Sample records for prolonged rebound firing

  1. Grid cell firing patterns may arise from feedback interaction between intrinsic rebound spiking and transverse travelling waves with multiple heading angles

    Michael E Hasselmo


    Full Text Available This article presents a model using cellular resonance and rebound properties to model grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex. The model simulates the intrinsic resonance properties of single layer II stellate cells with different frequencies due to the hyperpolarization activated cation current (h current. The stellate cells generate rebound spikes after a delay interval that differs for neurons with different resonance frequency. Stellate cells drive inhibitory interneurons to cause rebound from inhibition in an alternating set of stellate cells that drive interneurons to activate the first set of cells. This allows maintenance of activity with cycle skipping of the spiking of cells that matches recent physiological data on theta cycle skipping. The rebound spiking interacts with subthreshold oscillatory input to stellate cells or interneurons regulated by medial septal input and defined relative to the spatial location coded by neurons. The timing of rebound determines whether the network maintains the activity for the same location or shifts to phases of activity representing a different location. Simulations show that spatial firing patterns similar to grid cells can be generated with a range of different resonance frequencies, indicating how grid cells could be generated with low frequencies present in bats and in mice with knockout of the HCN1 subunit of the h current.

  2. Properties of human motor units after prolonged activity at a constant firing rate.

    Johnson, K V B; Edwards, S C; Van Tongeren, C; Bawa, P


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine if there are changes in the intrinsic properties of spinal motoneurons after prolonged submaximal contractions. To do this, we assessed whether or not the synaptic drive to motoneurons needs to increase in order to maintain a constant firing rate of a motor unit. Recruitment of new units and an increase in total electromyographic (EMG) activity of the muscle of interest were taken as estimates of an increase in synaptic drive. Subjects were asked to maintain a constant firing rate of a clearly identifiable (targeted) motor unit from the first dorsal interosseous muscle for approximately 10 min, while surface EMG and force were recorded simultaneously. For the 60 units studied, the duration of the constant-firing-rate period ranged from 73 to 1,140 s (448 +/- 227 s; mean +/- SD). There was a significant increase ( t-test, prate suggesting an increase in the net excitatory input to the motoneuron pool. Changes occurring simultaneously in other parameters, namely, variability in interspike interval, magnitude of force fluctuations, the duration of motor unit action potentials, and the median power frequency of surface EMG were also computed. The firing rates of 16 concurrently firing motoneurons, not controlled by the subject, remained constant. The key finding of this study is that after prolonged activity, a motoneuron requires a stronger excitatory input to maintain its firing rate. Additional results are indicative of significant changes in the characteristics of the synaptic inputs, changes at the neuromuscular junction (both pre- and postsynaptic regions) and the sarcolemma.

  3. Motor unit firing behavior during prolonged 50% MVC dorsiflexion contractions in young and older adults.

    Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary


    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in motor unit firing behavior during prolonged contractions in young and older adults. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior of 16 subjects (8 young and 8 older), while they performed isometric dorsiflexion at 50% MVC until task failure. Mean motor unit firing rate, the standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike intervals, and number of doublet discharges were calculated for a total of 52 motor units, tracked for an average of 92.9+/-68.6s. There was no age-related difference in the time to task failure. A modest decline in firing rate was observed in 71% of the motor units, with no significant age-related difference. The SD and CV of the interspike interval had a positive slope in 65% and 69% of the motor units, respectively, with no significant age-related differences. The number of doublet discharges remained stable throughout the contraction. Both groups exhibited motor unit dropout (discharge cessation) during the contraction. Thus, a fatiguing task producing modest changes in firing rate in young and older adults is accompanied by an appreciable increase in firing rate variability. The incidence of doublet discharges is not increased during fatiguing contractions.

  4. A prolongation of the postspike afterhyperpolarization following spike trains can partly explain the lower firing rates at derecruitment than those at recruitment

    Wienecke, Jacob; Zhang, Mengliang; Hultborn, Hans


    rates at derecruitment correlated with a change in the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) after preceding spike trains? This question was investigated by intracellular recordings from cat motor neurons in both unanesthetized and anesthetized preparations. The firing frequencies at recruitment...... for the lower frequencies at derecruitment. This was independent of whether the current injection had activated persistent inward current (PIC; plateau potentials, secondary range firing). It was found that a preceding spike train could prolong the AHP duration following a subsequent spike. The lower rate...

  5. Leading role of thalamic over cortical neurons during postinhibitory rebound excitation

    Grenier, F.; Timofeev, I.; Steriade, M.


    The postinhibitory rebound excitation is an intrinsic property of thalamic and cortical neurons that is implicated in a variety of normal and abnormal operations of neuronal networks, such as slow or fast brain rhythms during different states of vigilance as well as seizures. We used dual simultaneous intracellular recordings of thalamocortical neurons from the ventrolateral nucleus and neurons from the motor cortex, together with thalamic and cortical field potentials, to investigate the temporal relations between thalamic and cortical events during the rebound excitation that follows prolonged periods of stimulus-induced inhibition. Invariably, the rebound spike-bursts in thalamocortical cells occurred before the rebound depolarization in cortical neurons and preceded the peak of the depth-negative, rebound field potential in cortical areas. Also, the inhibitory-rebound sequences were more pronounced and prolonged in cortical neurons when elicited by thalamic stimuli, compared with cortical stimuli. The role of thalamocortical loops in the rebound excitation of cortical neurons was shown further by the absence of rebound activity in isolated cortical slabs. However, whereas thalamocortical neurons remained hyperpolarized after rebound excitation, because of the prolonged spike-bursts in inhibitory thalamic reticular neurons, the rebound depolarization in cortical neurons was prolonged, suggesting the role of intracortical excitatory circuits in this sustained activity. The role of intrathalamic events in triggering rebound cortical activity should be taken into consideration when analyzing information processes at the cortical level; at each step, corticothalamic volleys can set into action thalamic inhibitory neurons, leading to rebound spike-bursts that are transferred back to the cortex, thus modifying cortical activities. PMID:9811903

  6. Rebound upbeat nystagmus after lateral gaze in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Zee, David S


    Rebound nystagmus is a transient nystagmus that occurs on resuming the straight-ahead position after prolonged eccentric gaze. Even though rebound nystagmus is commonly associated with gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN), development of rebound nystagmus in a different plane of gaze has not been described. We report a patient with episodic ataxia type 2 who showed transient upbeat nystagmus on resuming the straight-ahead position after sustained lateral gaze that had induced GEN and downbeat nystagmus. The rebound upbeat nystagmus may be ascribed to a shifting null in the vertical plane as a result of an adaptation to the downbeat nystagmus that developed during lateral gaze.

  7. Is the adiposity rebound a rebound in adiposity?

    Campbell, Michele Wen-Chien; Williams, Joanne; Carlin, John B; Wake, Melissa


    Early adiposity rebound ([AR], when body mass index [BMI] rises after reaching a nadir) strongly predicts later obesity. We investigated whether the upswing in BMI at AR is accompanied by an increase in body fat. Community-based cohort study. A total of 299 first-born children (49% male). Measurements. Six-monthly anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance, 4-6.5 years; lean and fat mass index (kg/m(2)) for direct comparison with BMI. Supplementary (0-2 years) weight and length measures (needed for growth curve modelling) were drawn from subjects' child health records. AR was estimated from individually modelled BMI curves from birth to 6.5 years. Two main analyses were performed: 1) cross-sectional comparisons of BMI, fat mass index (FMI), lean mass index (LMI) and percent body fat in children with early (5 years) rebound; and 2) investigation of linear trends in BMI, FMI, LMI and percent body fat before and after AR. Results. The 81 children (27%) experiencing early AR had higher BMI, FMI, LMI and percent fat at 6.5 years. Overall, FMI decreased steeply pre-AR, at -0.56 (0.02) kg/m(2) per year (mean [Standard Error]), then flattened post-AR to 0.07 (0.05) kg/m(2) per year. In contrast, LMI increased pre-AR (0.34 [0.01]) and steepened post-AR (0.47 [0.03] kg/m(2) per year). The 'adiposity rebound' is characterised by increasing lean mass index, coupled with cessation of the decline in fat mass index. Understanding what controls the dynamics of childhood body composition and mechanisms that delay AR could help prevent obesity.

  8. High Velocity Droplet Rebound On Liquid Pools

    Doak, William; Laiacona, Danielle; Chiarot, Paul; German, Guy


    Rebound of high velocity, periodic droplet streams off viscous liquid pools is studied experimentally. Droplets, approximately 60 micrometers in diameter, impact the oil surface at velocities up to 13 m/s and at angles between 2-25 degrees. The oil surface does not degrade or lose its ability to provide rebound even after millions of droplet impacts. The oil was varied to examine the effect that surface tension and viscosity had on droplet rebound. Stable rebound is achievable on oils varying in dynamic viscosity in the range 13-970 Pa.s and surface tensions in the range 19-28 mN/m. When rebound occurs, a consistent 29% loss of droplet kinetic energy is observed. This is a surprising relationship due to the fact that it holds true for all cases of stable rebound regardless of the oil used. We further observe an upper inertial limit where droplets no longer provide stable rebound and instead become fully entrained in the oil pool. This limit is governed by the Rayleigh-Plateau instability and can be characterized and predicted using a modified version of the Weber number. The droplet rebound presented in this study is unique due to the size, velocity, and frequency of the droplets used. Another unique feature is that the rebound manifests itself as an effectively static phenomenon. No motion of the interface - oscillations, waves, or otherwise - was observed during rebound. The quasi-static nature of rebound enabled distinctions to be made regarding energy dissipation and the transition from droplet rebound to entrainment.

  9. Research progress in rebound depolarization of neurons%神经元去极化反跳现象的研究进展

    李凌超; 朱梦叶; 张达颖; 柳涛


    [ ABSTRACT] Rebound depolarization is a special phenomenon of the neurons which generates action potential fol-lowed by a hyperpolarization stimulation.It can be recorded in many kinds of neurons and is the intrinsic membrane charac-teristic of them.Rebound depolarization plays an important role in regulating the firing pattern, rhythmic activity and sy-naptic plasticity of neurons.This review focuses on the basic characteristics, the function and mechanism of the rebound depolarization in physiological and pathological conditions, which provides reference for the clinical treatment of rebound depolarization-related diseases.

  10. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R


    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  11. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian


    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approac...... inside-out computations and neutral bits in the inbound phase of the rebound attack, and give well-defined rotational distinguishers as certificates of weaknesses for the compression functions and block ciphers.......In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...... and the Threefish cipher. The new techniques include an analytical search for optimal input values in the rotational cryptanalysis, which allows to extend the outbound phase of the attack with a precomputation phase, an approach never used in any rebound-style attack before. Further we show how to combine multiple...

  12. Measuring the Rebound Effect with Micro Data

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan


    We provide estimates of the rebound effect for car transport in Denmark, using a rich data set with individual household data on car use, fuel efficiency, and car as well as household characteristics. A demand model is estimated in first differences; the availability of households in the sample t...

  13. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian


    ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...

  14. Observations of the collapses and rebounds of millimeter-sized lithotripsy bubbles.

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A


    Bubbles excited by lithotripter shock waves undergo a prolonged growth followed by an inertial collapse and rebounds. In addition to the relevance for clinical lithotripsy treatments, such bubbles can be used to study the mechanics of inertial collapses. In particular, both phase change and diffusion among vapor and noncondensable gas molecules inside the bubble are known to alter the collapse dynamics of individual bubbles. Accordingly, the role of heat and mass transport during inertial collapses is explored by experimentally observing the collapses and rebounds of lithotripsy bubbles for water temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 °C and dissolved gas concentrations from 10 to 85% of saturation. Bubble responses were characterized through high-speed photography and acoustic measurements that identified the timing of individual bubble collapses. Maximum bubble diameters before and after collapse were estimated and the corresponding ratio of volumes was used to estimate the fraction of energy retained by the bubble through collapse. The rebounds demonstrated statistically significant dependencies on both dissolved gas concentration and temperature. In many observations, liquid jets indicating asymmetric bubble collapses were visible. Bubble rebounds were sensitive to these asymmetries primarily for water conditions corresponding to the most dissipative collapses.

  15. Anti-rebound Cushion Device for Hydraulic Breaker

    Zhao Hongqiang


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of rebound impact and its negative influence on the present hydraulic breaker. To get over its shortcomings, a new anti-rebound cushion device has been designed to prevent the phenomenon of rebound impact. A hydraulic cushion is used to absorb the rebound impact energy, which can be released for the next stroke of the hydraulic breaker. Thus, there is little loss of energy, and the efficiency of the impact system can be increased by 5 %. The absorption effect of the hydraulic anti-rebound cushion increases the service life of breaker components by up to twice as long as in the current breaker. A dynamic model and a motion equation of the anti-rebound cushion device are presented, and the optimum frequency and damping ratio are obtained, providing optimum design parameters for the anti-rebound cushion device.

  16. Measuring the rebound effect with micro data

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    macro data (see, Small and Van Dender (2007); Hymel et al. (2010)). However, the rebound effect is essentially a phenomenon that occurs at the level of the individual actor and it seems appropriate to investigate it on micro data as well. This is the purpose of the present paper. We estimate the rebound...... effect using individual Danish administrative register data. Central to the analysis is a demand equation for car kilometres in which the fuel price and fuel efficiency are the main explanatory variables. We start by imposing the restriction that only fuel cost per kilometre matter (as is suggested...... Danish car. We also model the car switching decision using a Heckman model and incorporating the age of the old car as an additional variable. Preliminary results include the following. First, the data reject the conventional formulation in which only fuel cost per kilometre matters. If we include fuel...

  17. Growth resource efficiency and rebound effect environmental

    Dumitru Şoaita


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the need to decouple resource use from economic growth and the need to change the traditional patterns of production and consumption in order to reduce the pressure on the environment by increasing the efficiency of resource use.There are also presented some environmental rebound effects of improving resource efficiency, some economic sectors where resource efficiency is canceled by the increased demand.

  18. Im/Ex Rebound Continues in July


    @@ On August 11,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China released the profile of China tbreign trade import and export in July and the first seven months of this year.Foreign trade conducted by China suffered continuous decrease since last OCtober;however,from this March,rebound results have been achieved for consecutive 5 months.The month-on-month figure has been growing steadily,though in slow pace.

  19. Observations of the smoke plume from the December 2005 explosions and prolonged oil fire at Buncefield oil depot, southern UK and associated atmospheric changes

    Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Tsanev, V. I.; Pyle, D. M.; Karumudi, M. L.; Bennett, A. J.; Sawyer, G. M.; Highwood, E. J.


    The explosions and subsequent fire at the Buncefield oil depot in December 2005 afforded a rare opportunity to study the atmospheric consequences of a major oil fire at close range, using ground-based remote sensing instruments. The fire burned 5.6 × 107kg of refined fuel (unleaded petrol, aviation fuel and diesel) over 3 days and produced a plume of smoke that extended over much of southern England. Near-source measurements suggest that plume particles were ~50% black carbon (BC) with refractive index 1.73-0.42i, effective radius (Reff) 0.45-0.85μm and mass loading ~2000μg.m-3. About 50km downwind, particles were ~60-75% BC with refractive index between 1.80-0.52i and 1.89-0.69i, Reff ~1.0μm and mass loadings 320-780μg.m-3. Number distributions were almost all monomodal with peak at rgas concentrations of SO2 (70ppb), NO2 (140ppb), HONO (20ppb), HCHO (160ppb) and CS2 (40ppb). We estimate that the Buncefield event emitted totals of ~6.3, 7.2 and 5.5Mg of SO2, HCHO and CS2 respectively; along with ~5500Mg of BC. Our measurements are consistent with others of the Buncefield plume, and with studies of the 1991 Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes; differences from the latter reflecting in part a contrast in source composition (refined fuels vs. crude oils) leading to important potential differences in atmospheric impacts. Measurements made as the plume passed overhead ~50km downwind showed a reduced solar flux reaching the surface but little effect on the atmospheric potential gradient. The wind speed data from the day of the explosion hints at a possible explosion signature.

  20. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin


    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  1. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin, E-mail:; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri [NDT Group, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin [Material Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin [Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains, Ipoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  2. Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity.

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Bellisle, F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E


    To follow and predict the evolution of adiposity during growth, individual adiposity curves, assessed by the weight/height2 index, were drawn for 151 children from the age of 1 month to 16 yr. Adiposity increases during the 1st yr and then decreases. A renewed rise, termed here the adiposity rebound, occurs at about 6 yr. Individual weight/height2 curves may differ regarding their percentile range level and age at adiposity rebound. The present study shows a relationship between the age at adiposity rebound and final adiposity. An early rebound (before 5.5 yr) is followed by a significantly higher adiposity level than a later rebound (after 7 yr). This phenomenon is observed whatever the subject's adiposity at 1 yr. The present observations might be connected with the cellularity of adipose tissue.

  3. Absence of rebound effect with calcium carbonate.

    Simoneau, G


    This was an open, randomised balance cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. The antacid activity of calcium carbonate plus magnesium carbonate (Rennie and hydrotalcite (Talcid), given in the recommended dose of 2 tablets 4 times daily, were compared using 24 h intragastric measurement of pH. The volunteers received 2 tablets of calcium carbonate plus magnesium carbonate or hydrotalcite according to a randomised order 1 h after each meal and at bedtime. Results showed that both treatments have similar antacid efficacy and a similar duration of action of about one hour. There was no evidence of acid 'rebound' following either treatment during the second and third hours following the administration of antacid.

  4. Particle Rebound and Phase State of Secondary Organic Material

    Bateman, A.; Bertram, A. K.; Martin, S. T.


    Secondary organic material (SOM) is produced in the atmosphere from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Aerosol particles, composed in part of SOM, play important roles in climate and air quality by scattering/absorbing radiation and serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The magnitude of climate-relevant perturbations depends on particle chemical composition, hygroscopic growth, and phase state, among other factors. Herein, the hygroscopic influence on particle rebound and the phase state of particles composed of isoprene, toluene, and α-pinene secondary organic material (SOM) was studied. Particle rebound measurements were obtained from 5 to 95% RH using a three-arm impaction apparatus. The experimentally determined rebound fractions were compared with results from a model of the rebound process that took into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. Comparison of the experimental and modeled indicated particles softened due to water uptake. For low RH values, the model explained the rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. At higher RH values specific to each SOM, however, particle rebound was no longer observed, and the model did not capture this behavior. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable known viscosities showed the transition from non-rebounding to rebounding particles occurred for viscosity values from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The implication of the differing RH-dependent behaviors among the SOMs is that each SOM has a specific and quantitatively different interaction with water. A linear correlation between rebound fraction and hygroscopic growth factor was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume is the governing factor of viscosity for the studied classes of SOM. The findings of this study suggest that both the chemical composition and the ambient

  5. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi


    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  6. a comparative analysis of the rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse ...


    Mar 1, 2012 ... A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE REBOUND HAMMER ... Abstract. This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech- .... require separate calibration or correlation charts. [12].

  7. The generation of antiphase oscillations and synchrony by a rebound-based vertebrate central pattern generator.

    Li, Wen-Chang; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman


    Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left-right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony.

  8. Liquid jet rebound upon impact on a soft gel

    Daniel, Dan; Brenner, Michael; Aizenberg, Joanna


    A liquid jet can stably bounce off a sufficiently soft gel, by following the contour of the dimple created due to pressure upon impact. This phenomenon is relatively insensitive to the wetting properties of the liquid and was observed for different liquids over a wide range of surface tensions, $\\gamma$ = 24-72 mN/m. In contrast, other jet rebound phenomena are typically sensitive to $\\gamma$: jet rebound off a hard solid (e.g. superhydrophobic surface) or another liquid is possible only for high and low $\\gamma$ liquids respectively. This is because an air layer must exist between the two interfaces. For a soft gel, no air layer is necessary and jet rebound remains stable even when there is direct liquid-gel contact.

  9. Empirical estimates of the direct rebound effect: A review

    Sorrell, Steve [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Dimitropoulos, John [Mott MacDonald, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sommerville, Matt [Division of Biology, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)


    Improvements in energy efficiency make energy services cheaper, and therefore encourage increased consumption of those services. This so-called direct rebound effect offsets the energy savings that may otherwise be achieved. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical and methodological issues relevant to estimating the direct rebound effect and summarises the empirical estimates that are currently available. The paper focuses entirely on household energy services, since this is where most of the evidence lies and points to a number of potential sources of bias that may lead the effect to be overestimated. For household energy services in the OECD, the paper concludes that the direct rebound effect should generally be less than 30%.

  10. Empirical estimates of the direct rebound effect. A review

    Sorrell, Steve [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Dimitropoulos, John [Mott MacDonald, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sommerville, Matt [Division of Biology, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)


    Improvements in energy efficiency make energy services cheaper, and therefore encourage increased consumption of those services. This so-called direct rebound effect offsets the energy savings that may otherwise be achieved. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical and methodological issues relevant to estimating the direct rebound effect and summarises the empirical estimates that are currently available. The paper focuses entirely on household energy services, since this is where most of the evidence lies and points to a number of potential sources of bias that may lead the effect to be overestimated. For household energy services in the OECD, the paper concludes that the direct rebound effect should generally be less than 30%. (author)

  11. Avoiding Rebound through a Steady-State Economy

    Nørgaard, Jørgen


    is considered to be limited primarily by productive capacity with little concern for ecological costs and limits. In such a development aiming at unlimited growth it would from a long term environmental perspective be close to irrelevant to reach for more efficient use of energy at the end-users, since it would...... only buy some time. From this perspective, the environmental problem with the rebound effect is not the higher energy efficiency, which pushes towards lower flows of resources through the economy, but rather the conventional economy which rebounds the savings, because of its quest for higher flows....... In this chapter, I shall take the rebound debate further by discussing the possible role of energy efficiency in a sustainable economy that is based on the notion of ‘sufficiency’. The assumption is that globally we need to achieve a ‘steady-state economy’. Considering the urgent need for better material...

  12. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;


    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... of freedom in the parallel AES states. This allows us to construct semi-free-start collisions for full Lane-256 with 2^96 compression function evaluations and 2^88 memory, and for full Lane-512 with 2^224 compression function evaluations and 2^128 memory....

  13. Avoiding Rebound through a Steady-State Economy

    Nørgaard, Jørgen


    reductions in energy consumption are desirable, since most energy supply options involve environmental problems. While renewable energy sources are generally more environmentally benign than fossil fuels and nuclear, they nevertheless constitute a very direct intrusion on nature, as it is already apparent...... only buy some time. From this perspective, the environmental problem with the rebound effect is not the higher energy efficiency, which pushes towards lower flows of resources through the economy, but rather the conventional economy which rebounds the savings, because of its quest for higher flows...

  14. Rebound of continuous droplet streams from an immiscible liquid pool

    Doak, William J.; Laiacona, Danielle M.; German, Guy K.; Chiarot, Paul R.


    We report on the rebound of high velocity continuous water droplet streams from the surface of an immiscible oil pool. The droplets have diameters and velocities of less than 90 μm and 15 m/s, respectively, and were created at frequencies up to 60 kHz. The impact and rebound of continuous droplet streams at this scale and velocity have been largely unexplored. This regime bridges the gap between single drop and jet impacts. The impinging droplets create a divot at the surface of the oil pool that had a common characteristic shape across a wide-range of droplet and oil properties. After impact, the reflected droplets maintain the same uniformity and periodicity of the incoming droplets but have significantly lower velocity and kinetic energy. This was solely attributed to the generation of a flow induced in the viscous oil pool by the impacting droplets. Unlike normally directed impact of millimeter-scale droplets with a solid surface, our results show that an air film does not appear to be maintained beneath the droplets during impact. This suggests direct contact between the droplets and the surface of the oil pool. A ballistic failure limit, correlated with the Weber number, was identified where the rebound was suppressed and the droplets were driven through the oil surface. A secondary failure mode was identified for aperiodic incoming streams. Startup effects and early time dynamics of the rebounding droplet stream were also investigated.

  15. Rebound Effect in the Kerr-Newman-Kasuya Field

    HE Tang-Mei; WANG Yong-Jiu


    @@ It is shown that the repulsive gravitational action of electric charge and magnetic charge make it possible that the neutral particles moving in the Kerr-Newman-Kasuya field stop and rebound at the surface of r = r0 =(e2 + q2)/(2m). The phenomenon of dragging of inertial frames is analysed.

  16. The Rebound Attack and Subspace Distinguishers: Application to Whirlpool

    Lamberger, Mario; Mendel, Florian; Schläffer, Martin;


    We introduce the rebound attack as a variant of differential cryptanalysis on hash functions and apply it to the hash function Whirlpool, standardized by ISO/IEC. We give attacks on reduced variants of the 10-round Whirlpool hash function and compression function. Our results are collisions for 5...

  17. Heritability of heart rate recovery and vagal rebound after exercise.

    Nederend, Ineke; Schutte, Nienke M; Bartels, Meike; Ten Harkel, Arend D J; de Geus, Eco J C


    The prognostic power of heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise has been well established but the exact origin of individual differences in HRR remains unclear. This study aims to estimate the heritability of HRR and vagal rebound after maximal exercise in adolescents. Furthermore, the role of voluntary regular exercise behavior (EB) in HRR and vagal rebound is tested. 491 healthy adolescent twins and their siblings were recruited for maximal exercise testing, followed by a standardized cooldown with measurement of the electrocardiogram and respiratory frequency. Immediate and long-term HRR (HRR60 and HRR180) and vagal rebound (heart rate variability in the respiratory frequency range) were assessed 1 and 3 min after exercise. Multivariate twin modeling was used to estimate heritability of all measured variables and to compute the genetic contribution to their covariance. Heritability of HRR60, HRR180 and immediate and long-term vagal rebound is 60 % (95 % CI: 48-67), 65 % (95 % CI: 54-73), 23 % (95 % CI: 11-35) and 3 % (95 % CI: 0-11), respectively. We find evidence for two separate genetic factors with one factor influencing overall cardiac vagal control, including resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and a specific factor for cardiac vagal exercise recovery. EB was only modestly associated with resting heart rate (r = -0.27) and HRR (rHRR60 = 0.10; rHRR180 = 0.19) with very high genetic contribution to these associations (88-91 %). Individual differences in HRR and immediate vagal rebound can to a large extent be explained by genetic factors. These innate cardiac vagal exercise recovery factors partly reflect the effects of heritable differences in EB.

  18. The Rebound Attack: Cryptanalysis of Reduced Whirlpool and Grøstl

    Mendel, Florian; Rechberger, Christian; Schläffer, Martin;


    In this work, we propose the rebound attack, a new tool for the cryptanalysis of hash functions. The idea of the rebound attack is to use the available degrees of freedom in a collision attack to efficiently bypass the low probability parts of a differential trail. The rebound attack consists of ...

  19. Energy Rebound as a Potential Threat to a Low-Carbon Future: Findings from a New Exergy-Based National-Level Rebound Approach

    Paul E. Brockway


    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Stanley Jevons introduced the concept of energy rebound: that anticipated energy efficiency savings may be “taken back” by behavioural responses. This is an important issue today because, if energy rebound is significant, this would hamper the effectiveness of energy efficiency policies aimed at reducing energy use and associated carbon emissions. However, empirical studies which estimate national energy rebound are rare and, perhaps as a result, rebound is largely ignored in energy-economy models and associated policy. A significant difficulty lies in the components of energy rebound assessed in empirical studies: most examine direct and indirect rebound in the static economy, excluding potentially significant rebound of the longer term structural response of the national economy. In response, we develop a novel exergy-based approach to estimate national energy rebound for the UK and US (1980–2010 and China (1981–2010. Exergy—as “available energy”—allows a consistent, thermodynamic-based metric for national-level energy efficiency. We find large energy rebound in China, suggesting that improvements in China’s energy efficiency may be associated with increased energy consumption (“backfire”. Conversely, we find much lower (partial energy rebound for the case of the UK and US. These findings support the hypothesis that producer-sided economies (such as China may exhibit large energy rebound, reducing the effectiveness of energy efficiency, unless other policy measures (e.g., carbon taxes are implemented. It also raises the prospect we need to deploy renewable energy sources faster than currently planned, if (due to rebound energy efficiency policies cannot deliver the scale of energy reduction envisaged to meet climate targets.

  20. Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio

    LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong


    The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.

  1. Negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation.

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kamidozono, Yoshika; Ishiizumi, Atsushi; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kita, Ichiro


    Physical exercise can improve brain function, but the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. Mice in the ExC group were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 wk and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0). Following exercise cessation, the density of DCX-positive neurons gradually decreased and was significantly lower than that in the Con group at 5 and 8 wk after cessation, indicating that exercise cessation leads to a negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that the negative rebound in neurogenesis is caused by diminished cell survival, not by suppression of cell proliferation and neural maturation. Neither elevated expression of ΔFosB, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis regulation, nor increased plasma corticosterone, were involved in the negative neurogenesis rebound. Importantly, exercise cessation suppressed ambulatory activity, and a significant correlation between change in activity and DCX-positive neuron density suggested that the decrease in activity is involved in neurogenesis impairment. Forced treadmill running following exercise cessation failed to prevent the negative neurogenesis rebound. This study indicates that cessation of exercise or a decrease in physical activity is associated with an increased risk for impaired hippocampal function, which might increase vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders.

  2. Rebound Effects in the Context of Developing Country Efficiency

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Energy efficiency-related “rebound effects” usually refer to the tendency of most consumers to increase their use of energy services in response to efficiency measures that have reduced their energy costs. This phenomenon is one reason why energy efficiency policies often result in lower energy savings than engineering-based estimates predict. Rebound effects have been the subject of intense debate in the field of energy efficiency policy for many years.1 In the past, the focus of this debate has been on the perceived loss of the expected energy savings and related benefits resulting from the rebound effects. However, more recently, there has been a growing recognition that policymakers need to consider the health, economic and other non-energy benefits that often result from the increase in energy services represented by user “rebound effects”. This is especially true in developing countries where basic energy service demands—such as lighting, heating, cooling, and refrigeration of food—are often not being met. As economic conditions improve and household incomes increase, demand for increased energy services (such as space conditioning and appliances) tends to rise rapidly. Improving energy efficiency reduces the amount of energy needed to produce one unit of energy service output (for example an hour of cooling at 21°C delivered for X vs Y kWh). Greater efficiency therefore often enables more rapid increased in energy services (and sometimes access), expanding the amount of services that can be provided by a fixed amount (or cost) of energy.

