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...... to influence from individual strategic interests on the outcomes. More generally, this points to the need for understanding the two-way influence of sources, rather than viewing external search as one-way knowledge accessing....

  19. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more than normal may

  20. Longitudinal and Temporal Associations Between Daily Pain and Sleep Patterns After Major Pediatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Zhou, Chuan; Narayanan, Arthi; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of children develop persistent pain after major surgery. Sleep disruption has been implicated as a predictor of children's acute postsurgical pain. However, perioperative sleep patterns have not been longitudinally assessed, and the role of sleep in persistence of postsurgical pain has not been explored. We aimed to examine sleep patterns over 4 months in children having major surgery, and temporal relationships between daily sleep and pain. Sixty children age 10 to 18 (mean = 14.7) years having major surgery completed 7 days of actigraphy sleep monitoring (sleep duration, efficiency), twice daily electronic diaries (sleep quality, pain intensity, medication use), and validated questionnaires at presurgery, 2 weeks, and 4 months postsurgery. Generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, naps, and medication, showed sleep quality (β [B] = -.88, P sleep quality was significantly associated with greater next day pain intensity (B = -.15, P = .005). Sleep duration and efficiency were not associated with subsequent pain; daytime pain was not associated with subsequent sleep. Findings suggest sleep quality may be an important target for intervention after surgery in children; research is needed to understand how other sleep parameters may relate to recovery. This study assessed longitudinal sleep patterns over 4 months after major pediatric surgery using actigraphy, diaries, and validated measures. Sleep quality and efficiency were significantly reduced at 2 weeks. Poorer sleep quality was associated with greater next day pain intensity suggesting that sleep quality may be an important target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of sleep duration on seizure frequency in adults with epilepsy: a sleep diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe, Maurine M; Sessler, Daniel I; Nowacki, Amy S; O'Rourke, Colin; Andrews, Noah; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged sleep deprivation activates epileptiform EEG abnormalities and seizures in people with epilepsy. Few studies have addressed the effect of chronic partial sleep deprivation on seizure occurrence in populations with epilepsy. We tested the primary hypothesis that partial sleep deprivation over 24- and 72-hour periods increases seizure occurrence in adults with epilepsy. Forty-four subjects completed a series of self-reported instruments, as well as 1-month sleep and seizure diaries, to characterize their sleep and quality of life. Diaries were used to determine the relationship between seizure occurrence and total sleep time 24 and 72h before seizure occurrence using random effects models and a logistic regression model fit by generalized estimating equations. A total of 237 seizures were recorded during 1295 diary days, representing 5.5±7.0 (mean±SD) seizures per month. Random effects models for 24- and 72-hour total sleep times showed no clinically or statistically significant differences in the total sleep time between preseizure periods and seizure-free periods. The average 24-hour total sleep time during preseizure 24-hour periods was 8min shorter than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.51). The average 72-hour total sleep time during preseizure periods was 20min longer than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.86). The presence of triggers was a significant predictor of seizure occurrence, with stress/anxiety noted most often as a trigger. Mean total sleep time was 9h, and subjects took an average of 12±10 naps per month, having a mean duration of 1.9±1.2h. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia symptoms were commonly reported. Small degrees of sleep loss were not associated with seizure occurrence in our sample of adults with epilepsy. Our results also include valuable observations of the altered sleep times and frequent napping habits of adults with refractory epilepsy and the potential contribution of these habits to quality of life and

  2. Oxidative DNA damage during sleep periods among nightshift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative DNA damage may be increased among nightshift workers because of suppression of melatonin, a cellular antioxidant, and/or inflammation related to sleep disruption. However, oxidative DNA damage has received limited attention in previous studies of nightshift work. From two previous cross-sectional studies, urine samples collected during a night sleep period for 217 dayshift workers and during day and night sleep (on their first day off) periods for 223 nightshift workers were assayed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Urinary measures of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), a marker of circulating melatonin levels, and actigraphy-based sleep quality data were also available. Nightshift workers during their day sleep periods excreted 83% (p=0.2) and 77% (p=0.03) of the 8-OH-dG that dayshift workers and they themselves, respectively, excreted during their night sleep periods. Among nightshift workers, higher aMT6s levels were associated with higher urinary 8-OH-dG levels, and an inverse U-shaped trend was observed between 8-OH-dG levels and sleep efficiency and sleep duration. Reduced excretion of 8-OH-dG among nightshift workers during day sleep may reflect reduced functioning of DNA repair machinery, which could potentially lead to increased cellular levels of oxidative DNA damage. Melatonin disruption among nightshift workers may be responsible for the observed effect, as melatonin is known to enhance repair of oxidative DNA damage. Quality of sleep may similarly impact DNA repair. Cellular levels of DNA damage will need to be evaluated in future studies to help interpret these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Impaired quality and efficiency of sleep impairs cognitive functioning in Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle; Ross, Ian Louis; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Thomas, Kevin Garth Flusk

    2017-04-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. Periods of sub- and supra- physiological cortisol levels experienced by patients with AD likely induce disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation, the novelty of the current study was to characterise, using objective measures, the relationship between sleep and memory in patients with AD, and to examine the hypothesis that poor sleep is a biological mechanism underlying memory impairment in those patients. We used a within-subjects design. Ten patients with AD and 10 matched healthy controls completed standardised neuropsychological tests assessing declarative memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) and procedural memory (Finger Tapping Task) before and after a period of actigraphy-measured sleep, and before and after a period of waking. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD experienced disrupted sleep characterised by poorer sleep efficiency and more time spent awake. Patients also showed impaired verbal learning and memory relative to healthy controls (p=0.007). Furthermore, whereas healthy controls' declarative memory performance benefited from a period of sleep compared to waking (p=0.032), patients with AD derived no such benefit from sleep (p=0.448). Regarding the procedural memory task, analyses detected no significant between-group differences (all p's<0.065), and neither group showed significant sleep-enhanced performance. We demonstrated, using actigraphy and standardized measures of memory performance, an association between sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits in patients with AD. These results suggest that, in patients with AD, the source of memory deficits is, at least to some extent, disrupted sleep patterns that interfere with optimal consolidation of previously-learned declarative information. Hence, treating the sleep disturbances that are frequently experienced by patients with AD may

  4. Sleep and memory. I: The influence of different sleep stages on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, V S

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the sleep stages role in memory is discussed in the context of the two opposite patterns of behavior-search activity and renunciation of search. Search activity is activity designed to change the situation (or the subjects attitudes to it) in the absence of a definite forecast of the results of such activity, but with the constant consideration of these results at all stages of activity. Search activity increases general adaptability and body resistance while renunciation of search decreases adaptability and requires REM sleep for its compensation. Unprepared learning, which is often accompanied by failures on the first steps of learning, is suggested to produce renunciation of search, which decreases learning ability, suppress retention, and increase REM sleep requirement. A prolonged REM sleep deprivation before training causes learned helplessness and disturbs the learning process, while short REM sleep deprivation cause the "rebound" of the compensatory search activity that interferes with passive avoidance. REM sleep deprivation performed after a training session can increase distress caused by a training procedure, with the subsequent negative outcome on retention.

  5. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruption prediction at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, F.

    1998-12-01

    The sudden loss of the plasma magnetic confinement, known as disruption, is one of the major issue in a nuclear fusion machine as JET (Joint European Torus). Disruptions pose very serious problems to the safety of the machine. The energy stored in the plasma is released to the machine structure in few milliseconds resulting in forces that at JET reach several Mega Newtons. The problem is even more severe in the nuclear fusion power station where the forces are in the order of one hundred Mega Newtons. The events that occur during a disruption are still not well understood even if some mechanisms that can lead to a disruption have been identified and can be used to predict them. Unfortunately it is always a combination of these events that generates a disruption and therefore it is not possible to use simple algorithms to predict it. This thesis analyses the possibility of using neural network algorithms to predict plasma disruptions in real time. This involves the determination of plasma parameters every few milliseconds. A plasma boundary reconstruction algorithm, XLOC, has been developed in collaboration with Dr. D. O'Brien and Dr. J. Ellis capable of determining the plasma wall/distance every 2 milliseconds. The XLOC output has been used to develop a multilayer perceptron network to determine plasma parameters as l i and q ψ with which a machine operational space has been experimentally defined. If the limits of this operational space are breached the disruption probability increases considerably. Another approach for prediction disruptions is to use neural network classification methods to define the JET operational space. Two methods have been studied. The first method uses a multilayer perceptron network with softmax activation function for the output layer. This method can be used for classifying the input patterns in various classes. In this case the plasma input patterns have been divided between disrupting and safe patterns, giving the possibility of