  3. Coping with Break-Ups: Rebound Relationships and Gender Socialization

    Cassie Shimek


    Full Text Available When serious romantic relationships are terminated, partners are faced with convoluted and complex challenges of detachment from their previous partner, negative feelings about the overall situation, and the need to move forward in life. When faced with this relational upheaval, some individuals employ and find relief in superficial or noncommittal rebound relationships, which act as a means for coping with the loss of the previous relationship and the severed emotional attachment to an ex-partner, but which are under studied by empirical researchers. In a study of 201 participants, men were predicted and found to be more likely to enter rebound relationships in the aftermath of a relational termination based on lower levels of social support, more emotional attachment to an ex-partner, and displaying the ludus (or game playing love style. In addition to the measures of these variables, gender socialization and parental investment theory provide further support for the study’s claims. In sum, rebound relationships were employed by men as a distraction from their feelings of emotional attachment for their ex-partner, but also as a source of support and due to inherent ludic characteristics.

  4. Dopamine Rebound-Excitation Theory: Putting Brakes on PTSD

    Jason C Lee


    Full Text Available It is not uncommon for humans or animals to experience traumatic events in their lifetimes. However, the majority of individuals are resilient to long-term detrimental changes turning into anxiety and depression, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. What underlying neural mechanism accounts for individual variability in stress resilience? Hyperactivity in fear circuits, such as the amygdalar system, is well-known to be the major pathophysiological basis for PTSD, much like a stuck accelerator. Interestingly, increasing evidence demonstrates that dopamine (DA – traditionally known for its role in motivation, reward prediction, and addiction– is also crucial in regulating fear learning and anxiety. Yet how DA neurons control stress resilience is unclear, especially given that DA neurons have multiple subtypes with distinct temporal dynamics. Here, we propose the Rebound-Excitation Theory, which posits that DA neurons’ rebound-excitation at the termination of fearful experiences serves as an important brake by providing intrinsic safety-signals to fear-processing neural circuits in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. We discuss how DA neuron rebound-excitation may be regulated by genetics and experiences, and how such physiological properties may be used as a brain-activity biomarker to predict and confer individual resilience to stress and anxiety.

  5. Rebound peer review: a viable recourse for aggrieved authors?

    Sen, Chandan K


    Scholarly peer review represents the linchpin of academic publishing. Recognized benefits of the peer review system are manifold. Critics raise several valid concerns that deserve attention. Several studies show that the current peer review system lacks robustness and is subject to bias in favor of well-established research groups and "mainstream" theories. Hypotheses that harmonize with that of the leaders in the field are more likely to be accepted for publication in prestigious journals than heretic or radical ones. Then, there is the risk posed by the potentially unscrupulous reviewer. Alternatives to traditional peer review have been tried but the outcomes fall much short of expectations. Postreview rejection can be equally frustrating for the author and editor particularly when they are victims of limitations of the blinded forms of review. To provide recourse for authors who felt that their work has been rejected not because of the quality of science but because of the constraints of the peer review system, ARS introduces a rebound track for peer review ( ). The rebound peer review track is a two-tier process that represents a hybrid of partially blinded and open peer review systems. The goal is to make sure that every author has the opportunity to rescue their rejected work which they feel may have been victimized by the glitches of the current peer review system. I invite affected authors to make full use of this experimental mechanism so we know whether the rebound peer review should prevail as a viable recourse.

  6. Fire History

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  7. Fire Perimeters

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  8. [Dopplerometry at prolonged pregnancy].

    Salii-Prenichi, L; Milchev, N; Markova, D; Apiosjan, Zh


    Prolonged pregnancy, associated with low amniotic fluid is a reason for the increase of fetal mortality and morbidity. There is no a define test at prolonged pregnancy which can determine which pregnancy are at a risk for adverse outcome and complications. Dopplerometry as a noninvasive method for examination of blood circulation, and especially a. cerebri media and a. umbilicalis can be used for the prediction of the outcome of prolonged pregnancy.

  9. Pilot Evaluation Study of the Life Skills Program REBOUND

    Henrik Jungaberle


    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is pilot evaluation of the life skills program REBOUND in a school context focusing on substance use, risk perception, and knowledge about psychoactive substances ( n IG + CG = 723 students in five schools and 46 classes, Mage = 14.8, range 14-18 for the total sample and in the subgroups gender, age, and school type. Main goal of the study is collecting evidence for program optimization. A controlled study was carried out with repeated measurement before and after the intervention (4-6 months. Multilevel analyses, ANCOVA, and logistic regression analyses were applied to measure the effects. Overall, significantly lower incidence rates of drunkenness (odds ratio [OR] = .55; p = .033, improved knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .006, lower personal (p = .013 and general tobacco risk perception among users (p = .002, and lower general tobacco (p = .018 and cannabis (p = .000 risk perception in non-users were found in the total intervention group. In subgroups, significantly lower rates for the incidence of drunkenness can be shown for males (p = .008 and for younger participants (p = .004. Students at academic high school (German Gymnasium showed a decrease in 30-day prevalence for alcohol (p = .017 and cannabis (p = .014, and they improved in their knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .000. In vocational high school classes (German Realschule, there was an increase in the relative alcohol risk perception of the students (p = .019. REBOUND contributes to a controlled use of alcohol and increases knowledge about psychoactive substances. REBOUND has various effects on the examined subgroups age, gender, and school type: Males, younger students, and students in academic high school benefitted more from the course regarding consumption-related criteria. We suggest a program optimization specific to school form and age, inclusion of a tobacco intervention, and the use of more gender-segregated interventions.

  10. Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?

    Cole TJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adiposity rebound is the second rise in body mass index that occurs between 3 and 7 years. An early age at adiposity rebound is known to be a risk factor for later obesity. The aim here is to clarify the connection between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness. Discussion Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both in original (kg/m2 and standard deviation (SD score units, are studied in five hypothetical subjects. Two aspects of the body mass index curve, the body mass index centile and the rate of body mass index centile crossing, determine a child's age at rebound. A high centile and upward centile crossing are both associated separately with an early rebound, while a low centile and/or downward centile crossing correspond to a late rebound. Early adiposity rebound is a risk factor for later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later in childhood and adulthood. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect". The association of centile crossing with later obesity is statistical not physiological, and it applies at all ages not just at rebound, so adiposity rebound cannot be considered a critical period for future obesity. Body mass index centile crossing is a more direct indicator of the underlying drive to fatness. Summary An early age at adiposity rebound predicts later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. Body mass index centile crossing is more direct than the timing of adiposity rebound for predicting later fatness.

  11. Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?

    Cole TJ


    Abstract Background The adiposity rebound is the second rise in body mass index that occurs between 3 and 7 years. An early age at adiposity rebound is known to be a risk factor for later obesity. The aim here is to clarify the connection between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness. Discussion Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both ...

  12. Diagnosis and prediction of rebounds in financial markets

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier


    We introduce the concept of “negative bubbles” as the mirror (but not necessarily exactly symmetric) image of standard financial bubbles, in which positive feedback mechanisms may lead to transient accelerating price falls. To model these negative bubbles, we adapt the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles with a hazard rate describing the collective buying pressure of noise traders. The price fall occurring during a transient negative bubble can be interpreted as an effective random down payment that rational agents accept to pay in the hope of profiting from the expected occurrence of a possible rally. We validate the model by showing that it has significant predictive power in identifying the times of major market rebounds. This result is obtained by using a general pattern recognition method that combines the information obtained at multiple times from a dynamical calibration of the JLS model. Error diagrams, Bayesian inference and trading strategies suggest that one can extract genuine information and obtain real skill from the calibration of negative bubbles with the JLS model. We conclude that negative bubbles are in general predictably associated with large rebounds or rallies, which are the mirror images of the crashes terminating standard bubbles.

  13. Lip twitch restraint on rebound tonometry in horses

    Maria Cristina Caldart de Andrade


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of the upper lip twitch restraint on intraocular pressure (IOP of healthy horses. In this study, forty five Criollo horses, aged between two to 20 years (male or female were evaluated with rebound tonometer, with and without upper lip twitch restraint. A previous ophthalmic examination was performed with Schirmer tear test, fluorescein test, slit lamp biomicroscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy in all horses. Only healthy animals with no ocular findings were used. The order of the IOP measurements (with or without twitch and order of the eye (right or left were randomized. Three measurements of each eye were made and the mean was calculated. Head position was kept above the heart level and no pressure was made over eyelids. At least 10 minutes passed between the evaluations of the same horse. Measurements were made between 3:30 and 5:30pm to avoid circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS 9.2 software. A Split plot factorial design was used where horses were considered blocks. The mean intraocular pressure values obtained with lip twitch restraint (34.68±6.47mmHg were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those obtained without (29.35±4.08mmHg. There was no relevant statistical difference between right and left eyes. The restraint of horses with upper lip twitch increased equine intraocular pressure measured with the rebound tonometry.

  14. Do Methodological Choices in Environmental Modeling Bias Rebound Effects? : A Case Study on Electric Cars

    Font Vivanco, D.; Tukker, A.; Kemp, R.


    Improvements in resource efficiency often underperform because of rebound effects. Calculations of the size of rebound effects are subject to various types of bias, among which methodological choices have received particular attention. Modellers have primarily focused on choices related to changes i

  15. Interactive football training based on rebounders with hit position sensing and audio/light feedback

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård

    position sensing. The rebounders are equipped with loudspeakers and lights being used to call for the ball. Here we discuss one game “Pass ­and ­Turn”, which is meant to train speed in controlling a returned ball, reaction to a call for the ball and turning to hit rebounders to the left, right, behind...

  16. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Fatimah Lateef


    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  17. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Fatimah Lateef


    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  18. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; ...

  19. Rebound adenoid hyperplasia after chemotherapy in pediatric patients with head and neck lymphoma: MR imaging findings.

    Kato, Hiroki; Matsuo, Masayuki; Ozeki, Michio; Fukao, Toshiyuki


    To assess MR imaging findings of rebound adenoid hyperplasia after chemotherapy in pediatric patients with head and neck lymphoma. Eight pediatric patients with head and neck lymphoma treated with chemotherapy alone or concurrent chemoradiotherapy were included. All patients underwent pre-therapeutic assessment and post-therapeutic follow-up by MR imaging. The maximum thickness of the adenoid was assessed on transverse T2-weighted images. Rebound adenoid hyperplasia was defined as more than half of the pre-therapeutic thickness after severe atrophy. The pre-therapeutic maximum thickness of the adenoid ranged from 10 to 18 mm (mean, 15 mm). In all patients, the thickness of the adenoid dramatically decreased (mean 1 mm) within 1 year after the cessation of chemotherapy. On follow-up MR imaging, rebound adenoid hyperplasia was observed in five patients (63 %). Re-atrophy following rebound adenoid hyperplasia was observed in two patients (25 %), and no re-atrophy was observed in three patients (37 %). Rebound adenoid hyperplasia was not observed in three patients (37 %) who were in their late teens, and who had been treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Rebound adenoid hyperplasia was often observed after chemotherapy in pediatric patients with lymphoma. MR imaging was useful for the assessment of rebound adenoid hyperplasia.

  20. Interactive football training based on rebounders with hit position sensing and audio/light feedback

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård

    A Danish football club has established a (24/7/365) football training facility, where the authors developed an interactive training installation ( The training installation consist of a 12*12 m square with 4 M­Station Pro rebounders equipped with sensors that enable hit...... position sensing. The rebounders are equipped with loudspeakers and lights being used to call for the ball. Here we discuss one game “Pass ­and ­Turn”, which is meant to train speed in controlling a returned ball, reaction to a call for the ball and turning to hit rebounders to the left, right, behind...


    Deborah eSuchecki


    Full Text Available Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a form to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic stress, conversely, has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, which confer more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the REM phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior.

  2. Prolonged labour : women's experiences

    Nystedt, Astrid


    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...

  3. A Case Study on Stratified Settlement and Rebound Characteristics due to Dewatering in Shanghai Subway Station

    Jianxiu Wang


    Full Text Available Based on the Yishan Metro Station Project of Shanghai Metro Line number 9, a centrifugal model test was conducted to investigate the behavior of stratified settlement and rebound (SSR of Shanghai soft clay caused by dewatering in deep subway station pit. The soil model was composed of three layers, and the dewatering process was simulated by self-invention of decompressing devise. The results indicate that SSR occurs when the decompression was carried out, and only negative rebound was found in sandy clay, but both positive and negative rebound occurred in the silty clay, and the absolute value of rebound in sandy clay was larger than in silty clay, and the mechanism of SSR was discussed with mechanical sandwich model, and it was found that the load and cohesive force of different soils was the main source of different responses when decompressed.

  4. Water drops dancing on ice: how sublimation leads to drop rebound.

    Antonini, C; Bernagozzi, I; Jung, S; Poulikakos, D; Marengo, M


    Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surface, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300 °C down to even below -79 °C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

  5. A New Windows-based Program for Analyzing Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mines

    Jae, L. S.; Choi, Y.; Yi, H.


    This study presents a new Windows-based program based on GRAM(Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mineworkings) model which can analyze the groundwater rebound in abandoned mines. The program consists of the graphic user interface and the simulation engine modules. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013 and Visual Studio.NET 2010 were used to effectively implement the graphic user interface and the simulation engine modules. The standard formats of input and output files were designed by considering the characteristics of GRAM model. We carried out a case study to analyze groundwater rebound at the Dongwon coal mine, Korea. As a result, we could know that the developed program can provide useful information for predicting the groundwater rebound in abandoned mines.

  6. Modification of General Research Corporation (GRC) Dynatup 8200 Drop Tower Rebounding Brake System


    data collection software used by the test frame has a maximum recording time period of 100 ms . This misses the recording time period of the second...and third impacts that start to occur around 500 ms . The nature of the rebound in amplitude and period after the initial impact can vary as the...impact energy of about 74 ft-lb. (100 J). The sequence shows the tup prior to impact, impacting, rebounding from the plate , and being stopped by the

  7. Screening and Management of the Early Adiposity Rebound of Children in Montreuil?

    Chougnet, Jeanne


    CONTEXT: Infantile obesity is often accompanied by health problems both in childhood and adulthood. Efficient intervention program before obesity installation can be found in the literature. An early adiposity rebound is indeed the earliest mean to detect an obesity to come. QUESTION : How detecting and treating the early adiposity rebound of children in childhood living in Montreuil (Paris area - France) METHODOLOGY : Consensus search in a nominal group to establish a screening protocole for...

  8. Biological therapies (immunomodulatory drugs), worsening of psoriasis and rebound effect: new evidence of similitude.

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian


    Employing the secondary action or adaptative reaction of the organism as therapeutic response, homeopathy uses the treatment by similitude (similia similibus curentur) administering to sick individuals the medicines that caused similar symptoms in healthy individuals. Such homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is scientifically explained through the rebound effect of drugs, which cause worsening of symptoms after withdrawal of several palliative treatments. Despite promoting an improvement in psoriasis at the beginning of the treatment, modern biological therapies provoke worsening of the psoriasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of drugs. Exploratory qualitative review of the literature on the occurrence of the rebound effect with the use of immunomodulatory drugs [T-cell modulating agents and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors drugs] in the treatment of psoriasis. Several researches indicate the rebound effect as the mechanism of worsening of psoriasis with the use of efalizumab causing the suspension of its marketing authorization in 2009, in view of some severe cases. Other studies also have demonstrated the occurrence of rebound psoriasis with the use of alefacept, etanercept and infliximab. As well as studied in other classes of drugs, the rebound effect of biologic agents supports the principle of similitude (primary action of the drugs followed by secondary action and opposite of the organism). Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of rebound phenomenon after removal of hemiepiphyseal staples in patients with idiopathic genu valgum deformity.

    Park, S-S; Kang, S; Kim, J Y


    Our aim was to investigate the predictive factors for the development of a rebound phenomenon after temporary hemiepiphysiodesis in children with genu valgum. We studied 37 limbs with idiopathic genu valgum who were treated with hemiepiphyseal stapling, and with more than six months remaining growth at removal of the staples. All children were followed until skeletal maturity or for more than two years after removal of the staples. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the rate of correction, body mass index (BMI), age, and initial valgus angle were significantly associated with a rebound phenomenon. With those characteristics, a predictive model for rebound was generated using recursive partitioning analysis. Children with a rapid rate of correction had the most frequent and severe rebound phenomenon (incidence 79%, mean 4°), whereas those with a slow rate of correction had less rebound when they had low BMI (43%, 2°) and none when the BMI was ≥ 21 kg/m(2). This is the first study to evaluate a predictive model for a rebound phenomenon after temporary hemiepiphysiodesis in children with idiopathic genu valgum. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1270-5. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  11. Drop rebound after impact: the role of the receding contact angle.

    Antonini, C; Villa, F; Bernagozzi, I; Amirfazli, A; Marengo, M


    Data from the literature suggest that the rebound of a drop from a surface can be achieved when the wettability is low, i.e., when contact angles, measured at the triple line (solid-liquid-air), are high. However, no clear criterion exists to predict when a drop will rebound from a surface and which is the key wetting parameter to govern drop rebound (e.g., the "equilibrium" contact angle, θeq, the advancing and the receding contact angles, θA and θR, respectively, the contact angle hysteresis, Δθ, or any combination of these parameters). To clarify the conditions for drop rebound, we conducted experimental tests on different dry solid surfaces with variable wettability, from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic surfaces, with advancing contact angles 108° contact angles 89° contact angle is the key wetting parameter that influences drop rebound, along with surface hydrophobicity: for the investigated impact conditions (drop diameter 2.4 contact angles higher than 100°. Also, the drop rebound time decreased by increasing the receding contact angle. It was also shown that in general care must be taken when using statically defined wetting parameters (such as advancing and receding contact angles) to predict the dynamic behavior of a liquid on a solid surface because the dynamics of the phenomenon may affect surface wetting close to the impact point (e.g., as a result of the transition from the Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel state in the case of the so-called superhydrophobic surfaces) and thus affect the drop rebound.

  12. Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households

    Druckman, Angela, E-mail: [ESRC Research Group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment (RESOLVE), University of Surrey (D3), Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Chitnis, Mona [ESRC Research Group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment (RESOLVE), University of Surrey (D3), Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sorrell, Steve [Sussex Energy Group, University of Sussex (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [ESRC Research Group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment (RESOLVE), University of Surrey (D3), Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    Households are expected to play a pivotal role in reducing the UK's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the UK Government is encouraging specific household actions to help meet its targets. However, due to the rebound effect, only a portion of the GHG emission reductions estimated by simple engineering calculations are generally achieved in practice. For example, replacing short car journeys by walking or cycling reduces consumption of motor fuels. But this frees up money that may be spent on, for example, purchasing extra clothes or flying on vacation. Alternatively, the money may be put into savings. Since all of these options lead to GHG emissions, total GHG savings may be less than anticipated. Indeed, in some instances, emissions may increase-a phenomenon known as 'backfire'. We estimate that the rebound effect for a combination of three abatement actions by UK households is approximately 34%. Targeting re-spending on goods and services with a low GHG intensity reduces this to a minimum of around 12%, while re-spending on goods and services with a high GHG intensity leads to backfire. Our study highlights the importance of shifting consumption to lower GHG intensive categories and investing in low carbon investments. - Highlights: > Policy-makers should be mindful of the rebound effect when developing strategies. > Due to rebound, only around two thirds of expected GHG reductions may be achieved. > Re-use of avoided expenditure is critical; in extreme case backfire may occur. > Higher savings reduce rebound: 'green' investments minimise rebound. > Theoretically negative rebound is possible through 'green' technology investment.

  13. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  14. Do Methodological Choices in Environmental Modeling Bias Rebound Effects? A Case Study on Electric Cars.

    Font Vivanco, David; Tukker, Arnold; Kemp, René


    Improvements in resource efficiency often underperform because of rebound effects. Calculations of the size of rebound effects are subject to various types of bias, among which methodological choices have received particular attention. Modellers have primarily focused on choices related to changes in demand, however, choices related to modeling the environmental burdens from such changes have received less attention. In this study, we analyze choices in the environmental assessment methods (life cycle assessment (LCA) and hybrid LCA) and environmental input-output databases (E3IOT, Exiobase and WIOD) used as a source of bias. The analysis is done for a case study on battery electric and hydrogen cars in Europe. The results describe moderate rebound effects for both technologies in the short term. Additionally, long-run scenarios are calculated by simulating the total cost of ownership, which describe notable rebound effect sizes-from 26 to 59% and from 18 to 28%, respectively, depending on the methodological choices-with favorable economic conditions. Relevant sources of bias are found to be related to incomplete background systems, technology assumptions and sectorial aggregation. These findings highlight the importance of the method setup and of sensitivity analyses of choices related to environmental modeling in rebound effect assessments.

  15. Probability of rebound and eject of sand particles in wind-blown sand movement

    Li Xie; Xiaojing Zheng


    When incident particles impact into a sand bed in wind-blown sand movement, rebound of the incident particles and eject of the sand particles by the incident particles affect directly the development of wind sand flux. In order to obtain rebound and eject lift-off probability of the sand particles, we apply the particle-bed stochastic collision model presented in our pervious works to derive analytic solutions of velocities of the incident and impacted particles in the postcollision bed. In order to describe randomness inherent in the real particle-bed collision, we take the incident angle, theimpact position and the direction of resultant action of sand particles in sand bed on the impacted sand particle as random variables, and calculate the rebound and eject velocities,angles and coefficients (ratio of rebound and eject velocity to incident velocity). Numerical results are found in accordance with current experimental results. The rebound and eject lift-off probabilities versus the incident and creeping velocities are predicted.

  16. Rebound effect of drugs: fatal risk of conventional treatment and pharmacological basis of homeopathic treatment

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira


    Full Text Available The homeopathic model applies the secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as a therapeutic method and thus prescribes treatment by similitude, which consists in administering to ill individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals. The vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism might be explained scientifically by means of the rebound effect of modern drugs, which might cause fatal iatrogenic events after discontinuation of antipathic (a term used in alternative medicine for palliative treatment, also known as enantiopathic treatment. Although the rebound effect is studied by modern pharmacology, it is poorly communicated to and discussed among healthcare professionals, who are thus deprived of information needed for the safe management of modern drugs. This article presents an up-to-date review on the rebound effect of modern drugs that grounds the homeopathic principle of healing and calls the attention of doctors to this type of adverse effect that is usually unnoticed. The rebound effect of modern palliative drugs, which was pointed out by Hahnemann more than two centuries ago, might cause fatal adverse events and is illustrated by the examples of acetylsalicylic acid, anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, antidepressants, statins, proton-pump inhibitors, etc. Although the rebound effect is expressed by a small fraction of (susceptible individuals and might be avoided by gradual tapering of antipathic drugs, it exhibits epidemiologic importance as a function of the massive use of such palliative drugs and the lack of knowledge in its regard.

  17. Energy rebound and economic growth: A review of the main issues and research needs

    Madlener, R. [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Alcott, B. [Gretenweg 4, 8038 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Contrary to conventional wisdom, more efficient use of energy may actually through rebound effects lead to greater instead of less total consumption of energy - or at least to no diminution of energy consumption. If so, energy efficiency strategies may serve goals of raising economic growth and affluence, but as an environmental or energy policy strategy could backfire, leading to more resource use in absolute terms rather than less. This, in turn, could in the long run hamper economic growth, for instance if resource scarcity crowds out technical change. The hypothesis that rebound is greater than unity ('backfire') predicts the observed real-world correlation between rising energy consumption and rising efficiency of energy services, however difficult it may be to define a precise holistic metric for the latter. The opposing hypothesis, i.e. that rebound is less than unity and that energy efficiency increases therefore result in less energy consumption than before, requires on the other hand strong forces that do account for the empirically observed economic growth. This paper summarises some of the discussions around the rebound effect, puts it into perspective to economic growth, and provides some insights at the end that can guide future empirical research on the rebound topic. (author)

  18. Distortion of ceramometal fixed partial dentures during the firing cycle.

    Bridger, D V; Nicholls, J I


    1. Distortion does occur in the body of curved, long-span fixed partial denture frameworks during the porcelain firing cycle. 2. This distortion is a result of changes in the metal as well as the contraction of fired porcelain. 3. The greatest distortional changes occur during the degassing stage and the final glaze stage of the porcelain firing cycle. 4. Distortion incurred by the application and firing of the porcelain is reversible. When the porcelain is chemically removed from the framework, there is an elastic rebound. 5. Distortion is clinically important in that it may lead to detectable marginal openings. 6. The distortion pattern observed in the curved fixed partial denture is a closing of the posterior or lingual dimensions and labial movement in the anterior dimension. This indicates the effect of the contracting porcelain on the metal framework.


    The insecticidal and neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids result from prolonged sodium channel inactivation, which causes alterations in neuronal firing and communication. Previously, we determined the relative potencies of 11 type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides using microel...


    陈仁朋; 胡亚元; 陈云敏


    This paper presents a method to determine driving resistance with rebound of pile-top during pile driving. The soil around the pile shaft is assumed to be rigid-plastic, while that under the pile-tip is assumed to be ideally elastoplastic. The driving force acting on the pile-top is simplified to a triangular impact force. The kinematic equation of the pile-tip is established. From the one-dimensional wave equation, the movements of the pile-tip and pile-top are determined. The rebound at the pile-top can be written in a very concise form. It is shown that the shaft resistance makes the rebound at the pile-top decrease. In particular, when the pile is very long or the soil around the pile is very stiff, the decrease is very obvious.

  1. Putting the brakes on prejudice rebound effects: An ironic effect of disparagement humor.

    Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A


    When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.

  2. Measuring the rebound effect with micro data: A first difference approach

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan


    the 'conventional' formulation in which only fuel cost per kilometre matters. Second, the selection equation confirms that higher fuel prices induce households to switch car. Third, the results suggest the presence of a rebound effect that is on the lower end of the estimates available in the literature......We provide estimates of the rebound effect for car transport in Denmark, using a rich data set with individual household data on car use, fuel efficiency, and car as well as household characteristics. A demand model is estimated in first differences; the availability of households in the sample...... that replaced their car during the period of observation combined with information on their driving behaviour before and after the car switch allows us to identify the rebound effect. Endogeneity is taken into account by using appropriate instruments. Results include the following. First, we reject...

  3. Rebound effect of modern drugs: serious adverse event unknown by health professionals.

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian


    Supported in the Hippocratic aphorism primum non nocere, the bioethical principle of non-maleficence pray that the medical act cause the least damage or injury to the health of the patient, leaving it to the doctor to assess the risks of a particular therapy through knowledge of possible adverse events of drugs. Among these, the rebound effect represents a common side effect to numerous classes of modern drugs, may cause serious and fatal disorders in patients. This review aims to clarify the health professionals on clinical and epidemiological aspects of rebound phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic review was held in the PubMed database using the keywords 'rebound', 'withdrawal', 'paradoxical', 'acetylsalicylic acid', 'anti-inflammatory', 'bronchodilator', 'antidepressant', 'statin', 'proton pump inhibitor' and 'bisphosphonate'. The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. Regardless of the disease, the drug and duration of treatment, the phenomenon manifests itself in a small proportion of susceptible individuals. However, it may cause serious and fatal adverse events should be considered a public health problem in view of the enormous consumption of drugs by population. Bringing together a growing and unquestionable body of evidence, the physician needs to have knowledge of the consequences of the rebound effect and how to minimize it, increasing safety in the management of modern drugs. On the other hand, this rebound can be used in a curative way, broadening the spectrum of the modern therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    Atlason, R. S.; Unnthorsson, Runar


    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  5. Mechanical effects of excavation rebound of arch dam bedrock and better concreting time of dam body


    In high ground stress zone, rebound deformation of excavation of arch dam bedrock has a significant impact on the structural behavior, design and construction of arch dam. Based on the analysis of mechanical effects of excavation rebound, with both stress and deformation as two constraint conditions and deformation modulus as a controlling condition, the method to determine a better concreting time of dam body was put forward. All of these play an important guiding role in the excavation of dam bedrock and the construction of dam body.

  6. Empowering Technology and POETRY Supporting Scientific Inquiry: Investigating the Motion of a Rebounding Trolley

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard


    The recent implementation of technology in the classroom is probably one of the most challenging innovations that many teachers are having to confront today. Teachers have to develop a knowledge base that goes beyond technology proficiency, into learning about how technology, for example, can be used for various forms of representations of subject matters. This article aims to report on the investigation of the motion of a rebounding trolley, bringing together physics content, pedagogy, and technology to enhance student thinking and construction of knowledge. The activity, called "Rebounding Trolley," uses data logging and helps to emphasize the idea that velocity and acceleration can be in opposite directions.

  7. Fire Power

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee


    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  8. Fire Power

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee


    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  9. On fire

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  10. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  11. Forest-fire models

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager


    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  12. Medium afterhyperpolarization and firing pattern modulation in interneurons of stratum radiatum in the CA3 hippocampal region.

    Savić, N; Pedarzani, P; Sciancalepore, M


    Stratum (st.) radiatum interneurons represent a heterogeneous class of hippocampal cells with as yet poorly characterized physiological properties. Intracellular staining with biocytin, in situ hybridization, and patch-clamp recording have been combined to investigate the morphological and electrophysiological properties of these cells in the CA3 hippocampal region in young rats [postnatal days 10 to 21 (P10-21)]. Labeled cells presented a heterogeneous morphology with various soma shapes, often found multipolar, and dendritic arborizations confined to st. radiatum. The passive membrane properties of these st. radiatum interneurons showed instead no significant differences between P10 and P21. Low resting potential, high-input resistance, and short time constants characterized CA3 st. radiatum interneurons, which were silent at rest. Action potentials, elicited by brief current pulses, were lower and shorter than in pyramidal cells and followed by a Ca(2+)-dependent medium-duration afterhyperpolarizing potential (mAHP). Prolonged depolarizing current injection generated trains of action potentials that fired at constant frequency after a slight accommodation. The maximum steady-state firing rate was 31 +/- 4 (SD) Hz. Hyperpolarizing current pulses revealed a prominent inward rectification characterized by a "sag," followed by a depolarizing rebound that triggered action potentials. Sag and anodal brake excitation were blocked by Cs(+), suggesting that they were mediated by a hyperpolarization-activated cation conductance (I(h)). In the presence of tetrodotoxin and tetraethylammonium, biphasic tail currents were elicited in voltage clamp after a depolarizing step inducing Ca(2+) influx. Tail currents presented a fast Ca(2+)-activated and apamin-sensitive component (I(AHP)) and were further reduced by carbachol. The presence of I(AHP) was consistent with the high expression level of the apamin-sensitive SK2 subunit transcript in CA3 st. radiatum interneurons as

  13. The effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement in a developing country: Rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea

    Jin, Sang-Hyeon [Gangwon Development Research Institute, Gangwond-do (Korea). Economic and Industrial Policy Research Division


    The government of South Korea considers an energy efficiency improvement policy an effective economic measure for climate change like many other governments. But it is unaware of any 'rebound effect', the unexpected result of energy efficiency improvement. So the rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea was estimated using two different scales in this paper. At the macro level, the rebound effect was estimated indirectly by using price elasticity, and at the micro level, the rebound effect of individual home appliances was estimated directly by using a non-linear relationship between energy efficiency and energy use. At the macro level, the long- and short-term results of rebound effect were estimated at 30% and 38%, respectively. Also at the micro level, the rebound effect of air conditioners was 57-70%; while refrigerators showed only a composite of rebound and income effects. Finally, there was no backfire effect, and efficiency improvement brought energy reduction. In conclusion, these suggest that rebound effect is an important factor that the government of South Korea must consider when planning its energy efficiency improvement policy. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency and rebound effects - Development, extent and containment; Energie-Effizienz und Reboundeffekte: Entstehung, Ausmass, Eindaemmung - Schlussbericht

    Haan, P. de


    In this final report published for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Institute for Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zuerich examines so-called rebound effects. New, energy-efficient products that, in terms of energy-consumption, are cheaper to operate can lead to increased demand - the so-called rebound effect. The article deals with direct and indirect rebound effects and their origins as seen from the economical, socio-psychological and regulatory points of view. The results of empirical research on their magnitude are discussed and examples are quoted. Possible mental rebound effects are discussed, as are possible ways to inhibit such rebound effects.

  15. Equivalences in Biological and Economical Systems: Peloton Dynamics and the Rebound Effect.

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaz


    An interdisciplinary bridge is proposed between principles of collective behavior in biological systems, particularly bicycle pelotons, and the economic phenomenon called the rebound effect. Two main equivalencies are proposed between aspects of peloton dynamics and aspects of energy service efficiencies and the rebound effect. Firstly, a threshold whereby weaker cyclists, up to maximal capacities, sustain speeds of pacesetters by drafting; equivalent to a threshold whereby consumers will not exceed maximum allocated budgets for energy services, costs for which are externally determined. Secondly, a threshold of peloton dynamics whereby, below this threshold, weaker cyclists share costly non-drafting positions, whereas above this threshold cyclists cannot share these positions but can sustain pacesetter speeds. This is in turn equivalent to the threshold in the context of energy service efficiency, whereby consumers will increase spending to the limit indicated by the rebound magnitude but not to their maximum allocated budgets. These thresholds are a consequence of the model equations, and the latter threshold is explained by consumer apprehension that existing energy efficiencies could disappear or be negative, when consumers would be over budget. This partly explains long term rebound increase, whereby consumers increase consumption as confidence rises that cost savings due to energy service efficiency is stable.

  16. An Investigation of Tic Suppression and the Rebound Effect in Tourette's Disorder

    Meidinger, Amy L.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Himle, Michael; Omvig, Matthew; Trainor, Casey; Crosby, Ross


    Many patients, parents of children with Tourettes disorder, and professionals have suggested that following a period of suppression, tics will rebound to a rate that will exceed the average rate of occurrence. At present, there are no empirical data to support or refute such an effect. This experiment utilized an A-B-A design with replication to…

  17. Zolpidem is not superior to temazepam with respect to rebound insomnia: a controlled study.

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Zitman, F.G.


    This randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare zolpidem to an equivalent dose of temazepam with respect to subjective rebound insomnia after cessation of 4 weeks of treatment in chronic insomnia (zolpidem 10 mg, n=79; temazepam 20 mg, n=84). Both agents improved total sleep time (TST) as

  18. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others


    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  19. FDG PET/CT findings of rebound thymic hyperplasia in oncologic patients with chemotherapy

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Kang, Won Jun; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Benign thymic hyperplasia in adult unlike children is a rare condition, however, it could occur, mainly associated with concurrent malignancies or chemotherapy. Rebound thymic hyperplasia in cancer patients could be a cause of great concern for cancer involvement to the thymus. In this study, we characterized the rebound thymic hyperplasia in oncologic patients who received chemotherapy on FDG PET/CT. We reviewed the 1030 PET/CT scans obtained from cancer patients for follow up purpose in Seoul National University Hospital between 2004 and 2006. 21 PET/CT scans of them (2%) revealed thymic enlargement. The scans were obtained from 11 patients (age range: 16-55 yrs) who received chemotherapy for various malignancies (4 breast cancers, 3 lymphomas, and one of each osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). Six cases had more than one follow-up PET/CT, and rebound thymic hyperplasia without malignancy was finally confirmed by clinical observation for follow-up period ranged from 17 to 45 months. The uptake pattern, maximum standardized uptake values (mSUVs), uptake ratio to the liver, and CT findings of thymic hyperplasia on PET/CT were analyzed. In all cases except one, enlarged thymus showed diffuse and relatively homogenous increased FDG uptake. In only one case, nodular increased FDG uptake with mSUV of 2.7 was found. Mean mSUV in the thymus was measured as 1.580.53, and the uptake ratio to the liver was 0.750.26. Decreased thymic metabolism was depicted on follow up PET images, while, resolved thymic enlarged was demonstrated on follow up CT in three of six. Rebound thymic hyperplasia in cancer patients should be distinguished from thymic malignancy. The finding of diffuse and moderate hypermetabolism lesser than liver in the enlarged thymus on follow-up PET/CT in cancer patients may suggest rebound thymic hyperplasia rather than malignancy, especially in condition of the presence of preceding chemotherapy.

  20. The rebound effect on road freight transport: Empirical evidence from Portugal

    Matos, Fernando J.F., E-mail: fjmatos@uac.p [University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Silva, Francisco J.F., E-mail: fsilva@uac.p [CEEAplA - University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)


    Because a large proportion of total operating costs for transportation companies goes towards energy, a reduction in energy operating costs, brought about by an increase in fleet fuel efficiency, or an increase in operational efficiency, results in a change in the relative cost of road freight transportation. This fact could result in an increase in the demand for such services. If this is true, the result would be an increase in total fuel consumption. Consequently, that part of the energy savings obtained through the increased energy efficiency would be lost. The existence of a 'Rebound Effect' is especially important in the road freight transportation sector and is crucial for the definition of a national energy policy. In this study, data from the road freight transportation sector in Portugal for the years of 1987 through 2006 was analyzed. It was determined that an increase in energy efficiency did not cause a backfire, but did cause a total direct rebound effect of 24.1%. In addition, fleet operators were more inclined to adopt operational efficiencies than technological fuel efficiencies as a means of increasing the total operational efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate a direct rebound effect for road freight transportation in Portugal. {yields} The functional form chosen was a log-log model and the estimation method used was the two stage least squares model. {yields} Increasing energy efficiency by 1% results in a reduction of 0.759% in energy consumption (a direct rebound effect of about 24.1%). {yields} Estimates of reduced fuel consumption without considering the direct rebound effect may be overestimated by about 0.87 million liters of diesel per year for each percentage point increase in energy efficiency.

  1. Fire safety

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)


    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  2. Prolonged asthma after smoke inhalation: A report of three cases and a review of previous reports

    Moisan, T.C. (Department of Preventive Medicine, Loyola University-Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (USA))


    The development of prolonged obstructive airways disease after smoke inhalation is of concern to fire victims and fire fighters. Three cases of asthma that developed following the inhalation of pyrolysis products are presented along with a review of previous reports of airway injury from smoke inhalation. Polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis products seem to pose a high risk, but other toxic inhalants are also implicated. There is substantial evidence that prolonged airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma may follow numerous inflammatory insults including smoke inhalation. Studies to identify specific individual risk factors and asthmagenic pyrolysis products are needed. Early, postexposure anti-inflammatory treatment may modify the outcome. 42 refs.

  3. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu


    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fire Research Enclosure

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  5. Fire Research Enclosure

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  6. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  7. Between green growth and degrowth: Decoupling, rebound effects and the politics for long-term sustainability

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Xue, Jin


    that the rebound effect is both a natural consequence of the growth dedicated society and a driver of further economic growth. Through rebound effects, labour productivity and eco-efficiency technologies in the growth society tend to contradict the goal of achieving environmental sustainability. To address...... the environmental problems, attention should therefore be redirected to the growth ideology and policy in current society. Drawing on the emerging degrowth debates in the affluent countries, the chapter proposes pathways towards a degrowth transformation by, respectively, discussing the role of population......, affluence and technology in the attempts at reducing environmental impacts. Overall, it is suggested that from an analysis not confined to monetary terms, but with real cost and real benefits represented by environmental damage and human satisfaction, respectively, a degrowth in affluent countries can...

  8. The rebound effect of resource efficiency; Het reboundeffect bij resource efficiency

    Oosterhuis, F.; Bouma, J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hanemaaijer, A. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)


    As a result of efficient use of natural resources production and use of goods and services can be made cheaper, which increases demand. However, that might partially offset savings in energy and other natural resources. This so-called 'rebound effect' can not be ignored. It is therefore worthwhile to keep that in formulating 'resource efficiency' policy [Dutch] Door efficienter om te gaan met natuurlijke hulpbronnen kunnen de productie en het gebruik van goederen en diensten goedkoper worden, waardoor de vraag ernaar toeneemt. Dat kan de besparingen op energie en andere natuurlijke hulpbronnen deels weer teniet doen. Dit 'rebound-effect' is niet verwaarloosbaar. Het is zinvol om hier bij beleid gericht op 'resource efficiency' rekening mee te houden.

  9. Rebound Shock Breakouts of Exploding Massive Stars: A MHD Void Model

    Hu, Ren-Yu


    With a self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of an exploding progenitor star and an outgoing rebound shock and with the thermal bremsstrahlung as the major radiation mechanism in X-ray bands, we reproduce the early X-ray light curve observed for the recent event of XRO 080109/SN 2008D association. The X-ray light curve consists of a fast rise, as the shock travels into the "visible layer" in the stellar envelope, and a subsequent power-law decay, as the plasma cools in a self-similar evolution. The observed spectral softening is naturally expected in our rebound MHD shock scenario. We propose to attribute the "non-thermal spectrum" observed to be a superposition of different thermal spectra produced at different layers of the stellar envelope.

  10. Therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs: "New homeopathic medicines"

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    Full Text Available Summary The homeopathic treatment is based on the principle of therapeutic similitude, employing medicines that cause certain disorders to treat similar manifestations, stimulating a reaction of the organism against its own ailments. The occurrence of this secondary reaction of the organism, opposite in nature to the primary action of the medicines, is evidenced in the study of the rebound (paradoxical effect of several classes of modern drugs. In this work, in addition to substantiate the principle of similitude before the experimental and clinical pharmacology, we suggest a proposal to employ hundreds of conventional drugs according to homeopathic method, applying the therapeutic similitude between the adverse events of medicines and the clinical manifestations of patients. Describing existing lines of research and a specific method for the therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs (, we hope to minimize prejudices related to the homeopathy and contribute to a broadening of the healing art.

  11. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    Mulalic, Ismir


    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...

  12. Dopamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma in a child: beware of intraoperative rebound hypertension.

    Camelo, Monica; Aponte, Luis Font; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto


    Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors originating from the neural crest and are composed of mature ganglion cells. We describe a 15-year-old normotensive adolescent girl with a 2-month history of left flank pain. Imaging revealed a left suprarenal mass with elevated urinary dopamine level. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, intraoperative rebound hypertension occurred. After resection, dopamine levels normalized. The pathologic diagnosis revealed an adrenal ganglioneuroma.

  13. Establishing time-dependent model of deformation modulus caused by bedrock excavation rebound by inverse analysis method


    Rock rebound relaxation deformation,or even rock burst,caused by the excavation of dam base and abutment or high rock slope affects their stability and results in the fall of mechanical properties of the rock.So an inverse analysis method was proposed in this paper to establish the time-dependent model of deformation modulus caused by excavation rebound.The basic principle is based on the combination of observed data of the excavation rebound deformation of dam abutment or rock slope,and the calculated rebound deformation by FEM under ground stress at the corresponding time in the excavation process.The norm of the residuals of observed data and calculated data are taken as the objective function.Accordingly,the time-dependent model of bedrock deformation modulus can be established.The method displays its significance in the design of excavation,construction and operation management of dam base and high slope.

  14. Predictive modelling of the mine water rebound in an old abandoned Dongwon mine in Korea

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Daehoon; Park, Seunghwan; Kim, Gyoungman


    The closure of over three-hundred deep coal mines in Korea since the late-1980s, primarily due to the energy and environmental concerns, has produced significant side effects. One of the major challenges is to assess the risk from mine water rebound to overlying aquifers and surface waters, which can produce significant environmental hazards. Some numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the quantity, timing and location of discharges resulting from mine water rebound. In this study, we developed a GRAM-based windows program for mine water rebound modelling in abandoned deep mine systems. The program consists of the simulation engine and the GUI modules, each has several subroutines. Changes in mine water level of the Dongwon coal mine, presumably hydrogeologically connected to nearby old abandoned mines, has been monitored after the mine was finally closed in 2005. The water level in the vertical shaft rised up to 420m during the period of 3 years. The system was modelled as two ponds connected by a pipe. Input data include the areas of each pond, catchment areas, the storage coefficient, etc. The predicted changes in the mine water level was very similar to the observed data in the field. For this modelling, in fact, some of the input variable were roughly assumed to match the field data. Nevertheless, this program can be effectively applied to predict the rising of the mine water after the mine closure.

  15. Collapse and rebound of a gas-filled spherical bubble immersed in a diagnostic ultrasonic field.

    Aymé-Bellegarda, E J


    This work is concerned with the influence of the finite-amplitude distortion of a driving diagnostic ultrasonic field on the collapse and rebound of a gas-filled spherical microbubble, present in the exposed compressible liquid. Such an analysis is especially important since one of the mechanisms for cavitation damage comes from the very large gas pressures generated at bubble collapse and in the subsequent pressure wave formed by bubble rebound. Gilmore's model [F.R. Gilmore, "The growth or collapse of a spherical bubble in a viscous compressible liquid," Hydrodynamics Lab. Rep. No. 26-4, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (1952)] for bubble dynamics is used to obtain the motion of the bubble interface when subjected to a pulsed diagnostic ultrasonic field of large amplitude. Knowledge of the bubble motion allows one to derive the pressure distribution around the bubble. Numerical results over a range of initial bubble sizes, acoustic pressures, and frequencies relevant to medical use show that the strength of the pressure spikes radiated by the rebounding bubble depends upon (i) the acoustic frequency (f), (ii) the initial bubble size (R0), and (iii) the magnitude of the pressure amplitude of the fundamental (PF) in a Fourier series description of the distorted pulse. As the pressure spikes propagate outward from the bubble wall, their strength is attenuated as the reciprocal of the distance from the center of collapse.


    Katarina Herodek


    Full Text Available The sample includes 40 subjects of both sexes: male (20 and female (20 population of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Nis. The research involves the application of the rebound in gymnastics with two different heights (40 and 50cm on three different surfaces of elasticity: hard, demyelastic and elastic surface. The subject of the research were the dynamic parameters of movement laid down from Drop Jump (DJ with Myotest device and in the following parameters: height (in cm, power (in W/ kg, force (in N/ kg and speed (cm/ s. Using canonical-discrimination analysis showed no statistically significant differences in the performance jump of hard and demyelastic surface from a height 40 cm and 50 cm for men and women, thethe studied parameters (height, strength ,power and speed of the bounce . Revealed a statistically significant difference in performance with the elastic rebound surface elevations of 40 cm and 50 cm for men and women (p = 0.00. Of the examined parameters was obtained that there are significant differences in the Force reflection to the significance level of 98% (0.0255 and the power of reflection on the significance level of 100% (0.0009 in men. In women of the examined parameters was obtained a statistically significant difference in the strength of the rebound only from positions of 40cm and 50cm and 100% (0.0075.

  17. REBOUND: An open-source multi-purpose N-body code for collisional dynamics

    Rein, Hanno


    REBOUND is a new multi-purpose N-body code which is freely available under an open-source license. It was designed for collisional dynamics such as planetary rings but can also solve the classical N-body problem. It is highly modular and can be customized easily to work on a wide variety of different problems in astrophysics and beyond. REBOUND comes with three symplectic integrators: leap-frog, the symplectic epicycle integrator (SEI) and a Wisdom-Holman mapping (WH). It supports open, periodic and shearing-sheet boundary conditions. REBOUND can use a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate both self-gravity and collisions. These modules are fully parallelized with MPI as well as OpenMP. The former makes use of a static domain decomposition and a distributed essential tree. Two new collision detection modules based on a plane-sweep algorithm are also implemented. The performance of the plane-sweep algorithm is superior to a tree code for simulations in which one dimension is much longer than the other two and in simula...

  18. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.

    Scheid, Johannes F; Horwitz, Joshua A; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H; Seaman, Michael S; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Walker, Bruce D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Nussenzweig, Michel C


    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117,a broad and potent neutralizing antibody against the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 Env protein, during analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Results show that two or four 30 mg kg(-1) 3BNC117 infusions,separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated.Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound of 5-9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks, respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals,emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape.However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml(-1), and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9-19 weeks.We conclude that the administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans.

  19. The remarkable environmental rebound effect of electric cars: a microeconomic approach.

    Font Vivanco, David; Freire-González, Jaume; Kemp, René; van der Voet, Ester


    This article presents a stepwise, refined, and practical analytical framework to model the microeconomic environmental rebound effect (ERE) stemming from cost differences of electric cars in terms of changes in multiple life cycle environmental indicators. The analytical framework is based on marginal consumption analysis and hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA). The article makes a novel contribution through a reinterpretation of the traditional rebound effect and methodological refinements. It also provides novel empirical results about the ERE for plug-in hybrid electric (PHE), full-battery electric (FBE), and hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) cars for Europe. The ERE is found to have a remarkable impact on product-level environmental scores. For the PHE car, the ERE causes a marginal increase in demand and environmental pressures due to a small decrease in the cost of using this technology. For FBE and HFC cars, the high capital costs cause a noteworthy decrease in environmental pressures for some indicators (negative rebound effect). The results corroborate the concern over the high influence of cost differences for environmental assessment, and they prompt sustainable consumption policies to consider markets and prices as tools rather than as an immutable background.

  20. Obesity and attenuated adiposity rebound in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI values in adolescents.

    Livadas, S; Magiakou, M-A; Mengreli, C; Girginoudis, P; Galani, C; Smyrnaki, P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Xekouki, P; Chrousos, G P; Dacou-Voutetakis, C


    An earlier adiposity rebound, suggestive of adult obesity, has been reported in children with congenital hypothyroidism. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of congenital hypothyroidism on: 1) the timing of adiposity rebound, 2) the long-term prognosis of BMI status, and 3) the factors potentially affecting adiposity in subjects with congenital hypothyroidism. We found that in children with congenital hypothyroidism the BMI values were higher during the first years of life compared to normal population, but subsequently normalized. After the initial rise of BMI, the decline (nadir) and subsequent rise (adiposity rebound), usually occurring in normal children at an age greater than 30 months, was less evident in our group of children with congenital hypothyroidism. The severity of hypothyroidism affected BMI values at 6 and 12, but not at 36 months of age. In conclusion, in children with congenital hypothyroidism, 1) the high BMI values in early childhood normalize in adolescence, and 2) the normally expected BMI fluctuations during the first years of life are attenuated. These findings constitute indirect evidence that thyroid function during fetal and neonatal life affects BMI status during the first years of life.

  1. Study of Concrete Quality Assessment of Structural Elements Using Rebound Hammer Test

    Tarun Gehlot


    Full Text Available Structures are assemblies of load carrying members capable of safely transferring the superimposed loads to the foundations. Their main and most looked after property is the strength of the material that they are made of. Concrete, as we all know, is an integral material used for construction purposes. The concept of nondestructive testing (NDT is to obtain material properties of in place specimens without the destruction of neither the specimen nor the structure from which it is taken. However, one problem that has been prevalent within the concrete industry for years is that the true properties of an in-place specimen have never been tested without leaving a certain degree of damage on the structure. . The investigation reported here is to present study of Calibration Graphs for Non Destructive Testing Equipment, the Rebound Hammer and to study the quality of the concrete in existing structures. These Rebound Hammer Test were then used to test the quality of the concrete of the various structural elements (columns & beams of single storied newly under constructed building of TPO office of MBM Engineering College Jodhpur. The use of this method produces results that lie close to the true values when compared with other methods A correlation between rebound number and strength of concrete structure is established, which can be used as well for strength estimation of concrete structures. The method can be extended to test existing structures by taking direct measurements on concrete elements

  2. Fire Models and Design Fires

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  3. Fire Brigade


    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  4. Fire Safety

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  5. Small platform sleep deprivation selectively increases the average duration of rapid eye movement sleep episodes during sleep rebound.

    Kitka, Tamas; Katai, Zita; Pap, Dorottya; Molnar, Eszter; Adori, Csaba; Bagdy, Gyorgy


    The single platform-on-water (flower pot) method is extensively used for depriving rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Detailed comparison of sleep-wake architecture, recorded during the rebound period after spending three days on either a small or large platform, could separate the effects of REMS deficit from other stress factors caused by the procedure. A further aim of the study was to find the most characteristic REMS parameter of the rebound originating from REMS deficit. Rats were kept on a small or large platform for 72 h. Their fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the 24 h rebound at the beginning of the passive phase. A similar period of a home cage group was also recorded. The most typical differences between the two rebound groups were the increased cumulative time and longer average duration of REMS episodes without significant change in the number of these episodes of the small platform animals during the passive phase. Results obtained by cosinor analysis were in accordance with the findings above. Since we did not find any difference in the average duration of REMS episodes comparing the large platform rebound group and the home cage group, we concluded that the increased mean duration of REMS episodes is a selective marker for the rebound caused by small platform sleep deprivation, while other changes in sleep architecture may be the consequence of stress and also some sleep deficit.

  6. Effect of HIV Antibody VRC01 on Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption.

    Bar, Katharine J; Sneller, Michael C; Harrison, Linda J; Justement, J Shawn; Overton, Edgar T; Petrone, Mary E; Salantes, D Brenda; Seamon, Catherine A; Scheinfeld, Benjamin; Kwan, Richard W; Learn, Gerald H; Proschan, Michael A; Kreider, Edward F; Blazkova, Jana; Bardsley, Mark; Refsland, Eric W; Messer, Michael; Clarridge, Katherine E; Tustin, Nancy B; Madden, Patrick J; Oden, KaSaundra; O'Dell, Sijy J; Jarocki, Bernadette; Shiakolas, Andrea R; Tressler, Randall L; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Bailer, Robert T; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Capparelli, Edmund V; Lynch, Rebecca M; Graham, Barney S; Moir, Susan; Koup, Richard A; Mascola, John R; Hoxie, James A; Fauci, Anthony S; Tebas, Pablo; Chun, Tae-Wook


    The discovery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has made passive immunization a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. We sought to determine whether passive administration of VRC01, a bNAb targeting the HIV CD4-binding site, can safely prevent or delay plasma viral rebound after the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted two open-label trials (AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] A5340 and National Institutes of Health [NIH] 15-I-0140) of the safety, side-effect profile, pharmacokinetic properties, and antiviral activity of VRC01 in persons with HIV infection who were undergoing interruption of ART. A total of 24 participants were enrolled, and one serious alcohol-related adverse event occurred. Viral rebound occurred despite plasma VRC01 concentrations greater than 50 μg per milliliter. The median time to rebound was 4 weeks in the A5340 trial and 5.6 weeks in the NIH trial. Study participants were more likely than historical controls to have viral suppression at week 4 (38% vs. 13%, P=0.04 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the A5340 trial; and 80% vs. 13%, P<0.001 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the NIH trial) but the difference was not significant at week 8. Analyses of virus populations before ART as well as before and after ART interruption showed that VRC01 exerted pressure on rebounding virus, resulting in restriction of recrudescent viruses and selection for preexisting and emerging antibody neutralization-resistant virus. VRC01 slightly delayed plasma viral rebound in the trial participants, as compared with historical controls, but it did not maintain viral suppression by week 8. In the small number of participants enrolled in these trials, no safety concerns were identified with passive immunization with a single bNAb (VRC01). (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTG A5340 and NIH 15-I

  7. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    Bakker, R.J.


    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of exertio

  8. Prolongation structures for supersymmetric equations

    Roelofs, G.H.M.; Hijligenberg, van den N.W.


    The well known prolongation technique of Wahlquist and Estabrook (1975) for nonlinear evolution equations is generalized for supersymmetric equations and applied to the supersymmetric extension of the KdV equation of Manin-Radul. Using the theory of Kac-Moody Lie superalgebras, the explicit form of

  9. Fire Symfonier

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt


    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  10. Beyond ferryl-mediated hydroxylation: 40 years of the rebound mechanism and C-H activation.

    Huang, Xiongyi; Groves, John T


    Since our initial report in 1976, the oxygen rebound mechanism has become the consensus mechanistic feature for an expanding variety of enzymatic C-H functionalization reactions and small molecule biomimetic catalysts. For both the biotransformations and models, an initial hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate (R-H) by high-valent iron-oxo species (Fe(n)=O) generates a substrate radical and a reduced iron hydroxide, [Fe(n-1)-OH ·R]. This caged radical pair then evolves on a complicated energy landscape through a number of reaction pathways, such as oxygen rebound to form R-OH, rebound to a non-oxygen atom affording R-X, electron transfer of the incipient radical to yield a carbocation, R(+), desaturation to form olefins, and radical cage escape. These various flavors of the rebound process, often in competition with each other, give rise to the wide range of C-H functionalization reactions performed by iron-containing oxygenases. In this review, we first recount the history of radical rebound mechanisms, their general features, and key intermediates involved. We will discuss in detail the factors that affect the behavior of the initial caged radical pair and the lifetimes of the incipient substrate radicals. Several representative examples of enzymatic C-H transformations are selected to illustrate how the behaviors of the radical pair [Fe(n-1)-OH ·R] determine the eventual reaction outcome. Finally, we discuss the powerful potential of "radical rebound" processes as a general paradigm for developing novel C-H functionalization reactions with synthetic, biomimetic catalysts. We envision that new chemistry will continue to arise by bridging enzymatic "radical rebound" with synthetic organic chemistry.

  11. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank


    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  12. Rebound Headaches

    ... headaches and other conditions that cause chronic pain. Biofeedback. Biofeedback teaches you to control certain body responses that ... ahead. Try to stay positive. Relax. Try yoga, meditation or relaxation exercises. Listen to music, read a ...

  13. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Edmunds, Jane


    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  14. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer: a comparative study

    Senay; Asik; Nacaroglu; Emine; Seker; Un; Mehmet; Giray; Ersoz; Yelda; Tasci


    AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT). METHODS: Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens(RTCL,RT respectively) and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness(CCT) by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis.RESULTS: Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68 ±3.7, 14.50 ±3.4 and 14.16 ±2.8(P <0.001), respectively. Mean IOP by RTCL was significantly higher than the measurements implemented by RT and GAT(P <0.001), while there was no difference between the measurements by GAT and RT(P =0.629). There was a good level of positive correlation between GAT and RTCL as well as RT(r =0.786 P <0.001, r =0.833 P <0.001, respectively). We have observed that CCT increase did not show any correlation with the differences of the measurements between RTCL and RT(P =0.329), RTCL and GAT(P =0.07) as well as RT and GAT(P =0.189) in linear regression model.CONCLUSION: The average of the measurements over contact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  15. The rebound effect in the treatment of complex hemangioma with interferon alpha 2A

    Jaime Anger

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of an infant with an extensive face hemangioma with subglottic airway obstruction which had been successfully treated with interferon alpha 2A but then reoccurred with the same dimensions and airway blockage after treatment was abruptly interrupted. The authors suggest the implementation of a standard procedure for the interruption of interferon alpha 2A treatment in order to avoid this rebound effect and advise on the need for further studies to properly evaluate dosage and administration parameters for interferon alpha 2A in the treatment of difficult hemangioma.

  16. Agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure using rebound tonometry with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in glaucoma patients

    Tan, Shaoying; Yu, Marco; Baig, Nafees; Hansapinyo, Linda; Tham, Clement C.