  7. CIRCADIAN SLEEP DISORDERS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN OF COUNTRYSIDE SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Gazenkampf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, affecting all aspects of human life. Formation of the sleep–wake regime is associated with other physiological processes in the human body. Sleep disorders can lead to the development of various physical and psychological disorders. In schoolchildren and students sleep disorders can lead to memory loss, increase in anxiety and fatigue. Taken together, these factors can lead to lower performance. A variety of internal and external factors can lead to disruption of sleep: stress, much physical and emotional strain, artificial light in the streets, excessive activity of a person during the night (night work, homework etc.. Schoolchildren, living in rural areas, also suffer from sleep disorders. Most of the schoolchildren of countryside are not satisfied with the quality of nocturnal sleep, sleep at least 8 hours a day and notice daytime sleepiness.Objective: to estimate derangements of circadian rhythms of a sleep at schoolchildren of the senior classes, living in countryside.Materials and methods. 67 questionnaires of schoolchildren of the 10th grades of schools of the Abansky District of the Krasnoyarsk Region were analyzed. To estimate the daytime sleepiness, duration and quality of sleep there were used the Child Sleep Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Results. A derangements of nocturnal sleep were registered in 52 % of schoolchildren of the 10th grades.Conclusion. Identified sleep disorders in schoolchildren can cause serious damage to their health and cause the development of a serious disorders in the future. 

  8. Sleep, stress and compensatory behaviors in Australian nurses and midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Dorrian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe sleep, stress and compensatory behaviors in nurses and midwives. METHODS: The study included 41 midwives and 21 nurses working in Australian hospitals between 2005 and 2009. Participation was voluntary. All participants recorded on a daily basis their work and sleep hours, levels of stress and exhaustion, caffeine intake and use of sleep aids for a month (1,736 days, 1,002 work shifts. RESULTS: Participants reported moderate to high levels of stress and exhaustion on 20-40% of work days; experienced sleep disruption on more than 50% of work days; struggled to remain awake on 27% of work days; and suffered extreme drowsiness or experienced a near accident while travelling home on 9% of workdays. Age, perceived sleep duration and work hours were significant predictors of caffeine intake. About 60% of participants reported using sleep aids (about 20% reported taking prescription medications and 44% of nurses and 9% of midwives reported alcohol use as a sleep aid at least once during the study. Stress and workdays were significant predictors of sedative use. Overall, 22% reported being indifferent or mildly dissatisfied with their job. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems, high levels of stress and exhaustion and low job satisfaction are prevalent among nurses and midwives. The use of alcohol and sleeping pills as sleep aids, and the use of caffeine to help maintain alertness is also common. Nurses and midwives may use caffeine to compensate for reduced sleep, especially on workdays, and sleeping pills to cope with their daily work-related stress.

  9. Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events, Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Almeida, David M; Crain, Tori L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-06-01

    Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day's experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.

  10. New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon

  11. Sleep/wake dependent changes in cortical glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Michael B; Bellesi, Michele; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Most of the energy in the brain comes from glucose and supports glutamatergic activity. The firing rate of cortical glutamatergic neurons, as well as cortical extracellular glutamate levels, increase with time spent awake and decline throughout non rapid eye movement sleep, raising the question whether glucose levels reflect behavioral state and sleep/wake history. Here chronic (2-3 days) electroencephalographic recordings in the rat cerebral cortex were coupled with fixed-potential amperometry to monitor the extracellular concentration of glucose ([gluc]) on a second-by-second basis across the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and in response to 3 h of sleep deprivation. [Gluc] progressively increased during non rapid eye movement sleep and declined during rapid eye movement sleep, while during wake an early decline in [gluc] was followed by an increase 8-15 min after awakening. There was a significant time of day effect during the dark phase, when rats are mostly awake, with [gluc] being significantly lower during the last 3-4 h of the night relative to the first 3-4 h. Moreover, the duration of the early phase of [gluc] decline during wake was longer after prolonged wake than after consolidated sleep. Thus, the sleep/wake history may affect the levels of glucose available to the brain upon awakening. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  14. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Disrupts Infant Neural Markers of Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin; Campbell, Alana; Belger, Aysenil; Grewen, Karen

    2017-08-17

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) from maternal cigarette-smoking is linked to developmental deficits, including impaired auditory processing, language, generalized intelligence, attention and sleep. Fetal brain undergoes massive growth, organization and connectivity during gestation, making it particularly vulnerable to neurotoxic insult. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are extensively involved in growth, connectivity and function of developing neural circuitry and neurotransmitter systems. Thus, PNE may have long-term impact on neurobehavioral development. The purpose of this study was to compare the auditory K-complex, an event-related potential reflective of auditory gating, sleep preservation and memory consolidation during sleep, in infants with and without PNE and to relate these neural correlates to neurobehavioral development. We compared brain responses to an auditory paired-click paradigm in 3 to 5-month-old infants during Stage 2 sleep, when the K-complex is best observed. We measured component amplitude and delta activity during the K-complex. PNE may impair auditory sensory gating, which may contribute to disrupted sleep and to reduced auditory discrimination and learning, attention re-orienting and/or arousal during wakefulness reported in other studies. Links between PNE and reduced K-complex amplitude and delta power may represent altered cholinergic and GABAergic synaptic programming, and possibly reflect early neural bases for PNE-linked disruptions in sleep quality and auditory processing. These may pose significant disadvantage for language acquisition, attention, and social interaction necessary for academic and social success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Where do parents sleep best when children are hospitalized? A pilot comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda; Wray, Jo; Gay, Caryl; Dearmun, Annette K; Alsberge, Isaline; Lee, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the sleep quality and quantity of parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside with parents who slept at the hospital's onsite Ronald McDonald House® (RMH). Wrist actigraphy and questionnaires were used to estimate parent sleep quality and quantity. Parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside (n = 27) experienced more sleep disruption (wake after sleep onset) and reported poorer sleep quality and feeling less rested than parents who slept at RMH (n = 11). Bedside accommodation was associated with poorer parent sleep even when controlling for the covariates of child age and parent gender. Nearby family accommodations, such as RMH, may facilitate parent-child proximity during a child's hospitalization while also providing parents with opportunities for essential sleep.

  16. A review of evidence for the link between sleep duration and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E

    2014-10-01

    There are lines of evidence from experimental sleep deprivation studies, population-based epidemiological studies, and an interventional study that point to the potential efficacy of adequate quality sleep to prevent and treat hypertension. Experimental sleep restriction has been shown to raise blood pressure and heart rate. Insufficient sleep on a chronic basis can raise average 24-hour blood pressure and lead to structural adaptations that entrain the cardiovascular system to operate at an elevated blood pressure equilibrium and increase the risk for hypertension. Disruptions in the timing and duration of sleep could also disrupt circadian rhythmicity and autonomic balance, which can increase the prevalence of the nondipping pattern, disturb diurnal rhythm of cardiac output, and increase blood pressure variability. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with higher blood pressure and hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. The association appears stronger in middle-aged adults and in women. Experimental sleep extension has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in individuals with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. The observed association between sleep duration and hypertension raises the hypothesis that interventions to extend sleep and improve sleep quality could serve as effective primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive measures for hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  18. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Schenck, Carlos H; Fonte, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    During a viewing of Disney's animated film Cinderella (1950), one author (AI) noticed a dog having nightmares with dream-enactment that strongly resembled RBD. This prompted a study in which all Disney classic full-length animated films and shorts were analyzed for other examples of RBD. Three additional dogs were found with presumed RBD in the classic films Lady and the Tramp (1955) and The Fox and the Hound (1981), and in the short Pluto's Judgment Day (1935). These dogs were elderly males who would pant, whine, snuffle, howl, laugh, paddle, kick, and propel themselves while dreaming that they were chasing someone or running away. In Lady and the Tramp the dog was also losing both his sense of smell and his memory, two associated features of human RBD. These four films were released before RBD was first formally described in humans and dogs. In addition, systematic viewing of the Disney films identified a broad range of sleep disorders, including nightmares, sleepwalking, sleep related seizures, disruptive snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders.