    This study aims to determine the agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry with ophthalmologist-measured IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Fifty-three glaucoma patients used rebound tonometry (Icare ONE, Icare Finland Oy., Finland) to measure their own IOP in ambient environments for 1 week, 5 times per day. Clinic IOP measurements were performed by ophthalmologists using GAT and by patients using rebound tonometry on examination days 1, 4 and 7 of the same week. The agreement between the two tonometries was evaluated by modified Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined. Differences in ICCs of them among the three examination days were evaluated by bootstrap resampling analysis. Respective within-measurement ICC of GAT and rebound tonometry were 0.98 and 0.94 on Day 1, 0.98 and 0.93 on Day 4, and 0.96 and 0.92 on Day 7. In a modified Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference ±1 standard deviation (SD) between the two tonometries was 0.15 ± 0.65 mmHg (p = 0.682). Between-measurement ICC were 0.66, 0.76 and 0.73 on the 3 examination days. There was no significant difference among ICCs. In conclusion, patient-measured IOP using rebound tonometry and ophthalmologist-measured IOP using GAT demonstrate good agreement. PMID:28165028

  17. Crown Fire Potential

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  18. Fire Ant Allergy

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  19. Fire safety at home

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  20. Fire Ant Bites

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  1. Clinical Effect of Rebound Hyperthermia After Cooling Postcardiac Arrest: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Makker, Parth; Shimada, Yuichi J; Misra, Deepika; Kanei, Yumiko


    Therapeutic hypothermia is used in select patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to improve neurologic outcome. Rebound hyperthermia (RH) is commonly observed post-treatment. Previous studies analyzing the association of RH with clinical outcome have reported conflicting results. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of RH after completion of therapeutic hypothermia in patients postcardiac arrest. We analyzed a retrospective cohort from our institution. All adults who underwent therapeutic hypothermia post-OHCA were divided into two cohorts depending on the presence/absence of fever (T > 38°C) within 24 hours of completing hypothermia protocol. Clinical outcomes were analyzed at hospital discharge or death. Among 306 patients admitted with OHCA, 117 underwent hypothermia, 97 survived 24 hours postrewarming. Twenty-seven patients (50%) with RH died compared with 20 (47%) without RH (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.52-2.57). Twenty-six patients (67%) with RH had a poor neurologic outcome compared with 27 (63%) without RH (OR 1.19, 95% CI, 0.51-2.74). RH is common after completion of therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients due to cardiac arrest and is associated with poor neurologic outcomes. We found no significant clinical impact of rebound hypothermia on neurologic outcome or mortality, but our study was underpowered to reveal such impact if it exists.

  2. Loss of immune homeostasis dictates SHIV rebound after stem-cell transplantation

    Peterson, Christopher W.; Benne, Clarisse; Polacino, Patricia; Kaur, Jasbir; McAllister, Cristina E.; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Obenza, Willi; Pecor, Tiffany A.; Huang, Meei-Li; Baldessari, Audrey; Murnane, Robert D.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Klatt, Nichole R.; DeRosa, Stephen; Sékaly, Rafick P.


    The conditioning regimen used as part of the Berlin patient’s hematopoietic cell transplant likely contributed to his eradication of HIV infection. We studied the impact of conditioning in simian-human immunodeficiency virus–infected (SHIV-infected) macaques suppressed by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The conditioning regimen resulted in a dramatic, but incomplete depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells, increased T cell activation and exhaustion, and a significant loss of SHIV-specific Abs. The disrupted T cell homeostasis and markers of microbial translocation positively correlated with an increased viral rebound after cART interruption. Quantitative viral outgrowth and Tat/rev–induced limiting dilution assays showed that the size of the latent SHIV reservoir did not correlate with viral rebound. These findings identify perturbations of the immune system as a mechanism for the failure of autologous transplantation to eradicate HIV. Thus, transplantation strategies may be improved by incorporating immune modulators to prevent disrupted homeostasis, and gene therapy to protect transplanted cells. PMID:28239658

  3. Natural surface rebound of the Bangkok plain and aquifer characterization by persistent scatterer interferometry

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Fukushima, Yo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Giao, Pham Huy


    estimated recent surface displacements around Bangkok by means of persistent scatterer interferometry with ALOS/PALSAR images acquired from November 2007 to December 2010. Land subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping has been reported in this region. However, we detected ground surface uplift around the mega-city, along with seasonal surface displacement, with high spatial resolution. We then discriminated long-term natural rebound and seasonal displacement by fitting exponential and sinusoidal functions to displacement time-series, and mapped their spatial distributions. This mapping allowed us to infer that the second and third shallowest aquifers are laterally continuous, whereas the shallowest aquifer has lateral discontinuities. The temporal decay rate of the long-term rebound might reflect spatial changes of the Chao Phraya River watershed or the magnitude of the preceding groundwater extraction. We demonstrated that our method of decomposing the displacement time series into different spatial and temporal patterns is useful for understanding aquifer connectivity and the elastic response pattern in an aquifer system.

  4. A mathematical analysis of rebound in a target-mediated drug disposition model: I.without feedback.

    Aston, Philip J; Derks, Gianne; Agoram, Balaji M; van der Graaf, Piet H


    We consider the possibility of free receptor (antigen/cytokine) levels rebounding to higher than the baseline level after one or more applications of an antibody drug using a target-mediated drug disposition model. Using geometry and dynamical systems analysis, we show that rebound will occur if and only if the elimination rate of the drug-receptor product is slower than the elimination rates of the drug and of the receptor. We also analyse the magnitude of rebound through approximations and simulations and demonstrate that it increases if the drug dose increases or if the difference between the elimination rate of the drug-receptor product and the minimum of the elimination rates of the drug and of the receptor increases.

  5. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko


    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  6. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan


    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  7. Fires, ecological effects of

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane


    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  8. Quantifying the direct and indirect rebound effects for consumers as a response to energy-saving technologies in the EU-27

    Hu, J.; Poliakov, E.V.


    We estimate the rebound effect for residential space heating at the EU-27 level, which occurs when an improvement in energy efficiency results in additional energy consumption. Three types of rebound effects are distinguished, namely the direct effect, indirect effect and the embodied energy. We dem

  9. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  10. Fire-Walking

    Willey, David


    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk ( He currently…

  11. Fire-Walking

    Willey, David


    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk ( He currently…

  12. Measurement and interpretation of crustal deformation rates associated with postglacial rebound

    Davis, James L.


    This project involves obtaining GPS measurements in Scandinavia and using the measurements to estimate the viscosity profile of the earth's mantle and to correct tide-gauge measurements for the rebound effect. We report on several aspects of this project. The DSGS was not scheduled to be reoccupied with DOSE receivers during the report period. The permanent network set up by Onsala Space Observatory continues to operate, and the data are being evaluated. An important technical advance we intend for this project is to use the full three dimensional site velocity information for inferring geophysical parameters. During the report period, two papers have been been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research and will be published in April. Reprints of these papers are contained in the Appendix.

  13. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    R. Dańko


    Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

  14. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir


    more fuel efficient, trucks. Third, these adjustments and the rebound effect jointly imply that the effect of higher fuel prices on fuel use in the trucking industry is fairly small; estimated price elasticities are _0:13 and _0:22 in the short run and in the long run, respectively. The empirical...... of this effect is approximately 10% in the short run and 17% in the long run, so that a 1% improvement in fuel efficiency reduces fuel use by 0.90% (short-run) to 0.83% (long-run). Second, we find that higher fuel prices raise the average capacity of trucks, and they induce firm sto invest in newer, typically...

  15. Water Touch-and-Bounce from a Soft Viscoelastic Substrate: Wetting, Dewetting, and Rebound on Bitumen.

    Lee, Jae Bong; Dos Santos, Salomé; Antonini, Carlo


    Understanding the interaction between liquids and deformable solid surfaces is a fascinating fundamental problem, in which interaction and coupling of capillary and viscoelastic effects, due to solid substrate deformation, give rise to complex wetting mechanisms. Here we investigated as a model case the behavior of water drops on two smooth bitumen substrates with different rheological properties, defined as hard and soft (with complex shear moduli in the order of 10(7) and 10(5) Pa, respectively, at 1 Hz), focusing both on wetting and on dewetting behavior. By means of classical quasi-static contact angle measurements and drop impact tests, we show that the water drop behavior can significantly change from the quasi-static to the dynamic regime on soft viscoelastic surfaces, with the transition being defined by the substrate rheological properties. As a result, we also show that on the hard substrate, where the elastic response is dominant under all investigated conditions, classical quasi-static contact angle measurements provide consistent results that can be used to predict the drop dynamic wetting behavior, such as drop deposition or rebound after impact, as typically observed for nondeformable substrates. Differently, on soft surfaces, the formation of wetting ridges did not allow to define uniquely the substrate intrinsic advancing and receding contact angles. In addition, despite showing a high adhesion to the soft surface in quasi-static measurements, the drop was surprisingly able to rebound and escape from the surface after impact, as it is typically observed for hydrophobic surfaces. These results highlight that measurements of wetting properties for viscoelastic substrates need to be critically used and that wetting behavior of a liquid on viscoelastic surfaces is a function of the characteristic time scales.

  16. Modulation of post‐movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development

    Fry, Adam; Mullinger, Karen J.; O'Neill, George C.; Barratt, Eleanor L.; Morris, Peter G.; Bauer, Markus; Folland, Jonathan P.


    Abstract Movement induced modulation of the beta rhythm is one of the most robust neural oscillatory phenomena in the brain. In the preparation and execution phases of movement, a loss in beta amplitude is observed [movement related beta decrease (MRBD)]. This is followed by a rebound above baseline on movement cessation [post movement beta rebound (PMBR)]. These effects have been measured widely, and recent work suggests that they may have significant importance. Specifically, they have potential to form the basis of biomarkers for disease, and have been used in neuroscience applications ranging from brain computer interfaces to markers of neural plasticity. However, despite the robust nature of both MRBD and PMBR, the phenomena themselves are poorly understood. In this study, we characterise MRBD and PMBR during a carefully controlled isometric wrist flexion paradigm, isolating two fundamental movement parameters; force output, and the rate of force development (RFD). Our results show that neither altered force output nor RFD has a significant effect on MRBD. In contrast, PMBR was altered by both parameters. Higher force output results in greater PMBR amplitude, and greater RFD results in a PMBR which is higher in amplitude and shorter in duration. These findings demonstrate that careful control of movement parameters can systematically change PMBR. Further, for temporally protracted movements, the PMBR can be over 7 s in duration. This means accurate control of movement and judicious selection of paradigm parameters are critical in future clinical and basic neuroscientific studies of sensorimotor beta oscillations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2493–2511, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:27061243

  17. Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect A publicidade contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete

    Francisco Leite


    Full Text Available Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect — This paper shares with the reader some conceptual ideas of counterintuitive advertising, observing its possible effects on the reevaluation and deconstruction of beliefs and social stereotypes in the cognitive make-up of the viewer. The ironic rebound effect is singled out among the probable reflexes, according to the theory propounded by Daniel M. Wegner. This theory is applied taking as an example Fiat's commercial "The Driver", which was part of an advertising campaign in Brazil called "Review your concepts" to introduce its new Palio 2002 car model. The authors are currently engaged in a laboratory experiment to measure the above described theory in a consistent manner. O propósito deste artigo é compartilhar com o leitor algumas noções conceituais de publicidade contra-intuitiva e observar seus possíveis efeitos na reavaliação, desconstrução de crenças e estereótipos sociais, na estrutura cognitiva do indivíduo receptor. Destaca-se entre os reflexos provavelmente gerados o irônico efeito ricochete, segundo a teoria desenvolvida por Daniel M. Wegner. A aplicação para se discutir o cruzamento da narrativa contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete será, neste primeiro momento, pela exemplificação do filme Motorista, peça integrante da campanha publicitária da Fiat do Brasil "Reveja seus conceitos", para o lançamento do automóvel Palio 2002. Um experimento laboratorial está sendo desenvolvido pelos autores para se mensurar de maneira consistente a apresentação teórico-conceitual exposta.

  18. Modulation of post-movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development.

    Fry, Adam; Mullinger, Karen J; O'Neill, George C; Barratt, Eleanor L; Morris, Peter G; Bauer, Markus; Folland, Jonathan P; Brookes, Matthew J


    Movement induced modulation of the beta rhythm is one of the most robust neural oscillatory phenomena in the brain. In the preparation and execution phases of movement, a loss in beta amplitude is observed [movement related beta decrease (MRBD)]. This is followed by a rebound above baseline on movement cessation [post movement beta rebound (PMBR)]. These effects have been measured widely, and recent work suggests that they may have significant importance. Specifically, they have potential to form the basis of biomarkers for disease, and have been used in neuroscience applications ranging from brain computer interfaces to markers of neural plasticity. However, despite the robust nature of both MRBD and PMBR, the phenomena themselves are poorly understood. In this study, we characterise MRBD and PMBR during a carefully controlled isometric wrist flexion paradigm, isolating two fundamental movement parameters; force output, and the rate of force development (RFD). Our results show that neither altered force output nor RFD has a significant effect on MRBD. In contrast, PMBR was altered by both parameters. Higher force output results in greater PMBR amplitude, and greater RFD results in a PMBR which is higher in amplitude and shorter in duration. These findings demonstrate that careful control of movement parameters can systematically change PMBR. Further, for temporally protracted movements, the PMBR can be over 7 s in duration. This means accurate control of movement and judicious selection of paradigm parameters are critical in future clinical and basic neuroscientific studies of sensorimotor beta oscillations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2493-2511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 鞋底回弹性测试%The Test of Rebound Resilience for Sole



    For nearly all types of footwear a good bottom design is essential to provide the wearer with high levels of comfort and minishing the risk of foot fatigue. Rebound resilience is one of the necessary conditions for underfoot comfort. It is also an important factor especially on shock absorption of athletic shoes. Test specimen is supported on a rigid foundation and rapidly loaded in compression by a falling mass. Force and displacement transducers are employed for o continuous measurement of the complete loading and unloading compression cycling. The rebound resilience of sole can be obtained by collected data.%针对所有鞋子,一个好的鞋底设计十分重要,它可以提供穿用者高品质的舒适度,且使足部疲劳最小化,鞋底回弹性是构成成鞋舒适度的一个必要条件之一,特别在运动鞋的减震性能上该项目也是其重要的一个技术参数.本测试是将试样固定在一个坚硬的平台上,通过下落的物块迅速连续冲击,采用力和位移传感器测量冲击循环中的力和位移,并记录成相关曲线.通过收集的数据,得出冲击过程中鞋底的回弹性.

  20. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R


    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  1. Prolonged QT interval in Rett syndrome


    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. A prolonged QT interval has been described previously in patients with Rett syndrome. To investigate QT prolongation and the presence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in Rett syndrome electrocardiography and 24 hour Holter monitoring were performed prospectively in a cohort of 34 girls with Rett syndrome. The corrected QT value was prolonged in nine patients. Compared with a group of healthy controls of a...

  2. Rebound exercise: A beneficial adjuvant for sedentary non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic individuals in a rural environment.

    Maharaj, Sonill S; Nuhu, Jibril M


    Although physical activity and exercises are recommended for diabetes, fear of fatigue and resources are often constraints. Rebound exercise on a mini trampoline is a relatively new aerobic exercise and this study evaluated its impact on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) for sedentary type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals from a rural environment. A randomised controlled single-blind, pre- and post-test study in an outreach rural rehabilitation gymnasium. Ninety T2D individuals from rural Nigeria aged 39.44 ± 8.61 attending a diabetic outpatient clinic participated in this study as a control (n = 45) or rebound exercise (n = 45) group. The control group watched videos and read health magazines while the rebound group exercised three times per week for 20-30 min over 9 weeks at moderate intensity of 40-60% of heart rate maximum. Heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, HbA1c , FPG and BMI values were recorded pre- and post-interventions. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline and compliance with rebound exercise was 93% (n = 42). Post 9 weeks there were significant improvements (P exercise group with blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates also increasing during the exercise but without any adverse reactions. Rebound exercise is simple, inexpensive and enjoyable. It can be a beneficial recreational adjuvant exercise for improving HbA1c , FPG and BMI in T2D individuals in a rural environment and reduce health care costs and pharmacological complications associated with diabetes. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Self-sustained firing of human motor units.

    Gorassini, M A; Bennett, D J; Yang, J F


    Motoneurons of invertebrates and vertebrates can continue to fire repetitively after being activated by a brief, excitatory synaptic input (self-sustained firing). This firing behavior is due to the activation of intrinsic, voltage-gated currents which produce sustained regenerative depolarizations (plateau potentials) of the cell. Examination of these intrinsic cellular properties has been performed in reduced animal preparations and it is unknown if such self-sustained firing occurs in motoneurons of the intact human. In this paper, we present evidence of this in the human by using a technique of dual motor unit recordings. Subjects were instructed to maintain a constant dorsiflexion effort, and the common synaptic input (e.g. descending drive) onto the tibialis anterior (TA) motoneuron pool was monitored by recording the firing frequency of a low threshold 'control' unit. Once the firing rate of the control unit was constant, vibration of the TA tendon recruited a second 'test' unit which continued to fire after the vibration (i.e. synaptic input) was removed, even though the firing rate of the control unit (and thus, the common drive) remained the same or decreased. Self-sustained firing of motoneurons such as this may reduce the need for prolonged synaptic input when constant muscle activation is required (e.g. for postural tone).

  4. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw


    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  5. Lasting treatment effects in a postmarketing surveillance study of prolonged-release melatonin.

    Hajak, Göran; Lemme, Kathrin; Zisapel, Nava


    Surveillance studies are useful to evaluate how a new medicinal product performs in everyday treatment and how the patient who takes it feels and functions, thereby determining the benefit/risk ratio of the drug under real-life conditions. Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM; Circadin) was approved in Europe for the management of primary insomnia patients age 55 years or older suffering from poor quality of sleep. With traditional hypnotics (e.g. benzodiazepine-receptor agonists), there are concerns about rebound insomnia and/or withdrawal symptoms. We report data from a postmarketing surveillance study in Germany on the effects of 3 weeks of treatment with PRM on sleep in patients with insomnia during treatment and at early (1-2 days) and late (around 2 weeks) withdrawal. In total, 653 patients (597 evaluable) were recruited at 204 sites (mean age 62.7 years, 68% previously treated with hypnotics, 65% women). With PRM treatment, the mean sleep quality (on a scale of 1-5 on which 1 is very good and 5 is very bad) improved from 4.2 to 2.6 and morning alertness improved from 4.0 to 2.5. The improvements persisted over the post-treatment observation period. Rebound insomnia, defined as a one-point deterioration in sleep quality below baseline values, was found in 3.2% (early withdrawal) and 2.0% (late withdrawal). Most of the patients (77%) who used traditional hypnotics before PRM treatment had stopped using them and only 5.6% of naive patients started such drugs after PRM discontinuation. PRM was well tolerated during treatment and the most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (10 patients, 1.5%), dizziness, restlessness and headache (five patients each, insomnia.

  6. Withania somnifera root extract prolongs analgesia and suppresses hyperalgesia in mice treated with morphine.

    Orrù, Alessandro; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Kasture, Sanjay; Cottiglia, Filippo; Acquas, Elio; Mascia, Maria Paola; Anzani, Nicola; Ruiu, Stefania


    Previous studies demonstrated that Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), a safe medicinal plant, prevents the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. In the present study, we investigated whether WS extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg, i.p.) may also modulate the analgesic effect induced by acute morphine administration (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the tail-flick and in the hot plate tests, and if it may prevent the development of 2.5 mg/kg morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for opioid (μ, δ, k), cannabinoid (CB1, CB2), glutamatergic (NMDA), GABAergic (GABAA, GABAB), serotoninergic (5HT2A) and adrenergic (α2) receptors. The results demonstrated that (i) WSE alone failed to alter basal nociceptive threshold in both tests, (ii) WSE pre-treatment significantly protracted the antinociceptive effect induced by 5 and 10 mg/kg of morphine only in tail-flick test, (iii) WSE pre-treatment prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test, and (iv) WSE exhibited a high affinity for the GABAA and moderate affinity for GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. WSE prolongs morphine-induced analgesia and suppresses the development of morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia probably through involvement of GABAA, GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of WSE as a valuable adjuvant agent in opioid-sparing therapies.

  7. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1...

  8. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  9. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  10. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia.

    Luthringer, Remy; Muzet, Muriel; Zisapel, Nava; Staner, Luc


    Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg (PRM) on sleep and subsequent daytime psychomotor performance in patients aged > or =55 years with primary insomnia, as defined by fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. Patients (N = 40) were treated nightly single-blind with placebo (2 weeks), randomized double-blind to PRM or placebo (3 weeks) followed by withdrawal period (3 weeks). Sleep was assessed by polysomnography, all-night sleep electroencephalography spectral analysis and questionnaires. Psychomotor performance was assessed by the Leeds Psychomotor Test battery. By the end of the double-blind treatment, the PRM group had significantly shorter sleep onset latency (9 min; P = 0.02) compared with the placebo group and scored significantly better in the Critical Flicker Fusion Test (P = 0.008) without negatively affecting sleep structure and architecture. Half of the patients reported substantial improvement in sleep quality at home with PRM compared with 15% with placebo (P = 0.018). No rebound effects were observed during withdrawal. In conclusion, nightly treatment with PRM effectively induced sleep and improved perceived quality of sleep in patients with primary insomnia aged > or =55 years. Daytime psychomotor performance was not impaired and was consistently better with PRM compared with placebo. PRM was well tolerated with no evidence of rebound effects.

  11. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    Thompson, Mike


    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  12. Fire Stations - 2007

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  13. Coal fires in China

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)


    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  14. Fire Stations - 2009

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. Tunnel fire dynamics

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders


    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  16. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    Rorty, Richard


    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  17. Fires and Food Safety

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  18. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  19. National Fire Protection Association

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  20. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    Rorty, Richard


    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  1. Urban Fire Risk Clustering Method Based on Fire Statistics

    WU Lizhi; REN Aizhu


    Fire statistics and fire analysis have become important ways for us to understand the law of fire,prevent the occurrence of fire, and improve the ability to control fire. According to existing fire statistics, the weighted fire risk calculating method characterized by the number of fire occurrence, direct economic losses,and fire casualties was put forward. On the basis of this method, meanwhile having improved K-mean clus-tering arithmetic, this paper established fire dsk K-mean clustering model, which could better resolve the automatic classifying problems towards fire risk. Fire risk cluster should be classified by the absolute dis-tance of the target instead of the relative distance in the traditional cluster arithmetic. Finally, for applying the established model, this paper carded out fire risk clustering on fire statistics from January 2000 to December 2004 of Shenyang in China. This research would provide technical support for urban fire management.


    Otto Dvořák


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  3. Fire as Technology

    Rudolph, Robert N.


    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  4. Fire and fuels

    Brandon Collins; Carl Skinner


    Recent studies of historical fire regimes indicate that fires occurring prior to Euro-American settlement were characterized by a high degree of spatial complexity that was driven by heterogeneity in vegetation/fuels and topography and influenced by variability in climate, which mediated the timing, effects, and extents of fires over time. Although there are many...

  5. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.


    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  6. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de


    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  7. Fire as Technology

    Rudolph, Robert N.


    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  8. The Phenomena of Platelet Function Rebound after Clopidogrel Withdrawal%氯吡格雷停药后存在的血小板功能反跳现象



    对于急性冠状动脉综合征患者的治疗,除非有高出血风险,氯吡格雷应联合阿司匹林使用至少1年.但有部分患者停用氯吡格雷后发生的心血管不良事件,一些研究认为此现象与停用氯吡格雷后血小板功能反跳有关.在此对停用氯吡格雷后血小板聚集率增加的定义,血小板功能反跳现象与血小板聚集能力、炎性因子等之间的关系及延长使用或逐渐停用氯吡格雷能否预防此反跳现象的发生予以综述.%Clopidogrel combined with aspirin should be used at least 1 year in patient with acute coro-nary syndrome unless there is high risk of bleeding. However,some research suggest that the adverse cardio-vascular event happened after clopidogrel withdrawal have some connection with platelet function rebound. Here is to review the definition of enhancive platelet aggregation after clopidogrel withdrawal,the relationship between rebound phenomena and platelet aggregation, and inflammation factor; and if prolonging or tapered withdrawl of clopidogrel can solve the problem.

  9. Analog VLSI implementation of resonate-and-fire neuron.

    Nakada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Hatsuo


    We propose an analog integrated circuit that implements a resonate-and-fire neuron (RFN) model based on the Lotka-Volterra (LV) system. The RFN model is a spiking neuron model that has second-order membrane dynamics, and thus exhibits fast damped subthreshold oscillation, resulting in the coincidence detection, frequency preference, and post-inhibitory rebound. The RFN circuit has been derived from the LV system to mimic such dynamical behavior of the RFN model. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that the RFN circuit can act as a coincidence detector and a band-pass filter at circuit level even in the presence of additive white noise and background random activity. These results show that our circuit is expected to be useful for very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of functional spiking neural networks.

  10. HIV DNA loads, plasma residual viraemia and risk of virological rebound in heavily treated, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

    Gianotti, N; Canducci, F; Galli, L; Cossarini, F; Salpietro, S; Poli, A; Nozza, S; Spagnuolo, V; Clementi, M; Sampaolo, M; Ceresola, E R; Racca, S; Lazzarin, A; Castagna, A


    In this single-centre, retrospective study, we analyzed data of 194 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with <50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA copies/mL in plasma and 318 HIV RNA/DNA paired samples. By kinetic polymerase chain reaction (kPCR) molecular system analysis, 104 (54%) subjects had undetectable HIV RNA and 90 (46%) had residual viraemia. Median (interquartile range) HIV DNA load was 780 (380-1930) copies/10(6) peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and HIV DNA loads were independently associated with residual viraemia (p 0.002). Virological rebound occurred in 29/194 (15%) patients over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 17.5 (13.5-31.5) months. Residual viraemia (p 0.002), but not HIV DNA load, was independently associated with virological rebound.

  11. Rate on the rebound of films, strategic design and results; Tasa de rechazo de peliculas, diseno de estrategias y resultados

    Guibelalde, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Ramirez, R.; Canevaro, R.; Vano, E. [Catedra de Fisica Medica. Departamento de Radiologia. Universidad Complutense. Madrid (Spain)


    The present work pretends to identify the diagnostic tests of greatest rate on the rebound and to analyze their causes comparing them with the reference values obtained in the University Hospital `San Carlos` study in 1993. Equally is looking for contributing with criterions and strategies for the implantation of a responsible system of information caption. The control of the rate on rebound of radiographic plates is fundamental for the quality control programs feedback. The results emitted by this study confirm the utility to the advantage of this type of global indicators for the quality control programs and contribute reducing collective doses, since the improvement of medical diagnostic and diminishing the operation costs of the inputs utilized. It is emphasized the importance what had to introduce at the personnel which participate in the system to obtain fitted results. (Author)

  12. Platelet adhesion from shear blood flow is controlled by near-wall rebounding collisions with erythrocytes.

    Tokarev, A A; Butylin, A A; Ataullakhanov, F I


    The efficacy of platelet adhesion in shear flow is known to be substantially modulated by the physical presence of red blood cells (RBCs). The mechanisms of this regulation remain obscure due to the complicated character of platelet interactions with RBCs and vascular walls. To investigate this problem, we have created a mathematical model that takes into account shear-induced transport of platelets across the flow, platelet expulsion by the RBCs from the near-wall layer of the flow onto the wall, and reversible capture of platelets by the wall and their firm adhesion to it. This model analysis allowed us to obtain, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical determination of the platelet adhesion rate constant as a function of the wall shear rate, hematocrit, and average sizes of platelets and RBCs. This formula provided a quantitative description of the results of previous in vitro adhesion experiments in perfusion chambers. The results of the simulations suggest that under a wide range of shear rates and hematocrit values, the rate of platelet adhesion from the blood flow is mainly limited by the frequency of their near-wall rebounding collisions with RBCs. This finding reveals the mechanism by which erythrocytes physically control platelet hemostasis.

  13. Determination of Tear Production and Intraocular Pressure With Rebound Tonometry in Wild Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    Sheldon, Julie D; Adkesson, Michael J; Allender, Matthew C; Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer; Cardeña, Marco; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana


    Tear production and intraocular pressures (IOPs) were determined in 38 and 102 wild Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), respectively, from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area in Ica, Peru. Tear production was measured by Schirmer tear test, and IOP was measured with a TonoVet rebound tonometer. Adult (n = 90) and chick (n = 12) penguins were sampled from 2 different beaches (north and south facing) during 2 sampling years (2010 and 2011). Results showed a mean ± SD (range) of 9 ± 4 (2-20) mm/min for tear production and 28 ± 9 (3-49) mm Hg for IOP. Tear production in penguins differed between beach and sex, whereas IOP differed between age, year, and beach. The IOPs were negatively correlated with packed cell volume. Tear production and IOP values had greater variation in this population than it has in other avian species. Previous investigations of IOP and tear production in Spheniscus species were conducted with birds housed under professional care in artificial marine and freshwater environments. This is the first study, to our knowledge, investigating tear production and IOP in wild penguins and establishes valuable reference intervals for this species.

  14. Intraocular pressure in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) as measured by rebound tonometry.

    Molter, Christine M; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Kass, Philip H; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wack, Raymund F


    Intraocular pressure was measured using rebound tonometry in American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), with the head in an upright standing position and when lowered in a feeding position, to establish a reference range. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) (range) intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was right eye (OD)= 10.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (7-15 mm Hg) and left eye (OS) = 11.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg (8-21 mm Hg). Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was OD and OS = 11 mm Hg. Mean intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD = 14.3 +/- 2.5 mm Hg (10-22 mm Hg) and OS = 14.4 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (11-24 mm Hg), which were significantly higher. Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD and OS = 14 mm Hg.

  15. Numerical study of spike characteristics due to the motions of a non-spherical rebounding bubble

    王加夏; 宗智; 孙雷; 李章锐; 姜明佐


    The boundary integral method (BIM) is used to simulate the 3-D gas bubble, generated within the two bubble pulsation periods in proximity to a free surface in an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flow. The present method is well validated by comparing the calculated shapes of the bubble and the free surface with both the experimental results and the numerical ones obtained by the Axisymmetric BIM code. The expansion, the collapse of the gas bubble and the further evolution of the rebounding non-spherical bubble are simulated. The various variation patterns of the free surface spike and the bubble centroid for different standoff distances, the buoyancy parameters and the strength parameters are obtained to reveal the nonlinear interaction between the bubble and the free surface. The amplitude of the second maximum bubble volume and the four typical patterns of the bubble jet and the free surface spike are examined in the context of the standoff distance. The large buoyancy is used to elevate the spray dome rather than the free surface spike.

  16. Cavitation structures formed during the rebound of a sphere from a wetted surface

    Marston, Jeremy


    We use high-speed imaging to observe the dynamics of cavitation, caused by the impact and subsequent rebound of a sphere from a solid surface covered with a thin layer of highly viscous liquid. We note marked qualitative differences between the cavitation structures with increase in viscosity, as well as between Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The patterns observed are quite unexpected and intricate, appearing in concentric ring formations around the site of impact. In all cases, we identify a distinct radius from which the primary bubbles emanate. This radius is modelled with a modified form of Hertz contact theory. Within this radius, we show that some fine cavitation structure may exist or that it may be one large cavitation bubble. For the non-Newtonian fluids, we observe foam-like structures extending radially with diminishing bubble sizes with increase in radial position. Whereas for the Newtonian fluids, the opposite trend is observed with increasing bubble size for increasing radial position. Finally, we compare our experimental observations of cavitation to the maximum tension criterion proposed by Joseph (J Fluid Mech 366:367-378, 1998) showing that this provides the lower limit for the onset of cavitation in our experiments. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Diagnosis and prediction of tipping points in financial markets: Crashes and rebounds

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier


    By combining (i) the economic theory of rational expectation bubbles, (ii) behavioral finance on imitation and herding of investors and traders and (iii) the mathematical and statistical physics of bifurcations and phase transitions, the log-periodic power law (LPPL) model has been developed as a flexible tool to detect bubbles. The LPPL model considers the faster-than-exponential (power law with finite-time singularity) increase in asset prices decorated by accelerating oscillations as the main diagnostic of bubbles. It embodies a positive feedback loop of higher return anticipations competing with negative feedback spirals of crash expectations. The power of the LPPL model is illustrated by two recent real-life predictions performed recently by our group: the peak of the Oil price bubble in early July 2008 and the burst of a bubble on the Shanghai stock market in early August 2009. We then present the concept of 'negative bubbles', which are the mirror images of positive bubbles. We argue that similar positive feedbacks are at work to fuel these accelerated downward price spirals. We adapt the LPPL model to these negative bubbles and implement a pattern recognition method to predict the end times of the negative bubbles, which are characterized by rebounds (the mirror images of crashes associated with the standard positive bubbles). The out-of-sample tests quantified by error diagrams demonstrate the high significance of the prediction performance.

  18. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Sharry, J A


    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  19. What's Tramadol Got to Do with It? A Case Report of Rebound Hypoglycemia, a Reappraisal and Review of Potential Mechanisms.

    Odonkor, Charles A; Chhatre, Akhil


    Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon. A 71-year-old woman presented with right buttock pain and right lateral leg discomfort of 9-month duration. Her physical exam suggested sacroiliac joint (SIJ) etiology, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She was scheduled for an SIJ-diagnostic and therapeutic block and started on tramadol 50 mg 3 times daily on as needed basis. The patient subsequently developed severe hypoglycemia initially resistant to euglycemia restorative interventions with a rebound episode. Hypoglycemia resolved with oral ingestion of high levels of glucose and the patient was taken off tramadol. Fortunately, she did not require hospitalization. The clinical scenario described is a case of rebound hypoglycemia after tramadol use in a patient with type-1 diabetes naïve to opioid analgesics. The episodes of hypoglycemia aligned perfectly with the anticipated pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of tramadol. The specificity and temporality of events after tramadol use in this patient fulfilled causality criteria. Tramadol may cause rebound hypoglycemia in patients via interference of the intrinsic euglycemia-restoration pathways and a blunted autonomic counter-regulatory response to antecedent hypoglycemia. Its use must be tempered by this underappreciated adverse effect profile.Key words: Tramadol, hypoglycemia


    张凤杰; 臧伟进; 于晓江; 胡浩; 张春虹; 孙强; 吕军


    Objective To investigate the effects of desensitization and rebound to adenosine(Ado) on action potential duration(APD) and contractility in guinea-pig atrial cells. Methods Electrical activity was recorded using standard intracellular microelectrode technique and contractility was recorded using. We studied the effects of adenosine on the action potential and desensitization of contractility and rebound of contractility. Results The results showed that action potential duration were shortened by 1,10,100μmol*L-1Ado, the ratio of shortened APD was (9.58±1.40)%,(13.80±2.26)%,(24.80±3.19)%, respectively. 1μmol*L-1Ado had no desensitization (P>0.05), but the time of desensitization of 10μmol*L-1 Ado and 100μmol*L-1 Ado was 1 minute(P<0.05) and 5 minutes(P<0.05), respectively. The desensitization of contractility of 10*!μmol*L-1 Ado was obvious in atrial cells, the decrease of contractility of 10*!μmol*L-1 Ado was obvious in atrial cells, the decrease of contractility was changed from (31.4±16.04)%(2 minutes) to (50.60±15.87)% (4 minutes), compared with control. After washing out Ado, contractility was shown to rebound, the ratio of increase of contractility by 1,10,100μmol*L-1 Ado was (12.38±7.50)%,(19.00±8.14)% and (27.60±13.44)%, respectively. Conclusion Ado can abbreviate APD in atrial cells. The desensitization of Ado on APD is characterized by concentration-dependent and time-dependent in atrial cells, and the desensitization of contractility of Ado is obvious and contractility was shown to rebound after washing out Ado.

  1. Controlled study of withdrawal symptoms and rebound anxiety after six week course of diazepam for generalised anxiety.


    A group of patients suffering from anxiety, as assessed by general practitioners and psychologists using research criteria for generalised anxiety, were treated with either diazepam or placebo double blind for six weeks. This active treatment period was preceded by a one week single blind placebo "wash in" period and followed by a two week single blind placebo "wash out" period. The results suggest that diazepam can produce rebound anxiety and withdrawal symptoms when used in moderate doses a...

  2. An unexpected plasma cholinesterase activity rebound after challenge with a high dose of the nerve agent VX.

    Dorandeu, F; Foquin, A; Briot, R; Delacour, C; Denis, J; Alonso, A; Froment, M T; Renault, F; Lallement, G; Masson, P


    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) are to be feared in military operations as well as in terrorist attacks. Among them, VX (O-ethyl-S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) is a low volatility liquid that represents a percutaneous as well as an inhalation hazard if aerosolized. It is a potent irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor that causes severe signs and symptoms, including respiratory dysfunction that stems from different mechanisms. VX-induced pulmonary oedema was previously reported in dogs but mechanisms involved are not well understood, and its clinical significance remains to be assessed. An experimental model was thus developed to study VX-induced cardiovascular changes and pulmonary oedema in isoflurane-anaesthetized swine. In the course of this study, we observed a fast and unexpected rebound of plasma ChE activity following inhibition provoked by the intravenous injection of 6 and 12 microg kg(-1) of VX. In whole blood ChE activity, the rebound could stay unnoticed. Further investigations showed that the rebound of plasma esterase activity was neither related to spontaneous reactivation of ChE nor to VX-induced increase in paraoxonase/carboxylesterase activities. A bias in Ellman assay, haemoconcentration or severe liver cytolysis were also ruled out. All in all, these results suggest that the rebound was likely due to the release of butyrylcholinesterase into the blood stream from ChE producing organs. Nature of the organ(s) and mechanisms involved in enzyme release will need further investigations as it may represent a mechanism of defence, i.e. VX scavenging, that could advantageously be exploited.

  3. Computation of single solid particle impact on the target of ductile material to study the rebound characteristics of particle

    Yeuan, Jian Jong


    The objective of this research work is to simulate a single solid particle impact on a solid target using elastic-plastic theory. The entire impact process involves the adhesion, deformation and rebound process interacting between the solid particle and the target. The governing equations for two dimensional elastic-plastic flow are formulated in Lagrangian coordinates. The equation of state in the elastic region is the time rate of change of Hooke's law. In the plastic region, the experimental Hugoniot equation of state and the yield condition of R. von Mises are used. The effect of strain rate on the material strength is considered using a semi-empirical formulation. The developed computer program employs a finite volume numerical technique and two step explicit MacCormack scheme, which is second order accurate in time, allowing finer resolution of the transient phenomena of impact. Results are presented for a hard tool steel particle impacting on a mild steel target at impact angles of 20 to 90 degrees. The computational results are compared with experimental data for a range of impacting velocities up to 350 m/sec. The effect of particle in the particle rebound characteristics are also investigated. In the previous research, the particle rebound characteristics obtained from experiments were correlated and used in the calculation of particle trajectories in turbomachinery flows. Here, the computational results are applied to predict solid particle trajectories in a highly loaded axial flow turbine.

  4. Extreme REM Rebound during Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Titration for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Depressed Patient

    Anna Lo Bue


    Full Text Available A 20% increase in REM sleep duration has been proposed as a threshold to identify REM rebound in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA who start continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. We describe the case of one patient with OSA who showed an unexpectedly high degree of REM rebound during titration of CPAP. A 34-year-old man was diagnosed with OSA. He remained untreated for many years, during which he developed systemic hypertension, depression, and severe daytime somnolence. When he was reevaluated sixteen years later, his Epworth sleepiness score was 18, and his OSA had greatly worsened (apnea/hypopnea index: 47, lowest nocturnal saturation: 57%. He underwent a successful CPAP titration during nocturnal polysomnography. Electroencephalographic analysis of the sleep recording revealed a huge amount of REM sleep, accounting for 72% of the total sleep time. When asked, the patient referred that he had suddenly interrupted paroxetine assumption three days before the polysomnography. The very large REM rebound observed in this patient could be due to additional effects of initiation of CPAP therapy and suspension of antidepressive treatment. This case does not report any dangerous consequence, but sudden antidepressive withdrawal could be dangerous for patients with OSA who develop hypoventilation during REM sleep with CPAP application.

  5. Fire risk in California

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  6. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Zain Kulairi


    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  7. Hippocampal Abnormalities in Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements were used to characterize hippocampal edema within 5 days of a prolonged febrile seizure (PFS in a study at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  8. MRI Abnormalities After Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings of 17 Asian patients with encephalopathy following a prolonged febrile seizure were reviewed retrospectively at Kameda Medical Center, and other centers in Japan and San Francisco, USA.

  9. QT Prolongation due to Graves' Disease

    Deol, Nisha; Tolly, Renee; Manocha, Rohan; Naseer, Maliha


    Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status. PMID:28154763

  10. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  11. Fire retardants for wood

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković


    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  12. Fires in Amazonia

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio


    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  13. All fired up

    CERN Bulletin


    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  14. Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults.

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Maillot, M; Bellisle, F


    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem, with a rapidly increasing frequency worldwide. Identification of critical periods for the development of childhood and adolescent obesity could be very useful for targeting prevention measures. Weight status in early childhood is a poor predictor of adult adiposity status, and most obese adults were not obese as children. We first proposed to use the body mass index (BMI) charts to monitor individual BMI development. The adiposity rebound (AR) corresponds to the second rise in BMI curve that occurs between ages 5 and 7 years. It is not as direct a measure as BMI at any age, but because it involves the examination of several points during growth, and because it is identified at a time when adiposity level clearly change directions, this method provides information that can help us understand individual changes and the development of health risks. An early AR is associated with an increased risk of overweight. It is inversely associated with bone age, and reflects accelerated growth. The early AR recorded in most obese subjects and the striking difference in the mean age at AR between obese subjects (3 years) and non-obese subjects (6 years) suggest that factors have operated very early in life. The typical pattern associated with an early AR is a low BMI followed by increased BMI level after the rebound. This pattern is recorded in children of recent generations as compared to those of previous generations. This is owing to the trend of a steeper increase of height as compared to weight in the first years of life. This typical BMI pattern (low, followed by high body fatness level) is associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Low body fatness before the AR suggests that an energy deficit had occurred at an early stage of growth. It can be attributable to the high-protein, low-fat diet fed to infants at a time of high energy needs, the former triggering height velocity and

  15. Inferring Mantle Reology in Western Nevada Using Postseismic Relaxation and Lake Lahontan Rebound

    Dickinson, H.; Freed, A. M.


    Western Nevada has experienced two episodes of loading: tectonic loading due to a series of Mw≥6.5 earthquakes between 1872 and 1954 in the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and non-tectonic loading/unloading due to the formation and evaporation of Pleistocene-aged Lake Lahontan. Prior studies have used observed surface deformation (InSAR, GPS, or lake rebound measurements) to constrain numerical models of lower crustal and mantle relaxation to infer depth-dependent viscosity structures. However, four separate studies have inferred four different viscosity structures, highlighting non-uniqueness and other issues that plague in situ rheology studies. Here we combine the postseismic and lake unloading processes into a single self-consistent study to reduce non-uniqueness issues and determine whether a single Newtonian viscosity structure can explain all of the observations. We use finite element models to show that all of the observational constraints can be explained by a Newtonian rheology beneath Western Nevada marked by a strong lower crust at a depth of 20-30 km with a viscosity of at least 5x1020 Pa s and a strong mantle lid at a depth of 30-40 km with a viscosity of at least 5x1019 Pa s overlying a relatively weak upper mantle of order 1018 Pa s. Our ability to fit both postseismic and lake unloading by a single Newtonian viscosity structure may be a result of the limited resolution of the data sets, none of which record expected transient behavior early in the unloading processes.

  16. Current crisis or artifact of surveillance: insights into rebound chlamydia rates from dynamic modelling

    Vickers David M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After initially falling in the face of intensified control efforts, reported rates of sexually transmitted chlamydia in many developed countries are rising. Recent hypotheses for this phenomenon have broadly focused on improved case finding or an increase in the prevalence. Because of many complex interactions behind the spread of infectious diseases, dynamic models of infection transmission are an effective means to guide learning, and assess quantitative conjectures of epidemiological processes. The objective of this paper is to bring a unique and robust perspective to observed chlamydial patterns through analyzing surveillance data with mathematical models of infection transmission. Methods This study integrated 25-year testing volume data from the Canadian province of Saskatchewan with one susceptible-infected-treated-susceptible and three susceptible-infected-treated-removed compartmental models. Calibration of model parameters to fit observed 25-year case notification data, after being combined with testing records, placed constraints on model behaviour and allowed for an approximation of chlamydia prevalence to be estimated. Model predictions were compared to observed case notification trends, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of model results. Results Model predictions accurately mirrored historic chlamydial trends including an observed rebound in the mid 1990s. For all models examined, the results repeatedly highlighted that increased testing volumes, rather than changes in the sensitivity and specificity of testing technologies, sexual behaviour, or truncated immunological responses brought about by treatment can, explain the increase in observed chlamydia case notifications. Conclusions Our results highlight the significant impact testing volume can have on observed incidence rates, and that simple explanations for these observed increases appear to have been dismissed in

  17. Effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and modafinil challenge on sleep rebound after paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats

    R.C.S Martins


    Full Text Available Sleep loss is both common and critically relevant to our society and might lead to the abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine and modafinil. Since psychoactive substance abuse often occurs within a scenario of sleep deficit, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the sleep patterns of rats challenged with cocaine (7 mg/kg, ip, methamphetamine (7 mg/kg, ip, or modafinil (100 mg/kg, ip subsequent to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD for 96 h. Our results show that, immediately after 96 h of PSD, rats (10 per group that were injected with a psychostimulant presented lower percentages of paradoxical sleep compared to those injected with saline (P < 0.01. Regarding slow wave sleep (SWS, rats injected with psychostimulants after PSD presented a late rebound (on the second night subsequent to the injection in the percentage of this phase of sleep when compared to PSD rats injected with saline (P < 0.05. In addition, the current study has produced evidence of the characteristic effect of each drug on sleep architecture. Home cage control rats injected with modafinil and methamphetamine showed a reduction in SWS compared with the saline group. Methamphetamine affected sleep patterns most, since it significantly reduced paradoxical sleep, SWS and sleep efficiency before and after PSD compared to control (P < 0.05. Cocaine was the psychostimulant causing the least changes in sleep pattern in relation to those observed after saline injection. Therefore, our results suggest that abuse of these psychostimulants in a PSD paradigm aggravates their impact on sleep patterns.

  18. Interaction between climate, volcanism, and isostatic rebound in Southeast Alaska during the last deglaciation

    Praetorius, Summer; Mix, Alan; Jensen, Britta; Froese, Duane; Milne, Glenn; Wolhowe, Matthew; Addison, Jason; Prahl, Fredrick


    Observations of enhanced volcanic frequency during the last deglaciation have led to the hypothesis that ice unloading in glaciated volcanic terrains can promote volcanism through decompression melting in the shallow mantle or a reduction in crustal magma storage time. However, a direct link between regional climate change, isostatic adjustment, and the initiation of volcanism remains to be demonstrated due to the difficulty of obtaining high-resolution well-dated records that capture short-term climate and volcanic variability traced to a particular source region. Here we present an exceptionally resolved record of 19 tephra layers paired with foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and alkenone paleotemperatures from marine sediment cores along the Southeast Alaska margin spanning the last deglacial transition. Major element compositions of the tephras indicate a predominant source from the nearby Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF). We constrain the timing of this regional eruptive sequence to 14.6-13.1 ka. The sudden increase in volcanic activity from the MEVF coincides with the onset of Bølling-Allerød interstadial warmth, the disappearance of ice-rafted detritus, and rapid vertical land motion associated with modeled regional isostatic rebound in response to glacier retreat. These data support the hypothesis that regional deglaciation can rapidly trigger volcanic activity. Rapid sea surface temperature fluctuations and an increase in local salinity (i.e., δ18Osw) variability are associated with the interval of intense volcanic activity, consistent with a two-way interaction between climate and volcanism in which rapid volcanic response to ice unloading may in turn enhance short-term melting of the glaciers, plausibly via albedo effects on glacier ablation zones.

  19. Regulation and functional roles of rebound potentiation at cerebellar stellate cell - Purkinje cell synapses

    Tomoo eHirano


    Full Text Available Purkinje cells receive both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs and send sole output from the cerebellar cortex. Long-term depression, a type of synaptic plasticity, at excitatory parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses has been studied extensively as a primary cellular mechanism of motor learning. On the other hand, at inhibitory synapses on a Purkinje cell, postsynaptic depolarization induces long-lasting potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. This synaptic plasticity is called rebound potentiation (RP, and its molecular regulatory mechanisms have been studied. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration caused by depolarization induces RP through enhancement of GABAA receptor (GABAAR responsiveness. RP induction depends on binding of GABAAR with GABAAR associated protein (GABARAP which is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII. Whether RP is induced or not is determined by the balance between phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation activities regulated by intracellular Ca2+ and by metabotropic GABA and glutamate receptors. Recent studies have revealed that the subunit composition of CaMKII has significant impact on RP induction. A Purkinje cell expresses both alpha- and beta-CaMKII, and the latter has much higher affinity for Ca2+/calmodulin than the former. It was shown that when the relative amount of alpha- to beta-CaMKII is large, RP induction is suppressed. The functional significance of RP has also been studied using transgenic mice in which a peptide inhibiting association of GABARAP and GABAAR is expressed selectively in Purkinje cells. The transgenic mice show abrogation of RP and subnormal adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex, a type of motor learning. Thus, RP is involved in a certain type of motor learning.

  20. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H;


    characteristics (SPC) of recently approved medicinal products. METHODS: Drug labels of products centrally approved in Europe between 2006 and 2012 were screened. Of drugs including the term 'QT' in the SPC, the message on QT-prolongation ('no prolongation'/'unclear drug-QT association'/'possibly QT......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  1. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.;


    Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...

  2. Biomass co-firing

    Yin, Chungen


    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  3. Biomass co-firing

    Yin, Chungen


    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  4. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effects on Microparticle Sand Rebound Characteristics at Gas Turbine Representative Conditions

    Delimont, Jacob M


    When a gas turbine operates in a particle laden environment, such as a desert, small solid particles are ingested into the engine. The ingested sand particles can cause damage to engine components and reduce the service life of the engine. Particle ingestion causes the erosion of metal blades and vanes, and, if the firing temperature is hot enough, deposition of molten particles in the hot sections of the engine. Both deposition and erosion phenomena can severely reduce overall engine perfo...

  5. Fire protection design criteria



    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  6. WebFIRE

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  7. Kilns and Firing Structures

    Nicholson, Paul


    The purpose of firing pottery is to change clay, a plastic material, into ceramic, which is aplastic. Examined here are structures designed to fire pottery or faience or to make glass (although the latter might be better described as furnaces). Firing can take place in an open, bonfire-like environment, which can also be enclosed as a firing structure. Beyond this is the development of the true kiln of which there are two main types: updraft and downdraft. The first of these is by far the mos...

  8. Determination of Survivable Fires

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.


    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  9. Are Long Fire-free Periods Needed to Maintain the Endangered, Fire-recruiting Shrub Arctostaphylos morroensis(Ericaceae?

    Dennis Odion


    Full Text Available Morro manazanita (Arctostaphylos morroensis is a distinctive shrub restricted to a small area along the coast of California, USA. This endangered species faces two opposing fire-related extinction risks: (1 adults are killed by fire, and (2 recruitment opportunities only occur with fire. These strongly limit the capacity of this, as well as other obligate-seeding species, to recover from a population decline, which may result if there is an inadequate amount of time between fires for replenishment of sufficient seed populations. Using a prescribed burn, we tested whether the size of the seed bank that had accumulated in a 40-yr-old stand would prove adequate for maintaining A. morroensis population sizes through fire. Prior to the burn, we found ~11,000 seeds/m2 in the soil, mostly in the top 5 cm. However, the number of viable seeds was substantially lower (334 seeds/m2, and less than one-third of these survived the experimental fire (99 seeds/m2. Germination occurred only in the first two wet seasons after the fire, and may have been adequate to replace the number of A. morroensis present before the burn. However, most seedlings did not survive their initial summer drought. After three years, the new population of A. morroensis was less than half the size of the parent population. Further mortality is expected because the remaining seedlings are highly clumped. We conclude that A. morroensis may require considerably longer than 40 years to establish an adequate seed bank to compensate for mortality and prevent population decrease or local extinction. This prolonged risk is perhaps explained by specialization of this species to a historic regime of relatively infrequent fire. There are many obligate-seeding species in fire-prone shrublands that may not be resilient to a regime of fire more frequent than that with which they evolved.

  10. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains


    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  11. Dynamics of synaptically coupled integrate-and-fire-or-burst neurons

    Coombes, S.


    The minimal integrate-and-fire-or-burst (IFB) neuron model reproduces the salient features of experimentally observed thalamocortical (TC) relay neuron response properties, including the temporal tuning of both tonic spiking (i.e., conventional action potentials) and postinhibitory rebound bursting mediated by a low-threshold calcium current. In this paper we consider networks of IFB neurons with slow synaptic interactions and show how the dynamics may be described with a smooth firing-rate model. When the firing rate of the IFB model is dominated by a refractory process the equations of motion simplify and may be solved exactly. Numerical simulations are used to show that a pair of reciprocally interacting inhibitory spiking IFB TC neurons supports an alternating rhythm of the type predicted from the firing-rate theory. A change in a single parameter of the IFB neuron allows it to fire a burst of spikes in response to a depolarizing signal, so that it mimics the behavior of a reticular (RE) cell. Within a continuum model we show that a network of RE cells with on-center excitation can support a fast traveling pulse. In contrast, a network of inhibitory TC cells is found to support a slowly propagating lurching pulse.

  12. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho


    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  13. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    American School and University, 1976


    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  14. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... the daily report. October 6, 2017 Minimal large fire activity was reported yesterday. Four large fires have ...

  15. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail:; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida


    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  16. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H;


    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve......) was moderate (kappa 0.434). However, the agreement in expected clinical decisions based on the product labels was much higher (kappa 0.673). The US drug label tends to be more explicit, especially when it considers absence of QT effects....

  17. Melatonin prolonged release: in the treatment of insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years.

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A


    Melatonin prolonged release (PR) 2 mg is approved for the treatment of primary insomnia characterized by poor sleep quality in patients aged ≥55 years in the EU and elsewhere. Patients may receive treatment with melatonin PR for up to 13 weeks. Production of endogenous nocturnal melatonin, which helps regulate circadian rhythm, may be decreased in older adults. Administration of melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime mimics the natural secretion pattern of melatonin, thereby leading to improvements in the circadian regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In older adults, melatonin PR 2 mg had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo, and was associated with significantly less impairment on many of these tasks relative to zolpidem 10 mg alone or in combination with melatonin PR 2 mg. In 3-week and 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ≥55 years, melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness and health-related quality of life. Melatonin PR 2 mg was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile that was similar to that of placebo. Short- or longer-term treatment with melatonin PR 2 mg was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms.

  18. Potential Selection Effects when Estimating Associations Between the Infancy Peak or Adiposity Rebound and Later Body Mass Index in Children

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michalis


    Introduction:This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and BMI at IP and AR and later weight status. Subjects and methods: In 4 744 children...... with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multi-level models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories. Based on these trajectories, age and BMI at IP...... for later weight status instead....

  19. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.


    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  20. The fire brigade renovates


    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  1. Fire forum 2006



    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  2. Fire Incident Reporting Manual


    are backstage areas, dressing rooms, ice rinks, boxing rings, and basketball floors. 37. Projection room or area. Included are stage light and...or taper . 45. Match. 46. Lighter (flame type). 47. Open fire. Included are campfires, bonfires, warning flares, rubbish fires, open trash burners, open

  3. Hot fire, cool soil

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  4. Advanced fire information system

    Frost, PE


    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  5. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.


    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  6. New developments in the treatment of primary insomnia in elderly patients: focus on prolonged-release melatonin

    Vigo DE


    , and was associated with significantly less impairment on many of these tasks relative to zolpidem alone or in combination with prolonged-release melatonin. In 3-week and 6-month randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ≥55 years, prolonged-release melatonin was associated with improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness, and quality of life. Prolonged-release melatonin was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Short-term or longer-term treatment with prolonged-release melatonin was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia, or withdrawal symptoms.Keywords: insomnia, melatonin, Circadin®, clinical trials

  7. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...


    Zdeněk CÁB1


    Full Text Available Financial crisis in the years 2008 to 2013 had a negative effects also in a state administration, and as well in a purchase, renewing and services of technical means of fire protection. Under the terms of School educational and vocational establishment of the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech republic (FRS CR, center in Frydek - Mistek, this condition was fully displayed at the FRS CR at the state of composite pressure cylinders (PCs, that are from the point of view of operation of the breathing apparatuses, and other technical means such as bags, sealing means, means for works on water, that are inevitable for their operability. In this article prolongation of an operation life of PCs is described, on the basis of supplementary nondestructive acoustic emission testing (AT, that is a part of hydraulic pressure test. In conclusion it is written the state of PCs after the operation life having been prolonged and before their final decommissioning.

  9. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Mark A. Finney


    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  10. Fires in Chile


    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. The Earth's palaeorotation, postglacial rebound and lower mantle viscosity from analysis of ancient Chinese eclipse records

    Pang, Kevin D.; Yau, Kevin; Chou, Hung-Hsiang


    Of the forces changing the Earth's rotation, tidal braking and postglacial rebound predominate at a timescale≥102 yr ( Hide and Dickey, 1991; Dickey, 1992). Analysis of ancient eclipse records has given values for the clock error Δ T and the time derivative of the Earth's dynamic oblatenessdot J_2 for the past 3,300 yr. Since Δ T=AT-UT=ct 2 , where AT is Atomic (cesium clock) Time, UT is Universal (Earth rotation) Time, and t is the number of centuries before 1800, the oldest data have the most weight. Sunrise and sunset eclipses are especially valuable, as they can be retrospectively timed. The Bamboo Annals, entombed in 299 B.C. and unearthed in A.D. 281, states that “in the first year of King Yi of the Western Zhou dynasty the day dawned twice at Zheng (34.5°N, 109.8°E)”. Kaiyuan zhanjing (Siddhartha, A.D. 724) cites this passage and adds that “in the 2nd (actually 12th) year of Sheng Ping reign period of King Shang (actually King Xi) the day began twice at Zheng”. Matching these records with the April 21, 899 B.C. and April 4, A.D. 368 sunrise eclipses (Oppolzer eclipse Nos. 732 and 3747) gave Δ T values of 5.8±0.15 and 1.7±0.1 hr, respectively. The recurrence of a central solar eclipse at the same site under almost identical circumstances accurately links up an ancient Δ T value with a more precise medieval one, and makes the statistics of such early data more robust. The brightness changes for the magnitudes 0.95 0.97 and 0.991 0.998 eclipses were greater than those for the January 4, 1992 “double sunset” over Southern California, U.S.A. (magnitude 0.91 0.92). David H. Levy noted that “... as annularity ended. Sunset had come and gone, but the sky began to brighten not darken. For almost 15 minutes it continued to brighten until the onrushing shadow of Earth took over and darkness fell again ...” (Sky Telesc. 83, 694). We have analyzed even earlier records from the Shang dynasty. Six solar eclipse records have been identified among

  12. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  13. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  14. USFA NFIRS 2006 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  15. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  16. USFA NFIRS 2007 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2007 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  17. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  18. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  19. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)


    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  20. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...


    Suzanne Schneider


    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  5. Effects of tic suppression: ability to suppress, rebound, negative reinforcement, and habituation to the premonitory urge.