  19. Designing reliable supply chain network with disruption risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although supply chains disruptions rarely occur, their negative effects are prolonged and severe. In this paper, we propose a reliable capacitated supply chain network design (RSCND model by considering random disruptions in both distribution centers and suppliers. The proposed model determines the optimal location of distribution centers (DC with the highest reliability, the best plan to assign customers to opened DCs and assigns opened DCs to suitable suppliers with lowest transportation cost. In this study, random disruption occurs at the location, capacity of the distribution centers (DCs and suppliers. It is assumed that a disrupted DC and a disrupted supplier may lose a portion of their capacities, and the rest of the disrupted DC's demand can be supplied by other DCs. In addition, we consider shortage in DCs, which can occur in either normal or disruption conditions and DCs, can support each other in such circumstances. Unlike other studies in the extent of literature, we use new approach to model the reliability of DCs; we consider a range of reliability instead of using binary variables. In order to solve the proposed model for real-world instances, a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II is applied. Preliminary results of testing the proposed model of this paper on several problems with different sizes provide seem to be promising.

  20. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  1. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  2. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  3. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    The world we live in is globalized. Goods are seldom made in the place where they are used or consumed, and we do increasingly travel to other countries for either business or pleasure. In our everyday lives we rely on well-functioning global transportations systems to continue the standard...... in the same way, when operation is disrupted. Never the less, we may recall that the Suez Canal was closed due to riots in Egypt, that the fuel price was impacted by threats of closing of the Strait of Hormuz, and we do from time to time hear about acts of piracy outside the coast of Somalia. All...... papers combining disruption management and flight planning through an integrated optimization approach. An additional contribution of the thesis is to show how flexible flight speeds can be used to improve recovery from disruptions, while at the same time allowing an airline to trade off fuel costs...

  4. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Raja

    2016-10-01

    suspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (p<0.05. Conclusion: Call handlers have to compromise upon their sleep owing to the contemporary work settings in call centers. Safeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  5. Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi; Clos, S; Giménez, S; Grasa, E; Romero, S

    2008-02-01

    Ayahuasca is a traditional South American psychoactive beverage and the central sacrament of Brazilian-based religious groups, with followers in Europe and the United States. The tea contains the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and beta-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties that render DMT orally active. DMT interacts with serotonergic neurotransmission acting as a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor sites. Given the role played by serotonin in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle, we investigated the effects of daytime ayahuasca consumption in sleep parameters. Subjective sleep quality, polysomnography (PSG), and spectral analysis were assessed in a group of 22 healthy male volunteers after the administration of a placebo, an ayahuasca dose equivalent to 1 mg DMT kg(-1) body weight, and 20 mg d-amphetamine, a proaminergic drug, as a positive control. Results show that ayahuasca did not induce any subjectively perceived deterioration of sleep quality or PSG-measured disruptions of sleep initiation or maintenance, in contrast with d-amphetamine, which delayed sleep initiation, disrupted sleep maintenance, induced a predominance of 'light' vs 'deep' sleep and significantly impaired subjective sleep quality. PSG analysis also showed that similarly to d-amphetamine, ayahuasca inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, decreasing its duration, both in absolute values and as a percentage of total sleep time, and shows a trend increase in its onset latency. Spectral analysis showed that d-amphetamine and ayahuasca increased power in the high frequency range, mainly during stage 2. Remarkably, whereas slow-wave sleep (SWS) power in the first night cycle, an indicator of sleep pressure, was decreased by d-amphetamine, ayahuasca enhanced power in this frequency band. Results show that daytime serotonergic psychedelic drug administration leads to measurable changes in PSG and sleep power spectrum and suggest an

  6. Natural Hazards and Supply Chain Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy through disruptions in supply chain networks. Moreover, despite increasing investment to infrastructure for disaster risk management, economic damages and losses caused by natural hazards are increasing. Manufacturing companies today have reduced inventories and streamlined logistics in order to maximize economic competitiveness. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks, which are the risk of collapse of an entire network caused by a few node of the network. For instance, the prolonged floods in Thailand in 2011 caused supply chain disruptions in their primary industries, i.e. electronic and automotive industries, harming not only the Thai economy but also the global economy. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and the Earthquake in Kumamoto Japan in 2016. This study attempts to discover what kind of effective measures are available for private companies to manage supply chain disruptions caused by floods. It also proposes a method to estimate potential risks using a Bayesian network. The study uses a Bayesian network to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains such as logistics, multiple layers of suppliers, warehouses, and consumer markets. Considering situations across different times, our study shows desirable data requirements for the analysis and effective measures to improve Value at Risk (VaR) for private enterprises and supply chains.

  7. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  8. Sleep, anxiety and psychiatric symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modafferi, Sergio; Stornelli, Maddalena; Chiarotti, Flavia; Cardona, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero

    2016-09-01

    The current study evaluated the relationship between tic, sleep disorders and specific psychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive symptoms). Assessment of 36 consecutive children and adolescents with tic disorders included: the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess the severity of tic symptoms; the Self-administered scale for children and adolescents (SAFA) to evaluate the psychopathological profile; a specific sleep questionnaire consisting of 45 items to assess the presence of sleep disorders. An age and sex-matched control group was used for comparisons. Sleep was significantly more disturbed in patients with tic disorders than in controls. Difficulties in initiating sleep and increased motor activity during sleep were the most frequent sleep disturbances found in our sample. Patients showed also symptoms of anxiety (SAFA A), depressed mood (SAFA D) and doubt-indecision (SAFA O). Additionally, difficulties in initiating sleep resulted associated with other SAFA subscales relative to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression symptoms. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms (SAFA A) resulted associated with increased motor activity during sleep. Findings confirm literature studies reporting high frequency of sleep problems, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in patients with tic disorders, and support the hypothesis that intrusive thoughts and other emotional disturbances might disrupt the sleep onset of these patients. These results suggest the importance of a thorough assessment of sleep and psychiatric disturbances in patients with tic disorders. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep architecture in insomniacs with severe benzodiazepine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Ferri, Raffaele; Miano, Silvia; Maestri, Michelangelo; Bottasini, Valentina; Zucconi, Marco; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night. Significant differences were found in time in bed, REM sleep latency and sleep stage 1% which were increased in patients compared to controls, while CAP rate was dramatically decreased. During NREM sleep, patients showed a clear decrease in the relative power of delta band. Our data demonstrate that in adults with chronic insomnia, long-term use of high doses of BZDs induces a severe disruption of sleep microstructure, while sleep architecture seems to be much less affected. The long term use of high doses of BZDs for chronic insomnia induces a marked depression of slow wave activity and of its physiological instability. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  11. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  14. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  15. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  19. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  20. LATE POTENTIALS IN A BRADYCARDIA-DEPENDENT LONG QT-SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH SUDDEN-DEATH DURING SLEEP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOBE, TJM; DELANGEN, CDJ; BINKBOELKENS, MTE; MOOK, PH; VIERSMA, JW; LIE, KI; WESSELING, H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of late potentials and their relation to QT prolongation in a family with a high incidence of sudden death during sleep at a young age and bradycardia-dependent QT prolongation (n = 9) and to compare the findings with those in consanguineous

  1. Circadian rhythm and sleep influences on digestive physiology and disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn BV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradley V Vaughn, Sean Rotolo, Heidi L Roth Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythms and sleep influence a variety of physiological functions, including the digestive system. The digestive system also has intrinsic rhythms that interact dynamically with circadian rhythms. New advances in understanding the interaction of these rhythms and sleep provide the prospect of evaluating their role in normal physiology and the link of their disruption to pathological conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that sleep and circadian factors influence appetite, nutrient absorption, and metabolism. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms may increase vulnerability to digestive disorders, including reflux, ulcers, inflammatory bowel issues, irritable bowel disease, and gastrointestinal cancer. As our knowledge of the link between circadian timing and gastrointestinal physiology grows, so do our opportunities to provide promising diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disorders. Keywords: digestion, digestive diseases, gastrointestinal reflux, sleep, circadian rhythm 

  2. The consolidation of implicit sequence memory in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Csabi

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning.

  3. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  5. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  6. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  7. The Circadian System Contributes to Apnea Lengthening across the Night in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V; Mohamed, Yusef A; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Within-subject and between-subjects. Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Sleep as a New Target for Improving Outcomes in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermigkis, Charalampos; Bouloukaki, Izolde; Schiza, Sophia E

    2017-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of interstitial pneumonia but remains a disease with a poor outcome. Two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have shown promising results at stalling disease progression; however, the interplay of sleep disruption or sleep disorders overall and in relation to medication effectiveness remains understudied. In the past, there was limited interest in the role of sleep in patients with IPF. Treating physicians tended to address only the daily disabling symptoms while disregarding the possible significant role of sleep alterations or coexisting sleep disorders. During the past few years, there has been more research related to sleep disturbances in patients with IPF and their possible role in sleep and overall life quality, disease progression, and outcome. In summary, sleep in patients with IPF is significantly impaired, with alterations in sleep architecture, changes in sleep breathing pattern, and decreases in oxygen saturation mainly during vulnerable rapid eye movement sleep. There also is evidence that OSA has an increased prevalence in these patients, playing an important role in the already worse sleep quality related to the disease itself. The focus of this review is not only to present current data related to sleep in patients with IPF but also to point out that therapy for sleep problems and OSA is likely to improve sleep and life quality as well as disease outcome. The main priority remains to increase awareness among treating physicians about early diagnosis of OSA in patients with IPF and to emphasize the need for intense future research, especially on the role of intermittent hypoxia superimposed on chronic hypoxia during sleep in patients with IPF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early-onset sleep defects in Drosophila models of Huntington's disease reflect alterations of PKA/CREB signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Erin D.; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; Zhang, Jiabin; Chaffee, Ryan P.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder whose non-motor symptoms include sleep disturbances. Whether sleep and activity abnormalities are primary molecular disruptions of mutant Huntingtin (mutHtt) expression or result from neurodegeneration is unclear. Here, we report Drosophila models of HD exhibit sleep and activity disruptions very early in adulthood, as soon as sleep patterns have developed. Pan-neuronal expression of full-length or N-terminally truncated mutHtt recapitulates sleep phenotypes of HD patients: impaired sleep initiation, fragmented and diminished sleep, and nighttime hyperactivity. Sleep deprivation of HD model flies results in exacerbated sleep deficits, indicating that homeostatic regulation of sleep is impaired. Elevated PKA/CREB activity in healthy flies produces patterns of sleep and activity similar to those in our HD models. We were curious whether aberrations in PKA/CREB signaling were responsible for our early-onset sleep/activity phenotypes. Decreasing signaling through the cAMP/PKA pathway suppresses mutHtt-induced developmental lethality. Genetically reducing PKA abolishes sleep/activity deficits in HD model flies, restores the homeostatic response and extends median lifespan. In vivo reporters, however, show dCREB2 activity is unchanged, or decreased when sleep/activity patterns are abnormal, suggesting dissociation of PKA and dCREB2 occurs early in pathogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that sleep defects may reflect a primary pathological process in HD, and that measurements of sleep and cAMP/PKA could be prodromal indicators of disease, and serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. PMID:26604145

  10. Statistical analysis of JET disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanga, A.; Johnson, M.F.

    1991-07-01

    In the operation of JET and of any tokamak many discharges are terminated by a major disruption. The disruptive termination of a discharge is usually an unwanted event which may cause damage to the structure of the vessel. In a reactor disruptions are potentially a very serious problem, hence the importance of studying them and devising methods to avoid disruptions. Statistical information has been collected about the disruptions which have occurred at JET over a long span of operations. The analysis is focused on the operational aspects of the disruptions rather than on the underlining physics. (Author)

  11. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  12. Prolonged-release melatonin versus placebo for benzodiazepine discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized clinical trial - the SMART trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of schizophrenia frequently includes prolonged benzodiazepine administration despite a lack of evidence of its use. It is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines because of the development of dependence. We aim to assess if melatonin can facilitate the withdrawal of prolonged...... benzodiazepine administration in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, we aim to investigate the association of benzodiazepine dose reduction with the following clinically important variables: sleep, psychophysiology, cognition, social function, and quality of life....

  13. Sleep Detriments Associated With Quick Returns in Rotating Shift Work: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedaa, Øystein; Mørland, Erik; Larsen, Marit; Harris, Anette; Erevik, Eilin; Sivertsen, Børge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to compared sleep characteristics associated with quick returns (QRs, sleep diary (94.0% female, mean age 47.7 years). A multilevel fixed effects model was used to examine the sleep in QRs compared with two consecutive night shifts, two consecutive evening shifts, and two consecutive day shifts, respectively. None of the other shift transitions studied encumbered as many detriments as QRs, which included short sleep duration (5.6 hours), slightly prolonged sleep onset latency, more abrupt ending of main sleep period, increased sleepiness, and higher level of perceived stress on the following shift. The study emphasizes the need for sufficient time for rest and recuperation between shifts.

  14. Psycho-social stress, insomnia and temazepam: a sleep laboratory evaluation in a "general practice" sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beary, M D; Lacey, J H; Crutchfield, M B; Bhat, A V

    1984-01-01

    Taking a population of women most of whom were about to seek medication from their general practitioner for stress-induced insomnia, this sleep laboratory study examined--both electro -physiologically and psychologically--the immediate impact of temazepam, at normal prescribed dosage, on sleep. The study was double-blind, controlled with random allocation. Temazepam 20 mg, prepared as a liquid in a soft gelatin capsule, reduced sleep latency and prolonged total sleep time. A reduction in stage shifts to Stages I and II and a reduction in time spent in Stages 0 + I suggest more restful sleep. The sleep "architecture" (including REM/NREM cycling, total SWS and REM time) was relatively undisturbed. Temazepam would seem to be effective as a first-line hypnotic for short-term use in stressed patients.

  15. Eczema and sleep and its relationship to daytime functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, John D; Gold, Michael; Martin, Alfred J; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    Chronic childhood eczema has significant morbidity characterised by physical discomfort, emotional distress, reduced child and family quality-of-life and, of particular note, disturbed sleep characterised by frequent and prolonged arousals. Sleep disturbance affects up to 60% of children with eczema, increasing to 83% during exacerbation. Even when in clinical remission, children with eczema demonstrate more sleep disturbance than healthy children. Notably, disturbed sleep in otherwise healthy children is associated with behavioural and neurocognitive deficits. Preliminary evidence suggests that disturbed sleep in children with eczema is also associated with behavioural deficits while the impact on neuropsychological functioning remains unexplored. In conclusion, a disease which affects up to 20% of children in some countries and may produce long-term behavioural and neurocognitive deficits merits further evaluation using standardised tests of sleep, behaviour and neurocognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON NURSES WORKING SHIFTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Cedomirka; Simic, Svetlana; Milutinovic, Dragana

    2016-10-01

    Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport) in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to incre- ased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times. and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients' safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problerm it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  17. Dissociating Effects of Global SWS Disruption and Healthy Aging on Waking Performance and Daytime Sleepiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To contrast the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) disruption and age on daytime functioning. Design: Daytime functioning was contrasted in three age cohorts, across two parallel 4-night randomized groups (baseline, two nights of SWS disruption or control, recovery sleep). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: 44 healthy young (20-30 y), 35 middle-aged (40-55 y), and 31 older (66-83 y) men and women. Interventions: Acoustic stimulation contingent on appearance of slow waves. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance was assessed before sleep latency tests at five daily time-points. SWS disruption resulted in less positive affect, slower or impaired information processing and sustained attention, less precise motor control, and erroneous implementation, rather than inhibition, of well-practiced actions. These performance impairments had far smaller effect sizes than the increase in daytime sleepiness and differed from baseline to the same extent for each age group. At baseline, younger participants performed better than older participants across many cognitive domains, with largest effects on executive function, response time, sustained attention, and motor control. At baseline, the young were sleepier than other age groups. Conclusions: SWS has been considered a potential mediator of age-related decline in performance, although the effects of SWS disruption on daytime functioning have not been quantified across different cognitive domains nor directly compared to age-related changes in performance. The data imply that two nights of SWS disruption primarily leads to an increase in sleepiness with minor effects on other aspects of daytime functioning, which are different from the substantial effects of age. Citation: Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S, Dijk DJ. Dissociating effects of global sws disruption and healthy aging on waking performance and daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1127-1142. PMID:24882908

  18. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  19. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  20. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  1. Differential effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation and stress on serotonin-1A and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Viktor; Hagewoud, Roelina; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Disrupted sleep and stress are often linked to each other, and considered as predisposing factors for psychopathologies such as depression. The depressed brain is associated with reduced serotonergic and enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission. In an earlier study, we showed that chronic sleep

  2. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  3. Identification of Genes that Maintain Behavioral and Structural Plasticity during Sleep Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seugnet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf, highwire (hiw and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl, that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia. Our results indicate that increasing faf and decreasing hiw or Rdl within wake-promoting large ventral lateral clock neurons (lLNvs induces sleep loss. As expected, sleep loss induced by decreasing hiw in the lLNvs results in deficits in short-term memory and increases of synaptic growth. However, sleep loss induced by knocking down Rdl in the lLNvs protects flies from sleep-loss induced deficits in short-term memory and increases in synaptic markers. Surprisingly, decreasing hiw and Rdl within the Mushroom Bodies (MBs protects against the negative effects of sleep deprivation (SD as indicated by the absence of a subsequent homeostatic response, or deficits in short-term memory. Together these results indicate that specific genes are able to disrupt sleep and protect against the negative consequences of waking in a circuit dependent manner.