    Specht, Matt W; Woods, Douglas W; Nicotra, Cassandra M; Kelly, Laura M; Ricketts, Emily J; Conelea, Christine A; Grados, Marco A; Ostrander, Rick S; Walkup, John T


    The comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) represents a safe, effective non-pharmacological treatment for Tourette's disorder that remains underutilized as a treatment option. Contributing factors include the perceived negative consequences of tic suppression and the lack of a means through which suppression results in symptom improvement. Participants (n = 12) included youth ages 10-17 years with moderate-to-marked tic severity and noticeable premonitory urges who met Tourette's or chronic tic disorder criteria. Tic frequency and urge rating data were collected during an alternating sequence of tic freely or reinforced tic suppression periods. Even without specific instructions regarding how to suppress tics, youth experienced a significant, robust (72%), stable reduction in tic frequency under extended periods (40 min) of contingently reinforced tic suppression in contrast to periods of time when tics were ignored. Following periods of prolonged suppression, tic frequency returned to pre-suppression levels. Urge ratings did not show the expected increase during the initial periods of tic suppression, nor a subsequent decline in urge ratings during prolonged, effective tic suppression. Results suggest that environments conducive to tic suppression result in reduced tic frequency without adverse consequences. Additionally, premonitory urges, underrepresented in the literature, may represent an important enduring etiological consideration in the development and maintenance of tic disorders.

  6. Carotid Baroreflex Function During Prolonged Exercise

    Raven, P. B.


    Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative

  7. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa


    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  8. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  9. Tectonic Stress Wave,Micro-fracture Wave,and a Modified Elastic-Rebound Model of Earthquakes

    Zhao Fuyuan


    Based on a sample of some real earthquakes,we have suggested in previous papers that there is a density-tectonic stress wave with ultra-low frequency which is emitted from the epicenter region for months before earthquakes,and a micro-fracture wave 1~10 days before earthquakes.The former has been observed by different kinds of measurements and the latter has been observed by a few chance observations which consists of electromagnetic,gravitational and sonic fluctuations.We show real observational results that depict the two waves and they have very different frequencies,which are not difficult to discriminate.The classicaI elastic-rebound model is one of the most influential theories on earthquakes,and the thermodynamic elastic-rebound model has amended the classical framework.Considering the two waves above,we attempt to further modify the elasticrebound model,and the new framework could be called the"micro-fracture elasticrebound model".We infer that tectonic earthquakes could have three special phases:the accumulation of tectonic stress,micro-fracture,and main-fracture.Accordingly,there would be three waves which come from the epicenter of a tectonic earthquake,i.e.,the tectonic stress wave with ultra-low frequency a few months before the earthquake,the micro-fracture wave about 1~10 days before the earthquake and the main-fracture wave(common earthquake wave).

  10. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)


    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  11. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID


    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  12. Fires in Myanmar (2007)


    In Southeast Asia, fires are common and widespread throughout the dry season, which roughly spans the northern hemisphere winter months. People set fires to clear crop stubble and brush and to prepare grazing land for a new flush of growth when the rainy season arrives. These intentional fires are too frequently accompanied by accidental fires that invade nearby forests and woodlands. The combination of fires produces a thick haze that alternately lingers and disperses, depending on the weather. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite shows fire activity on March 19, 2007, across eastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and China. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red on the image. The darker green areas are generally more wooded areas or forests, while the paler green and tan areas are agricultural land. Smoke pools over low-lying areas of the hilly terrain in gray pockets. The green tops of rolling hills in Thailand emerge from a cloud of low-lying smoke. According to news reports from Thailand, the smoke blanket created air quality conditions that were considered unhealthy for all groups, and it prompted the Thai Air Force to undertake cloud-seeding attempts in an effort to cleanse the skies with rain. Commercial air traffic was halted due to poor visibility.

  13. Discussions on the Rebound Technology Trends%关于篮板球技术发展趋势的研究



    With the methods of documentation and visit, the article depicts rebounding technologies on the issue to a certain xtent explored. Modem rebounds trend is stereo, special and plane in the direetion, which is speed, height and technique. There are certain links--pros and cons of rebounds and the outcome of the match.%本文通过文献资料法、观察法,对抢篮板球技术发展趋势进行了探讨。认为,现代篮板球向着立体、空间加平面,即速度、高速加技术的方向发展。

  14. The Spirit of Fire


    POTTERY born around 5,000-7,000years ago,is the crystallization ofhuman being’s experience ofmolding earth with fire.It was also the firstcreation of man.From ancient to moderntimes,fire has accompanied every potterymaker.The contemporary artist Picassoonce said,“Fire is a special color set apartfrom those on the palette.It can create anart described by one poet as "the smeltingof seven colored sun rays”.ZhangWenzhi,from the Art Academy ofGuangzhou,is a woman who hascontributed herself wholly to the art of

  15. Coal-fired generation

    Breeze, Paul


    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  16. Fire Threatens the Grasslands


    FIRE is herdsmen’s woe. It is said by elderly people that fire almost destroyed the entire grasslands long ago. Few domestic animals survived and with great difficulty the people rebuilt and replanted what they could for many generations. Because of their efforts the grasslands survived. I have never experienced that kind of tragedy, but I could sense the fear in people’s voices when they talked of it. It is actually an unwritten law on the grasslands that whenever a fire occurs, no matter how far away or how dangerous it is, you must go out and fight it.

  17. Probabilistic fire simulator - Monte Carlo simulation tool for fire scenarios

    Hostikka, S.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)


    Risk analysis tool is developed for computing of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator, combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST two-zone fire model. In this work, it is used to calculate failure probability of redundant cables and fire detector activation times in a cable tunnel fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. (orig.)

  18. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac


    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  19. An 800-year fire history

    Stanley G. Kitchen


    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  20. Fire safety of wood construction

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger


    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  1. Fire in the Earth system

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J.; Carlson, Jean M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Doyle, John C.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Johnston, Fay H.; Keeley, Jon E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kull, Christian A.; Marston, J. Brad; Moritz, Max A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Roos, Christopher I.; Scott, Andrew C.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Pyne, Stephen


    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  2. Fire in the Earth system.

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J


    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.


    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin


    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. Association between the activation of MCH and orexin immunorective neurons and REM sleep architecture during REM rebound after a three day long REM deprivation.

    Kitka, Tamas; Adori, Csaba; Katai, Zita; Vas, Szilvia; Molnar, Eszter; Papp, Rege S; Toth, Zsuzsanna E; Bagdy, Gyorgy


    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound following REM deprivation using the platform-on-water method is characterized by increased time spent in REM sleep and activation of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) expressing neurons. Orexinergic neurons discharge reciprocally to MCH-ergic neurons across the sleep-wake cycle. However, the relation between REM architecture and the aforementioned neuropeptides remained unclear. MCH-ergic neurons can be divided into two subpopulations regarding their cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity, and among them the activation of CART-immunoreactive subpopulation is higher during the REM rebound. However, the possible role of stress in this association has not been elucidated. Our aims were to analyze the relationship between the architecture of REM rebound and the activation of hypothalamic MCH-ergic and orexinergic neurons. We also intended to separate the effect of stress and REM deprivation on the subsequent activation of subpopulations of MCH-ergic neurons. In order to detect neuronal activity, we performed MCH/cFos and orexin/cFos double immunohistochemistry on home cage, sleep deprived and sleep-rebound rats using the platform-on-water method with small and large (stress control) platforms. Furthermore, REM architecture was analyzed and a triple MCH/CART/cFos immunohistochemistry was also performed on the rebound groups in the same animals. We found that the activity of MCH- and orexin-immunoreactive neurons during REM rebound was positively and negatively correlated with the number of REM bouts, respectively. A negative reciprocal correlation was also found between the activation of MCH- and orexin-immunoreactive neurons during REM rebound. Furthermore, difference between the activation of CART-immunoreactive (CART-IR) and non-CART-immunoreactive MCH-ergic neuron subpopulations was found only after selective REM deprivation, it was absent in the large platform (stress control) rebound group

  5. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung


    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  6. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  7. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  8. Fire Mapper Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  9. United States Fire Administration

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Disaster sheltering ...

  10. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  11. Fire History Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  12. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  13. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  14. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  15. Fire Management Species Profiles

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  16. Fire Management Plan 1984

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Erie as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and alternatives...

  17. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  18. [Prolonged pain in neonates: retrospective analysis].

    Lilla, Michèle; Stadelman-Diaw, Corinne; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie


    Infants hospitalised in neonatology are inevitably exposed to pain repeatedly. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable, because they are hypersensitive to pain and demonstrate diminished behavioural responses to pain. They are therefore at risk of developing short and long-term complications if pain remains untreated. Compared to acute pain, there is limited evidence in the literature on prolonged pain in infants. However, the prevalence is reported between 20 and 40 %. This single case study aimed to identify the bio-contextual characteristics of neonates who experienced prolonged pain. This study was carried out in the neonatal unit of a tertiary referral centre in Western Switzerland. A retrospective data analysis of seven infants' profile, who experienced prolonged pain ,was performed using five different data sources. The mean gestational age of the seven infants was 32weeks. The main diagnosis included prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome. The total observations (N=55) showed that the participants had in average 21.8 (SD 6.9) painful procedures that were estimated to be of moderate to severe intensity each day. Out of the 164 recorded pain scores (2.9 pain assessment/day/infant), 14.6 % confirmed acute pain. Out of those experiencing acute pain, analgesia was given in 16.6 % of them and 79.1 % received no analgesia. This study highlighted the difficulty in managing pain in neonates who are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Pain in this population remains underevaluated and as a result undertreated.Results of this study showed that nursing documentation related to pain assessment is not systematic.Regular assessment and documentation of acute and prolonged pain are recommended. This could be achieved with clear guidelines on the Assessment Intervention Reassessment (AIR) cyclewith validated measures adapted to neonates. The adequacy of pain assessment is a pre-requisite for appropriate pain relief in neonates.

  19. Napping and Human Functioning during Prolonged Work


    alternative to napping is prolonged wakefulness. Polyphasic sleep , with frequent naps rather than a single sleep period per 24 hours, is natural for both the...very young and for the aged. It is not practiced by most adults, perhaps because of societal demands. Possibly a polyphasic sleep schedule could be...Functioning 1.2 Scope of this Chapter 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Partial Sleep Deprivation Studies 2.2 Nap Studies: Four Nap Factors Affecting Performance

  20. Prolonged grief: setting the research agenda

    Rita Rosner


    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder is proposed for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11, though it was rejected as a diagnosis for DSM-5. Objective: This review outlines findings and defines important areas for future research viewed from a lifespan perspective. Results: The development and psychometric evaluation of measures for the new diagnosis is paramount, specifically for children and adolescents. Treatments need to be adapted for specific subgroups and research findings have to be disseminated into various professional settings.

  1. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews


    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  2. Transition between Functional Regimes in an Integrate-And-Fire Network Model of the Thalamus

    Barardi, Alessandro; Mazzoni, Alberto


    The thalamus is a key brain element in the processing of sensory information. During the sleep and awake states, this brain area is characterized by the presence of two distinct dynamical regimes: in the sleep state activity is dominated by spindle oscillations (7 − 15 Hz) weakly affected by external stimuli, while in the awake state the activity is primarily driven by external stimuli. Here we develop a simple and computationally efficient model of the thalamus that exhibits two dynamical regimes with different information-processing capabilities, and study the transition between them. The network model includes glutamatergic thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons and GABAergic reticular (RE) neurons described by adaptive integrate-and-fire models in which spikes are induced by either depolarization or hyperpolarization rebound. We found a range of connectivity conditions under which the thalamic network composed by these neurons displays the two aforementioned dynamical regimes. Our results show that TC-RE loops generate spindle-like oscillations and that a minimum level of clustering (i.e. local connectivity density) in the RE-RE connections is necessary for the coexistence of the two regimes. We also observe that the transition between the two regimes occurs when the external excitatory input on TC neurons (mimicking sensory stimulation) is large enough to cause a significant fraction of them to switch from hyperpolarization-rebound-driven firing to depolarization-driven firing. Overall, our model gives a novel and clear description of the role that the two types of neurons and their connectivity play in the dynamical regimes observed in the thalamus, and in the transition between them. These results pave the way for the development of efficient models of the transmission of sensory information from periphery to cortex. PMID:27598260

  3. Prolonged ulcerative laryngitis: a new disease entity.

    Hsiao, Tzu-Yu


    Over the last decade, a new disease entity, prolonged ulcerative laryngitis (PUL), with unique clinical presentation and prolonged disease course, has been recognized. Until now, very few studies dealing with this disease have been reported in the literature. From 1999 to 2008, we analyzed clinical data from a series of 39 PUL patients who were treated with an observational approach without implementing specific treatments. This disease affects adults, predominantly females. The age of patients in our series ranged from 26 to 76 years with a median of 49.5 years. This disease is characterized by ulcers and signs of acute inflammation on the membranous portion of the vocal folds with a prolonged clinical course. The recovery times of patients ranged from 4 to 20 weeks with an average of 9.4 weeks. The data in this study may reflect a natural history of this disease. PUL seems to be a self-limited disease, but the etiology of this disease is unknown. Specific infections or systemic inflammatory processes involving the larynx must be ruled out before diagnosis, and conservative treatments are suggested.


    Aristov Denis Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  5. Fires in Southern California


    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  6. Rebound macular edema following oral acetazolamide therapy for juvenile X-linked retinoschisis in an Italian family

    Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio; Cuccu, Alberto; Farci, Roberta; Preising, Markus N; Lorenz, Birgit; Napoli, Pietro Emanuele


    Background Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (RS1, OMIM: 312700) is a hereditary vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by bilateral foveal schisis and, in half of the patients, splitting through the nerve fiber layer in the peripheral retina. In the first decade of life, patients usually develop a decrease in visual acuity. Long-term visual outcomes can be poor due to the limited number of known successful treatments. Purpose The purposes of this study were to present, for the first time, a p.Arg197Cys missense mutation in the RS1 gene (OMIM: 300839) in a four-generation Italian family with RS1 and to examine the clinical response to the treatment with acetazolamide tablets alone or in combination with dorzolamide eye drops as assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Eleven individuals, including two brothers with RS1 (patients 1 and 2), underwent a full medical history examination and a comprehensive ocular assessment that involved SD-OCT, fluorescein angiography, electroretinography and DNA analysis. Each RS1 patient received oral acetazolamide (375 mg daily) during the first three months. Thereafter, patient 1 continued only with dorzolamide eyedrops three times a day for a period of three months, while patient 2 spontaneously stopped both medications. Results Sequence analysis of the RS1 gene identified a hemizygous c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys) missense mutation in exon 6, which has not been previously reported in an Italian family. A different response to the medical therapy was observed in the four eyes of the two affected brothers hemizygous for this abnormality. Of note, after acetazolamide interruption, a rebound effect on cystoid macular edema reduced the beneficial effects of the initial therapy for RS1 from p.Arg197Cys mutation. Indeed, a minimal rebound effect on cystoid macular edema, and an improvement in visual acuity, was observed in patient 1 during the six months of treatment. Conversely, in patient 2, an initial

  7. Characterising fire hazard from temporal sequences of thermal infrared MODIS measurements (poster)

    Maffei, C.; Alfieri, S.M.; Menenti, M.


    Vegetation moisture and temperature are the most variable factors determining fire hazard. Prolonged heat and absence of rainfall drive vegetation into water stress conditions; this leads to an increase (anomaly) of vegetation temperature that can be recorded by remote sensing instruments. Since str




    evaluate the extent and persistence of hexavalent chromium in the deeper zones. Use data collected to refine the current conceptual model for the 100-H Area unconfined aquifer and the RUM in this area. (5) Evaluate the concentration 'rebound' in the unconfined aquifer of hexavalent chromium and the contaminants of concern during shutdown of the extraction wells. Measure co-contaminants at the beginning, middle, and end of each pumping test. The RUM is generally considered an aquitard in the 100-HR-3 OU; however, several water-bearing sand layers are present that are confined within the RUM. The current hydrogeologic model for the 100-H Area aquifer system portrays the RUM as an aquitard layer that underlies the unconfined aquifer, which may contain permeable zones, stringers, or layers. These permeable zones may provide pathways for chromium to migrate deeper into the RUM under certain hydrogeologic conditions. One condition may be the discharge of large volumes of cooling water that occurred near the former H Reactor, which caused a mound of groundwater to form 4.9 to 10.1 m (16 to 33 ft) above the natural water table. The cooling water reportedly contained 1 to 2 mglL of hexavalent chromium for corrosion prevention. Three alternate hypotheses for the introduction of hexavalent chromium into the RUM are as follows: (1) Local groundwater with higher concentrations of hexavalent chromium originating from reactor operations at H Reactor was driven by high heads from groundwater mounding in the unconfined aquifer into the RUM via permeable pathways in the upper surface of the RUM. (2) Local groundwater with hexavalent chromium was introduced from the unconfined aquifer via well boreholes, either during drilling or as a result of poor well construction, allowing hydraulic communication between the unconfined aquifer and the RUM. (3) Hexavalent chromium migrated across the Hom area within the more permeable zones of the RUM. The three wells used for the aquifer

  9. Rebound - Effects on the use of energy and environment by improvements in effectiveness; Effekter av effektivisering paa energibruk og miljoe

    Grepperud, Sverre; Rasmussen, Ingeborg


    The purpose of this report is to evaluate possible long run effects on use of energy and CO2-emissions from improved energy efficiency in various production sectors and for some consumption goods. The results suggest that improved energy efficiency decrease energy consumption, but the initial reduction is modified over time due to Rebound effects which arises from changes in income and prices. Wide differences in changed energy use are observed across the sectors evaluated. The report also include an analysis of possible effects from installing new environmental technology or clean up technology at firm level. The consequences of such new technologies are found to depend on the type of technology implemented, but also on the type of environmental regulation a firm is subjected to. (author)

  10. Rebound Effect or Induced Demand? Analyzing the Compound Dual Effects on VMT in the U.S.

    Jihye Byun


    Full Text Available This research explored the dual influence of fuel efficiency and roadway capacity on vehicle distance traveled. The empirical study was conducted by applying a generalized least square (GLS analysis to the U.S. state-level panel data of fuel efficiency, roadway lane-miles, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT for over three decades (1980–2010. The analysis confirmed the co-existence of rebound effect and induced demand on driving distances over the decades—improved fuel efficiency and expanded roadway capacity caused additional vehicle distance traveled, partially offsetting the benefits of the measures taken. Furthermore, the results showed that the magnitude of each effect would be unjustifiably overestimated if this dual influence was not taken into consideration.

  11. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus-coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption

    Dore, Gregory J; Soriano, Vicente; Rockstroh, Jürgen


    BACKGROUND: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients was examined in the Strategic Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) study. METHODS: Plasma HBV DNA was measured in all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (HBV.......0002), nondetectable HBV DNA at baseline (P = 0.007), and black race (P = 0.03). Time to ART reinitiation was shorter (7.5, 15.6, and 17.8 months; P hepatitis C virus-positive and non-HBV/hepatitis...... C virus participants in the drug conservation arm. No hepatic decompensation events occurred among HBV-positive participants in either arm. CONCLUSION: HBV DNA rebound following ART interruption is common and may be associated with accelerated immune deficiency in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients....

  12. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R


    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  13. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.


    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  14. Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?

    van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.


    There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

  15. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV.

  16. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    J. Mehdizadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  17. Global relationship of fire occurrence and fire intensity: A test of intermediate fire occurrence-intensity hypothesis

    Luo, Ruisen; Hui, Dafeng; Miao, Ning; Liang, Chuan; Wells, Nicholas


    Fire plays a significant role in global atmosphere and biosphere carbon and nutrient cycles. Globally, there are substantially different distributions and impacts between fire occurrence and fire intensity. It is prominent to have a thorough investigation of global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity for future fire prediction and management. In this study, we proposed an intermediate fire occurrence-intensity (IFOI) hypothesis for the global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity, suggesting that fire occurrence changes with fire intensity following a humped relationship. We examined this hypothesis via satellite data from January 2001 to December 2013 at a global scale, and in small and large fire intensity zones, respectively. Furthermore, the fire occurrence and fire intensity relationship was developed among different vegetation types to reveal the changes of parameters and strengths. Finally, the environmental factors (including climatic, hydraulic, biological, and anthropogenic variables) underpinning the fire occurrence and intensity pattern were evaluated for the underlying mechanisms. The results supported our IFOI hypothesis and demonstrated that the humped relationship is driven by different causes among vegetation types. Fire occurrence increases with fire intensity in small fire intensity zones due to alleviation of the factors limiting both fire occurrence and intensity. Beyond a certain fire intensity threshold, fire occurrence is constrained, probably due to the limitation of available fuels. The information generated in this study could be helpful for understanding global variation of fire occurrence and fire intensity due to fire-vegetation-climate-human interactions and facilitating future fire management.

  18. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M


    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids.

  19. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen


    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  20. Survival of soil bacteria during prolonged desiccation.

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.


    A determination was made of the kinds and numbers of bacteria surviving when two soils were maintained in the laboratory under dry conditions for more than half a year. Certain non-spore-forming bacteria were found to survive in the dry condition for long periods. A higher percentage of drought-tolerant than drought-sensitive bacteria was able to grow at low water activities. When they were grown in media with high salt concentrations, bacteria generally became more tolerant of prolonged drought and they persisted longer. The percent of cells in a bacterial population that remained viable when exposed to drought stress varied with the stage of growth.

  1. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen


    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  2. Assessment of sealed fire states by fire characteristic

    YUAN Shu-jie; SZLAZAK Nikodem; OBRACAJ Dariusz


    The paper presented assessment of sealed fire states in underground coal mines by so-called "fire characteristic", which graphically described tendencies of fire gas components - oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons - in time. In order to mark gas components tendencies in time the authors applied the time series analysis. The case studied confirmed, that analysis of fire gas components tendencies in time and their correlation allow to elicit proper conclusions about fire state assessment. Assessment of fire states based on single value of fire indexes without considering their trends in time and correlation between trends of gas components would give wrong results. The suggested method can appropriately indicate fire states in a sealed area.

  3. Fire phenomena and nonlinearity (II). Catastrophic fire dynamics

    Xie, Z. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China). State Key Laboratory of Fire Science


    As one of the most important non-linear mechanisms to cause fire or exacerbate fire disaster, there is a great deal of catastrophe behaviours existing in fire processes. The main tasks of the study of catastrophic fire dynamics are: 1) analysis of the catastrophe mechanisms of discontinuity behaviours in fire systems; 2) investigation of the controlling methods of discontinuity behaviours of fire system; 3) qualitative analysis of the dynamical characteristics of fire systems; and 4) catastrophe classifying of discontinuity phenomena in fire system. The other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, geoscience, astronomy, or even social sciences (for instance, political, economics, strategics and management science), may also take the similar method to establish the corresponding branch discipline of catastrophe science and catastrophe classification method. It is pointed out that an ignition behaviour of the uniform temperature thermal explosion system under the control of radiation has cusp catastrophe mechanism. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.


    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  6. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.


    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  7. Lifetime Prolonging Algorithms for Underwater Sensor Networks

    GUO Zhong-wen; LI Zhi-wei; YU Lei


    Underwater acoustic modem technology has attained a level of maturity to support underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) which are generally formed by acoustically connected sensor nodes and a surface station providing a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of the deployment area, the battery-powered network nodes limit the lifetime of UASNs. Therefore, designing a UASN that minimizes the power consumption while maximizing lifetime becomes a very difficult task. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the optimum number of clusters through combining an application-specific protocol architecture and underwater acoustic communication model so as to reduce the energy dissipation of UASNs. Deploying more sensor nodes which work alternately is another way to prolong the lifetime of UASNs. An algorithm is presented for selecting sensor nodes and putting them into operation in each round, ensuring the monitoring to the whole given area. The present results show that the algorithm can help prolong system lifetime remarkably when it is applied to other conventional approaches for sensor networks under the condition that the sensor node density is high.

  8. Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices.

    Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Traverso, Giovanni


    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm(2) of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna

    Jane Kapler Smith


    VOLUME 1: Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. Fires often cause short-term increases in wildlife foods that contribute to increases in populations of some animals. These increases are moderated by the animals' ability to thrive in the altered, often simplified, structure of the postfire environment. The extent of fire effects on animal...

  10. Transformer room fire tests

    Fustich, C. D.


    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  11. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Fewell, L. A.


    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  12. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Spruce, Lisa


    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring.

  13. Acute and prolonged reduction in joint stiffness in humans after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Kuitunen, S; Avela, J; Kyröläinen, H; Nicol, C; Komi, P V


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute and long-term fatigue effects of exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on the stiffness of ankle and knee joints. Five subjects were fatigued on a sledge apparatus by 100 maximal rebound jumps followed by continuous submaximal jumping until complete exhaustion. Neuromuscular fatigue effects were examined in submaximal hopping (HOP) and in maximal drop jumps (DJ) from 35 (DJ35) and 55 cm (DJ55) heights on a force plate. Additional force and reflex measurements were made using an ankle ergometer. Jumping tests and ankle ergometer tests were carried out before, immediately after, 2 h (2H), 2 days and 7 days (7D) after the SSC exercise. Kinematics, force and electromyography (EMG) recordings were complemented with inverse dynamics, which was used to calculate joint moments. The quotient of changes in joint moment divided by changes in joint angle was used as a value of joint stiffness (JS). In addition, blood lactate concentrations and serum creatine kinase activities were determined. The exercise induced a clear decrease in knee joint stiffness by [mean (SD)] 29 (13)% (P < 0.05) in HOP, 31 (6)% (P < 0.05) in DJ35 and 34 (14)% (P < 0.05) in DJ55. A similar trend was observed in the ankle joint stiffness with significant post-exercise reductions of 22 (8)% (P < 0.05) in DJ35 and of 27 (19)% (P < 0.05) at 2H in DJ55. The subsequent recovery of JS was slow and in some cases incomplete still at 7D. Generally, all the EMG parameters were fully recovered by 2H, whereas the force recovery was still incomplete at this time. These data indicate that the immediate reduction in JS was probably related to the effects of both central (neural) and peripheral (metabolic) fatigue, whereas the prolonged impairment was probably due to peripheral fatigue (muscle damage).

  14. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shive, Kristen L.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Kane, Van R.; Smith, Douglas F.


    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. Proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high fire severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience.

  15. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan


    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  16. Learning to Control Forest Fires

    Wiering, M.A.; Dorigo, M.


    Forest fires are an important environmental problem. This paper describes a methodology for constructing an intelligent system which aims to support the human expert's decision making in fire control. The idea is based on first implementing a fire spread simulator and on searching for good decision

  17. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    Weick, Karl E.


    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  18. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Robin Innes


    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  19. The CERN fire-fighters

    CERN PhotoLab


    CERN is one of the few laboratories to have its own fire station. The CERN fire brigade was set up in July 1956 to provide a rapid response in the event of an accident and to tackle the risks specific to the Organisation's activities. Six members of the CERN fire brigade in 1959. From left to right: Messrs. Ubertin, Dalbignat, Verny, Vosdey, Lissajoux, Favre.

  20. Boerhaave on Fire

    Diemente, Damon


    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  1. Fire, ice, and metabolism

    Kevin T. Smith


    Evaluation of tree injury often begins with a loss assessment. For winter storm injury, percent crow loss or branch breakage is often estimated. For injury from fire or some mechanical source to the lower trunk, the height and width of the killed vascular cambium and resulting scar are often measured. Both crown breakage and stem wounds provide the opportunity for...

  2. De fire dimensioner

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  3. Studies on fire blight.

    Schouten, H.J.


    Part 1Effects of water potential and temperature on multiplication of and pressure by Erwinia amylovora in host plantsAnalysis of field data from Eve Billing, England, on the duration of the incubation period of fire blight revealed that temperature and rainfall wer

  4. Hiring without Firing.

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio


    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  5. Home Fires Involving Grills

    ... 8,700) of the injuries were thermal burns. Children under five accounted for 1,600 or one-third of the 4,900 thermal non-fire grill burns. These were typically contact burns rather than flame burns. 1 Homes include one- or two-family homes, apartments, town ...

  6. Hiring without Firing.

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio


    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  7. Tending the Fire

    City, Elizabeth A.; Dolly, Danique A.


    Part of being an effective school leader is helping staff and students deal with situations related to inequity and race--helping the fire of emotion that accompanies such issues energize your school rather than becoming a wildfire. Danique Dolly faced this challenge as principal of Baltimore's City Neighbors High School during the time riots…

  8. De fire dimensioner

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  9. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    Patrick Baranowsky; Ken Canavan; Shawn St. Germain


    Abstract: This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures

  10. [Sideroblastic anemia after prolonged linezolid therapy].

    Kakimoto, Tsunayuki; Nakazato, Tomonori; Miura, Reiko; Kurai, Hanako; Yamashita, Daisuke; Sagara, Yuko; Ishida, Akaru


    Linezolid is an effective and well-tolerated antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Some reports have shown that linezolid treatment for more than 2 weeks has been associated with reversible bone marrow suppression, especially thrombocytopenia and anemia. We encountered a case of sideroblastic anemia following prolonged linezolid therapy in a laryngeal cancer patient. He received linezolid therapy for multiple abscesses due to MRSA. Before treatment, the Hb level was 12.5 g/dl and then slowly decreased to 5.9 g/dl for 2 months during treatment. Ringed sideroblasts were detected in the bone marrow. Linezolid was discontinued and the Hb level was slowly increased. This case was considered to reflect a rare complication of linezolid therapy.

  11. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Michael Gysel


    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  12. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva


    in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P brain had a small release of tryptophan (arteriovenous difference of -1.2 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), whereas a net balance was obtained during the two exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...... became elevated during the hyperthermic trial, but the net release from the brain was unchanged. During exercise, the O2/CHO was similar across trials, but, during recovery from the hyperthermic trial, the ratio decreased to 3.8 +/- 0.3 (P ...This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine...

  13. Temporal and spatial climatic controls on Holocene fire-related erosion and sedimentation, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Fitch, Erin P.; Meyer, Grant A.