  4. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  5. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  6. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  7. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  8. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  9. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  10. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  11. Measurement, Classification and Evaluation of Sleep Disturbance in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair L Henry

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a long-term immune-mediated inflammatory disorder mainly, but not only, affecting skin, and is associated with significant medical and psychological morbidity. Evidence suggests that sleep is disrupted in psoriasis, however high quality empirical evidence is lacking. Given the importance of sleep for health, characterisation of sleep disruption in psoriasis is an important goal. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the sleep-psoriasis literature.Searches were conducted in Pubmed, SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception to May 2016. Studies were compared against inclusion/exclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation. Given the heterogeneity of studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of the findings.Searches revealed 32 studies which met our predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Whilst 93.7% of studies reported sleep disruption in this population, ranging from 0.05% to 85.4%, many had important methodological shortcomings. Over half of all quantitative studies (54.8%; 17/31 relied on non-validated measures, contributing to heterogeneity in study findings. In those that employed valid measures, assessing sleep was often not the primary objective. We frequently found the absence of adequate sample size calculations and poor statistical reporting.This review showed that in psoriasis, reported sleep rates of sleep disturbance varied substantially. Most studies lacked a hypothesis driven research question and/or failed to use validated measures of sleep. We were unable to draw firm conclusions about the precise prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance within the psoriasis population. We offer suggestions to help advance understanding of sleep disturbance in psoriasis.

  12. sleep disorders due to neuroinfections: clinical symptoms, neurochemistry and neurophysiology V.B. Voitenkov1, N.V. Skripchenko1, Y.E. Zueva 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Voitenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In our review we present data on sleep disturbances in neuroinfections (encephalitis and meningitis, their clinical signs, neurochemistry and neurophysiology. These signs include lethargy, narcolepsy, sleep apnoe, sleep structure disruptions and may appear in acute period and as a sequelae of the disease. Reticular formation involvement seems to be the main reason for such sleep disorders. GABA and orexin systems disruption may play the key role in them. Neurophysiology evaluation of such disorders includes polysomnography, EEG-monitoring, brainstem acoustic evoked potentials and H-reflex investigation. 

  13. Sleepiness and health in midlife women: results of the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Twerski, Sarah R; Yang, Kyeongra; Umlauf, Mary Grace

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Sleep in America poll, a random-sample telephone survey, provided data for this study of sleep in community-dwelling women aged 40 to 60 years. The majority of the respondents were post- or perimenopausal, overweight, married or living with someone, and reported good health. A subsample (20%) reported sleepiness that consistently interfered with daily life; the sleepy subsample reported more symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, depression and anxiety, as well as more problems with health-promoting behaviors, drowsy driving, job performance, household duties, and personal relationships. Hierarchical regression showed that sleepiness along with depressive symptoms, medical comorbidities, obesity, and lower education were associated with poor self-rated health, whereas menopause status (pre-, peri- or post-) was not. These results suggest that sleep disruptions and daytime sleepiness negatively affect the daily life of midlife women.

  14. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kricka, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home test...

  15. Long-term impact of earthquakes on sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Daniela; Curcio, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the 6.3 magnitude 2009 L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake on standardized self-report measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and frequency of disruptive nocturnal behaviours (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum, PSQI-A) two years after the natural disaster. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed in 665 L'Aquila citizens exposed to the earthquake compared with a different sample (n = 754) of L'Aquila citizens tested 24 months before the earthquake. In addition, sleep quality and disruptive nocturnal behaviours (DNB) of people exposed to the traumatic experience were compared with people that in the same period lived in different areas ranging between 40 and 115 km from the earthquake epicenter (n = 3574). The comparison between L'Aquila citizens before and after the earthquake showed a significant deterioration of sleep quality after the exposure to the trauma. In addition, two years after the earthquake L'Aquila citizens showed the highest PSQI scores and the highest incidence of DNB compared to subjects living in the surroundings. Interestingly, above-the-threshold PSQI scores were found in the participants living within 70 km from the epicenter, while trauma-related DNBs were found in people living in a range of 40 km. Multiple regressions confirmed that proximity to the epicenter is predictive of sleep disturbances and DNB, also suggesting a possible mediating effect of depression on PSQI scores. The psychological effects of an earthquake may be much more pervasive and long-lasting of its building destruction, lasting for years and involving a much larger population. A reduced sleep quality and an increased frequency of DNB after two years may be a risk factor for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  16. Impact of pediatric epilepsy on sleep patterns and behaviors in children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Anna M; Ryther, Robin C C; Jennesson, Melanie; Geffrey, Alexandra L; Bruno, Patricia L; Anagnos, Christina J; Shoeb, Ali H; Thibert, Ronald L; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted sleep patterns in children with epilepsy and their parents are commonly described clinically. A number of studies have shown increased frequency of sleep disorders among pediatric epilepsy patients; however, few have characterized the association between epilepsy and parental sleep quality and household sleeping arrangements. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of pediatric epilepsy on child sleep, parental sleep and fatigue, and parent-child sleeping arrangements, including room sharing and cosleeping. Parents of children 2 to 10 years of age with and without epilepsy completed written questionnaires assessing seizure history, child and parent sleep, and household sleeping arrangements. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) scores were used to evaluate sleep disturbances for the child. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Iowa Fatigue Scale (IFS) were used to evaluate parental sleep and fatigue, respectively. The Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess) was used to assess epilepsy severity. One hundred five households with a child with epilepsy and 79 controls participated in this study. Households with a child with epilepsy reported increased rates of both parent-child room sharing (p Children with epilepsy were found to have greater sleep disturbance by total CSHQ score (p Parents of children with epilepsy had increased sleep dysfunction (p = 0.005) and were more fatigued (p parental sleep dysfunction (0.273, p = 0.005), and parental fatigue (0.324, p = 0.001). Antiepileptic drug polytherapy was predictive of greater childhood sleep disturbances. Nocturnal seizures were associated with parental sleep problems, whereas room sharing and cosleeping behavior were associated with child sleep problems. Within the epilepsy cohort, 69% of parents felt concerned about night seizures and 44% reported feeling rested rarely or never. Finally, 62% of parents described decreased sleep quality and/or quantity with

  17. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P; Williams, Kayla B; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Longitudinal field-based study. There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. None. During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown.

  18. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  19. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  20. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  1. Disrupting the Industry with Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2016-01-01

    or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care...

  2. Circadian rhythm disruption as a link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Tanke, Marjolein; Bron, Tannetje I; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Swaab, Hanna; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2015-11-01

    Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether circadian rhythm disruption is a mechanism linking ADHD symptoms to obesity. ADHD symptoms and two manifestations of circadian rhythm disruption: sleep problems and an unstable eating pattern (skipping breakfast and binge eating later in the day) were assessed in participants with obesity (n= 114), controls (n= 154), and adult ADHD patients (n= 202). Participants with obesity had a higher prevalence of ADHD symptoms and short sleep on free days as compared to controls, but a lower prevalence of ADHD symptoms, short sleep on free days, and an unstable eating pattern as compared to ADHD patients.We found that participants with obesity had a similar prevalence rate of an unstable eating pattern when compared to controls. Moreover, mediation analyses showed that both sleep duration and an unstable eating pattern mediated the association between ADHD symptoms and body mass index (BMI). Our study supports the hypothesis that circadian rhythm disruption is a mechanism linking ADHD symptoms to obesity. Further research is needed to determine if treatment of ADHD and circadian rhythm disruption is effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity in patients with obesity and/or ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concordance of sleep and pain outcomes of diverse interventions: an umbrella review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G Doufas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pain influences sleep and vice versa. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses on treatments for diverse conditions in order to examine whether diverse medical treatments for different conditions have similar or divergent effects on pain and sleep. METHODS: We searched published systematic reviews with meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until October 20, 2011. We identified randomized trials (or meta-analyses thereof, when >1 trial was available where both pain and sleep outcomes were examined. Pain outcomes were categorized as headache, musculoskeletal, abdominal, pelvic, generic or other pain. Sleep outcomes included insomnia, sleep disruption, and sleep disturbance. We estimated odds ratios for all outcomes and evaluated the concordance in the direction of effects between sleep and various types of pain and the correlation of treatment effects between sleep and pain outcomes. RESULTS: 151 comparisons with 385 different trials met our eligibility criteria. 96 comparisons had concordant direction of effects between each pain outcome and sleep, while in 55 the effect estimates were in opposite directions (P<0.0001. In the 20 comparisons with largest amount of evidence, the experimental drug always had worse sleep outcomes and tended to have worse pain outcomes in 17/20 cases. For headache and musculoskeletal pain, 69 comparisons showed concordant direction of effects with sleep outcomes and 36 showed discordant direction (P<0.0001. For the other 4 pain types there were overall 27 vs. 19 pairs with concordant vs. discordant direction of effects (P = 0.095. There was a weak correlation of the treatment effect sizes for sleep vs. headache/musculoskeletal pain (r = 0.17, P = 0.092. CONCLUSIONS: Medical interventions tend to have effects in the same direction for pain and sleep outcomes, but exceptions occur. Concordance is primarily seen for sleep and headache or musculoskeletal

  5. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  6. Sympathetic and Catecholaminergic Alterations in Sleep Apnea with Particular Emphasis on Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahed eHakim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia (IH, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities.

  7. Emerging Adults' Text Message Use and Sleep Characteristics: A Multimethod, Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Horissian, Mikael; Crichlow-Ball, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Emerging adults use text messaging as a principal form of social communication, day and night, and this may compromise their sleep. In this study, a hypothetical model was tested linking daytime and nighttime text message use with multiple sleep characteristics. Subjective and objective measures of texting and sleep were utilized to assess 83 college students over a seven-day period during an academic term. Greater number of daily texts, awareness of nighttime cell phone notifications, and compulsion to check nighttime notifications were significantly associated with poorer subjective sleep quality. Awareness of nighttime notifications was significantly associated with higher self-reported global sleep problems and more sleep disruptions. Results suggest potential benefits of targeting nighttime texting habits in health promotion efforts for emerging adults.

  8. Regional reductions in sleep electroencephalography power in obstructive sleep apnea: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie G; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant alterations in neuronal integrity resulting from either hypoxemia and/or sleep loss. A large body of imaging research supports reductions in gray matter volume, alterations in white matter integrity and resting state activity, and functional abnormalities in response to cognitive challenge in various brain regions in patients with OSA. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), a functional imaging tool that could potentially be used during routine clinical care, to examine the regional distribution of neural activity in a non-clinical sample of untreated men and women with moderate/severe OSA. Sleep was recorded with 256-channel EEG in relatively healthy subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10, as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls selected from a research population initially recruited for a study on sleep and meditation. Sleep laboratory. Nine subjects with AHI > 10 and nine matched controls. N/A. Topographic analysis of hdEEG data revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the parietal cortex in OSA subjects. This parietal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in all stages and episodes of nonrapid eye movement sleep. This investigation suggests that regional deficits in electroencephalography (EEG) power generation may be a useful clinical marker for neural disruption in obstructive sleep apnea, and that high-density EEG may have the sensitivity to detect pathological cortical changes early in the disease process.

  9. Stilbene Glucoside, a Putative Sleep Promoting Constituent from Polygonum multiflorum Affects Sleep Homeostasis by Affecting the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Salivary Alpha Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (palpha amylase (palpha amylase (pamylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (palpha amylase.

  10. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  11. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  12. [The effects of noise on sleep and their possible repercussions on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzet, Alain

    2006-11-01

    Sleep is a physiological recuperative state susceptible to be disturbed or reduced in length under external stimuli, such as noise, one of the most frequent ambient factors. Sleep disturbance is often accompanied by a reduced quality of the following waking period. The health effects of prolonged exposure to noise concern life quality, as expressed subjectively by the sleeper, as well as probable effect on cardiovascular function through a non specific aggression related to stress.

  13. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance During Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. A sample of 481 Chinese adolescents in 12th grade (ages 16-19 years) completed questionnaires about sleep patterns, academic performance, academic stress, and sociodemographic factors 4-6 weeks before the CEE in June 2013. The CEE scores for each student also were obtained. A total of 21% of the students had bedtimes after 12:00 am, 78.3% had sleep latency longer than 30 minutes, 14.6% had wake time earlier than 6:00 am, and the vast majority (94.4%) had sleep duration less than 8 hours. After adjusting for selected confounders such as academic stress, prolonged sleep latency was associated with poorer self-reported academic performance, and late bedtime was associated with higher CEE score. Our findings highlight the complex association between sleep and academic performance. Assessing and monitoring sleep patterns in adolescents during periods of high academic demand and stress may yield important recommendations for their health and safety as well as establishing optimal sleep and study habits. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  14. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  15. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  16. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  17. Association between delayed bedtime and sleep-related problems among community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Kamei, Yuichi; Inada, Naoko; Moriwaki, Aiko; Kamio, Yoko; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-03-13

    Although delayed sleep timing causes many socio-psycho-biological problems such as sleep loss, excessive daytime sleepiness, obesity, and impaired daytime neurocognitive performance in adults, there are insufficient data showing the clinical significance of a 'night owl lifestyle' in early life. This study examined the association between habitual delayed bedtime and sleep-related problems among community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Japan. Parents/caregivers of 708 community-dwelling 2-year-old children in Nishitokyo City, Tokyo, participated in the study. The participants answered a questionnaire to evaluate their child's sleep habits and sleep-related problems for the past 1 month. Of the 425 children for whom complete data were collected, 90 (21.2%) went to bed at 22:00 or later. Children with delayed bedtime showed significantly more irregular bedtime, delayed wake time, shorter total sleep time, and difficulty in initiating and terminating sleep. Although this relationship indicated the presence of sleep debt in children with delayed bedtime, sleep onset latency did not differ between children with earlier bedtime and those with delayed bedtime. Rather, delayed bedtime was significantly associated with bedtime resistance and problems in the morning even when adjusting for nighttime and daytime sleep time. Even in 2-year-old children, delayed bedtime was associated with various sleep-related problems. The causal factors may include diminished homeostatic sleep drive due to prolonged daytime nap as well as diurnal preference (morning or night type) regulated by the biological clock.

  18. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  19. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  20. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  1. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  2. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  3. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  4. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  5. Disruptive Space Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 "The Innovator’s Dilemma" by Clayton M. Christensen became a popular book in the small satellite and launch vehicle communities. But like the weather, every one talks about “Disruptive Technology” but few do anything about it. In the ‘70s and ‘80s, people were looking for “Paradigm Shifts,” and since the resurrection of Donald Rumsfeld, a recent watchword has been “Transformational Technology.” But today’s buzzword is now “Responsive Space Systems.”

  6. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  7. How do people with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy sleep? A clinical and video-EEG with EOG and submental EMG for sleep staging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Scarlatelli-Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess subjective and objective sleep parameters in a homogeneous group of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients through internationally validated clinical questionnaires, video-electroencephalographic (VEEG and polysomnographic (PSG studies. Fifty-six patients with definite diagnosis of MTLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent a detailed clinical history, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS, neurological examination, 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging, VEEG and PSG. Sixteen percent of patients reported significant daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS and 27% reported low levels of sleep quality as measured by PSQI. Patients with medically resistant epilepsy by MTLE showed increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO with mean ± standard deviation of 17.4 ± 15.6, longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM 1 (7.5 ± 4.6% and NREM3 sleep (26.6 ± 11.8%, abnormal rapid eye movement (REM latency in 30/56 patients, shorter REM sleep (16.7 ± 6.6%, and abnormal alpha delta patterns were observed in 41/56 patients. The analysis of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs evidenced highest spiking rate during NREM3 sleep and higher concordance with imaging data when IEDs were recorded in sleep, mainly during REM sleep. We concluded that patients with MTLE showed disrupted sleep architecture that may result in daytime dysfunction and sleep complaints. Furthermore, NREM sleep activated focal IEDs and them - when recorded during sleep - had higher localizing value.