    In the Jemez Mountains, tree-ring data indicate that low-severity fires characterized the 400 yr before Euro-American settlement, and that subsequent fire suppression promoted denser forests, recent severe fires, and erosion. Over longer timescales, climate change may alter fire regimes; thus, we used fire-related alluvial deposits to assess the timing of moderate- to high-severity fires, their geomorphic impact, and relation to climate over the last 4000 yr. Fire-related sedimentation does not clearly follow millennial-scale climatic changes, but probability peaks commonly correspond with severe drought, e.g., within the interval 1700-1400 cal yr BP, and ca. 650 and ca. 410 cal yr BP. The latter episodes were preceded by prolonged wet intervals that could promote dense stands. Estimated recurrence intervals for fire-related sedimentation are 250-400 yr. Climatic differences with aspect influenced Holocene post-fire response: fire-related deposits constitute 77% of fan sediments from north-facing basins but only 39% of deposits from drier southerly aspects. With sparser vegetation and exposed bedrock, south aspects can generate runoff and sediment when unburned, whereas soil-mantled north aspects produce minor sediment unless severely burned. Recent channel incision appears unprecedented over the last 2300 yr, suggesting that fuel loading and extreme drought produced an anomalously severe burn in 2002.

  14. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis


    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  15. Physical disturbance shapes vascular plant diversity more profoundly than fire in the sagebrush steppe of southeastern Idaho, U.S.A.

    Lavin, Matt; Brummer, Tyler J; Quire, Ryan; Maxwell, Bruce D; Rew, Lisa J


    Fire is thought to profoundly change the ecology of the sagebrush steppe. The Idaho National Laboratory provides an ideal setting to compare the effects of fire and physical disturbance on plant diversity in high-native-cover sagebrush steppe. Seventy-eight 1-hectare transects were established along paved, green-striped, gravel, and two-track roads, in overgrazed rangeland, and within sagebrush steppe involving different fire histories. Transects were sampled for the diversity and abundance of all vascular plants. Alpha, beta, and phylogenetic beta diversity were analyzed as a response to fire and physical disturbance. Postfire vegetation readily rebounds to prefire levels of alpha plant diversity. Physical disturbance, in contrast, strongly shapes patterns of alpha, beta, and especially phylogenetic beta diversity much more profoundly than fire disturbance. If fire is a concern in the sagebrush steppe then the degree of physical-disturbance should be more so. This finding is probably not specific to the study area but applicable to the northern and eastern portions of the sagebrush biome, which is characterized by a pulse of spring moisture and cold mean minimum winter temperatures. The distinction of sagebrush steppe from Great Basin sagebrush should be revised especially with regard to reseeding efforts and the control of annual grasses.

  16. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    Dinaburg, Joshua


    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  17. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    Marmel, Elaine


    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  18. Design fires in underground mines

    Hansen, Rickard


    This report deals with the issue on design fires in underground mines. The main purposes of the report are: -          Describe different approaches to describe design fires. -          Develop suitable design fires for different systems, mines, warehouses, workshops etc. -          Discuss the position of the design fires with respect to adjacent installations, egress, interruptions in the production etc. -          Discuss the influence of ventilation on the fire growth and its influence wh...


    TIS General Safety Group or


    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system ( as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  20. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.


    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  1. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna


    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  2. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John


    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Future impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in northeastern China

    TIAN Xiao-rui; SHU Li-fu; ZHAO Feng-jun; WANG Ming-yu; Douglas J. McRae


    Climate warming has a rapid and far-reaching impact on forest fire management in the boreal forests of China. Regional climate model outputs and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) Sys- tern were used to analyze changes to fire danger and the fire season for future periods under IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2, and the data will guide future fire management planning. We used regional climate in China (1961-1990) as our validation data, and the period (1991-2100) was modeled under SRES A2 and B2 through the weather simulated by the regional climate model system (PRECIS). Meteorological data and fire danger were interpolated to 1 km by using ANUSPLIN software. The average FWI value for future spring fire sea-sons under Scenarios A2 and B2 shows an increase over most of the region. Compared with the baseline, FWI averages of spring fire season will increase by -0.40, 0.26 and 1.32 under Scenario A2, and increase by 0.60, 1.54 and 2.56 under Scenario B2 in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, re-spectively. FWI averages of autumn fire season also show an increase over most of the region. FWI values increase more for Scenario B2 than for Scenario A2 in the same periods, particularly during the 2050s and 2080s. Average future FWI values will increase under both scenarios for autumn fire season. The potential burned areas are expected to increase by 10% and 18% in spring for 2080s under Scenario A2 and B2, respec- tively. Fire season will be prolonged by 21 and 26 days under Scenarios A2 and B2 in 2080s respectively.

  4. Large-scale pool fires

    Steinhaus Thomas


    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  5. Treatment of Metformin Intoxication Complicated by Lactic Acidosis and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Prolonged Intermittent Hemodialysis.

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Fani, Filippo; Greco, Paolo; Fiaccadori, Enrico


    Metformin intoxication with lactic acidosis, a potentially lethal condition, may develop in diabetic patients when the drug dose is inappropriate and/or its clearance is reduced. Diagnosis and therapy may be delayed due to nonspecific symptoms at presentation, with severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and elevated serum creatinine values being the most prominent laboratory findings. Confirmation requires measurement of serum metformin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, but this technique is available only at specialized institutions and cannot be relied on as a guide to immediate treatment. Thus, based on strong clinical suspicion, renal replacement therapy must be started promptly to achieve efficient drug clearance and correct the metabolic acidosis. However, because metformin accumulates in the intracellular compartment with prolonged treatment, a rebound in serum concentrations due to redistribution is expected at the end of dialysis. We report a case of metformin intoxication, severe lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury in a diabetic patient with pre-existing chronic kidney disease stage 3, treated effectively with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. We discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options and highlight specific pharmacokinetic issues that should be considered in selecting the appropriate modality of renal replacement therapy.

  6. Biscuit Fire, OR


    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This image, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2002, shows the pillars of smoke arising from the fires. Active fire areas are in red. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire alone, which was 390,276 acres as of Thursday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission

  7. Acute and rebound effects of lorazepam on orolingual motor function in young versus aged Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats.

    Zhang, Hongyu; Stanford, John A


    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of lorazepam [a short-acting benzodiazepine (BZ) with no active metabolites] on orolingual motor function in young (6 months) versus aged (24 months) Fischer 344/Brown Norway hybrid (F344/BN) rats. Rats licked water from an isometric force-sensing operandum so that the number of licks per session, licking rhythm (licks/second), and lick force could be measured during daily sessions. Acute doses (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of lorazepam were administered 30 min before the testing sessions, 4 days apart. Whereas aged rats produced more licks per session, lorazepam increased this measure primarily in the young group. On the days after each lorazepam dose, rats licked less than they did before receiving the drug. This effect was shown by both groups. Aged rats showed significantly slower licking rhythm than young rats. Lorazepam slowed this measure in both groups. Peak tongue forces were significantly increased by lorazepam. These findings suggest that BZs such as lorazepam can affect tongue force output and exacerbate age-related tongue motility deficits. They also suggest that although BZs can directly influence motivation to engage in water-reinforced tasks, opposite 'rebound' effects may occur, even after acute dosing.

  8. Interview with Julie Viveros, RN, Director of Nursing, Charlotte Rescue Mission, Rebound men's program. Interview by Joan Kub.

    Viveros, Julie; Kub, Joan


    The Charlotte Rescue Mission is a 90-day residential program that serves approximately 530 men and 365 women experiencing the disease of addiction annually. It has a long rich history and has been serving the Charlotte community for over 75 years for men and almost 25 years for women. "The men's program provides a five-fold, client-centered treatment approach addressing spiritual, mental, physical, social, and vocational needs to battle addiction. The objective is to help individuals fighting addiction and homelessness to accomplish spiritual, mental, physical, social, and vocational goals and be free of addiction." "Dove's Nest, Charlotte Rescue Mission's women's recovery program, opened its doors in 1992. The program provides a structured, yet loving and stable living environment, with a dedicated staff aimed at helping women understand and deal with the core issues of addiction as a disease". (Web site: http:// I had the privilege of interviewing Julie Viveros, RN, the Director of Nursing for the Rebound men's program, about her unique role at the Rescue Mission.

  9. Health Insurance In China: After Declining In The 1990s, Coverage Rates Rebounded To Near-Universal Levels By 2011.

    Li, Yanping; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B


    We analyzed trends in rates of health insurance coverage in China in the period 1991-2011 and the association of health insurance with hypertension and diabetes based on data from eight waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The rate of coverage fell from 32.3 percent in 1991 to 21.9 percent in 2000, rebounding to 49.7 percent in 2006 and then rapidly climbing to 94.7 percent in 2011. Our study indicated that neither the prevalence of diabetes nor that of hypertension was significantly associated with health insurance coverage. When patients were aware of their condition or disease, those with insurance had a significantly higher likelihood of treatment for diabetes and hypertension, compared to those without insurance. We observed an association between health insurance coverage and seeking preventive care and receiving medical treatment when patients were aware of their condition or disease. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Dopamine Induces Rhythmic Activity and Enhances Postinhibitory Rebound in a Leech Motor Neuron Involved in Swimming and Crawling Behaviors

    James D. Angstadt


    Full Text Available Amine neurotransmitters play an important role in controlling motor behavior in many animals, including the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis. Previous studies have established serotonin as an important modulator of swimming behavior. Serotonin levels are elevated in the blood of frequently swimming leeches and bath application of serotonin to isolated nerve cord preparations evokes fictive swimming. Serotonin alters the intrinsic electrical properties of interneurons and motor neurons involved in generating swimming behavior. In particular, serotonin increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration, of postinhibitory rebound (PIR responses in cell DE-3, a motor neuron that innervates the dorsal longitudinal muscle cells of the body wall. More recent studies have implicated dopamine in the suppression of swimming behavior and the initiation of crawling. Here we show that bath application of dopamine to isolated leech ganglia induces rhythmic oscillatory activity in cell DE-3. The long cycle period of these oscillations is consistent with crawling, but not swimming behavior. Dopamine increases the amplitude of PIR responses in cell DE-3, but unlike serotonin does not decrease its duration. These effects provide further support for the hypothesis that dopamine promotes crawling behavior in the leech.

  11. The sulphoxidation of thioanisole catalysed by lactoperoxidase and Coprinus cinereus peroxidase: evidence for an oxygen-rebound mechanism.

    Tuynman, A; Vink, M K; Dekker, H L; Schoemaker, H E; Wever, R


    Using both stopped-flow and conventional spectroscopy, the oxygenation of methyl phenyl sulphide by both lactoperoxidase (LPO) and Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) was monitored. Controlled continuous addition of H2O2 during turnover and monitoring the presence of native enzymes, compounds I, II and III, led to formation of the sulphoxide in high yield and enantioselectivity. Under those conditions, LPO catalysed the formation of (R) methyl phenyl sulphoxide with a yield of 85% and an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) of 80%. CiP catalysed the formation of (S) methyl phenyl sulphoxide with a yield of 84% and an e.e. of 73%. The enantioselective performance was markedly influenced by the purity of the enzymes used. Presence of compound III during turnover led to rapid inactivation of the peroxidases and, therefore, to both a lower yield of the sulphoxides and a lower enantioselectivity. Stopped-flow kinetic data show that, for both LPO and CiP, the transition of compound I to compound II depends on the concentration of the methyl phenyl sulphide, suggesting an oxygen-rebound mechanism. In line with this mechanism, a methyl phenyl sulphide radical cation was detected by EPR during turnover for LPO.

  12. Novel regulator of acylated ghrelin, CF801, reduces weight gain, rebound feeding after a fast, and adiposity in mice

    Martin K Wellman


    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801 along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  13. Weight, height and body mass index nomograms; early adiposity rebound in a sample of children in Tehran, Iran

    Mostafa Hosseini


    Full Text Available Background: Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old and compare them with previous and international references. Methods: Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Results: Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. Conclusions: During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.

  14. Level set method for numerical simulation of a cavitation bubble, its growth, collapse and rebound near a rigid wall

    Juntao Huang; Huisheng Zhang


    A level set method of non-uniform grids is used to simulate the whole evolution of a cavitation bubble, inclu-ding its growth, collapse and rebound near a rigid wall. Single-phase Navier-Stokes equation in the liquid region is solved by MAC projection algorithm combined with second-order ENO scheme for the advection terms. The moving inter-face is captured by the level set function, and the interface velocity is resolved by "one-side" velocity extension from the liquid region to the bubble region, complementing the second-order weighted least squares method across the inter-face and projection inside bubble. The use of non-uniform grid overcomes the difficulty caused by the large computatio-nal domain and very small bubble size. The computation is very stable without suffering from large flow-field gradients, and the results are in good agreements with other studies. The bubble interface kinematics, dynamics and its effect on the wall are highlighted, which shows that the code can effecti-vely capture the "shock wave"-like pressure and velocity at jet impact, toroidal bubble, and complicated pressure struc-ture with peak, plateau and valley in the later stage of bubble oscillating.

  15. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida


    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended.

  16. Fighting fires... with science

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  17. FIRE Science Results 1989

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)


    FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program formed in 1984 to increase the basic understanding of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems, to develop realistic parameterizations for these systems, and to validate and improve ISCCP cloud product retrievals. Presentations of results culminating the first 5 years of FIRE research activities were highlighted. The 1986 Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), the 1987 Marine Stratocumulus IFO, the Extended Time Observations (ETO), and modeling activities are described. Collaborative efforts involving the comparison of multiple data sets, incorporation of data measurements into modeling activities, validation of ISCCP cloud parameters, and development of parameterization schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs) are described.

  18. Baptism of fire



    Rio Tinto had a battle on its hands when spontaneous combustion set seams alight old underground workings, No. 3 at the Blair Athol coal mine Australia during late 1999 and early 2000. The article explains how the fires began and how a strategy was devised to bring the situation into hand. Explosive gases were stabilized by injection of nitrogen; the old workings were backfilled with cement slurry and explosives were used to collapse voids and prevent air flows. 4 photos.

  19. Fire-retardant foams

    Gagliani, J.


    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  20. Characteristics of fire victims in different sorts of fires.

    Rogde, S; Olving, J H


    We studied retrospectively 286 cases of fire deaths from a 10 year period. The victims were classified according to the type of fire. Among the victims of smouldering fire, 80% had lethal HbCO saturations, whereas only 30% had such saturations when an accelerant had been used. The third group consisted of victims of fires in which the type of fire was, for various reasons, undetermined. HbCO saturations were not influenced by sex, age, concomitant disease or blood alcohol concentration. In eight cases neither respiratory soot nor HbCO was detected in spite of evidence that the deceased was alive as the fire broke out. The material included nine cases of homicide and 22 cases of suicide.

  1. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.


    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  2. Prolonged cholestasis and ductopenia associated with tenoxicam.

    Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik; Duchatelle, Veronique; Degott, Claude


    Cholestatic liver diseases leading to progressive destruction of intra-hepatic bile ducts and ductopenia encompass multiple etiologies. Pathophysiology and natural history of drug-induced cholangiopathies remain unclear. We report a case of prolonged ductopenia attributed to Tenoxicam (Tilcotil o--a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the oxicam family) ingested at therapeutic dose. A 36 year-old male patient was admitted for jaundice and Lyell syndrome starting 1 week after the ingestion of Tenoxicam. Liver biopsy showed cholestasis, non-suppurative cholangitis and polymorphous inflammatory infiltrate of the portal tracts (round cells, macrophages an eosinophils). Treatment with ursodesoxycholic acid and cholestyramine was instituted and the patient was asymptomatic 1 year after. Three years later mild biological cholestasis persisted and ductopenia was evidenced on liver biopsy. In this report we found that: (1) The toxicity of tenoxicam was probably mediated by an immunoallergic mechanism (Lyell syndrome and eosinophils on histology); (2) ductopenia was secondary to inflammatory cholangitis. Factors responsible for this chronic evolution are still unknown (genetic predisposition, vascular factors, etc.); and (3) the presence of ductopenia contrasted with the "clinical recovery" of the disease suggesting accessory bile drainage by cholangioles or partial reconstruction of the biliary tree.

  3. Prolonging sensor networks lifetime using convex clusters

    Payam Salehi


    Full Text Available Reducing the energy consumption of nodes in sensor networks and prolonging the network life time has been proposed as one of the most important challenges facing researchers in the field of sensor networks. Therefore, designing an energy-aware protocol to gather data from network level and transmitting it to sink is placed on the agenda at this paper. After presenting an analysis of the processes of clustering in sensory networks and investigating the effect of sending interval on the amount of energy consumption, We have shown that if the use of convex static casters be done such as all the communications within the cluster with the sending distance less than the optimal threshold, it Will help to increase the lifetime of nodes. also have shown that if we create a virtual backbone between cluster heads to transfer far cluster heads data from sink to sink , will has a significant impact on increasing the network lifetime. For this reason, a detailed discussion on how to determine the size of clusters and partitioning of the network environment to them is presented in Chapter 4.Simulation results show considerable improvement of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Persistent telomere cohesion triggers a prolonged anaphase.

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan


    Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells.

  5. [Prospective study of patients with prolonged fever].

    Calderón, E; Legorreta, J; Sztabinski, G; Hernández, M; Wilkins, A; Gómez, D; Dávila, A


    A prospective study was made in 283 patients who attended IMAN's Children's Hospital, with fever the main symptom. A clinical and paraclinical procedure was designed for the study of each patient. 112 patients were eliminated because they did not follow the established criteria. All patients had acute infectious diseases considered trivial; 85% were 3 weeks to 2 years of age. They all had an antibacterial treatment without precise diagnosis. It was considered that on admission the patients showed a normal course in the natural history of the basic disease. The study group included 171 patients 2 months to 13 years of age; 62.5% had fever due to infection, 12.2% to collagenopathies, 7% to neoplasias 5.2% to miscellaneous causes and 12.8% were not diagnosed. The most common infectious causes for prolonged fever were tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, amoebic liver abscess, typhoid fever and malaria. Careful questioning and clinical examination were enough to enlighten diagnosis in more than 80% of the patients.


    Ah. Yusuf


    Full Text Available Introduction: Decision for cesarean section may lead to the stress for women in delivery. Stress response requires longer recovery time in post cesarean section patients. Most of patients who experience stress before and after surgical is associated with wound healing delay. When this condition continues, the wound will have a higher risk of infection. The objective of this study was to analyze correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. Method: A cross sectional design was used in this study. The population were women with cesarean section, both elective or emergency, in Delivery Room I RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Samples were recruited by using purposive sampling, with 28 samples who met to the inclusion criterias. The observed variables were stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patient. Stress data were collected by interview and wound healing measurement done by observation on the 3rd day post cesarean section. Result: The result showed that women with stress experience wound healing delay. The characteristic of wound healing delay was prolonged on inflammation phase, nevertheless there was presence of granulation tissue. Spearman’s rho correlation showed that correlation value r=0.675 with p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that there was strong significant correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. It is important to give this information to the patients with cesarean section in order to prevent stress and delay in wound healing phase.

  7. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome After Prolonged Immobilisation

    H.L. Liu


    Full Text Available Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition.

  8. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men: a cardiac magnetic resonance study.

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T; Madsen, Per L; Engstrøm, Thomas; Vejlstrup, Niels G


    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout the cardiac cycle by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at rest, during dobutamine stress (15 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 15 min after termination (T15), and 30 min after termination (T30) of dobutamine stress. We calculated LV ejection fractions, LV stroke volumes, LV peak filling rates, and LA passive, active, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P causes greater stress to the female heart. This is revealed after termination of dobutamine stress where the left heart recovers in men, whereas women experience rebound LV stiffening with reduced diastolic relaxation. This is the first report of a sex-specific transient rebound phenomenon in cardiovascular response to catecholamines.

  9. Analysis on the Effects of Rebound Jamming on INSAR Imaging%弹射式干扰对INSAR成像的影响分析

    贾丽; 贾鑫; 何永华; 黄成刚


    The effect of rebound jamming on the interferometirc phase is analyzed in theory firstly. Then the INSAR images process is simulated. The effect of rebound jamming on the INSAR imaging is analyzed by stimulating the phase quality and the spectnun distribution. It is concluded that rebound jamming is a kind of effective deceiving jamming on INSAR altimetry.%从理论上分析了弹射式干扰对SAR图像干涉相位的影响,仿真了弹射式干扰前后INSAR成像处理过程,通过INSAR成像过程中相位图质量、相位频谱分布的评价阐述了弹射式干扰对INsAR成像的影响,并得出弹射式干扰可对单航过测高INsAR形成有效的欺骗式干扰效果的结论。

  10. The Elimination of Fire Hazard Due to Back Fires

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Freeman, Ira M


    A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.

  11. Fire-on-fire interactions in three large wilderness areas

    Teske, Casey C.

    Current knowledge about wildfire occurrence is not complete. Fire researchers and managers hold the assumption that previous wildfires affect subsequent wildfires; however, research regarding the interactions of large wildfires at their common boundaries is missing from the literature. This research focuses on understanding the influence of previous large wildfires on subsequent large wildfires in three wilderness areas: The Greater Bob Marshall, the Selway-Bitterroot, and the Frank Church. Data from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project, which mapped large wildfires in the western United States occurring since 1984, are used for the research. The combination of using wilderness areas and remotely sensed images allows an objective and consistent analysis of fire-on-fire interaction that is extensive in both time and space. Standardized methods for analyzing fire interactions do not currently exist, therefore methods were developed, tested, and refined to describe, quantify, and compare once-burned and re-burned locations within a subset of ten fires in terms of size, location, timing between fires, and severity. These methods were then used to address the question of whether re-burns occur within each of the three wilderness areas. Edge and re-burn characteristics were also derived and quantified. Results were statistically and empirically compared to randomized fire intersections and to published fire history research for each area. Although a low proportion of each study area burns or re-burns, when a new fire encounters a previous fire it re-burns onto the previously burned area approximately 80% of the time. Current large wildfires are behaving in a typical fashion, although on some landscapes the amount of re-burn is not different from what would be expected due to chance. Lastly, the complexity of the post-fire landscape was assessed using texture metrics. Pre-fire and post-fire landscapes were shown to be different, with post-fire landscapes

  12. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  13. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.


    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  14. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário


    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  15. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend


    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  16. Impregnation of preservative and fire retardants into Japanese cedar lumber by passive impregnation

    Md Nazrul Islam


    Full Text Available Copper azole type B (CAz-B preservative and polyphosphatic carbamate (PPC fire retardants were impregnated in succession into green (97% MC and kiln-dried (18% MC Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. D.Don lumber by the passive impregnation method to prolong the period of lumber use by increasing its resistance to fire and biological degradation. Lumber was dried with a kiln or by air-drying. Total chemical retention, penetration, leaching, decay resistance (JIS K 1571, and fire retardancy (ISO 834-1 standard, 20 minutes tests were performed according to the mentioned standards. Preservative retention was higher in the green lumber (4.97 kg/m3 compared with the kiln-dried (4.88 kg/m3 lumber. However, fire retardant retention was similar for both lumber types (107 and 111 kg/m3. Leaching was higher in kiln-dried lumber (21.8% compared to air-dried lumber (14.4%, although there were no significant differences in the decay resistance test between these two lumber types. The fire performance of both lumber types was similar in the fire resistance test. Therefore, the passive impregnation method can be used effectively for impregnation of both preservatives and fire retardants into wood.

  17. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  18. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.


    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  19. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    Isman, Kenneth E


    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  20. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of...

  1. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.


    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must be... 6 501 through 600 7 601 through 700 8 (2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be...

  2. A national cohesive wildland fire management strategy

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of Wildland Fire Coordination. Department of the Interior


    Addressing wildfire is not simply a fire management, fire operations, or wildland-urban interface problem - it is a larger, more complex land management and societal issue. The vision for the next century is to: Safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire. Three...

  3. Fire behavior modeling-a decision tool

    Jack Cohen; Bill Bradshaw


    The usefulness of an analytical model as a fire management decision tool is determined by the correspondence of its descriptive capability to the specific decision context. Fire managers must determine the usefulness of fire models as a decision tool when applied to varied situations. Because the wildland fire phenomenon is complex, analytical fire spread models will...

  4. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)


    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  5. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers. Part 2: Model Verification by Use of Full Scale Tests

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    describes particle sticking or rebound by a combination of the description of (visco)elsatic particles impacting a solid surface and particle capture by a viscous surface. The model is used to predict deposit formation rates measured during tests conducted with probes in full-scale suspension-fired biomass...... of some physical parameters related to the description of surface capture are suggested. Based on these examinations of the model ability to describe observed deposit formation rates, the proposed model can be regarded as a promising tool for description of deposit formation in full-scale biomass......A model for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass has been developed. The model describes deposit build-up by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermoforesis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles and reaction. The model...

  6. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Alena Meleková


    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  7. Diaphragmatic energetics during prolonged exhaustive exercise.

    Manohar, M; Hassan, A S


    The present study was carried out to examine diaphragmatic O2 extraction and lactate and ammonia production during prolonged exhaustive exercise. Experiments were performed on nine healthy exercise-conditioned ponies in which catheters had been implanted in the phrenic vein previously. Blood-gas variables and lactate and ammonia concentrations were determined on simultaneously obtained arterial and phrenic-venous blood samples at rest and during 30 min of exertion at 15 mph + 7% grade (heart rate, 200 beats/min; approximately 90% of maximum). Arterial O2 tension and saturation were maintained near resting value but CO2 tension decreased markedly with exercise, and because of increased hemoglobin concentration, arterial O2 content rose. Concomitantly, phrenic venous O2 tension, saturation and content decreased markedly (23.6 +/- 1 mm Hg, 24.5 +/- 2%, 5.2 +/- 0.3 ml/dl at 3 min of exertion) and significant fluctuations did not occur as exercise duration progressed to 30 min. Diaphragmatic arteriovenous O2 content difference and O2 extraction rose from 4 +/- 0.3 to 16 +/- 0.5 ml/dl and from 30 +/- 3 to 75 +/- 1% at 3 min of exercise, and significant deviations did not occur as exercise duration progressed. Arterial lactate and ammonia levels increased during exercise, indicating their release from working limb muscles. Phrenic-venous values of lactate and ammonia did not exceed arterial values. Ponies sweated profusely and were unable to keep up with the belt speed in the last 4 to 5 min of exercise. Constancy of phrenic arteriovenous O2 content difference in exercise indicated ability to adjust perfusion in diaphragm so as to adequately meet its O2 needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin


    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing ‘fangs’. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation. PMID:28241059

  9. Fatigue associated with prolonged graded running.

    Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y


    Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.

  10. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    Lemoine P


    Full Text Available Patrick Lemoine1, Doron Garfinkel2, Moshe Laudon3, Tali Nir3, Nava Zisapel3,41The Clinique Lyon-Lumière, Meyzieu, France; 2Geriatric-Palliative Department, Shoham Geriatric Medical Center, Pardes Hanna, Israel; 3Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 4Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation.Objective: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment.Methods: Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary, adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]. Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM.Results: Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as "good" or "very good" was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production

  11. OECD activities in fire protection

    Kaufer, B. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)


    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. Therefore, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook a study among the Countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the focus on some special issues such as fire simulation, fire spreading, and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics. The results of this study are reported here. (orig.) [German] Eine Reihe von Probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen (PSA) haben gezeigt, dass Braende ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor bei Kernkraftwerken sind. Es gibt jedoch betraechtliche Unsicherheiten bei diesen Analysen. Gruende hierfuer sind Probleme bei der Abschaetzung der Wahrscheinlichkeit wichtiger Brandszenarien, bei der Modellierung der Brandausbreitung bzw. -unterdrueckung, bei der Vorhersage Feuer-bedingter Schaeden an Geraeten (einschliesslich der Einwirkung von Rauch) sowie bei der Einschaetzung der Brandbekaempfung durch Betriebspersonal. Deshalb hat die Kernenergieagentur (NEA) eine Studie in den Laendern der Organisation fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) durchgefuehrt mit den Schwerpunkten Brandsimulation, Feuerausbreitung und Einfluss von Rauch und Hitze auf elektronische Geraete. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser Studie wird in dem vorliegenden Beitrag berichtet. (orig.)

  12. Fire Sales and House Prices

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper


    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...... result in fire sale discounts. Discounts increase when the sale is urgent, market conditions are poor, and the seller is financially constrained. Overall, our study identifies when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts, and highlights that fire sales occur even in the absence of temporary demand...

  13. Fire Sales and House Prices

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  14. QT interval prolongation after Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs

    Mohammed Haroon Rashid


    Full Text Available Long QT syndrome (LQTS is an inherited ion channelopathy resulting in abnormal ventricular repolarization and abnormal prolongation of QT interval on the ECG. Syncope, fainting, cardiac arrest, and sudden death are common manifestations of LQTS. We present a case report that describes a patient with prolonged QT interval after extrasystoles and a family history of sudden cardiac deaths.

  15. Rapid rebound of soil respiration following partial stand disturbance by tree girdling in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Levy-Varon, Jennifer H; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L


    Forests serve an essential role in climate change mitigation by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Within a forest, disturbance events can greatly impact C cycling and subsequently influence the exchange of CO2 between forests and the atmosphere. This connection makes understanding the forest C cycle response to disturbance imperative for climate change research. The goal of this study was to examine the temporal response of soil respiration after differing levels of stand disturbance for 3 years at the Black Rock Forest (southeastern NY, USA; oaks comprise 67% of the stand). Tree girdling was used to mimic pathogen attack and create the following treatments: control, girdling all non-oaks (NOG), girdling half of the oak trees (O50), and girdling all the oaks (OG). Soil respiratory rates on OG plots declined for 2 years following girdling before attaining a full rebound of belowground activity in the third year. Soil respiration on NOG and O50 were statistically similar to the control for the duration of the study although a trend for a stronger decline in respiration on O50 relative to NOG occurred in the first 2 years. Respiratory responses among the various treatments were not proportional to the degree of disturbance and varied over time. The short-lived respiratory response on O50 and OG suggests that belowground activity is resilient to disturbance; however, sources of the recovered respiratory flux on these plots are likely different than they were pre-treatment. The differential taxon response between oaks and non-oaks suggests that after a defoliation or girdling event, the temporal response of the soil respiratory flux may be related to the C allocation pattern of the affected plant group.