  8. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  10. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  11. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  12. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  13. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  15. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  16. RELATIONSHIP OF SLEEP DURATION AND QT INTERVAL IN OBESE AND NON-OBESE MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariprasad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation has become a major concern in the modern era. It is found to have an inverse relation with obesity increasing cardiovascular diseases. This study was done to correlate effects of sleep deprivation & obesity with QT interval. OBJECTIVES 1. To assess sleep deprivation in medical students. 2. To measure QT interval and QTc in obese and normal weight medical students. 3. To correlate these QT interval and QTc values with sleep deprivation and obesity. METHODOLOGY In this cross sectional study by simple random sampling 30 obese and 30 normal weight individuals were selected based on Quetelet Index. They were further sub- grouped into Group A with 2-4 hrs., Group B with 4-6 hrs. and Group C with 6-8 hrs. of sleep duration, respectively. Electrocardiography was recorded and QT & QTc was measured. The mean and standard deviations were calculated and by 2 tailed t-test for equality of means, significance was established. RESULTS The QT interval measured in Group A has a mean 363±25.1 in normal weight whereas 374±31.6 in obese which is increased. In all groups QTc interval was within normal limits though more in obese individuals. But in group A obese 431±31.6 which shows borderline QTc prolongation (≥430-451ms in men. Thus severe sleep deprivation contributes to obesity and prolongs QTc interval to pathologically. CONCLUSIONS Our study concludes that sleep deprivation has significant correlation with QTc interval. Mild to moderate sleep deprivation affects obese more than normal weight & Severe sleep deprivation with obesity may lead to borderline QTc prolongation.

  17. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  18. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Chronically Impairs Sleep- and Wake-Dependent Emotional Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Henry, Owen S; Garskovas, Nolan F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-06-01

    A single traumatic brain injury (TBI), even when mild (ie, concussion), can cause lasting consequences. Individuals with a history of chronic (>1-year prior) mild TBI have an increased risk of mood disturbances (eg, depression, suicide). This population also has lingering sleep alterations, including poor sleep quality and changes in sleep stage proportions. Given these sleep deficits, we aimed to test whether sleep-dependent emotional memory consolidation is reduced in this population. We utilized a mild TBI group (3.7 ± 2.9 years post injury) and an uninjured (non-TBI) population. Participants viewed negative and neutral images both before and after a 12-hour period containing sleep ("Sleep" group) or an equivalent period of time spent awake ("Wake" group). Participants rated images for valence/arousal at both sessions, and memory recognition was tested at session two. The TBI group had less rapid eye movement (REM), longer REM latency, and more sleep complaints. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation of nonemotional images was present in all participants. However, consolidation of negative images was only present in the non-TBI group. A lack of differentiation between the TBI Sleep and Wake groups was due to poor performance in the sleep group and, unexpectedly, enhanced performance in the wake group. Additionally, although the non-TBI participants habituated to negative images over a waking period, the TBI participants did not. We propose disrupted sleep- and wake-dependent emotional processing contributes to poor emotional outcomes following chronic, mild TBI. This work has broad implications, as roughly one-third of the US population will sustain a mild TBI during their lifetime. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sleep architecture, insulin resistance and the nasal cycle: Implications for positive airway pressure therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A.P. Crofts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global pandemic of metabolic disease is worsening. The metabolic theory of obesity proposes that hormonal changes, especially hyperinsulinaemia, precede metabolic disease development. Although quality sleep is recognised as a key factor for good health, less is known about disrupted sleep as a risk factor for hyperinsulinaemia.   Aim: To explore the relationship between sleep, especially sleep architecture and the nasal cycle, on insulin secretion in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA with comorbid metabolic disease. This review includes a discussion of the potential role of Rest-Activity-Cycler positive airway pressure (RACer-PAP, a novel non-pharmacological OSA treatment strategy.   Methods: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the authors was conducted. This review also included results from a polysomnographic sleep clinic pilot study (n = 3 comparing sleep efficiency of RACer-PAP to nasal continuous positive airways pressure (n-CPAP in OSA patients.   Results: Metabolic disease is strongly associated with disturbed sleep. Sleep architecture influences cerebral hormonal secretion, lateral shifts in the autonomic nervous system and nasal airflow dominance. Disturbed sleep shortens short-wave sleep periods, decreasing insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Improvements to metabolic function during n-CPAP treatment are inconsistent. If RACer-PAP demonstrates superior effects on sleep architecture and autonomic function, it may offer advantages in OSA patients with comorbid metabolic disease.   Conclusion: Improving sleep architecture by maintaining the nasal cycle proposes a novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigm for treating OSA with comorbid metabolic disease. Research is required to demonstrate if RACer-PAP therapy influences whole night sleep architecture, sympathovagal balance and markers of metabolic disease.

  20. Disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Batha, S.H.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Levinton, F.; Mansfield, D.; Meade, D.; Medley, S.S.; Monticello, D.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Post, D.E.; Schivell, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Goeler, S. von; Wilfrid, E.; Wong, K.L.; Yamada, M.; Young, K.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.; Drake, J.F.; Kleva, R.G.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-03-01

    For a successful reactor, it will be useful to predict the occurrence of disruptions and to understand disruption effects including how a plasma disrupts onto the wall and how reproducibly it does so. Studies of disruptions on TFTR at both high-β pol and high-density have shown that, in both types, a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode plays an important role. In highdensity disruptions, a newly observed fast m/n = 1/1 mode occurs early in the thermal decay phase. For the first time in TFTR q-profile measurements just prior to disruptions have been made. Experimental studies of heat deposition patterns on the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions have provided information on MHD phenomena prior to or during the disruption, how the energy is released to the wall, and the reproducibility of the heat loads from disruptions. This information is important in the design of future devices such as ITER. Several new processes of runaway electron generation are theoretically suggested and their application to TFTR and ITER is considered, together with a preliminary assessment of x-ray data from runaways generated during disruptions

  1. The Relationship between Sleep Problems, Neurobiological Alterations, Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances, and studies indicate that between 50 and 80% of children with ASD experience sleep problems. These problems increase parental stress and adversely affect family quality of life. Studies have also suggested that sleep disturbances may increase behavioral problems in this clinical population. Although understanding the causes of sleep disorders in ASD is a clinical priority, the causal relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Given the complex nature of ASD, the etiology of sleep problems in this clinical population is probably multi-factorial. In this overview, we discuss in detail three possible etiological explanations of sleep problems in ASD that can all contribute to the high rate of these symptoms in ASD. Specifically, we examine how neurobiological alterations, genetic mutations, and disrupted sleep architecture can cause sleep problems in individuals with ASD. We also discuss how sleep problems may be a direct result of core symptoms of ASD. Finally, a detailed examination of the relationship between sleep problems and associated clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD is described.

  2. Age-related influences of prior sleep on brain activation during verbal encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Jonelis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.

  3. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Balbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.

  4. Oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3 are cross-species markers of sleep debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weljie, Aalim M; Meerlo, Peter; Goel, Namni; Sengupta, Arjun; Kayser, Matthew S; Abel, Ted; Birnbaum, Morris J; Dinges, David F; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-02-24

    Sleep is an essential biological process that is thought to have a critical role in metabolic regulation. In humans, reduced sleep duration has been associated with risk for metabolic disorders, including weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of sleep loss is only in its nascent stages. In this study we used rat and human models to simulate modern-day conditions of restricted sleep and addressed cross-species consequences via comprehensive metabolite profiling. Serum from sleep-restricted rats was analyzed using polar and nonpolar methods in two independent datasets (n = 10 per study, 3,380 measured features, 407 identified). A total of 38 features were changed across independent experiments, with the majority classified as lipids (18 from 28 identified). In a parallel human study, 92 metabolites were identified as potentially significant, with the majority also classified as lipids (32 of 37 identified). Intriguingly, two metabolites, oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3, were robustly and quantitatively reduced in both species following sleep restriction, and recovered to near baseline levels after sleep restriction (P discovery rate neurotransmitters, vitamin B3, and gut metabolism were elevated in sleep-restricted humans. These results are consistent with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and disruptions of the circadian clock. The findings provide a potential link between known pathologies of reduced sleep duration and metabolic dysfunction, and potential biomarkers for sleep loss.

  5. Does selection for short sleep duration explain human vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Finch, Caleb E; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-01-16

    Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD. Sleep deprivation increases plaque formation and AD, which itself disrupts sleep, potentially creating a positive feedback cycle. These and other physiological benefits of sleep may be compromised by short sleep durations. Our hypothesis highlights possible long-term side effects of medications that reduce sleep, and may lead to potential new strategies for preventing and treating AD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  6. Sleep restriction undermines cardiovascular adaptation during stress, contingent on emotional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Hughes, Brian M; Howard, Siobhán; James, Jack E

    2018-02-01

    Sleep loss is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, but physiological mechanisms accounting for this relationship are largely unknown. One possible mechanism is that sleep restriction exerts effects on cardiovascular stress responses, and that these effects vary between individuals. Emotional stability (ES) is a personality trait pertinent to sleep restriction and stress responding. However, no study to date has explored how ES and sleep-restriction interactively affect cardiovascular stress responses or processes of adaptation during stress. The present study sought to investigate the association between ES and impact of sleep restriction on cardiovascular function during stress, with particular regard to the trajectory of cardiovascular function change across time. Ninety female university students completed a laboratory vigilance stress task while undergoing continuous cardiovascular (SBP, DBP, HR, SV, CO, TPR) monitoring, after either a night of partial sleep restriction (40% of habitual sleep duration) or a full night's rest. Individuals high in ES showed stable and adaptive cardiovascular (SBP, SV, CO) responses throughout stress exposure, regardless of sleep. In contrast, individuals low in ES exhibited cardiovascular adaptation during stress exposure while rested, but disrupted adaption while sleep-restricted. These findings suggest that sleep-restriction undermines healthful cardiovascular adaptation to stress for individuals low in ES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory and spontaneous arousals in patients with Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J; Porée, F; Carrault, G; Fiz, J A; Abad, J; Jané, R

    2012-01-01

    Sleep in patients with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) is frequently interrupted with arousals. Increased amounts of arousals result in shortening total sleep time and repeated sleep-arousal change can result in sleep fragmentation. According to the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) an arousal is a marker of sleep disruption representing a detrimental and harmful feature for sleep. The nature of arousals and its role on the regulation of the sleep process raises controversy and has sparked the debate in the last years. In this work, we analyzed and compared the EEG spectral content of respiratory and spontaneous arousals on a database of 45 SAHS subjects. A total of 3980 arousals (1996 respiratory and 1984 spontaneous) were analyzed. The results showed no differences between the spectral content of the two kinds of arousals. Our findings raise doubt as to whether these two kinds of arousals are truly triggered by different organic mechanisms. Furthermore, they may also challenge the current beliefs regarding the underestimation of the importance of spontaneous arousals and their contribution to sleep fragmentation in patients suffering from SAHS.

  8. Declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation in children with sleep disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter eCsabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain.

  9. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain.

  10. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  11. Naturalistic Effects of Five Days of Bedtime Caffeine Use on Sleep, Next-Day Cognitive Performance, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, Brian; Priestley, Caroline M.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disruptive effects of caffeine on sleep have previously been reported, although measures of next-day mood and performance have rarely been included. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of caffeine on sleep and associated next-day effects in a naturalistic field setting. Methods: Nineteen participants (daily caffeine intake 0–141 mg), assessed as good sleepers, took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2-week crossover study to assess the effects of bedtime caffeine use (250 mg) on sleep and next-day cognitive performance and mood, which were assessed on a mobile phone in the morning and afternoon. Sleep was assessed objectively (actiwatch) and subjectively (sleep diary). Results: Caffeine's effects on sleep were largely restricted to the first day of administration, with actigraphically measured reduced sleep efficiency, increased activity score and fragmentation index, decreased self-rated sleep quality, and an increased occurrence of participants waking early; only decreased sleep efficiency remained over the week. Effects on next-day performance and mood were evident over the whole week, although despite disrupting sleep, accuracy on a working memory task was higher after caffeine than placebo administration. Conclusions: Caffeine disrupted sleep, although when assessing next-day performance, which may have been affected by the presence of residual caffeine, performance appeared better after caffeine compared to placebo, although this was most likely due to prevention of the effects of overnight withdrawal from caffeine rather than representing a net benefit. Furthermore, partial tolerance developed to the effects of caffeine on sleep. PMID:24868491

  12. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  13. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  14. Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Actigraphic Assessments of Sleep and Rest-Activity Rhythms in a Population-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kaitlin Hanley; Rumble, Meredith E; Benca, Ruth M

    2017-05-01

    Depression is often associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms. We aimed to confirm these relationships via actigraphic assessment in a large, population-based sample and test whether sex moderates these relationships. A total of 418 participants (age = 35-85 years, mean [standard deviation] = 57.04 [11.47]) completed questionnaires and 1 week of actigraphy, used to calculate sleep and rest-activity statistics including mesor (mean activity level), amplitude (height of rhythm), and acrophase (time of day that rhythm peaks). Depressive symptoms, assessed via Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were associated with disrupted sleep and rest-activity rhythms. Furthermore, men demonstrated longer sleep onset latency (SOL, B = -13.28, p continuity and rest-activity rhythms in this population-based sample; however, these relationships differed by sex. Women with greater depressive symptoms exhibited difficulty with sleep continuity, whereas men with greater depressive symptoms demonstrated disruption throughout the 24-hour rhythm.

  15. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  17. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disruptions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Taylor, P.; Kellman, A.; LaHaye, R.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the results of a statistical analysis of the DIII-D disruption data base, and on an examination of a selected subset of the shots to determine the likely causes of disruptions. The statistical analysis focuses on the dependence of the disruption rate on key dimensionless parameters. We find that the disruption frequency is high at modest values of the parameters, and that it can be relatively low at operational limits. For example, the disruption frequency in an ITER relevant regime (β N /l i ∼ 2, 3 G > 0.6, where n G is the Greenwald limit) is approximately 23%. For this range of q, the disruption frequency rises only modestly to about 35% at the β limit, consistent with previous observations of a soft β limit for this q regime. For the range 6 95 G G < .9) in all q regimes we have studied. The location of the minimum moves to higher density with increasing q

  19. Sleep stage distribution in persons with mild traumatic brain injury: a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Colantonio, Angela; Cassidy, J David; Vernich, Lee; Moineddin, Rahim; Shapiro, Colin M

    2017-06-01

    Sleep stage disruption in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has received little research attention. We examined deviations in sleep stage distribution in persons with mTBI relative to population age- and sex-specific normative data and the relationships between such deviations and brain injury-related, medical/psychiatric, and extrinsic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional polysomnographic investigation in 40 participants diagnosed with mTBI (mean age 47.54 ± 11.30 years; 56% males). At the time of investigation, participants underwent comprehensive clinical and neuroimaging examinations and one full-night polysomnographic study. We used the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendations for recording, scoring, and summarizing sleep stages. We compared participants' sleep stage data with normative data stratified by age and sex to yield z-scores for deviations from available population norms and then employed stepwise multiple regression analyses to determine the factors associated with the identified significant deviations. In patients with mTBI, the mean duration of nocturnal wakefulness was higher and consolidated sleep stage N2 and REM were lower than normal (p sleep stage duration. No sex differences were observed in the mean proportion of non-REM or REM sleep. We observed longer relative nocturnal wakefulness and shorter relative N2 and REM sleep in patients with mTBI, and these outcomes were associated with potentially modifiable variables. Addressing disruptions in sleep architecture in patients with mTBI could improve their health status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association Between Nocturnal Acid Reflux and Sleep Disturbance in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Sheng; Lei, Wei-Yi; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a direct association between subjective sleep quality and esophageal acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We enrolled patients with classic reflux symptoms for endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring. The severity of esophageal mucosal injury was assessed by upper endoscopy. Distal esophageal acid exposure was determined by ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Sleep disturbance was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In total, 103 patients (53 patients without sleep dysfunction and 50 patients with sleep dysfunction) were studied. Erosive esophagitis was found more in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (45% versus 31%, P = 0.04). Abnormal esophageal pH was found more in patients with dysfunction (22%) than in patients without sleep dysfunction (5.7%, P = 0.03). Recumbent acid contact time (%) was greater in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (3.7 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.04). Sleep quality score positively correlated with acid contact time (r = 0.32, P = 0.02), prolonged reflux events (r = 0.45, P = 0.008) and longer reflux event (r = 0.28, P = 0.03) during recumbent period. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease along with sleep dysfunction are characterized with greater nocturnal acid reflux and more erosive esophagitis. Our study suggests that increased nocturnal acid reflux may play a role in inducing sleep disturbance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  3. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  4. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  5. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  6. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  7. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  9. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  10. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  11. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  12. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  13. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.