  16. Desynchronization and rebound of beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious local neuronal processing in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis I; Kapoor, Vishal; Logothetis, Nikos K


    Accumulating evidence indicates that control mechanisms are not tightly bound to conscious perception since both conscious and unconscious information can trigger control processes, probably through the activation of higher-order association areas like the prefrontal cortex. Studying the modulation of control-related prefrontal signals in a microscopic, neuronal level during conscious and unconscious neuronal processing, and under control-free conditions could provide an elementary understanding of these interactions. Here we performed extracellular electrophysiological recordings in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) during monocular physical alternation (PA) and binocular flash suppression (BFS) and studied the local scale relationship between beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations, a rhythmic signal believed to reflect the current sensory, motor, or cognitive state (status-quo), and conscious or unconscious neuronal processing. First, we show that beta oscillations are observed in the LPFC during resting state. Both PA and BFS had a strong impact on the power of this spontaneous rhythm with the modulation pattern of beta power being identical across these two conditions. Specifically, both perceptual dominance and suppression of local neuronal populations in BFS were accompanied by a transient beta desynchronization followed by beta activity rebound, a pattern also observed when perception occurred without any underlying visual competition in PA. These results indicate that under control-free conditions, at least one rhythmic signal known to reflect control processes in the LPFC (i.e., beta oscillations) is not obstructed by local neuronal, and accordingly perceptual, suppression, thus being independent from temporally co-existing conscious and unconscious local neuronal representations. Future studies could reveal the additive effects of motor or cognitive control demands on prefrontal beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious processing.

  17. Neuromagnetic imaging of movement-related cortical oscillations in children and adults: age predicts post-movement beta rebound.

    Gaetz, W; Macdonald, M; Cheyne, D; Snead, O C


    We measured visually-cued motor responses in two developmentally separate groups of children and compared these responses to a group of adults. We hypothesized that if post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) depends on developmentally sensitive processes, PMBR will be greatest in adults and progressively decrease in children performing a basic motor task as a function of age. Twenty children (10 young children 4-6 years; 10 adolescent children 11-13 years) and 10 adults all had MEG recorded during separate recordings of right and left index finger movements. Beta band (15-30 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) of bi-lateral sensorimotor areas was observed to increase significantly from both contralateral and ipsilateral MI with age. Movement-related gamma synchrony (60-90 Hz) was also observed from contralateral MI for each age group. However, PMBR was significantly reduced in the 4-6 year group and, while more prominent, remained significantly diminished in the adolescent (11-13 year) age group as compared to adults. PMBR measures were weak or absent in the youngest children tested and appear maximally from bilateral MI in adults. Thus PMBR may reflect an age-dependent inhibitory process of the primary motor cortex which comes on-line with normal development. Previous studies have shown PMBR may be observed from MI following a variety of movement-related tasks in adult participants - however, the origin and purpose of the PMBR is unclear. The current study shows that the expected PMBR from MI observed from adults is increasingly diminished in adolescent and young children respectively. A reduction in PMBR from children may reflect reduced motor cortical inhibition. Relatively less motor inhibition may facilitate neuronal plasticity and promote motor learning in children.

  18. Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Age at adiposity rebound (AR is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants study (n=573. Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age. RESULTS: Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age, middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%, whole body fat mass (+34% and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61% than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p<0.01. The early age at AR tertile had an increased risk of obesity (Odds Ratio 4.1 [95% CI 1.2-13.9] compared with the middle and late tertiles. In addition, the early age at AR tertile had Peak Height Velocity (PHV 7 months earlier than the late tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Early age at AR was associated with young adult obesity as a consequence of a high amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue in men. In addition we made the novel observation that early age at AR was associated with an early puberty in men.

  19. Prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials precede spindle oscillations in the thalamic reticular nucleus

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea


    The thalamic reticular (RE) nucleus is a key structure in the generation of spindles, a hallmark bioelectrical oscillation during early stages of sleep. Intracellular recordings of RE neurons in vivo revealed the presence of prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials preceding spindles in a subgroup (30%) of neurons. These hyperpolarizations (6-10 mV) lasted for 200-300 ms and were present just before the onset of spontaneously occurring spindle waves. Corticothalamic volleys also were effective in generating such hyperpolarizations followed by spindles in RE neurons. A drop of up to 40% in the apparent input resistance (Rin) was associated with these hyperpolarizing potentials, suggesting an active process rather than disfacilitation. Accordingly, the reversal potential was approximately -100 mV for both spontaneous and cortically elicited hyperpolarizations, consistent with the activation of slow K+ conductances. QX-314 in the recording pipettes decreased both the amplitude and incidence of prolonged hyperpolarizations, suggesting the participation of G protein-dependent K+ currents in the generation of hyperpolarizations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings in the RE nucleus demonstrated that some RE neurons discharged during the hyperpolarizations and, thus, may be implicated in their generation. The prolonged hyperpolarizations preceding spindles may play a role in the transition from tonic to bursting firing of RE neurons within a range of membrane potential (-60 to -65 mV) at which they set favorable conditions for the generation of low-threshold spike bursts that initiate spindle sequences. These data are further arguments for the generation of spindles within the thalamic RE nucleus. PMID:15210981

  20. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    Mumberson, Stephen


    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  1. How to increase fire safety in buildings: Fire safety engineering

    Herpen, van R.A.P. (Ruud)


    Fire means beside direct (financial)damage often far more indirect costs caused by interruption of operations and loss in sales, market share, property and,in the worst case people can get injured or even get killed (on average around80 persons a year). Fire in buildings is clearly a disaster and fo

  2. Vulcan god of fire

    McLelland, Tim


    Vulcan: God of Fire is a historical account of Britain's nuclear deterrent force, the development of atomic/thermonuclear weapons and the bombers. It includes a description of the design, development and manufacture of the Vulcan, the flight testing programme and entry into RAF service. There is also a full account of the Vulcan's career, including its primary role as a nuclear bomber and as a key participant in the 1982 Falklands conflict. Further coverage includes the use of the Vulcan as a refuelling tanker and reconnaissance platform, and the recent project to restore a Vulcan to flyi

  3. OMS engine firing


    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). The earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  4. Fire safety in space

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian;


    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and-3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has...... undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever......, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated....

  5. FIRE Science Results 1988

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor); Wagner, H. Scott (Editor)


    FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation program that seeks to address the issues of a basic understanding and parameterizations of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems and ISCCP data products. The papers describe research analysis of data collected at the 1986 Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), the 1987 Marine Stratocumulus IFO, and the Extended Time Observations. The papers are grouped into sessions on satellite studies, lidar/radiative properties/microphysical studies, radiative properties, thermodynamic and dynamic properties, case studies, and large scale environment and modeling studies.

  6. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    ... Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  7. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina


    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  8. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan


    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  9. Smoke production in fires

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology


    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  10. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.


    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  11. Reduction-Fired Seedpod Bowls.

    Beyke, Rod


    Focuses on a reduction-firing process with an aim of producing high-quality blackware similar to the black-on-black pottery of Maria Martinez and other American Indian potters. Includes a lesson on creating reduction-fired seedpod bowls, lists of instructional resources and materials, and the objectives and evaluation. (CMK)

  12. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    Maximilien Brice


    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  13. Fire safety of timber structures

    Štupnik, Igor


    The aim of this graduation thesis is to show procedures for calculating the fire safety of timber structures. Presented are proposals of improvements of calculations according to standard EN 1995-1-2, based on fire tests and described in European technical guideline. The practical calculations are shown on examples of timber structures of Kindergarten Preddvor.

  14. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming


    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  15. The 1988 Fires in Yellowstone

    Dress, Abby


    The 1988 fires at Yellowstone National Park burned 1.4 million acres in the tri-state areas of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho--encompassing the greater Yellowstone area--and burned some 800,000 acres within the park itself (Franke 2000). This article discusses this extraordinary fire event and contains helpful resources for bringing the science of…

  16. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.


    , considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  17. Chaos dynamic characteristics during mine fires


    Mine fires break out and continue in confmed scopes, studying mine fire dynamics characteristics is very usefulto prevent and control fire. The judgement index of fire chaos characteristics was introduced, chaos analysis of mine Fireprocess was described, and the reconstruction of phase space was also presented. An example of mine fire was calculated.The computations show that it is feasible to analyze mine fire dynamic characteristics with chaos theory, and indicate thatfire preoeas is a catastrophe, that is to say, the fire system changes from one state to another during mine fire

  18. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison


    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  19. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  20. Probabilistic simulation of fire scenarios

    Hostikka, Simo E-mail:; Keski-Rahkonen, Olavi


    A risk analysis tool is developed for computation of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator (PFS), combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST, a two-zone fire model. In this work, the tool is used to estimate the failure probability of redundant cables in a cable tunnel fire, and the failure and smoke filling probabilities in an electronics room during an electronics cabinet fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. The use of the rank order correlations allows the user to identify both modelling parameters and actual facility properties that have the most influence on the results. Various steps of the simulation process, i.e. data collection, generation of the input distributions, modelling assumptions, definition of the output variables and the actual simulation, are described.

  1. The ForFire photodetector

    Peyaud, A.; Angelopoulos, A.; Chelmis, C.; Costopoulos, V.; Chica, M.; Giomataris, I.; Gongadze, A.; Herbert, T.; Kantemiris, I.; Kirch, S.; Mols, J. P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Quinlan, F.


    The objective of the ForFire project is the development of an outdoor fire detection system by using an innovative solar blind camera based on the technology of photosensitive gas and solid-state detectors. The development of this new sensor together with an appropriate algorithm for pattern recognition aims to provide a high capability and a high reliability flame-detection system with cost effectiveness, early detection and accurate localization of fire hazards. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the detection of the VUV part (180 nm ≤ λ ≤ 260 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the fire source. The advantage of this approach is that on Earth only fire flames emit in this spectral range thus avoiding potential interferences with other wavelength sources where the Sun is a dominant background.

  2. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  3. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Jim Bouchard; Heather Lucek


    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: • Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), • Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and • Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  4. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Bartsch, A.; Balzter, H.; George, C.


    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km2 under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  5. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  6. Global rebounds boost Latvia


    Läti peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis leiab, et riigi majanduspoliitika on õigel teel ja et majanduskriis on peagi möödas. Läti riigikontrolöri Inguna Sudraba ja rahanduminister Einars Repse arvamused

  7. Comparison of crown fire modeling systems used in three fire management applications

    Scott, J. H.


    The relative behavior of surface-crown fire spread rate modeling systems used in three fire management applications—CFIS (Crown Fire Initiation and Spread), FlamMap and NEXUS— is compared using fire environment characteristics derived from a dataset of destructively measured canopy fuel and associated stand characteristics. Although the surface-crown modeling systems predict the same basic fire behavior characteristics (type of fire, spread rate) using the same basic fire environment characte...

  8. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    Steenkamp, KC


    Full Text Available fighting preparedness and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources [2, 3]. Different indices are being used for specific areas while some FDIs, e.g. the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), are now being applied globally in the Global Wildfire...," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 234, pp. S10-S10, 2006. [2] A. P. Dimitrakopoulos, et al., "Evaluation of the Canadian fire weather index system in an eastern Mediterranean environment," Meteorological Applications, vol. 18, pp. 83-93, 2011. [3...

  9. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B


    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  10. Comparison of Goldmann applanation tonometry,rebound tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry in normal and glaucomatous eyes

    Fatih; ?zcura; Nilgün; Yildirim; Afsun; Sahin; Ertugrul; ?olak


    AIM: To compare the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements obtained with the rebound tonometry(RT), dynamic contour tonometry(DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT) in normal and glaucomatous eyes and investigate the effects of central corneal thickness(CCT) and corneal curvature(CC) on IOP measurements.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four eyes of 124 subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.Fifty-six of participants were healthy individuals and 68 of them were glaucomatous patients. IOP was measured on each subject always in the same order, ICare RT-Pascal DCT-GAT, after a minimum interval of 10 min between measurements. CCT and CC were measured using a rotating Scheimpflug camera before the IOP measurements in all subjects. One way repeated measures ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis was used for the statistical assessment.RESULTS: Mean IOP for all enrolled eyes was 16.00±3.80 mm Hg for GAT, 16.99 ±4.91 mm Hg for RT, and20.40 ±4.44 mm Hg for DCT. Mean differences between GAT and RT was-1.75±3.41 mm Hg in normal(P <0.001)and-0.37 ±3.00 mm Hg in glaucomatous eyes(P =0.563).Mean differences between GAT and DCT was-4.06 ±3.42 mm Hg in normal(P < 0.001) and-4.67 ±3.12 mm Hg in glaucomatous eyes(P <0.001). GAT and RT were significantly positive correlated with CCT in normal(r2=0.101, P =0.017 and r2=0.331, P <0.001, respectively) and glaucomatous eyes(r2=0.084, P =0.016 and r2=0.123,P =0.003, respectively). DCT was also significantly positive correlated with CCT in normal eyes( r2=0.179,P =0.001) but not in glaucomatous eyes(r2=0.029, P =0.165).All tonometers were unaffected by CC.CONCLUSION: IOP measurements by RT and DCT were significantly higher than GAT. DCT has highest IOP measurements among these tonometers. RT was most influenced tonometer from CCT although all tonometers were significantly positive correlated with CCT except DCT in glaucomatous eyes. CC did not influence IOP

  11. Aberrant development of post-movement beta rebound in adolescents and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W; Garcia, Christopher M; Tesche, Claudia D


    Dependent on maternal (e.g. genetic, age) and exposure (frequency, quantity, and timing) variables, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus are known to vary widely, producing a broad range of morphological anomalies and neurocognitive deficits in offspring, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Maternal drinking during pregnancy remains a leading risk factor for the development of intellectual disabilities in the US. While few functional findings exist today that shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed impairments in individuals with FASD, animal models consistently report deleterious effects of early alcohol exposure on GABA-ergic inhibitory pathways. The post-motor beta rebound (PMBR), a transient increase of 15-30 Hz beta power in the motor cortex that follows the termination of movement, has been implicated as a neural signature of GABA-ergic inhibitory activity. Further, PMBR has been shown to be a reliable predictor of age in adolescents. The present study sought to investigate any differences in the development of PMBR between FASD and control groups. Beta event-related de-synchronization (ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS), although not clearly linked to brain maturation, were also examined. Twenty-two participants with FASD and 22 age and sex-matched controls (12-22 years old) underwent magnetoencephalography scans while performing an auditory oddball task, which required a button press in response to select target stimuli. The data surrounding the button presses were localized to the participants' motor cortices, and the time courses from the locations of the maximally evoked PMBR were subjected to wavelet analyses. The subsequent analysis of PMBR, ERD, and MRGS revealed a significant interaction between group and age in their effects on PMBR. While age had a significant effect on PMBR in the controls, no simple effects of age were detected in the FASD group. The FASD group

  12. Typology of land and forest fire in South Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Assessment of MODIS Data

    Ardiansyah, M.; Boer, R.; Situmorang, A. P.


    In 2015, Sumatera and Kalimantan, in particular, has undergone dramatic fires. The fires were particularly bad in 2015 because of a prolonged dry season caused by the El Nino weather pattern and creating a lot of greenhouse gas emissions. Between about July and December, more than a million hectares of forest were burned. South Sumatra is one of the provinces with the highest of hotspots number and of fire area on this period. The aim of the study was to find burned area that caused by fire activity in 2015 and to identify a typology of land and forest fire the South Sumatera. In our study showed that between July and December 2015 the estimated burned area during El Nino in South Sumatra was 422,718 ha, of which 163,143 ha in mineral soil and 260,575 ha in peat soil. The majority of burned area occurred outside concession and inside concession with following typology: the fire activity in the HTI on non-forested land (26%), in the HTI on forested land (24%), in oil palm on non-forested land (17%), and in oil palm on forested land (2%).

  13. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard


    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  14. The Immortal Fire Within

    Sheehan, William


    Preface; Key to abbreviations in notes; 1. Through rugged ways; 2. Ardent and faithful work with a telescope; 3. Mars; his moons and his heavens; 4. A seeker of comets; 5. Vanderbilt astronomer; 6. In the realm of the nebulae; 7. Go west, young man!; 8. Hanging fire; 9. On Mt. Hamilton; 10. A year of wonders; 11. The young rebel; 12. 'I am tired here'; 13. Immortality; 14. Travels and travails; 15. Barnard and Mars; 16. Nature's true artisan; 17. A tide in his affairs; 18. Yerkes observatory; 19. Disappointments and triumphs; 20. The comet and Milky Way photographs; 21. Comet tales; 22. Observer of all that shines - or obscures; 23. Eclipse and decline; 24. Ad astra; Index.

  15. Fires on trees

    Bertoin, Jean


    We consider random dynamics on the edges of a uniform Cayley tree with $n$ vertices, in which edges are either inflammable, fireproof, or burt. Every inflammable edge is replaced by a fireproof edge at unit rate, while fires start at smaller rate $n^{-\\alpha}$ on each inflammable edge, then propagate through the neighboring inflammable edges and are only stopped at fireproof edges. A vertex is called fireproof when all its adjacent edges are fireproof. We show that as $n\\to \\infty$, the density of fireproof vertices converges to 1 when $\\alpha>1/2$, to 0 when $\\alpha<1/2$, and to some non-degenerate random variable when $\\alpha=1/2$. We further study the connectivity of the fireproof forest, in particular the existence of a giant component.

  16. A comparison of intraocular pressure values obtained with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P, iCare® rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer


    The purpose of this study was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) values measured with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P (Tonopachy™) and the iCare® rebound tonometer (iCare®) with those obtained by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). The right eyes of 105 subjects aged 18 to 82 years (mean age = 29.27 ± 14.67 years) were assessed with the three tonometers. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured first using the Tonopachy™ and then IOP was measured by Tonopachy™, iCare® and GAT. The...

  17. Modeling chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection during antiviral therapy using an analogy to enzyme kinetics: long-term viral dynamics without rebound and oscillation.

    Takayanagi, Toshiaki


    The basic model for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection during therapy enables us to analyze short-term viral kinetics. However, the model is not useful for analyzing long-term viral kinetics. Here, I suggest a new model that was obtained by introducing Michaelis-Menten kinetics into the basic model. The new model can exhibit long-term viral kinetics without rebound and oscillation, unlike the basic model. The value of the parameter K in the new model is analogous to the Michaelis constant Km and is predicted to be approximately less than 10(10)/ml.

  18. Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid in Weanling Horses Following Prolonged Transportation

    Michelle Stives


    Full Text Available Though horses synthesize ascorbic acid in their liver in amounts that meet their needs under normal circumstances, prolonged stress results in low plasma concentrations due to enhanced utilization and renal excretion and can reduce immune function. It was hypothesized that plasma ascorbic acid could be maintained in weanling horses by oral supplementation following prolonged transportation. Weanlings were supplemented with no ascorbic acid (Tx 0: n = 4, 5 grams ascorbic acid twice daily for 5 days (Tx 1: n = 4 or for 10 days (Tx 2: n = 4 following >50 hours of transportation. Supplementation caused slight (P < 0.2 increases in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Both supplemented groups had decreased (P < 0.05 plasma concentrations for 1 to 3 weeks following cessation of supplementation, possibly due to increased renal excretion or suppressed hepatic synthesis. Supplementation of ascorbic acid following prolonged stress will increase plasma concentrations, but prolonged supplementation should be avoided.

  19. Prolongation structure of the Landau–Lifshitz equation

    Roelofs, G.H.M.; Martini, R.


    The prolongation method of Wahlquist and Estabrook is applied to the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The resulting prolongation algebra is shown to be isomorphic to a subalgebra of the tensor product of the Lie algebra so(3) with the elliptic curve v α 2−v β 2=j β−j α (α,β=1,2,3), which is essentially a s

  20. Outcome of Induction of Labour in Prolonged Pregnancy.

    Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N


    This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.

  1. Diagnosis, antenatal surveillance and management of prolonged pregnancy: current perspectives.

    Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A


    Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that extends beyond 42 weeks of gestation (294 days) from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. An accurate estimation of the 'natural' incidence of prolonged pregnancy would require meticulous early pregnancy dating. The use of ultrasound to establish gestational age reduces the number of pregnancies that are classified as prolonged. Prolonged pregnancy is associated with an increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in pregnancies which appear to be otherwise low risk. Postterm births are easily preventable by intervening to deliver with the use of induction of labor. Thus, this potentially problematic condition deserves further attention and careful consideration. The focus of this article is to review and challenge some current concepts surrounding the diagnosis and management of prolonged pregnancy. We outline how to identify those women with prolonged pregnancy and which is the appropriate moment to start monitoring the fetal wellbeing. Finally we address the question of benefits and hazards of induction of labor strategies.

  2. Kindle Fire HDX for dummies

    Muir, Nancy C


    Spark your interest in Kindle Fire HDX and start burning through books, movies, music, and more with this bestselling guide! The Kindle Fire HDX is Amazon's premiere tablet. With its new, more powerful Android operating system, this latest version has some exciting bells and whistles along with the features that have made the Fire a tablet fan favorite: access to the amazing Amazon Appstore, online music storage, a large music and video store, a huge e-book library, and easy one-step ordering from Amazon. This full-color, For Dummies guide shows you how to take advantage of all the Kindle Fi

  3. News from the Fire Brigade

    Gunther Schoenwerth


    During the two weeks before the Christmas shutdown, the members of the Fire Brigade’s Social Club managed to sell nearly 900 Fire Brigade calendars for 2010. We would like to thank all of you who bought one. Thanks to your generosity, we will be able to donate about 5000 Swiss francs to the children of Kanji, one of the Staff Association’s long-term fund-raising projects. Thank you again for your support, and best wishes for 2010. President of the CERN Fire Brigade Social Club

  4. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa


    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  5. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On a..., the fire pump must be capable of delivering a single hose stream from the highest hydrant, through...

  6. 46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must be equipped with fire pumps as required in Table 169.559(a). Table 169.559(a)—Fire Pumps Length Exposed...

  7. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Roy, Ken


    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  8. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco


    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... of nonlinear analyses for different fire exposures....

  9. Chapter 1: Fire and fuels reduction

    B.M. Collins; S.L. Stephens


    Fire will continue to be a major management challenge in mixed-conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada. Fire is a fundamental ecosystem process in these forests that was largely eliminated in the 20th century. Fire reintroduction is a critical goal but is subject to constraints such as smoke production, risk of fire moving outside designated boundaries, the expanding...

  10. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.


    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in the... least one hand fire extinguisher located conveniently in the passenger compartment— (1) Of each...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.


    ... basic organizational structure of the combined fire response; (ii) The number of combined trained fire....505 Fire response. (a) Employer responsibilities. The employer must: (1) Decide what type of response... the following information in the employer's written policy: (i) The basic structure of the fire...

  12. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire... consequences. Fire Prevention Week also calls our attention to the lifesaving work our firefighters perform...

  13. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.


    ...) Inspection of each hand portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire... maintenance procedures have been conducted. (2) For semiportable and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the..., and valves, and the inspection and testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed...

  14. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.


    ... extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire extinguishing system to check for excessive... testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed gas fire extinguishing system and detecting... and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the inspections and tests required by Table 115.810(b),...

  15. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...

  16. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Roy, Ken


    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  17. 36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.52 Section 261.52... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.52 Fire. When provided by an order, the following are prohibited: (a) Building, maintaining, attending or using a fire, campfire, or stove fire. (b) Using an explosive...

  18. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.


    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  19. 36 CFR 261.5 - Fire.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.5 Section 261.5... Prohibitions § 261.5 Fire. The following are prohibited: (a) Carelessly or negligently throwing or placing any ignited substance or other substance that may cause a fire. (b) Firing any tracer bullet or incendiary...

  20. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  1. Reconstruction of fire spread within wildland fire events in Northern Eurasia from the MODIS active fire product

    Loboda, T. V.; Csiszar, I. A.


    Russian boreal forests have been reshaped by wildland fire for millennia. While fire is a natural component of boreal ecosystems, it impacts various aspects of the environment and affects human well-being. Often fires occur over large remote areas with limited access, which makes their ground-based observation difficult. A significant progress has been made in mapping burned area from satellite imagery, which provides consistent and fairly unbiased estimates of fire impact on areas of interest at multiple scales. Although the information provided by burned area products is highly important, the spatio-temporal dynamics of individual fire events and their impact are less known. In high northern latitudes of Northern Eurasia, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) makes up to four daily observations from each of the Terra and Aqua satellites providing consistent data on fire development with high temporal frequency. Here we introduce an approach to reconstruct the development of fire events based on active fire detections from MODIS. Fire Spread Reconstruction (FSR) provides a means for characterization of fire occurrence over large territories from remotely sensed data. Individual fire detections are clustered within a GIS environment based on a set of rules determining proximity between fire observations in space and time. FSR determines the number of fire events, their approximate size, duration, and fire spread rate and allows for the analysis of fire occurrence and spread as a function of vegetation, fire season, fire weather and other parameters. FSR clusters were compared to burned scars mapped from Landsat7/ETM+ imagery over Yakutia (Russia). While some smaller burn scars were found to be formed through a continuous burning of a single fire event, large burned areas in Siberia were created by a constellation of fire events incorporating over 100 individual fire clusters. Geographic regions were found to have a stronger influence on the rates of

  2. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: A Measure of Processing Bias for Fire-Related Stimuli

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele


    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and…

  3. Fire danger and fire behavior modeling systems in Australia, Europe, and North America

    Francis M. Fujioka; A. Malcolm Gill; Domingos X. Viegas; B. Mike Wotton


    Wildland fire occurrence and behavior are complex phenomena involving essentially fuel (vegetation), topography, and weather. Fire managers around the world use a variety of systems to track and predict fire danger and fire behavior, at spatial scales that span from local to global extents, and temporal scales ranging from minutes to seasons. The fire management...

  4. Linking 3D spatial models of fuels and fire: Effects of spatial heterogeneity on fire behavior

    Russell A. Parsons; William E. Mell; Peter McCauley


    Crownfire endangers fire fighters and can have severe ecological consequences. Prediction of fire behavior in tree crowns is essential to informed decisions in fire management. Current methods used in fire management do not address variability in crown fuels. New mechanistic physics-based fire models address convective heat transfer with computational fluid dynamics (...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water systems...

  6. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak


    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  7. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: A Measure of Processing Bias for Fire-Related Stimuli

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele


    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and…

  8. Fire Prevention and Safety Checklist

    ... Open a window and wave a brightly colored cloth or flashlight to signal for help. Use Caution ... fire or any disaster, register on the American Red Cross Safe and Well Web site available through ...

  9. The National Fire Research Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) is adding a unique facility that will serve as a center of excellence for fireperformance of structures ranging in size...

  10. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  11. Human Caused Fire and Acres

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of human causes, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by...

  12. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  13. Fire in a contaminated area

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford


    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  14. Wildland Fire Sensors Challenge Webinar

    This challenge seeks a field-ready prototype system capable of measuring constituents of smoke, including particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide, over the wide range of levels expected during wildland fires.

  15. Lightning Caused Fires and Acres

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of lightning, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by the...

  16. Fire management and invasive plants- A handbook

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Lusk, Michael


    Fire management can help maintain natural habitats, increase forage for wildlife, reduce fuel loads that might otherwise lead to catastrophic wildfire, and maintain natural succession. Today, there is an emerging challenge that fire managers need to be aware of: invasive plants. Fire management activities can create ideal opportunities for invasions by nonnative plants, potentially undermining the benefits of fire management actions. This manual provides practical guidelines that fire managers should consider with respect to invasive plants.

  17. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests


    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  18. The role of the power/efficiency misconception in the rebound effect's size debate: Does efficiency actually lead to a power enhancement?

    Ruzzenenti, F. [Center for Complex System Investigations, University of Siena (Italy); Basosi, R. [Center for Complex System Investigations, University of Siena (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Siena (Italy)


    This paper addresses the question of whether the rebound effect's size is bigger or smaller than one. After a brief review of the related economic literature, a thermodynamic perspective tackles this topic by demonstrating that the dispute over the size of the rebound effect relies on a misconception of the thermodynamic nature of energy efficiency. The dichotomy, in fact, concerns the relationship between efficiency and power output rather than the scale of the economic side effects generated by energy efficiency mutations. Early intuitions of the dichotomy efficiency/power belong to the pioneering works of Stanley Jevons, in the field of economics, and Alfred Lotka in that of biology. Their findings are here approached using the basis of finite-time thermodynamics with a simple amendment, the addition of the time variable to the Carnot machinery. The model shows how a process of power maximization always leads to a sub-optimal efficiency level and additionally, that any efficiency improvement, in the context of low energy costs, will shift the power output of the machine instead of reducing energy consumption. A case study taken from the transport system is presented to elucidate this argument. (author)

  19. Application of space geodetic techniques for the determination of intraplate deformations and movements in relation with the postglacial rebound of Fennoscandia

    Scherneck, H.G.; Johansson, J.M.; Elgered, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Onsala Space Observatory


    This report introduces into space geodetic measurements of relative positions over distances ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers. Such measurements can routinely be carried out with repeatabilities on the order of a few millimeters. The techniques presented are Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), employing observations of radio-astronomical objects in the distant universe, and ranging measurements to satellites of the GPS, the Global Positioning System. These techniques have helped to trace plate tectonic motions. More recently, deformations within continents have been detected. We present the SWEPOS system of permanently operating GPS stations as one of the major geoscience investments starting in 1993. BIFROST (Baseline Interference for Fennoscandian Rebound Observations, Sea level, and Tectonics) is a project within SWEPOS with main purpose to detect crustal movements in Fennoscandia. First results are presented, indicating movements which generally support the notion of a dominating displacement pattern due to the postglacial rebound of Fennoscandia. However deviations exist. densification is indicated in those areas which are notable for an increased seismicity. 148 refs.

  20. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun


    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.